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.. .. ..

1998

s31 ) V2.
1
1 I V I
g \ ' Vi?

51
22.1

:
(. - .-. ,
. . . )

. . . (. .-. . . ).

30

. . .
: . -:/. . ,
. . , . . . - .: . .,
, 1998. - 304 : .
ISBN 5-06-001005-8
ISBN 5-8013-0007-4

, ,
;
.
.
, ,
, .
.
,
, ,
, ,
.

ISBN 5-06-001005-8
ISBN 5-8013-0007-4

. . , . . ,
.. , 1998

7
I.
9
1. . .
9
2.
14
3.
16
4.
21
5.

25
6.

28
7.
32
8.
40
9.
46
10.
52

56
II. i
60
1.
60
2. -, - -
63
3.
68
4.
77
5.
84
6.
94
7.
101
8.
104

109
III.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9. - -
10.

IV.
1.
2.
3.
4.

113
. . . . 113
117
125
129
133
138
142
146
155
163
170
176
176
182
188
191
3

5.
194
6. ( )
196
7.
204
8.
211
9. 218

224
V.
1.

2.

3. -

4. . . . .
5.

6.
7.

8. . . . .
9. . .

230
230
240
245
253
260
265
273
278
282
290
295


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[38, 45, 51, 77, 87, 88].

[5, 10, 12, 20, 27,
34, 52, 53].
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1.

1.1. .
Y={X,Y,K),
(1.1)
l
X Y , : Y-*R
.
yeY
1 2 ,
. Y (. . (JC, ), ye Y ,
1.
2 (, ) [(, )],
,
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X, Y 1 2, ,
Y.
.
, yeY.
/ , (, ), 2
(-(,)).
. ' = (', Y', 1)
.
=(X, Y, ), X' X, Y' , ':' Y'-tR1
X' Y'.

,
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1.2. . ,
,
.
1 (1.1) .
X , . .
={\, 2,
..., } X. , 2 ,

N={\, 2,..., } Y.
9

= {}, =( yj), (i,j)eMxN, (xh


y)eXxY,ieM,
jeN ( ).
. 1 ,
2 ( ) j eJV.
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: 0 = (, 0) , xi=(m 1,
1)( 1) ,
, = (2,2),..., xm_i = (1, 1), =(0, ). (
2) : 0 = (, 0), 1 = ( 1, 1), ..., = (0, ).
1 JC0, 2 0.
00 1 . >,
1. -
( ). .
00 = + 1. 01. >\,

1 1 + 1 =.
2. 1
. , 0 1 = 1. ,
a0J=nJ+1 1 =nj, l^J^n. , \>,
1 0 = + 1 + 1= + 2, 11 = - 1 + 1=,
otl]=n-j+\-\-\=n-j-\,
2<'<. ( m ) aijt i=0, m,
;=0, :
+2,

mi>nj, i>j,

j+\,

mi>nj, i=j,

nji, mi>nj, i<j,


m+i+j, mi<nj, i>j,

a,j=K(x yj)

j+1,

mi=nj, i>j,

m2, mi<nj, i<j,


i 1,

mi=nj, i<j,

m+il, mi<nj, i=j,

mi=nj, ij.

, /=4, =3, ,
:
1
*0

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0"

0 - 1

1 3

*1

-2

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2 - 2

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i 1 , 1 \ij\.
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k , fc/n (^).
1(2)
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1
J n(i-j)+ij
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2 <= <xit. i=j, = 0 . ,
=5, , 25,

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7

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15

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1, .... ,
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1 /J/>0), . . 1 (
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=
-... .4

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). 1
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1 = 1, 2 = /}3 = 3.
1

Pi
aj |~4

6~|

Z>=aJ 3 4 5
a 3 Ll 2 3J
,
1 (,, )
^=0.^, i = l, 3,=1, 3, 8 D.


Pi

= 2

10

L3

9.

13

2.

2.1. =(, Y, ).

. 1 (, ),
((, )), . .
. , 1(2)
(, y)eXY, .
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1 , 0, . . 4 .
2.
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, ( ) .
7? 1
. min K(x, ).
1
max min (, ).
*

, 1 ,

r = supinf K(x, ),
(2.1)
-

yeY

.
(2.1) , v
, ,
, ,
1.
2 .
.
max K(x, ). X

min max K(x, ).

v = inf sup K(x, )


yeY

14

xeX

(2.2)

,
(2.2) .
,
, ,

2. , ()
(2.2) ((2.1)).
( )- ^.
(2.1) (2.2) ,

= max mm <.

(2.3)

= min max .v

(2-4)

^
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<

21

11

mm a.\j
i
min ay

max mm oty=.
'

_*ml

m2

m n j 1 ,

maxon max,2...maxa,n
\J

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~v

min max%=v
j

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=
h
L6

0 4~
3 8
0 1_

() v i0
i> = 3, / 0 =2, () v
0 V = 3,j0 = 2.
2.2. =(, Y, )
.
.
<
(2.5)

15

sup inf K(x, y) ginf sup K(x, y).


xeX yeY

(2.6)

yeY xeX

. xeX
).
(, ) <sup K(x, ).


inf K(x, ) <inf sup K(x, ).
yeY

yeY

,
, .

sup inf (, ) < inf sup K(x, ).
yeY

yeY

3.

3.1.
.
= (X, Y, ) (*, *) - Y,
. (JC*. *)
, ,
, .
, ,
. ,
(. .
).
. =(, Y, )
(*, *) ,
{,*)<(*,*);
(3.1)
{*. )>{*. *)
(3.2)
ye Y.

Z(r),Z(r)cXY.

^
, . . (/*, /*), ieM ujeN

,/ < ^^*/.
16

,.^
. "1 0 4~

, 55 33 88 (2.2)
_6 0 1_

.
3.2.
,
.
. (xf, yf), (jcf, yf)
.
1) , yt) = K(x*2, yt); (1, 1)={*, \);
2)(x*1,y^Z(D,(xtyt)eZ(T).
.
Y
, ) < , );
(3.3)
(, . . ).
(3.4)
(3.3) \, %,
(3.4) * \.

, , yiHK(xi, >>!)<, ^,

K(xl tf ) = , yl)=K(xt, )={, yt).
(3.5)
.
(xf, yf). (3.3) (3.5)
(, yf)<K(xt, yt) = K(xt, yt) = K(xl y$)^K(xt )
(3.6)
, ye Y. (*, *)
.
,
.
.
. (*, *) .

= (*. *)
(3.7)
.
, ,
. X* Y* Z(T) X Y
, . .
X* = {*\* X, * Y, (*. *) eZ(Y)},
17

* = {*\* eY,3x*eX, (*. *) Z(T)}.


Z(T)
Z(D=PxP.
(3.8)
(3.8), ,
.
. X*(Y*) ,
1(2) ,
1 (2).
, (3.S)
, . .
,
.
33. ,
,
(
).
( ). =(, Y, ) ' = (, Y, 1)
,
= + , > , =const, =const.
(3.9)

Z(T')=Z(r), vr=Pvr+a.
(3.10)
. (*. *)
.
'(*. *)=*. *)+^(*, )+='(*, ),
'(, *)=(, *) + <*{*, *) + ='(*, *)
ye Y. (*, y*)eZ$"), Z(T)cZ(r').
, (, y)eZ(J").

(,)=(11)'(,)-1
, , , (, y)eZ(T).
Z(t)=Z(J"),
vr=K'(x*, *)=(*. y*) + a=Pvr+u.


,
, .
3.4.
.
. =(, Y, )
18

, ,

min sup (, ), max inf K(x, )

(3.11)


v=max inf (, )=min sup K(x, )=V.
~

(3.12)

. . {x*,y*)eZ(T).
ye Y
(,*)^(*,*)^(*,),
(3.13)

supK(x,y*)^K(x*,y*).

(3.14)


inf sup K(x, ) < sup K(x, *).

(3.15)

(3.14) (3.15),
inf sup . y)<sup K(x, y*)^K{x*. *).

(3.16)

,
*. *

(*. yHsap inf K(x, ).

(3.17)

,
inf sup K(x, j>)<sup inf K(x, ).

, (2.6).
,
sup inf (, )=inf sup K(x, ),

(3.18)

(3.16), (3.17)
inf sup K(x, j>) = sup K(x, y*)=K(x*. *),

sup inf K(x, >0=inf (*. )=(*. *),

19

. .
* * .
.
max inf {, )=inf K(x*. );

min sup K(x. ^) = sup K(x, *)

(3.19)

(3.20)

(3.12). , (*, *)
. ,
(*. y*)>iof (*. )=max inf (, );

(*. >>*)<sup K(x, y*)=min sup , ).

(3.21)

(3.22)

(3.12) , (3.21),
(3.22) , (*. *), . .
(3.21), (3.22) .

(*. y*)=inf K(x*. )^(*. ),

(*. ;F*)=sup K(x, *)>(, *)

j>e , . . (*. y*)eZ(T).


, ,
(*. y*)=v ,
() *(*)
, . . (*. *)
.
.
1. (3.11)
~ ,
max inf K(x, )^(, )^ sup K(x, ).

(3.23)

, ,
.

. ,
,
(3.11) (3.12).
, (3.11)
, .
20

2. ( nj- ^
,
mm

max = max

j - l , 2..., i - 1 , 2...,

i-l,

4 1

3 4

mm

2, ..., m J-l,

-2

ay.

(3.24)

2, ....

(2,1)

max min a y =min max a y =2.


'

1
,
1 ,
min max = 1 >max min <xtf= 0.
J

, , 1 3 (. 1.3),
, 6
v=6.
4.

4.1. ^.
, ,

()

. , ^
. . 3.4 . 2.2

min max a,-,max min ,>0.


j

'

'

(4.1)


. ,
, .

,
.
,
=

7 3

2 5
21

min max af/=5, max min a y =3, . .


j
'
t
j
. *
1 (i* = 1), 2 j*
(j* = 2). 2 j* = 2,
1 f=2. 5, . .
2 , . 2
1, _/= 1,
2 , . . ,
.
. ,
(4.1)?
,
,
. ,

.
4.2. . ,
, .
,
1 ,
ieM, M={1, 2, ..., } .
2,
j eN .

, .
,

.
, 1 m-

*=!

We ". I 6=1, Z,>0, '=1

(4.2)

(-1

, 2 -

=(, .... ]), ty=l, ,>0

(4.3)

'=1

,^0 fy^O
ieM ujeN
.
X Y
. ,

(,
).
. =(1, .... ) 22

1.
(4 4)
Mx={i\ieM, {,><)},
={1, 2, ..., ), .
= (rju .... rj)eY
2 Ny :
Ny={j\jeN,rij>0},
(4.5)
iV={l, 2, ..., }.
,
.
0,
,
1 [. (4.2)].
(=(^1, .... &, .... ),
&=1, ^j=0,j^i, 1=1, 2, ..., .
/- 1.
i- , . .
ie M 1.
wJ=(rii, .... \}, .... ri)eY, ,= 1, ?/,, = 0, ], }= 1, - , *,
j eN 2. ,

.
. (, )
.
1 (, )
( )-
,
.
,
(, ) (, )
=(1, .... ), y = {Vv .. ?*)

K(x,y)=Y

X , = ()=().

(4.6)

(-1 j - \

(, ) ye Y.
, , ), (, j)
(/ j ),
( )

)=( y)=Y. <*u>1j=aiy, z'=l, ..., ,

K(x,j)=K(x, Wj)=Y a,j&=xaJ,j=l, ..., n,


i-i

23

' /- j- ( /^-
.
, = {, N, )
= (", , ), X
,
. ^ .
, . . :.
43. . (*, *)
, v=K(x*. *) ,
uyeY
(, *)^(*. *(*. ).
(4.7)
. 3.2 , (*. *),
, . ,
. 3.4 * *
,
(.) ( (, )
X ).
. 3.3 ,
,
( ). ,
,
.
.
. ^ ^ ( )-,
' = + , >0, a=const,
ft, . . P,j=P
i j . Z(YA')=*Z(YA), vA=avA + f}, IV
I V , a vA, vA
.
. ' /,
^
. , (, )

'(,) = (,)+,
(4.8)
' 1 IV ^ .
,
'(, )='=()+ = .(, )+0.
, Z(IV) = Z(r^), vA=olvA+p.
24

7. , y* = (i/2> ** Vj * =
=( /> 1 / 4 , V4) , a v = 0
=

1 -1
-1 -1

-1
3

_-1
3 -1_
(
). ,

2 0 0

0 0 4
0 4 0

2.

1
2
0 2 0
vA-=1/2 VA' = i/2(vA + l).
, , -
1 / 2 . , (*. *)=* "* = 1/. ,
yeY, =(1, 2, \^) (*. ) =
= i
12*1 i + ll22+ /21 = 1 / 2 ' 1 = 1/2. =(1, 2, (, *)= /2i + /2^2+ /2^= /- ,
*, * , &vA = 0.
, ^
, .
5.


.

.
,
.
5.1. / ,
, 2

25

Axj+(1 A)x2, 0<A<1.


, .
<^" , ,..., *

*
*
= ,,, (>0, Ai=l,
i-1

i-1

xlt.... *.
.

^

xaJ<Pj,jeN,N={l
},
(5-0
=[>, /-(|)-, xeRm, =( .... PJelC.
={\^}_ (S.1).
, X . X
, (5.1).
5.2. , , ,
=1+(\-)2, 1,2<<1
, 1 = 2 =.
, ,
, , .
, ,
.
X ,
(S.1). .
. X ,
.=[1,}=[\6, . 69].
. 0 , ,

Xoa^Pj.jeNt;
(5.2)
xjal+fyJsNXN
(5.3)
Ni^N, rank[e',./eN1]=m [16, . 65, 66].
X.
,
(5.2) (5.3).

,
.
5.3.
, , conv (P).
.
, . .

convfPj ={*!*=
f-i

fa

.= 1, ,>0, ,-}.
i-1


, .
. , X
1 ( )-, X=conv{u1,.... ,}, , = (0 , 1,0,...,0)
1. X
(1) (1)- (
). ( )
26

X.
Y 2.
, , ^,
",
(),
, : ,
+. , ,
. .
, .
1 + 1={\=1+1, ^,, 2) Cif]C2
.
,
= {\^6} ,
(5.1),_ .
X ,
(5.1),

I ,^,

(5.4)

*=(?!, ..., Zn)eK", ,- J- , /=1


. ,
rank =^,, ,..., , .

" svaiJ"r+1

(5-5>

(5.5) (5.4), (5.4)

l(ft+ I
j-i \

jmr+i

ijSi)a^b.

(5.6)

0 =({ 1( , Z^eR",
(5.6) j=0,j=r+l,m. . 52 0
. {16, . 70 74}.
. X
, (5.4).
=+,
M+C={x\x=y+z, , zeC}, M ,
0, (5.6), ={\^0}
.
, , , X (5.4)
, X .
5.4. , min ex
>,^0,
(5.7)
-()-, 6", Rm, be1
, ,

*,>0,
(5.8)
1 (5.7).
", (5.7),
(5.7).
27

(5.8). () (5.7)
[(5.8)], () ()
.
[16].
. _ (5.7), (5.8)
, , ,
.
5.5. .
, <: M-*Rl, " ,
,
<(^ + (1 -)2) <hp(xj + (1-)<(2)
(5.9)
Xi, 2 [0,1]. (5.9) ,
( .
() i = l
.
()
()=

max q>i(x)
*-1. -,

(5.10)

.
, ,, 2 [0, 1]

p.faXi+O-oOxJ ^oupifxJ+il-eitoifXi)

<

< max p / x j +(1 ) max (2).


i


(1 + (\- )2) =max 9f(**i + (I - OL)X2) <
.
( (5.10)
0 .
6.

,
.
6.1. .
.
. ^ (/)-
= {<}, . . >0 i=l, m
=1, . , .

, xA^w, ^
(6.1)
(. 5.4)
28

maxj>w, Ay^u, y^O,


(6.2)
=(1, ... 1)G/P", W = ( 1 , ..., 1)".
, > 0,
xA^w, . . (6.1) .
, =0 (6.2)

(. . 5.4) (6.1) (6.2) ,
,
xu=yw=d>0.
(6.3)
*=/ *=/ ,
1 2
, 1/0.
, (6.3)
*=()/=(yw)/6=y*w = 1,
(6.1), (6.2) , *=5/0>
*=/^0, . . * *
1 2 ^.
1 (*. *):
(*.*)=** = ()12.
(6.4)
,
(6.1), (6.2) (6.3)
e=wy^(xA)y=x(Ay)^xu=6.
(6.5)
, =, (6.4) ,

(*,*)=1/.

(6.6)

yeY
1 2.
(*. )=(*)=()1>(>)/=11;
(6.7)
, *)=(*)=()1^()1=\/.
(6.8)
(6.6) (6.8), , (*. *)
, 1/0 ^
.
()- *-
A'{aij}. >0,
=' + , ={By} () -,
=, /= 1, m,j= 1, . ^ (*,
*) , vA = l\/9,
(6.3).
29

. 4.3 , (*. y*)eZ(YA)


< ,
vA=vA ^ = l/ep. .

,
,
, .
,
.
3, 4 . .
, ,

, - .
1.
= ' + , ={}, p,j=p>0.
2. (6.1), (6.2).
, [. 6.3)].
3. 1 2

* = 1,*=/.
4. ^

8. ,

- 3


:
m i n ^ + ^2,
max^+f/2,
4 1 +2 2 >1,
4ij!<l,
3{ 2 >1,
2h + 3ij 2 <l,
,
:
m i n ^ + ij,
4 1 +2 2 - = 1,
30

max ^+7/2,
4 ^ + ^ = 1,

32-4=1>
i>0, 2 ^0, Z3>0, 4 >0,

2^ + 3^ +^ = 1 ,
^, t,2>0, ]2>0,

,

.
-,
[16, 25, 73].
6.2.
. ,

minxu
xA^w,
(6.9)
>0;
maxyw
^,
(6.10)
>0.
X Y (6.9) (6.10)
. _

(11)={/\},
(\1)={1\},>0.
. ()-
( )
(6.9) (6.10).
.
1.
(0 0),
0=min =max yw.

2. vA

* = 16,*=1,
,
(6.9), ayef (6.10).
3. ** y*eY*
, . .
* = (1/), * = (1/)?.
. 1, 2 (\l&)XczX*,
31

l/OYczY*
. 6.1.
.
* = (*. > &)* = ( ^ , .... 1), =0*. jeN

xaJ=Bx*aJ> 0(1/0)= 1,
>0, >0 *>0.
(6.9).

=* = =min xu,
X

. . (6.9).
Y*cz(l/0)Y.
.
7.

,
.
7.1. (*, *) Y
^. , (*, *)
(4.7)
yeY, ieM jeN,
.
. (*, *)
, v=K(x*. *)
ieM
njeN:
K(i,y*)*ZK(x*,y*)^K(x*,j),
(7.1)
. . (*, *)
^.
(,*)^(*,*)**,)
xeX.yeY. , , ^
K(i, y*)=K(uit y*)^K(x*, **. Wj) = K(x*,j)
ieM ujeN.
. (*, *) ,
(7.1). =( 19 ...
..., ) y = (rjit .... q)e Y
1 2 .
(7.1) & \} ,
32

{, *)^ *. *)% = (*, *);

(7.2)

r,jK(x*,j)>K(x*, *) r,j=K(x*, *).

(7.3)

-i

j-l

Mi, >*)=*(*, );

(7.4)

/-1

t ^ ^ * , ; ) = ^*,j;).

(7.5)

j-i

(7.4), (7.5) (7.2) (7.3)


ye Y,
(*. *).
1. (f, j*) .
(/*, j*) .
10. ( .) ,
/ 1 , 1
.1=\1j \ , . . / /

* = (1/2, 0, ...
i
..., 0, /2).
K(x*,j)=\l2\\-j\
+ l/2\n-j\ = \l2(j-l) +
ll2(n-j)=(n-W
1</^.
) n=2k+1 . 2
j * = ( +1 )/2 = +1 ,
o^ = | i - ( n + l)/2| = | i - * - l | < b = ( n - l ) / 2
/=1, 2, ..., .
) , = 2 . 2
* = (0, 0, ..., /2. 1/2, 0, ..., 0), \=2, >7*+1 = 1 / 2 >
rij = 0,j^k + l,j^k,
*) = 1/21i-k|.+1/21i-k-11<1/2*+ l/2(fc-1) = (-1)/2
1</<.
, , ,
v = (n1)/2, / *,
2 j * , =2+1, *,
= 2.
7.2. ,
. 7.1.
. ()-.
(*, *) , 33


max K(i, *) = min K(x*. j).

(7.6)

. . (*. *)
, . 7.1
K(i,y*)^K(x*,y*HK(x*,j)
/{1, ..., m},je{l, ..., }.
K(i,y*HK(x*,j)
i / , . . (7.6) .

max , *) < min K(x*. j).


,
(*. *)= y*)*Z max , *)< min K(x*,j)^
^ri;K(x\j)

= K(x*,y*).

j-1


.
. (, )
, max K(i, y)=min K(x, j). ,
/

(, ) .

min , j)^^fjj

K(x, J)=(, ) =

= max ).

, JO^max K(i, y)=K(x, y)=min K(j, x)^K(x,j)
i

1% i^m ^.</<, . 7.1 (, )


^.
, (7.6)
.
_
7.3. . YA
:
max min K(x, j)=vA=min max K(i, ),
(7.7)
x

34

(7.7)
.
. 3.4, 7.2,
.
7.4. .
X* Y*
.
. . 7.1 X*

xaJ'^vA,jeN,
=1,
>0,
m
=(1, ..., \)eR , vA . , X*
(. 5.1). ,
*<^, X (. 5.3). X*
. , . 5.3 X*
.
, * .
7.5. 6 . 7.3

((2 )- ( 2)-).
.

* *
4=max min K(x,j)=mm max K(i, ).
X

11. ((2 x )-). ,


1 , 2 .

11

12 -

21

2 2 "

1"|
a

2nJ

1 =(, 1 ),
2 jeN. 1
(, J)
Kix.j^faMl-Ovy.
(7.8)
(,
). , j
.
H()=mmK(.x,j)
35


(7.8).

(
) (. 5.5). *,

{) [0, 1],
* = (*,
1 *) vA=H(,*).

2 1 4

j= 1, 2, 3, 4 :
(, 1 ) = - + 2, /, 2) = 2+1, /,
3 ; = - 3 ^ + 4 , , 4J=4.
#()
1
{, j)} (, j),
j=\, 2, 3, 4, .
1. #(*) //(
. , *
* = (2/5, 3/5)
1 vA S/5. 2
. ,
(*. 1)=(*. 4)=< = 8/5.
y* = (tj\, \, /3, /4)

vA = K{x*. *) = \ (*. l) + ri'2 {*, 2)+/3 (*. 3) + ,4 , 4).
(*, 2)>8/5, (*, 3)>8/5, , 7/2 = 1/3 = ,
\\, /4 (7.1)
\ + 4,;= 8/5,
27,1 = 8/5.
, 7/1 = 4/5 /4=1/5
2 * = (4/5, 0, 0, 1/5).
12. (( -.)
2, 1 .
^1 ,4 2
*21

22

36

0^2

. ,
==(?/, 1 TJ) 2.
1 (i, )
K(i, )=1 + (1-1) = (-,)1 + K(i, ) .
, . .
H(ri)=max [(a,, - ) + a j .
i

H{r\) (
).
* ()
* = (?/*, l ri*) vA=H(n*) = min ().
, ,

<J6 [0. 1]

7.6. ,
.
. * = (\,.... * = (\,..., '^
vA . i,
K(i, y*)<vA, *=0,
j , vA<K(x*,j), ]=0.
, *>(), K(i, y*)=vA, n)>Q, K(x*,j)=vA.
. , / 0 /
K(i0, y*)<vA *0#0. ,

K(i0,y*K<vAil
ieM K(i, y*)^vA,
K(i,y*)^vAC
, (*. y*)<vA, , vA
. .

[73] , ,
[25].
. ieM(jeN) 1 (2)
,
* = (,\, .... \*) (* = (\, .... ))
, >0 (fy>0).
,
i 1
y*eY* 2 ^
K(i,y*)=ao>*=vA.

j eN 2 * * 1
37

K(x*,j) = aJx*=vA.
ie M
a{y=vA, , i
^.
,
.
,
.

. , >
JC* 1.
*= (\\, .... \*) 2 v

aor*=v, ieM*.,

* *
.
7.7.
(. 4 . 1.3)
13. ()
7*1*1

...

Tj

2^2

. %.

,>0 , 0</?,<1
Q, /=1, 2, ..., , , .
1 < 2 <...< )1 . 1, 2, ...
..., :
1

?(*) = [ (WO^-lj^Ml-u)}- ,

(7.9)

/{1, 2, ..., } ,
((), . .
((1)=

max q>(k).

(7.10)

~\, 2,

((). R
{>, =, <}.
38

<p(k)R(p(k+\)
,
zkR(p(k), k=\, 2, ..., -1, 0 = 0.
, (7.9)
-)"1

<

, ,.

i-Jfc+1

(7.12)

(1- 1

,. , 1 ,

fofl-A)}-1

(7.11)

fod-ft)}-1

j-Jt-fl

-ll
L

"

."-"

+?(*)=.(*+!)

(7.13)

Mi-ft"'
i*+l

, (7.13),
, . (7.13)
(7.11) (7.12).
q>(l)^(p(ll) <(/)>(/+1) (
,_1<(/1) ,>(0), (7.10), (7.11)

,_,<(0<

(7.14)

^. ,
1 < 2 ^...^ .
* = (,\, .... *) y* = (t]\,
.... r\J 1 2 :

0, = 1 ,

.... / - 1 ,

/"

(7 15)

Wi-ft)]" 1 /! fed-//)]-1, ' = ' - - . ;

f<W=i

/-1,

-((/1-, -/, .... .

( -


= <?(%>

, ^ ' ^ 0 , i= 1, 2,..., *= 1 <(/)

(7.14) , rjj^0,j=l, 2, ..., ^ ^*=1 K{x*,j) 1 (x*,j),


K(i, *) (i, *).
39

(7.15), (7.16)
, (7.14),

K(X*,J):

-;(1->1;=>(, i-/. .
, i,j=\, ...,

K(i,y*)^(p(l)^K(x*,j).
. 7.1 * *
vA = <p(l) . .
8.


.
,
, .

.
8.1. . , " 1
" ()- ,
je(l, ..., } 2
x'ai>x"ai.
(8.1)
, ' 2 ",
/{1, ..., ) /
a,/W.
(8.2)
(8.1), (8.2) ,
.
.
. " " 1
, ecexje{\, ..., }
x'aJ=x"aJ,
'~".
40

" " (
)
(',) = (",).
, ' " 2 (' ~")
, /{1, ..., )

'^'.
,
1
(,') = (,").

. 1
i", / 2
/ ' , i'=l, ..., ; j=\, ...,

:
^- d<id".
i\ i"(i'~i") nj',j"(j'~j")
= (</ = </).
. , "(")
1 (2) , '"('")
, "(").
"(") .
" ( ") 1 (2)
, '00
, "("), . .
= 1, n(i= 1, )
x'd>x"d, aiy'<{".
, "(") 1 (2)
.
8.2. ,
. .
. '
*, '
.
. , , ' *
1.
x'aj^x*aJ
41

j=l, . *
(. . 7.3)
w^=min x*aJ^min x'aJ^min x*aJ=vA
j

Bcexj= 1, . . 7.3 '


.
,
. ,
,
.
. *
, * .
. , , *
1. , *
, . . ',
')>*), =1, 2, ..., .

min xV>min x*aJ.


i

min x*aJ=vA.
j

max min xaJ>vA,


x

, vA (. 7.3).
.
, , , .
,

1- 2- 1 ,
.
, , 1-
(/- ) ,
() . ,

IV, ' ,
.
42


,
i- . =(1, .... ) l^i^m+l,jo

i- xi=(1, .... ,_,,


, &. . m)eRm+i. , (1/3, 2/3, 1/3) 2-
(1/3, 0, 2/3, 1/3); 4-
(1/3, 2/3, 1/3, 0); 1- (0, 1/3,
2/3, 1/3).
8.3. . ()-. , i-
(. .
i ) ',
i- .
.
1. vA = vA.

2. * 2 IV
.
3. *
1 ' ' * i- ,
* .
4. i- ,
* 1
*
i- .
. ,
, - .
= (lt.... t,m) ,
. =0, = 1 , 2, ...,

/-1

i-1

(8.3)

6 = 1 , 2*0, f=l, . . . , m - l .
( >0) ''=(,[, .... )>
,=

(8.4)

i=m.

('^, i=\, ..., ) ^ /=1 , '=1, ...,

i-1

43

tn

!<,>,-- Y 6

m i

m 1

E 60u>flWr-r I &
5m j . i

1 Cm

(-1

(8.4),
7B-1

ffl-1

E -^ E ^ ' = a > J = l s - , n,
i-i

(8.5)
m-l

X = 1 , {/>0, i = l

m-l.

i-l

, m- ,

m l [(8.5)].
(*. y*)eZ(rA) ^, * = (,\,
> m-i), * = (*> . *& 1, 2,
3 , (', y*)=vA>
a & < ^ ' < *+0 * >

(8.6)

i-l

J-\

1=1, ..., ; j \ , ..., .


,
(*, *) -
\

ay4j<vA'** </' f=1 > > - 1 =1, ..., .

(8.7)

i-l

;'-1

(8.7) (8.6).
. ,

/%<*4'-

(8.3), (8.5)

mI

m 1

j - l

i-l

(-1

wq/^E /& 7< v*Zi=vx,


j-l

.
( 4)
, /-
(8.3), (8.5) j= 1, .
44

/fy<

* & 1; < i-

. 7.6 ,
/ ^ /- .
.
,
.
. ()-. , j-
< ',
j- .
:
1.

vA=vA.

2. * 1 '
.
3. _* 2
' )>j * j- , )
2 .
4. , j- ,
* 2
*
- j- .
8.4. . .
. 8.3 .
, () ( )
()
,
() .

. ,

,

. .
14.
"2
2

1 1 0 "
3

3 1 2
0

1 3

3 0 6

3- (3 > at), ,
45

2 3 1 3~|
3 1 2 0 1.
0 3 6J

3- 3 1- 1

2=

U J
()
(). 1-
31
2

,
1 ^1/2 2 + 1/23, 3> 1/2+ 1/23,
1 = 1/22+1/2.0,
3=0 1/2+1/2 6. 1- ,

1-
=(0, 1/2, 1/2), 1 = 1/2-2+0-1/2, 3 = 0-1/2 + 6-1/2.
, 1- ,

[::}
* *
*=* = (3/4; 1/4), v 3/2.

,
1- 2-
, . . 2=5?, = (0, 0, 3/4, 1/4).
9.


.
.
,
8.
9.1. ,
.
46

. () 1 (2)
,
, . . Mx=M{Ny=N).
(*. *) ,
* * .
,
.
,
.
. ( )-
(*. *) (=).
,
.

~1

**=-',
.

(9.1)

'
~

*=-^>

(9-2)

^=-^-

(9.3)

'

. * = (\, .... %* y* = (rl\-


..., IJ j 6 * , a vA
. ^ , *
* , ( )
. 7.6:
xaJ=vA, xu=l, x>0,j=l, ..., ;
(9.4)
yat=vA, yw= 1, >0, i= l, ..., m,
(9.5)
=(1, ..., l)eiT, w=(l, ..., 1)".
, (*, *)
. X*. *, (9.4) (9.5),
, ,
. . 5.2
/n^rangfa1, ..., a", ]=2%[, u]^m,
(9.6)
H^rang^, ..., , w] = rang[^, w]^n.
(9.7)
, X*. Y*
, , (
,
). (*, *) .
vA = 0.
xaJ=vA,j=l, n
47


, rang (A)<m.
rang [, ]=, : rang ()=/1. , (9.5) (9.7)
, $()= 1. =.
vA^0.
rang (A)=rang [A, i^] = rang|>4, ]=,
rang ()=rang [A, vAw]=rang [A, w]=n.
H=m=rang(.4), . . .
x*A=vAu
x*=vAuA~i.
Ay*vAu:
y*=vAA~1u.
x*u=l=vAuA~lu,

v.=

~1

.
,
.
. ()-
. , 2
, 1
* (9.1).
1, 2
* (9.2), vA
(9.3).
15. ((2 2)-.) (2 2)-
12
\_21

1
*=(<!;, 1)> 0<<1. ,
2 =(, 1), 0 < J < 1 .
(, )
K(x,y)=^[a11n + ai2(\-n)]+^-0[^2irl
+ ^22(i-rl)l
,
(
) * = (*, 1 *), * = (*, 1 *)

. (*. *)
(<!;*> *>0). . 9.1
,

48

a2i'?* + ( 1 - ' ? * ) a 2 2 = ^ )
{ ' + (1-{*)21=^.
a

12^* + ( 1 - ^ * ) 2 2 = ^ -

, (,
, ),

vA=~,
x*=vAuA \
1

y*=vAA~iu,

'-_ 3

u=(l, 1). , , =\
. ~1 -4 _1 =

' ~ |

1^=1/3, * = (2/3, 1/3), >* = (1/3, 2/3).


9.2.
.
.
, , . .
(= ctji i 7.
,
. . =0 i.
= . ,
, . . = Y.
^,
.
. .
vA = 0
, . .
X* = Y*.
.
. == . =0.
(*. y*)eZ(A) , vA
.
vA = ** < * ,
vA=x*Ay*^xAy*
, ye Y. ,
vA^x*Ax* = 0, vA^y*Ay* = 0.
vA = 0.
49

* ,, (. .
7.1)
*^0.
, *()~^0, *4 <0.
,
*^0.
, . 7.1 *
2. , , **.
.
X* = Y*,
,
, .
16.
=

[: :.;}

L-i
1 oJ
*=(,\, 2, ) .

->,
->0,
(9-8)
+ + = 1, &>0, &>0, >0.
, . ,
1 = 0. (9.8)

>,

-&>,
+ + = 1,
.
1=0 3 = 0.
. , &,
2,

-=,
* * =0
+ + = 1,{>0,1=1,2,3.
.
* = (1/3, 1/3, 1/3).
50

17.
, . 1.4
(. 3). 1

"

1 -2

7 -1

' =

-11 - 1 5

-3-7

-5

11

-7

15

15

- 5 -15

, 1- (1- 1-
) ,
.

1 -2
0

-7

15

- 5 -15

-1

' =

-5"

.
, ^ , vA=0.
,
*
x*aJ=0,j=2,3,4, 5,
1-7

.
,
", 2,
5:

-[-i

-5

-5

0.

"
==(5/11, 5/11, 1/11).
*=* = (0, 5/11,
5/11, 0, 1/), .
, : vA = 0, 51

(*, *) . ,
1- ,
2- 3- , 4-
.
10.



,
.

,
,
, .


. ,
(, ).
10.1. (
).
.
. ( ^-
= {). 1-
. -
,

( 1) .
, ,
/ i- <!;* (i=l, ..., /), 2j-
rfj (j=\, ..., ). (+1)-
1 fjt+i-K) , 2 +
,
*= i/^=X \+ui/
i

v .
lk/k=max
1

52

ayrfilk^a^yrfilk,
J

vk/k=mm ctijg/k = Y, auk+i $lki

/=('[/, ..., ^/k) .y*=0/i/fc, .... rfjk)


1 2 ,

max vkjk4:V^.mai vk/k.

, ,
,

max vk/k, min vk/k\.
[64].
.
lim I min vk/k l = lim I max vkjk ]=i;.
18.
a b

2 1

"

3 0

1 2

, /?, 1 ., 2.
.
1 , 2
(2, 1, 3). 2 ,
1 (2, 3, 1). 2- 3-
1 /?, 2 ,
. .
. 10.1 ,
,
.
, 12
12 =(1/4, 1/6, 7/12),>>12 = (1/12,1/2, 5/12),
1/2.
,
. _k

v /k vkjk.
,
.
53

10.2. .
^ = (X, Y, )
()- .
?=($, .... %) X
N- c^eR", cN=('vi'. , $)
. (
) 1 v.
1
i0, . . =(0, ..., 1, ..., 0) = ,0
c = aio, , , /0.
.
N 1 1* , 1*-1. ?
* :
xN=(l-aN)^-i
+ aNxN;
(10.1)
ciV = (l-a iV )c N - 1 -|-a Jv c w ,
(10.2)

0<a w < 1. X " .


10.1

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

1
a

a
a

a
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
11
14
17
20
23

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
5
6
7
8

1
3
5
7
9
11
13
14
15
16
17
18

2
5
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
17
19

1
1
1
3
5
7
9

13
15
16
17

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
15
18

vKlk

vKlk

3
3/2
5/3
7/4
9/5

1
1/2
1/3
3/4
5/5
7/6
9/7

11/6
13/7
14/8
15/9
17/10
20/11
23/12

10/8
11/9
12/10
15/11
17/12

<? 1 = ("^1 1, .... % 1)


jk,

min

tf-i.tf-i^-i-...^-!.

j - \ , ...


-*= min yf"1

(10.3)

JN~i = {ii, , jk} , (10.3)


.
54

1 fl
= { '},/'= 1,
1
..., , ~ eJ ~ .
" 1. xN=(lN, ..., *).

c = ] fa,-. cN
cN=(yN, ..., ). (2)-

(aN, 1 aN), 0 < a w < l ,


i .
", 1*, * (10.1), (10.2),
* ". ,
a N =0
.
[65].
. {Vs}, {?} ,
(10.1), (10.3).
. N N 1
1. v >v ~ , . . {vN~1}
.
2.
lim vN=v=v.
(10.4)
-00

3. lim Xs=*. ** 1.
N-aa

19. , ,

~2

1 3"

= 1
_1

1-

0. 1 1- , . .
=(1, 0, 0) =1=(2,1, 3). =min ,=2 = 1, J = {2).
~

1. 1 '
1
1

=
L2J
1

Jc 1 Jc1 = (0, 0, 1).


55

1 = 3 = (1, 2, 1). (2 3)-


, :~', ^

1
1( 11 aN) = (1/2, 1/2).
(10.1), (10.2).
1 = 112+1121 = (1/2, 0, 1/2),
1 = 1/2 +1 /21 = (3/2, 3/2, 2),

i ^ m i n y} = y\=yi=3l2>v = l.
/ = {1, 2}.
2. 4

[::)
1
, 3 / f = (0, V4 3 /
c2 = 1/4.a2 + 3/4.a3 = (3/2, 3/2, 1) (2x3) /2 3/2

I. 1
,
2 = 0. ,

1
* = 1 = (1/2, 0, VJ),
v=v
=
3/2,

2 * = (1/2, 1/> 0) (- 18).



1. ( U m ^ 5 )
, , ,
. , ,
, , , ,
.
.
) =3?
) = 2 .
2. . 2 .
56

I ,
. ,
( 1) , - , . .
, i'-
( ) .
.
1
.
) 1.
) .
3. . 2 .
( ), > , //, j=\, ..., .
2 ,
, lj>m.
( 1) ,
. /- 1
() /,-,
.
) i'- pt . /? ,
i'- .
) .
4 .
(1, 2, 3),
. ( 2)
( 1 2).
'
1
2.
1 0 , 3 0,5~|
2
3

0,5

0,3

1_0,1 0.6J

, .
1 .
) .
) , .
5. :

" *[

1/2

3/2 1/2

1/2

- 1 7/4-J

6. , = 2 (*, *), * = (0, 0, 1), *=(2/5, 3/5, 0)

2 6J

7. '(") ,
() . , ' ^ ^ " , ^,
' IV, I V .
8. >
57

-1

=
-

-3

2 0

2 1

vA = 1 1 * (1/3, 2/3, 0).


* 2.
9.
4

-2

-3

1 -1

10. , !
11. , 3- ,
~20

0
_ 4

1
J
5

12. , 1- >">(0,
1/3, 2/3),

' 3 "I

1.2 0 3J
13. ,

[:;:}
L.5 1 6 J
14. . 7.3.
15. . 2
. 1 ,
i- /f/>0, i=l, ..., ( , ).
, . .
16. ( 5, . 1.3)
/?,-,*0,1 = 1, ..., .
. . 7.7.
17. . 2
( ). 1 ,
(/?,-> 0
i- ) ( , ).
i- ,
/if. , = {}, a=(i,j), i,j=\, ..., ,

04,=/?(, i=k, 1),
58

4k-A(2-W, '=/=*

.
18. (. . 3).
19. . Kv K2, , KnaR2

., ..., TmczR2.
. 2 } (7 = 1,
..., ) Kj (i= 1,..., ) , AT,-. ,
pi Kh , {7}}
pi . 2

a=iPi.Pi

.)-". Pi=m.
i-i

Pi Tj, ,.
/ Kt .
1 {Tj,
.
.
20. . 2
, 1 () ,
( ).
1 (/, ]), i = 1,
..., , ]=\, ..., , 2 .
2
k, k= 1,..., , .
={(,, *},
(, i=k j=k,
( .
1 ><2 >... >> 1/1 + 1/2 > 1/<.
21. ,

1 (i, J)
2
.
-1

ff ff <1

/ * -

22. (. 7.1) , 1
.

II

1.

1.1. ,
,
( )
. -
,

.
,
, . .
=(, Y, ),
(1.1)
X Y ,
l 1 2 ,
: . Y-*R 1. ,
. 1.1 . 1.
2 (, ) [ , )], , yeY (
). ,
.
1.2. 1. ( .)
Si S2 .
. 1 xeSu
2 yeS2. 1 2
,
. xeSv yeS2
1 2 .
,
St S2 .
2
( / ).
, ) 1
(, ) xeSi
G S2, . . , )=(, ), xeSityeS2.
2
1, (
).
2. ( .)
.
60

2 () [0, 1], 1 (
) [0, 1].
, \\^1, 0 < / < 1 .
1 + 1,
0. .
,
fl, |-.</,

(,) = \

[ .

2 [(,
)].
3. ( .) R3
R. 1 () xv xz, .... ,,
2 .
. 2
, r-
Xj, j=\, ..., s. - Xj
Xj
(. 2). r- }
S(xjt r).
1 2. 2
.
1
( l , ,

( ') = {
( ,
S

x=(xv .... xs) MX=\J S(xp r). 2


[(, )].
4. ( .)
. ,
, ,
. ,
Pi(x) ( )
1 [0,1], ,
pl(0)=0,Pi(l)= 1. , 2
2() [0, 1], />2(0) = 0, 2(1)=1-
1 2, +1;
2 /, 1 1,
(
), 1 0.
( ,
)
(, ). <, , /
, () / 1 ^);
, 1 , \().
61

2 , 1 ,
2 , ,
1. , 1
, 2, <,
,
, )=/>1() + (-1)[1-/> 1 ()], <.

. )=<) ( " 1) + [1 - 1. *>

. )=1()[1-2()]+2()[\-1()](-1),
=.
, , )
2 ()-1, <,
,)=<1()-2().~.
Ll-2p2(y),

x>y,

[0, 1], [0, I].


5. ( .)

,

, .
,

: pi(x)=p2(x) = x.
, ,
(1 ),
.2

(,)=\,

<,
=,

. +(1 ), >,

[0, 1], [0, I]. , )


, 4, ,

,
.
6. ( .)
( 2)
( 1). 1(, )
[0, xj \0, J
1 2
62

1() = 10 + (-), = (11-1)1(1-), li=bi), 10=)-


0 <xt, yQ <yL, /0 < 1^ .
,
> )=
(Vi-^o)

(*i-*o)

, ) 1
, . .
(, y)=2xl(x, ). 2
[(, )]. ,
(, )=2

l0b>i-y)+li(y-yo)
(1-)

(*i-*)
(Xi-x0)

[0, ], \0, .
13.
, = =[0, 1].
(, ), , [0, 1].
.
.

. , 2, 4,
S . 6
, 0=0=0, xl=yl = l.
2. 8-, 6-
6-

2.1. =(, Y, ),

. ()
(*, *),
, *) < *, *) < *, )
(2.1)
, yeY.
,
v = v = v,

=max inf , ),
~

(2.2)

=min sup H(x, ),

. .
63

v v.
,
v (. . 3.4 . I).
(. 6 .
I),
v *. *,
(2.2).

(2.2), , .
2.2. 7. , 1 2
(0, 1), 1
, . ,

(, ) 1
, )=+, (0, 1), , 1).
(2.3)
(1, 0) , 1 0
, v v = 1.
(2.2) ,
. = 1
1, 1-, >0, 1,
, .
, 2, >0 (
0), ,
.
23. . ( ,)
=(, Y, ) -,
yeY 1 2

(, .)-^( .)^( ) + .
(2.4)
( ,), (2.4), , , , -
1 2 .
(2.1) (2.4).
,
- ,
.
, (1-, ), 0<<1, -
7, ,= 1 , ,= -
1 2 .
2.4. ,
=( Y, ) r = ( Z , Y, ), ' = +, /?>0,
. (, }>) -
64

, (/?)- ' (.
3 . I).
2.5. -
.
.

supinfH(x,y) =

= inf sapH(x,y)=v< + , ,

>0 - , 1 2,

lim , ye)=v.
(2.5)
-0

. .
v. >0 ,

sup (, ,)- /2 <


(2.6)

,
infH(xl,y) + e/2>v.

(2.7)

yeY

(2.2), (2.6), (2.7)


(, .) - /2 ^ v < ) + /2
(2.8)
, . ,
\H(xe,yJ-v\^B/2.
(2.9)
(2.8), (2.9) (2.4), (2.5).
. >0
(2.4),
sup inf (, )=inf sup H(x, y) = v< + ao

=inf sup H(x, j>)<sup H(x, j>) <#(*., ,) + ^

< inf ( ) + 2 ^ sup inf , ) + 2=v+2e.

(2.10)

, <, . 2.2 . I
. ,
, .
{}, lim =0. {}, *+{},
-.00

( '+>

')++>,+,

+)>,

.+)-+,
65

(**. J4+J +.>(., y.k)>H(xtk+m,

)-.

, \(,, ,)-($+, +)\^++ = 5.


lim Shn = 0 ,
->

lim H(xe, ). (2.10)


-

\( ,)v\^s, , v = lim H{xt, yt). Teope-.0

.
2.6.
1 . 1.2.
8. , St S2
^ R2 fi?1<i?2).

=max min p(x, ).
xeSt

yeS2

XQGS^ min p(x0, ) 0

, S2 0,
S2. , min p(x0, )
MeSlt -

. 3
66

. 4

(. 3) Su
.
, v = \OlM\ R2.

t5=min max (, )
.
1. St S2 (. 4).
y0eS2 0, max (, 0),
xeSt

.
{0
Slt a xl 0 Su
0. 0
(0,0)=&

pfx'o.yj.

, 0 S2
max p(x, y0)=p(xQ,

)^^.

0=0
max p(x,

0)=Rlt

xeSt

min max p(x, ) =v=Rv


yeS2

xeSt

, , OeS2,
1 v=R1^\OlM\R2=v.
, S2.
, 1
S2,
. S2,
,
1 ,
Sx
. 2
yeS2, St.
v=v=v = R1+R2 R2 = Rl.
2. 2.
67

1, S.
S2. v (. 5).
y0eS2. 0, max p(x, 0), 5 2

:0 , 0
Slt Slf
0. , 0 0
5 S^
0. , max (, 0)=(0, 0)
,
^
S2. ,
,,;,
v=minmax p(x, y) = \01M\R2=v.

**

MeSi
M1eSz 1 2 .
1 . 1.2
5 S2, 2

= sup inf p(x, y) = iaf sup p(x, ) =v = \OiM\ R2 = v.
"

xeSt yeSj

yeS,

xeSt

, 1,
12. > 0
-
- Mt,
5 S22.7. ,
6
(. . 7),
1 5, ,

.
, 2 / ^ 1/2
1 * = 1 / 2 ,
(
2
).
3.

3.1.
=(, Y, ).
, v>v.
68

,
4 . I, .
,


.
, ,
?
,
, . .
.

.
3.2. -
X ( ) v Y (yev, yeY).
X - v
, <-
X v.
K(li, v) = [ [(, y)dn(x)dv(y), fieX, ve ?,

(3.1)

X Y

(,
) , v [85].
. =(, Y, )

X, Y (, \), . .
=(,?,).

.
veY.
(,
) ye Y.
J (, ). , veY
, , yeY .

. 2 , (7- v
. ( X Y )

X Y. X
, , ,
X.
: ,
. , (

). ^-, 69

.
(, ,
). Y
,
, . ,
.
,
, , .
, (3.1) /JXV
Y.
() f i i v
, . . . v .

. (, v)
fieX.veT,
.
, (, v)
(, v) (3.1).
(-
, ,
()
p.xeX(vyeY), (yeY).
, v,, ,
, . .
X<zX, Ya Y. 1 (, \) (,
) :
K(x,v)=K(nx>v)

= H(x,y)dv(y);

(, ) =(, v,) =

H(x, y)dii(x),

(3.2)

(3.3)

(3.1), (3.2), (3.3)


. (), v(y)
f(x) g(y), . . dp.(x)=f(x)dx dv(y)=g(y)dy,
(3.1), (3.2), (3.3) .
, .
, (3.1) (3.2), (3.3) ,
v.
. = (X, Y, ) ,
=(, , ) .
(*, v*) eXx
, fieXuve
(, v*) ^(*, v*) *$(*, v),
(3.4)
. . (*. v*)
70

, a fi*(v*) 1 (2) .
, (//*, v'e)eXxf) ,
H v e f
(, \) - ^ ( , v.) ^(\, v) +,
(3.5)
. . f, (vf) - 1 (2) .
3.3. , ,
, =(, Y, )
' = (X, Y, ) (, ) =(, y)+fl,a>0,
'
, . . Z(F') =Z(T),
()=()+0 (. 4 . I).
3.4.
, ,
.
. (*, v*), *, v * e ?
(-)
, , yeY

(, v*) <K(fi*. v*) <(*. );


(3.6)
((, *)-^(*.
v*) <(*. ) + ).
(3.7)
. ,
.
(3.6) ( (3.7)
). ju v
1 2 . (3.1), (3.2) (3.6)
K(/i, v*)= \(, v*)dn(x)^K(p*.

v*),

(3.4), .
, , , (*. *)
(-) ,
(-)
, v .
,
,
(. 2.1), . 2.5,

.
71

3.5. . = (X, Y, )
v , . . sup inf K(ji, v)=inf supK(ji, v)=,

sup inf K(ii, ) =inf sup K(x, v) =v.
II

(3.8)

,
(3.8)
MK(n*,y)=v,

(3.9)

sopK(x,v*)=v

(3.10)


* X v* e .
. v .

i>=sup inf (, v).

(3.11)

{(, v)\veY}
(, ), yeY.

,
inf (, vj = inf K(fi, ).
vef

(3.12)

yeY

(3.12) .
,
inf K(ii,
vef

v)^MK(/i,y).
yeY

, , . .
inf K(\L, v) <inf K(fi, ).
V

, >0

inf (, v) + < inf K(\i, ).


V

, yeY
72

(. ) > inf (, ) + .

(3.13)

, (3.13),
inf K((i, v) ^ inf (. v) + .

(3.12).
(3.12).
=sup inf (, ).

(3.8). ,
(3.8) , (3.12) , .
*, v* 1 2
. . 3.4 . I (3.8)
, (3.9), (3.10)
/(* v*.
. 3.2 ,

. (3.8) ,
v . ,

, (3.8).
. =(, Y, ),
v ,

sup inf H(x, y)^:v<inf sup H(x, ).


(3.14)

. . 3.5 :.
sup inf (, ) <sup inf K(u, y)=v=
X

=inf sup K(x, \) <inf sup H(x, ).


v

.6. (3.14)
. ,
(3.14) , . .
v~ =max inf (, ) =inf H(x, );

v+ =min sup (, ) = sup H(x, y)

(3.15)

(3.16)

a=v+ v~. 1 73

2

. ,

1 2 , +
a=v v~,

v (3.14) ve[v~, v+].


(3.15), (3.16) [31, 30].
3.7. ,
.
. = (X, Y, ) .
0 (y0eY) 1 (2)
(), . (0) >0
(()>0).

. 0 (y0eY), X (
Y) ,
(v),
- X (Y),
0 (0)
/z(o))= | (*)>0((>)= | dv(y)>0).

(v)
, - (v-) .

; , , . , ,
,
,
.
( v)
(,).
. 7.6 . I
.
. =(, Y, ) ,
v. , 0, a v*
2
K(x0,v*)<v,
(3.17)
0 -
1.

2.
.
74

v* ,
(,

V*)<D.

() /*
/ \{0},
J K(x,v*)dn*(x)^v

J dpL*(x).

/I*(JC O )>0, . . JC0


/* 1. (3.17)
(0, v*)n* (x0)<vn* (0).
,
J K(x, v*)dn*(x)=K(jx*, v*)=v<v.
X

/i*(xo)=0 *.
3.8.
,
8 . I.
_
. 1
(i2e X (JJ.^ fi2),
H(jii,y)>H(ji2,y)

yeY. , v^Y
v2eY (vl>v2),

(, 1 ) < ( , v2)

. 2 v2
, >2 Vj>v2.
,
, 2 (ju1^=/i2) vx v2 (v x ^v 2 ).
,
. 8.3.
. , ,

.
. =(, Y, ) ,
(X Y ),
X ,
. '=(\, Y, ) .
2.

3.9. ()
.
, . . ,
75

. 6.1 . I.
,
.
9. (,
.) = (, Y, ), = = {1, 2...}
,
1, >,
0, =,
* 1, <.
. , *
.
fi 7,j
(, )=<

dfi(x) = 8x, 8^0


, ,

8=1. >0
*"'
X

8>1-.

K(n,yd=t

&*{,= 8xH(x,yJ +
-1

^,

+ 8,,)=-

8+ X 8<-1 + 2.

>,

<

>,

>0 (, )
, 1,
MKQi,y)=-i.

, ,
w=sup mf K(ji, y)= 1.
f

,
=inf sapK(x, v)=l.
V

v>v, .
,

, (
) .
76

4.

4.1.
=(, Y,H)B , XuY
(
),
. X, Y
1 2 ,
-- % v X Y
. K(ji, v) 1 (p., v)eXxY

<- xXv, OHa (3.1)

v.
=(, Y, ), ,
.
42. . =(, Y, )
, v (*, v*),
(.*, ), (, v*)
,
K(ji*, y)=v, yeY*.;
^ ^
(, v*)=, xeXf,

(4.2)

Yy, * v* *
.
. . 3.4 ,
(*. y)>v
(4.3)
yeY. (4.1) ,
y0eYy*, (*, yQ)>v.
(*, ) (4.3)
0 . , 0 .
v*, v*(to)>0. (4.3)

v=KQi*, v*)=J (*, y)dv*(y)>v.


Y

(4.1). (4.2)
.

. 7.6 . I. , ,
, .
, ,
(4.1), (4.2).
77

. 4.2 ,
.
4.3. . : Y-+R1 XxY,
(.,) (, v)

veY.
. (, )
XxY, .
> 0 8>0,
2( 2)<&,
\(,))-{,2)\<,
(4.4)
2 () Y.

\{, 1)-(, 2)$(,


yi)dp{x)
-jH(x, y2(x)\ = \$[H(x, ~{, 2)()\*
X

<$\(,
X

1)-(,

y2)\dp{x)<zldn{x)=&.

(4.5)

, {, ) .
{, v) .
4.4. .
. =(, Y, ),
X, Y ,
, (
).

=(, Y, )
.
4.5. , /i, =\,2,...,

(- % X,
,
Km j <p (x)d^ (x)=J q> () ()

(4.6)

q> (x), .
_
. . 4.4 7 Y(MHO )
.
7 (
).
It, -
X, , X

78

pQi', ")=(', p"),


' p" ' " ,
F<zX
lt(F)<lf(V,,(F))+i', /i"(F)<S(V, (F))+r",
Vr(F)={xeX}: tninp1 (x, z)<r), r>0, a pt () X.
zeF

[85],
, <-
X (. .
) ,

(.)<
(4.7)
, . . >0 X,
(\)^.
(4.8)
(4.8) X, (4.7) ,
(ji(X) = \).
4.6. , . 4.4
7(7) / (2) ,
{}, =1, 2, ...,
:
lim ()=()
-*


, '
: ft(Ar)=0.

. , , [4, . 367].

4.7. v v
=(, Y, ):
=sup inUKQi, ), ii=inf supK(x, v).

(4.9)

. . 4.4 (4.9)
,
D=max min(, ), i;=min maxK(x, v).

yeY

yeY

(4.10)

. {, ) ,
. 4.3 / X
K(M,y) = jH(x,y)dfi(.x)
X

. Y , (, )
.
79


,
minK(p.,y)^v-lln.

X (
. 4.5), {/^}^. ,
.
{n}%L\ 0.
lim KQim ) = ton j H(x, y)dnn () = J #(, y)dfi0 ()=(0, ), yeY.
-

(0, ) v yeY.

minK(p,0, ; ) > 0X .
, inf sup (4.9)
min max.
4.8. . 4.4.
. X Y ,
(1/)-
={\, ..,, ,}, X, Yn={y\, ..., yin), Y a Y,
Y. ,
yeY ? \ Y,
Pl(x,

xf)<-, p2(y,yj)<-,

(4.11)

pt(), 2(') Y.

={$,
?,=(?, yj), ?, y)eYn.

(4.12)

0
p = (ifi,..., ?), t={xnb ..., TJJ 1 2
(. . 6.1 . I).
(, ) Y
, , . .
>0 5>0,
^, X)<5, 2{, /)<<5,

80

\(,)-(,',)\<8.
(4.13)
_ , 1/<8,
X
lxn{F)=

"

(414)

{IxJeF, "}

F X.

PzC^' )?)<^ (4.4), (4.5) (4.13)


\H{x,y)-H{x,yl)\<s,
\K(fin,y)-K<jimy])\<8.

, ye Y (Y(1/)- )
(,)>-.

(4.16)

min K(jx, ) ( . 4.7),

v>6-e.
,
< + .

(4.17)
(4.18)

(4.17) (4.18)
v > v 2.
. 2.2 . I v^v .
>0, "
= ;
(4.19)
. 4.7 (4.19) (. .
2.1).
4.9. .
v=\im9n,

(4.20)

0=v(A) (4.12).
4.10. . 4.4 ,

. , .
81

. =(, Y, ),
X, Y ,
, > 0 ^.-
.
(. 4.8)
. 4.4. ,
,
(4.12), (4.14) .
ve 2 :
v.(G)=

?,

(4.21)

{J^eG.^e Y)

f"=(Ti, ..., ^
2 .

D,= n t ; = % v J ,

(4.22)

(-1 ) - \

(, v) (ji, v) .
(4.16) v ,
>0 ,
{, v)-e<en<K(ji, )+
(4.23)
yeY. , , v,
Y ( , (1/) X Y),
(. . 3.4).
4.11. . 4.4 4.10,
,

> 0 - ,
,
. ,
(. 1.3)
.
4.12. ,
.

[66].
[50, 75, 90].
,
.
82

10. ( ,
[67]). ={,
Y, ), = =[0, 1],
1, <<+1/2,
0, = x=x+\j2,
1, < x+\j2<y.

=
,
sup inf , v) = 1/3; inf sup , v)=3/7.
/

=+1/2.
(4.24)

1 [0,1 1].
([0, 1/2))^1/>

=1. ([0, /2))> />


8>0,
1
>1

1
V- (> 1~^]) /> = 12 -

inf (, v)^K(v,

yj^l/l,

.

, , ({0}) = ^ ({ 1 / 2 })=^
1
({1}) = / 3 , [0, 1]
J H(x, ()=1/3[(0, )+(\/2, ) + 1, )]>1/3.

, (4.24).
v - [0, 1].
vflO, 1))>3/7, ,= 1. v ([0, 1))<3/7, v({l})>4/7,
=0, v([0, 1 / 2 ))<l/7; v([0,
1
1))> 1/7, <5>0 , v([0, 1 / 2 ^])> 1/7,
xv= 1/2(5. ,
sup , ):> , V)>3/7.

, v ,
v({l/4}) = l/7, v({l/2}) = 2/7, v({l})=4/7,
[0, 1]
](,)\()=1[{,

1/4)+2(, 1/2)+4(, 1)]<3/7.

, (4.24).
83

5.

4


.
,
.
.
5.1. . XcR", YCR" ,
Y , H:Xx.Y-*Rl
yeY
. (, Y, )
( ).
1.
. XcR, YcR" ,
X ,
Y,
=(, Y, )
( ).
XcR, YcR" ,
(, )
,
(, Y, ) -
(- ).
.
.
. =(, Y, ) .
2 ,

==minmax#(jc, ).

(5.1)

. X Y (
R R"),
, Y, . 4.4
v /*, v*. ,

Y [85].
v"
, v*. v"
*, ..., yfy, \, ..., \\.

84

K(x, v")= 1{, ?)>(, "),

(5.2)

y"=Yirljyl>i- - (5.2)
j-i

( ,
{"}),
(, v*)^H(x, ), ,
(5.3)
{"}. (5.3)
. 4.2
\(, v*)^maxH(x, ).
X

(5.4)

(5.4) .

v=maxK(x, v*)>ma&H(x, y)^min ma.xK(x, v)=,


X

. , max#(x, y)=maxK(x, v*)=v


_

. 3.5 , 2.
(5.1). "yeY
2,
v=maxH(x, y)^min max#(x, ).

,
=min (, v)<min maxH(x, ).
v

, (5.1).
5.2. , (: -, Y Rn, Y
, , (0, 1)

< (1 + 0 ~ % ) < *9 (1> + 0 - 1 ) 9 (); \ Y, yt .
. =(, Y,H)
. 2
, .
. *
U (p(y)=K(ji*, ) v .
2,
(.4.2).
85

yeY K(ji*, y)^v,


()=min ()=v.
yeY

<() , (0, 1)

{, + (1 -))=J,

1 + (1 - % 2 ) * (*)<

<XiH(x,yl)dfx*(x) + (l-X)^H(x,y2)dfi*(x)

= (1) + (1-)(2).
(5.5)
(5.5) , ()
. ,
() . 5.1,
.
5.3. ,
. 5.1 5.2 - .
. = (, Y, ), X FT, " .
v
w=max min#(.x, ),
*

(5.6)

*. max min
(5.6), 1. , ,
(, ) yeY,
1 .
. =(, Y, ), X<zFT, Y a R" -
. v
v=mmmaxH(x,

y)=max min#(;e, ).

(5.7)

(*, *)
, * X, * Y 1 2,
(5.7).
(, ) () ()
yeY (), 1 (2)
, .
5.4. 1
=(, Y, ).
. =(, Y, ), R" 1
86

* ,
( + 1)- X.

, [63, . 210; 3, . 107]*.
( ). + 1
R , . ,
+ 1 , ,
.

,
.
(, ) Y
X Rm, Y R". '= ... X
X.
</>: X' X-^R1:
q>(xv ..., )=( ).
. ((,..., , ) X'xY.
. (, )
Y, .
8>0 5>0 , (, )<5,
(1> )< \(, y^-Hfx, 2)\<, (),
2() " .

\<(1 ..., yj-<p(xlt ..., , 2)\ =


= |#( J-max ( y2)\ = \H(xh, j ^ ) - # ( * , , , 2)},

H(xh, yl) = maxH(xi, J, #(*, y^maxHixt,

y2).

p x (3c,, xt)<8 i= 1,..., r, p2{yv y2)<b ( ^>(1,


),
0^H(xti, yx)-H(xi2, j> 2 )<# (xfl, )-{^
2)<.
H(xit, ^^^^,

2).

. Y=(X, Y, H), Y R"


, ,
: ., ., . . ., 1968.
87

v
v=min (, )= max

xt

min max H(xh ),

Jt n+ i

(5.8)

1| + 1

ye F, xteX, i'=l, ..., n+l.


.
6= max
*i

min max H(xt, y).

*+1

Ki< +I

min max H(xt, y)^mitx maxH(x, y)=v y

1<+1

(xl5 ..., x+i)eX" ,


0<.
(5.9)
xteX,
i = l , ...,+1,
(xhyHe,yeY,
i = l , ..., +1.
(5.10)
, (5.10) .
,
0>min max H(xhy)=

1<-

max

H(Xi,y)^H(xhy),i=l,n+l.

+1

, (5.10).
, (5.10) xieX,
i'=l,2, ..., +1.

Dx={y:H(x,y)<6}.
{, ) ,
Dx . {Dx}
R", ,
(5.10) ,
(+ 1)- {Dx} .
0 Y,
D . . ,
(,)<0
(5.11)
. , . (5.9) (5.11)
88


0<=min max#(jc, y)^maxH(x,

j 0 )<S,

. . <. (5.8).
.
.
v= max

min max {)=. max H(xb y)=

,, ..., +1

1<;< + 1

1^/<+1

+1

=min max #(,> j)71

(5-12)

'=1

15 ..., +, ,
(5.8),
+1

= ( ..., +1)+1, .^, J] ,= 1.

(5.13)


(, y)=t ** ), * Y, ,
, (5.13).
(, ) , ,
Y FC, R"
. . 5.3 (5.12)
+1

+1

=min max H(xh /),= min H ( ).

i-l

(5.14)

i-l

(5.8) (5.14) * * Y,

+ 1

;-|

.

2 = (, Y, ).
. = {, Y, ), X a Rm 2
v* ,
(+1)- Y.

.
5.5. ,
.
89

. =(, Y, ), X a jf, Y " .


v
w=min #(:, ).

1 /0
, (+ 1)-
X. 0,
min max H{x, ), 2. ,

, (, )
, 2
.
11. 1 (. . 1.2).
5'1 = 5' 2 =5 S
R.
(, )=(, y),xeS,yeS, ()
R2,
, a S .
. 5.5 v
=min maxp(x, ).
yeS

(5.15)

xeS

min max (5.15), , v=R (. 8 . 2.6).


yQeS,
/>(, ), S (. .
xeS

).
2 (). , 1 (
) ,

S.
S
0
1 1/2
S.
/0, 0
, (, y0)^K(pi0, y0)^K(jx0, ) , yeS,
, (0, y0)=RI2 + R/2 = R.
, (, yo)=p(0, x)^R (0, y)=p(xv y)/2 + p(x2,
y)/2^R, 12
S. /0 0
.
5.6. =(, Y, ),
90

X=Y=[0, 1], . . .
. 5.5 ,
2
}>[0, 1] . 1 ,
,
v = min max (, ).

(5.16)

>(0, 1] *[0, 1]

{} [0, 1] 1
(. 4.2)
H(x,yo)=v,xe[0,
1],
(5.17)
0 2.
1, (5.17),
.
/ , . . .
2 0 = [0, 1],
(5.16).
' (, )
( =0 =1
).
. 0 2
,
0>0, ?
1,
'(!,)^0.
(5.18)
0<1,
" 1,
(,)>0.
(5.19)
. (5.18). (
.) , :
/
(, )>0, . . (, ) *
. , ()>0 0()>,
^), 1], ()>0 >0,

(,)<(,
0)-().
,
()/2 5()>0,
()>>0
(, )<(, )-()12<(, )-()/2 =
=(, 0)-()/2
, , \xx\<S(x).
91

,
()-.
().
,
( )
(, )4:(, 0)-/2,
0-()<<0.
(i0 /.
0,
, ,
(, y)^KQi0, y 0 )-e/2=i>-e/2,
0.
.
, ,
2,av .
:
1) =1, 1
', (5.18);
2) =0, 1
", (5.19);
3) 0<<1, 1
,
? ", (5.18), (5.19), 1 ,
[0, 1].
; (1, 0) + (1 - ) {", 0)=0.
(5.20)
. 0=1-
" 1, (5.18).
(', ) ,
[0, 1], =\ .
,
# ( \ 0(', )
(5.21)
[0, 1]. , (5.17) ,
(, 0)^(; 0)
(5.22)

[0, 1]. (5.21), (5.22) ,


(1, 0) .
=0 . 3.
0<>>0<1, !
", (5.18), (5.19) .

q>(fi)='yV, y0)Hl-P)H;(x", 0).


(5.18), (5.19) , <(0)>0, <(1)<0. q>(fj)
, <[0, 1], <() = 0.
92

0 1,
' "
1 .
(0, )={!, )+(1-)(", )
. =0

K'y(ji0, )=;(', 0)+ -)#;(*", )=.

, 0 (0, ) .
, (5.17),
(> yo)<K(fi0, ),
(- )=(, y0)=v=maxH(x,

y0)^H(x,

0)

[0, 1] [0, I],


0 0.
5.7. . 5.6
, .
12.
(, )=()2.
,
. , v
v= 1/4, 2
0= 1/2, /
1/2 0 1 [0, 1]. ,
.
5.6.
, 2(, )/2 = 2>0,
, 2
, ( . 5.5).
2.
<\1,
(
>>>1/2.
X
, (5.16)

-*-{"-*

=min< min (1 )2,

min y2>.

0=1/2
1/4. = 1/4, 0 = 1/2
2.
1. ,
0<0<1 (0=1/2).
1.
(5.17) (1/2)2 = 1/4.
J C 1 = 0 H X 2 = 1 , T . . 1
[0, 1].
93


, Jo)=l >0, '(, 2)=-1<0.
(5.20) . 21 = 0,
=1/2. , 1
0 1 1/2.
5.8. ,
. 5.6 .
.
,
, 0 1, av
. :
1) JC0= 1, 2
',
'(,)>0;
(5.23)
2) 0 = 0, 2
",
H'x(xo,y"H0;
(5.24)
3) 0< 0 < 1, 2
,
' ", (5.23), (5.24), /? 1 /?.
/?[0, 1]

', /)+0-(*> )=.


6.


,
.
5,
.
. 4.4.
6.1. 13. ( .)
1 . 1.2,
St = S2 = S S .
S R ,
R>r.
, 1 2

( 2) ( 1)
S. fi* ( 1) v* (
2). (
)
94

2 2

y/R2+r2-2Rrcos(<p-\l/)d<pdij,=

K(ji*, v*)=-^ |

4j>

+ r2-2Rrcos{ dt, = (, ),

(6.1)

\// q> 1 2
. 1
, , ( 2
v*)
2

y/r2 +

(,*)=(,)=-

p2-2prcostdt

r^p^R q>(p)=p2 + r22prcos<j;


. , (p(p)^q>(R) r^p^R. (,
)^(, R). 1
(, R).
(*, ), yeS, p >
.
2

K(M*,y)=0(p,R)=-

[ JR2 + p2-2Rpcos{</{,
2n J

r^p^Rt

R (, ) O^p^R.
, ,

= 0, > 0 , 0<<.

(, R) ,
, (, R) <(, R)
K(x,v*HK(M*,v*HK(p.*,y)
, G S. , * v*
, v v = K(ji*, v*), (*, v*)
(6.1). , S
R ( =), 4R\n.
6.2. 14. ,
2 = {yt, 2}, eS,y2eS,& 1,

2, xeS. 1
min 2 (x, yt). ,
i-l, 2

95

S R
( ): S=S(0,R).
(, ) = 2 + 24/,
, [, R].
(, ).
1. (, R) ( )

r0 = 2R/n.
. 2/2=2>0. ,
(, ), re [, R] ,
(,)
or

- = 2

4R

(6.2)

. , (6.2)
r0=2R/n . (,
R) 0 .
.
2. (0, )
p0=R.
. (, )
.
0 R.
(0, )-( 0 , 0)= + 2 -4 /- =
=R2-4/n(2Rln)R=R2 ( 2 -8)/ 2 >0.
.
1, 2 , (r0, R)
:
( 0 ,)<( 0 ,)<(,).
. :
2 yt
S(0, r0) 0 ( 1 = 2),
1
5(0, R). (0, R).
.
* v* 1 2 .
/ *, 2
y={ylt 2), yi=(riCOS(pi, r,sin<p;), i = l, 2.
, ^=2- ri + r2,
q> <Pi=(p2. 1
2

{*,)=~ \ [R2 +2-2Rr cos (-() =


2 J
96

R2 + r2^R2 + r2 () = (, ).

(6.3)

1 (*, )^(0, ).
, 1 2.
.
, ,
(
\ 2 S(0, R)). ,
yt
(rjCoscpi, r,sin 93,). (. 6)

2

min [R2 + rf 2RriCos(}l/ q)d\chl/ =

(*,)- :

~2 J

[R2 + r\- 2Rr2 cos ( - 2)] # +

2-0

+ 2-

[R2 + \ -2Rrt cos ( - (pi)] .

^i(<?) = [(2 + 22)-2Rr2sinpcos(p]/n,


-p^cp^p;
R2
F2(<?) = K + )(n-P) + 2Rrt sinpcos\/,
^(^2~.
Fl F2 0 2

, 0</?</2 F[ () = - Rr2sin P sincp,

. 6

. 7
97

F'2((p)= Rr l sin /? sin q>, 0


F. F2 (F[ () < 0 < (/?, 0), F[ () > 0 (0,
/?); , '2(()<0 (/?, ), F'2((p)>0 (, 2 /J)).
,
^(^*,>;) = ' 1 ( 2 )+^ 2 ( 1 )^, 1 (0)+^ 2 () =

-if ( + | - 2 cos )(1/ +


2

2ir-0

+(JR2 + rf-2 J Rr 1 cos(^- m ))#,


(6.4)
2 J
. . 1 2 yl=( rl5 0)
^ 2 = {2, 0} ,

U=(r,cos<Pi, rjSinpj), 1 = 1, 2.
, _ >>2 5(0, R)
2. 2 ,
, _ (. 7).
, >! = (.& cos , 0), j>2=(Rcosa-|-r, 0).

a

i/r(a, r)= [( cos ^ - cos a - ) 2 + 2 sin2 ]4 +


2 J
2-

[(i?cos^-J?cosa+f) 2 + i? 2 sin 2 ^]# =

-iW-

2Rcos\l/(Rcosa + r) + (Rcosa+r)z]dil/+

a
2ff-ct

+
2 J

[i? 2 -2J?cos^(i?cosa-r)+CRcosa-r) 2 ]#=

= - {[i?2 + (i?cosa + r) 2 ]a-2i?sina(i?cosa + r) +


n

+[.R2 + (i?cosa-r) 2 ](7c-a)4-2i?sinax(J?cosa-r)}.


98

, (, )
= /2.
/ = {2Rsinu[(it2a)r nRcos ]}/,
(, )/<0, sin a > ,
r(n 2a) nRcosa<0 ( <0).
(/2, )/ = 0.
(, )/8
, =/2. . ai
(0, /2). <=1
G(a) = (n2a)rnRcosa. ,
G(a,) = G(rc/2) = 0.
, G(a)>0 ae(a 1 , /2).
G(a) (G"(a) = nRcosa>0). (,
)/<0 ae(0, /2) (/2, )/=0. ,
(, ) =/2: (,
)^(/2, ). ,
(*, )=(, )^(/2, ) = (, )>(0, R).
(6.5)
(6.3) (6.5) ,
={^, 2}
K(n*,y)>Q>(r0,R).
(6.6)
2 v*, 1
=(&, ). 1

(, v*)= \2 + 1-20${-<),
2 J

In

p2+r% + 2pr0costy-(p)]d<p=

min(p2 + r -

-2pr0cos, p2 + rl+2pr0cos)dl;=Q>(r0, p)
2
*(,*)=( 0 ,( 0 ,).
(6.7)
(6.6) (6.7) , .* v*
, (0, R) .
.
6.3. 15. 2 = {yv
-, ), yteS, i= 1, ..., , 1
xeS. 1 min (, ).
1, ...,

99

, S [1, 1].
. v* 2
:
4/

1 +2/-1 ,

1 = 0 , 1, ...,

4/

1_

-\>,

1 = , 1, .., -\

-\

* 1
-, /=0, 1, ...,2-1

-\

1/(2/). 1/(2/ 1).


. * v*
1 2 ,
. :
, 2-2.-1 2m-2i+l"|
. ,
li=\,
, i = l , 2, ..., 2 m - 1 .
, {, v*)<l/(2m1) [ 1, 1].
, xel,
(, v*)=- min

2m4Jl
2m-l

1 /

2m-2j-l\

2\

2m-\

=-[x

-2m+4i+l

+-mm

2m-l

1 /2m-2/+l

+/

2 \

2/w-l

x =

2w-l

(6.8)

1 *,
2 ={1, .., ).

22/1

,=-

2-1

=0, 1,

...,-\.

2-1

{*, 3>)= min p(x / ,y j )~ =


= " S

(*->' ^ ) + m i Q P(*V-2. |) >


1

>
2

2-1

.
2-1

(6.8), (6.9) .
100

(6.9)

7.

, ,

(. . 4.12).

.
.
7.1.
(. 4.5 . 1.2).

(, ) =.

\1/(, ), <,
(), =,
(, ), >,

(, ) 0 < < ^ < 1 ,


( [0, 1], (, )
0<j><;c< 1. , =(, Y, ),
==[0, 1], (7.1),
*, v* 1 2 . ,
, /*, v*
,
/* () g* (x) .

/ ( g), .
.
/ 1. [0, 1]
K(f, ) = ] (, ()+\(, yV(x)dx.

(7.2)

, / g
1 2. 0,
g(yo)>0
(7.3)
( g),
Ktf, y0)=v,
(7.4)
v . (7.3) ,
<5>0 , : \0\<5, (7.3)
. ,
(7.4), . . K(f, y)=v. ,
dK(f, )/=0.
(7.5)
101

(7.5)
[(, )-(, )() = ] *> y(*)dx+

+ R ( * , y)f(x)dx, yeS(y0, 8).

(7.6)

, (7.6)
/
7.2. 16. ,
5 . 1.2. (, )
(7.1),
ij/(x,y)=x-y+xy;
(7.7)
(,)=--;
(7.8)
() = 0.
(7.9)
, ,
(, )=(,) ( ).
, . 9.2 . 1, ,
v , , ,
( )
.
: ,(,)= - 1 +; (, )= - 1 -;
(,)-(,)=-22
(7.6)
-22

= ] (-l)f(x)dx-\

(x+ l)f(x)dx.

(7.10)

/
,
(, /?) : [0, 1] ( (, /?) J). (7.10)
:
-2

= [ (x-\)f(x)dx-l

(x+ l)f(x)dx.

(7.11)

(7.11) ,

-4yf-2y2f =
(y-l)f+(y+l)f

J*r=-3/Xy*0).
(7.12)
(7.12),
f<y) = yy-\
(7.13)
.
102

, /? . ,
.
/,
Wy) = Q
(7.14)
(a, /?).
/?< 1. K(f, ) , (7.14)
K(f, /0=0. ,

J (x-p+Px)f(x)dx=0.
(7.15)

/?< 1 (7.15)
K(f, 1) = J (-1

+x)f(x)dx<0,

/ , fi= 1
K(f, 1)=0. , (7.13) (7.15) /?=1,
1

f2x-l ,

j <=,

7^0.


2 -4+1=0.
(7.16)
(7.16), =1 =1/3,
. , = 1/3.
/()

\ f(y)dy=y J r 3 efy=l,
1/3

1/3

= 1/4.
, 5 . 1.2:
v = 0, / g
( )
} = 50, 3 < 1 / 3 '
(1/(4 ), >1
1/3.
7.3. 17. (.
4 . 1.2) pY ()= 2 ()=.
(, ) (7.1),
(,)=2-1;
(7.17)
9(,) = 1~2;
(7.18)
<() = 0.
(7.19)
)

, v = 0,
.
;*=>>* = 1/2. ,
#(1/2, )=6 (1/2, ) = 1 - 2 > , < 1/2,
(1/2, )= (1/2) = 0, = 1/2,
(1/2, )=(112, )=0, >1/2.

,
.
,
(. [6, 3, 23]).
8.


, . 1.2.
,
.
8.1. 18. ( ).
(. 2 . 1.1),
(, )
j l , | * - , | < / , /(0, 1),
(
( .
, /> 1/2 1 :
* = 1/2 ,
(*, )=(1/2, )=1, \-1/2|^ 1/2^/_ [0,
1]. , /< 1/2. , =1
<1, x=l I
> 11. ,
,)=(1,)=\1[>>
( ,
<1,

,)=\1[>1+]'
( .
, <1: (, )^(1, ) [0, 1].

[\-21, 1],
(,)-.)=(\-1,)=!}
. ., 1
[ ,
104

[1 I, 1],
H(x,y)=Sn

\\ [1, 1],

.
, [1 /, 1] (, )^(1 /, ) >>[0, 1].
* ).
l=xl<x2<...<xm=l
I ,
21. *
\\.
, [0, 1] /-
. ,
(*,)>11.
(8.2)
v* 2,
0=1<2<-.<=1,

21. , ,
, /-
. ,
(, v*)<l/.
(8.3)
*, v* , =,
1/ , *, v*
.
, .

J 1/(2/), 1/(2/) ,
(Jl/(2/)]+l .
[] .
xt=l+~

(i-1), i=\, 2, ..., ,

(8.5)

21,

yj=:

7=1,2,

...,R,

(8.6)

21. , 1/ ,
*, v*
, (8.5), (8.6).
8.2. 19.
, 1 () s
*!, .., xs, ,[0, 1], i = l , ..., s, 2 ()
105

/ , 1].
2 , je{\, ..., s),
\ Xj\^l, />0. (
1) :

1, min

\^1,
(8.7)

, 1 1 ...,
Xi=l+{\2l)(i\)l{n \), 1</^,
fi* . ,
, ] [0, 1] (. .
) . , 1,
5-
{3CJ}. s^n, , \
Xj, 1 [0, 1] 2/
, ,
[0,1] min \xjj>|</, . .
. , s<n.
^-
{,} Q.

(*, y)=-LH(xh, ...,~Xi-) (\>

*-.

, , _
/- (if {,}.
, 1
xt /- . ,
, CZ\.
, 2 v*
, ]
x=(xv ..., xs).
"

K(xv ..., xs; v*)= H(xu ..., xs; yj)~^-.


, sin *, v*
.
.
106

8.3. 20. ( ). (.
3 . 1.2). (, )
1, ,
(8.8)
,

={1 ..., , s Ms= \J S(xj, ); S(XJ, r) Xj. 1


{},
s ... CQ, . . fl=C.
2
{v}, .
(p.*, v*). v*
, . . ,

L(a)
* = -2,
4nR

(8.9)

L(a) () .
, 5, ,
=( 2,..., ),

L{Mx)=Y.L(S{xj,r)),

(8.10)

J-i

( S(xp r) ).
, . *
.
z,
, ( tp>0 ),
z.
z ,
. . 1/(42). / .
,
z z7 . , ,
!.
[0, 2]
<\ b
> .
.

x!v x!2, ..., x"s,
*, : / ,,..., , ...,
~, S(xj, ), .
*, , , . .
*. ,
107

. ={}
. ,
( ), L (),

L{Mx)=HJ(y,io)dydy*,
(8.11)

J (, ) ,
.
f J J(y, co)dydii*= J J J(y, co)dy*dy.

(8.12)

* \ J [, >)*,
, .
(8.11), (8.12)
L{MX)
*(*>'))
J
= J- ~' . D2

(8.13)
4nR2
4nR2
K(ji, v)

6 {} ve{v}.
,
(, v)=J (, y)<h= J =( 6 / ),

KQi, )= J (, =[ , '(),



. =( ..., ,) (8.9)
(8.13)
L(MX)
{, v*)

42

lL(S(xj,r))
<*=*

| 1 - / 1 - ( - ) ),
2\
V W )

42

L(S(xj, r))
KQi*,y) = i~l

AnR2
2
L{S{xj, ) ) = 2 ( - ^ 2 - 2 ) .
K(ji*, )~^{, v*)
., : . .
. ., 1983.
108

^'\{ -$)

.
8.4. , , 2
1

^ ^ ^ U S(X/,r)\
j-i

2 . ,
. * 1 .
v* 2 *
( 2
yeQ. , v* ,
( )

( [0, 2]).
(, v), (,)
L(Y\)MX).
)={, v*)=K0i, v*)

L{Y)L{MJ
.
22

- ,
K(fl*, V*) = *5
(R-y/tf-t3).

1. . 1
Ci
, tx>, 2>,.... >0,
1 > 2 >...> . 1 Jc=(ft
(),

ii=A, i , Q.
( 2) . 2
y=(Vi, > >)>

t\i=B, , Cj.
, / ,
, .
.
2.
(,)=-1/-\12.
, (1/2, 1/3) .
3. ,
H(x,y)=siga(x-y)
.
4 ,
109

-1/ 2 , x>y,
H(x, y)- = < 0,

x=y,

1/, x<y

(0, 0).
5. ,
(, )*=()2 .
6. ,
+,
,

<

1+

1 >

?, ,
1

>

"*0-

1/2+, \, >=0,
2,

=1, =0

( >>,), , = 1 e,yt=e, -.
?
7. , 6
. 1.2.
8. 1
(, ) (F(x), G(y)) (FuG ), :
) (, y)=(x+y)/(4xy), F(x)=x*, G(y)=>>2;
) H(x,y) = \x-y\(l-\x-y\),
F(x) = x, G(y)=y;
) H(x, y)={x-y)2, F(x) = l/2/ 0 (x)+l/2/ 1 (x),
G(y)=Im{x),
/jt(x) .
9. . .
2 ,
, [0, 1]. 1
Q,
e ( 0 = e=const, <, = .
Q, ,
. (, ) 1 , . .
(, y)=Ti(yeQ). g{y) 2
>>[0, 1]. .
10. . 5.4.
11. (. 1.3 . 1).
1 , [0, 1]
(1-) . 2 ., [0,
1] (1 ) ,
1/2.
,
, , .
(, ) . ,
.
. 10 . 4.12.
12. ,
F*(x)=Ii/2(x), G*(y)=l/2I0(y) + l/2I2(y)
1 2 .

13. ,
, (
), , . . (, ) = (, ).
14.
(, )=3 3+3.
15. ,
(, )=

y/l-^/y2,

[0, xj, \0, ], >0,

2 .
> 0. 1.
16. , 11 . 5.5
(, )=(, ), xeS(0, l), yeS(0, l),
iS(0, /) 0 /, (#) R2,
.
17. , . 1
18. , <: [, -/? ,
(, fS). /1 (, /J)
< , . .
lim <p(x)^<p(&)
-*

( -*).
19. =(, Y, ), X=Y=[0, 1]
(, ): [0, \]-*1. , 2
, 8>0 -
. 1 . 5.6.
. . 18
r 0 = (JT, Y, 0),

^
( ^ ^
I lim (, ), =0 =\.
20. , . 1.
21. (.
1 . 1.2), Sl=S2 S, S
.
) , R, R
S(0, R), 5, 2
S (, ).
) , 1

S S (, R) ( xt 2 ),
x!v x"2, '3, ,
.
22. ,
. 21, , 2 S,
S.
(,)=-

2(,,

\
() R2.
23. / [1, 1], . . =(,, ...
..., ,, ,[ 1, 1], /=1, ..., . 2
111

[1, 1], . . = (\ ..., ri), ^ [ 1 , 1],'=1, 2,


..., . (, )
(, y) = l/2 I max min |f,fy|+max min |,t\j\ J.
^

'

'

.
24. . 8.3, ,
2 = { ..., ) , 1, ,
5 x=(Xi, ..., xs) .
(, )-{\=\{,}\

:yieS(Xj, );=1, ..., },

5 (xj, ) Xj ;
( |{,-}| {})- >>,-
, yteS{xj,

) Xj. ,

(, ).
.

III

1.

1.1.
, . . ,
.

, ,
. ,
,
. ,
, . ,
, ,
( ),
( ),
.
,
.
,
(. 1 5),
,
(. 6 8)
(. 9 11). .
1.2. .
r=(N, {Xt}leN, {Ht}leN),
N={1, 2, ..., ) , Xt
i, Hi i,

= Y[ Xt
( ), .
.

xt /=1, 2, ..., ,

=(1 ..., ), xteXt.


i , (). .
X, ,
.
1.3. ,
, . ,

=( 2, 2), Xt ,

, 2
, a. H1:XlxX2->Rl,
2: X2-*Rl
1 2 .
. ,
1, 2,
..., 1, 2, ..., ,

4 1 - &\

Ht=A =

2==
-.\"'_

_ * m l " "&mn

/? ,
12 (i,j), ieM,jeN, M= {1,..., m},
#={1,...,}.

. i ,
( ) j .
1 = ( ^, 2
#,-#2 (,, ]).
,
( ) (, ),
( fiij), '=1, 2, ..., ; j=\, 2, ..., . ,
An , {, ).
, 1(,
)=2 (, ) 2,
, .
, =^,
, . 1.
1.4. 1. ( .)

1

_ 01

( -
(

114

(4,1)

02 _

(0 0)

'

' * - 2 | ( 0 , 0) (1,4)

,
[44] . ( 1) ( 2)
: ( 1; ^)
(<2, /J2). (a l5 /J2) ( 2 , /?t),
. ,
. ,
( ) .
2. ( [10] J

.
(1- /^) (2- 2 /?2).
,
, ,
.

<2[_(2, 1-)
(0, 0)
( ,
).
3. ( /io [10] J
X,
: ^,={0, 1} ( : 0
, 1 ).
:
a(t) ,= 1,
Hi(xu

..., ;)=

b(t) , = 0,

/=
'J-I

,
. 8.
a(t) b{i) ,
, 1, tv
,
,

.
1 /0,
(
),

.

:
/

' / (1)

' /
/ /
(0)
1(0) / /

/ 1 1

1 1
1 1

t t,

1 't

. 8
115

4. ( ~
[52]J ,
() ,
>0. , () i- , ,.
=( 2, ..., )
, i-ro
hi{xu x2, ..., ),
()
6<, . .

, '-
gt(xlt x2
).
, ,

xt>0, . .
i-l

gi(xt, x2,..., xa)<h,(xv x2,..., ).



= ( # , {,},, {Ht}leN),

(1 ..., ), Xi^d,
1-1

" i V * l > *2> " ' ^ ) =

i-l

,=[0, ], 0<,<, ,=, N={1, 2

}.

.
5. (-
[52]J
, ,
.
ft,
.

116

q= ,

i=\, 2, ..., n, 0<*,<<!;.

1-

< Y, c&i
() .
, ,
. ,
i
, ,, Q
, 5,>0.
/ ()
:, Xt=[0, ].

h,(xlt x2, ..., ), q^d,

ft,(*i> 2, ..., x)-s{, q>V,


A,(xl5 x2, ..., )
, .
2.

2.1. , , ( , . .
, ).

.
.
,

.
,
,
.
, /- , ,
, {},
f-ro ,
. ,
,
,
,
. . 117


. , ,
,
.
{, ..., *;_!, ,, xi+i, ..., )
, ,- i. ,
, ,- i
\. ( 1; ..., ,_], xj,
Xi+u > ), (x||xj)- ,
, xj , (x||xj)=x.
. x*=(xf, ..., xf, ..., *)
, x^XjU i=l,....

,(*)^,(*||;).
(2.1)
6. 3 . 1.4.
,
t0^t*-l/n, t* + l/n^tu

(2.2)

f*=(l/n) Y, - (2.2) ,
7-1


, ,
.
,
t=(l/ri) Xj, te{t0, tj], 5 ,
0 1. ,
8 , b(t) = a(t)<a(t+8),
,
.
,
1 0,
a (t+8)<b(t+5). ,
(1/) xj
[*0, hi
, ,
- (, - )
1 0, t8<t0.
b(t8)<a(t~ 8)

1.

1/ Y, XJ [/0, /J.
2.2. ,
i *,
( (2.1)
xt xf
, ,
*). ,
,
JC*, TO
.
. xfeXj ,
.
r = (Z l5 2, ?)
(*, *) ,
, (, y*HH, (*, *), 2(*, 2(*, *)
(2.3)
xeXt uyeY2.
, ( )- (, ) (*, /*)
,
<./<!/, &></?*/

(2-4)

ieM jeN. ,
1 (<19 /?) (2, /?2),
2 (^, fl2) (2, fix), = (1, , )
(*, y*)eXt 2 ,
(, *(*, *)^(*, ), 2.

.
I0'.
( ),
. (,
, ,
, .)
2. (, y)eZ(T), (JC', / ) e Z ( r )
, a v ,
V,y)eZ(T),(x,/)eZ<r);
(2.5)
v=H(x, y)=H(x', y') = H(x, / ) = # ( * ' , ).
(2.6)
3.
.
119

4. , 1 2
, (, y)eZ () , .
, .
7. (. 1 .
1.4). , (1;
/?) (<2, ft2)- 1- i, a 2-
2. (2.6),
. , ,
( /?), (<2, j82), (, /?2) (2, \)
, . . 2 (.
(2.5)).
1
2 , ,
, /?.
2. ,
,
1 .
, ,
(
).
1. , (<xl5
Pt). 2 (<2, /?2). ,
1 at, 2 /?2,
( (0, 0)).
1 2, (<2, fy
1. 2
(2, /?) .
, , (
) 1. (
2) (<2, /?2).

, 3.
- ,
.
, ,
1 4 .
,
. ,

.
=( ..., xh ..., ) x' = (jti, ..., x'j, ..., ')
, ", ,
',
, .

120

,
.
, :

? ,


.
,
i- JC*
, , ;(*)
, ,
,
.
f- .
, . .
.
2.3.
,

. S N
() x=(xt, ..., ) .
(\\') ,
xh ieS, x'ieXi, ieS.
, (x\\x's) , S,
xt JCJ. *
, (2.1) ,
, (*) > , (xf \\xs) ie S.
(2.7)
.
,
(2.7) (2.7)
ieS.
.
. * ,
S N xse J~[ X,
ieS

#,(*)> ,***!!**).
/65

(2.8)

ieS

(2.8)
S,
/,
121

.
.

,
.
.
8.

(5 5)

(
{ ) > '

> ~: L(10,0)

Pz
(0

'

10)

(1,1)}

(2, /?2) ( ),
(1, 1).
(al5 0 (5, 5),
. ,
.
. ,
,

.
2.4. 8
,
, ,
.
.
{()} = {(1 (), ..,,

())}, X=J\ Xi, . . -


-I
.
.
, ,

Hi (x)>Hi(x) ieNM
Htl)(x)> () i0eN.
, ,
X*.

, ,
JC .
[2],
, .
, ,
122

, , ,
( ) .
,

.

.
. ,
8 (2, "2) , .
(15 \), , ,
.
(at, p\), (2, /J2)
, , 7,
. .
9. (. 2 . 1.4).
(<2, /?,), (<15 /?2)
( (al5 /Q , ).
\
, , , ,
<2, /?2 ,
.
2 (fi2) ,
, . .
, .
,
(. 7).
2.5.
=(1> 2, 2). Z 1 , Z 2
1 2 ,
Zl = {(xt, Xa)l#i(*i> * 2 ) = SUP Hi(yi> )}'>

(2-9)

Z = {(xi, x2)\H2(x1, x2) = sup H2(xv y2)}

(2.10)

(, (2.9) (2.10) ).
. (1} 2)12 i- , a Hi i-, (
x2)eZ?
Hi=Hi(xl,x2)=
sup

Hi(yltyJ,

(2.11)

( y2)eZl

/=1, 2, /?*/.
/-
. 1 () 1
123

2 , Z 2 2 (
) xt 1. ,
, , 1
(2.11). , , i-ro ,
.
. Z(T) .
Z(T)=Z1f]Z2,
(2.12)
1
2
Z , Z (2.9), (2.10) 1,
2 .
. (xv jc2)eZ(T)
.
#i(*i x2)^:Hl(x1, 2), 2(1, '2)^2(1, 2)
x\eXl ~&x'2eX2.
# i (*i, 2)=sup (*i, 2);

(2.13)

2 (*i, x2)=sup H2 ( !2).

(2.14)

, ( x2)eZl (xlt x2)eZz, . . (xlt


x2)eZ1f]Z2.
(2.13), (2.14).
.
. , =(1, 2,
, 2) ,
( 2) 2,
^^,, 2), 1=1,2.
(2.15)
. =(, 2, 15 2)

(xt, x2), ( 2)
( ( 2), 2( 2))(, ( 2), ( 2%
(2.16)
.
. (2.12)
(zu z2)eZ(T)
Hl{z1,z2)^Hi,i=i,
2.
, . .
. (zlt z2)eX^ xX2,
x^Ht^H,(zlt
z2);
(2.17)
Hi(yt, y^H,^H,(zlt
z2),
(2.18)
124

/ I , 2. Ho (xl5 x2), ( ?) , .
(2.17), (2.18) ,
(2.16). .
,
(. 1.4) . 2.5,
.
3.

3.1. =( 2,
Hi). ,
, ,
.
.

.
,

. ,
X, ,
.
=(, {<}, {H,}leN)
(3.1)
.
, 1 /, .
nt
/, . .
Xh . /i,(x,)
, ,
{(.
/ Xh
ieN
(, . .
Ht(x). ,
x=(xlt ... )
, . .
/iW=/ii (xi) x 2 (2) ... n(x).
(3.2)
(3.2)

= J][ X 1-1

125

fit, 2, ..-, /V n=(jiv ..., )


.

,
.
2-
:
Ki(ji)=Yu ,()()= ... ,( ..,)
^-!

*6-*

/ix (xt) ... fi(x), ieN, x=(xx

).

(3.3)

|*;)= 1 -
xleXl

xj_ieXj^i

... <(\ *(**) (.4>


xJ+leXJ+l

k+)

fij j .
(3.4) $() x)eXj,

^)4(*;)=|/*;).
_
. T = (N, {Xt}ieN{K,}ieN), N
, Xt
, (3.3),
.
, i
Kj(ji\\xi)^a, [
}{.)^.
(3.3) (3.4) .
3.2. () (, )
Xif X2 1 2

*J

Xt = {x\xu=l, ^, },
X2={y\yw=l,y>0,yeR"},
= (1, ..., l)elf, w = (l,..., 1)", Kt
2 (, )

&i (, )=, 2(, )=, 2.
126

, (,
) (, ), . . (, ) =
={Xi, 2, 1} 2).
( )
/*={/|>0)
x(i, > m) 1, , =, ={\,
2, ..., ) . , Ny={j\nj>0}
={1,..., } 2 ( ) (, ). (, ),
, .
,
,
(. 7 . 2.2).
10. 1
. ,
= (^, 1 ),
0<^1 ,
Kt (x, /?) Kt (x, fl2), . .
, max min {, (, ,), , (, 2)} =min {, (, J8J, Kt (x, /J2)}.
X

/ =(1/5, 4/5)
4/5. 2
(4/5, 1/5),
/?2, (4/5, 16/5).
, 2 ,
, /?, 16/5
( 1 2 2,
.) , 2
, 0 = (4/5, 1/5),
1 , (16/5, 4/5),
2, (1/5, 4/5),
a t .
,
0 (al5 B2), (0, 0).
(, )
.
3.3. . *
,
i p.t

Ki(ji*\\piHKi(n*),i=l,...,n.
10,
127


.
11. (. 9 . 2.4)
: (1; /i2) (2,
/?!). .
,
(*, *):

= (1, 0), 2 = (0, 1) *=* = ((1-)1(2-), 1/(2-)).


,
JTi (!,>*)= + - = 1 - ,
2-

2-
2-

2-
28

, =(, 1)
=(*1 1 */)

^ (, *) = ^

(15 ) + (1 - (<2, >>*)= 1 - - ^ ,


2-

K2(x*,y)=r,K2(x*, fIJ+Q-riWtix*,

Pz)=l--^,
2-


, (, y*)=Kt (**, ), 2 (*, )=2 (*, *)
xeXt 2. (*, *)
. ,
. (*, *)
, (*, *)=[ 1
,1
)
2- 2sJ
() (1, 1)
(al5 Pi).
K(p*)={Ki(n*)}
. Vi=Ki(ji*) t>={,}. ,
v

, ,
,
, v
. ,
v, = K,{p*) i
128

*, *, = ^ - , ( /52) (, ,)
(1-, 2), (:*, j>*) ( 1
\

,1
2-

1
2EJ

(. 11).
3.4. = ( 2, 2)
, ^, X2czR", ,
,
,
- 2. v
1 w. 2 ,
i KJ(JI, v)
, . .
Ki(ji,v)=\ J ,{,(),
(3.5)
xtx,
. ,
(, v) (., )

*, v)= J #,(*,?) ,
K,(jt,y)=lHt(x,y)dii(x),i=l,2.
Xi

(, .)
,
T=(Xt, X,,
2), ^ = {/!), JT2 = {v}, a Kt 2 (3.5).
, (*,
v*) , ,
(2.3).
4.

4.1.


(. . 4.4 . II). ,

.

.
, -
(. . 4.12 . II).
129


.
,
[49].
. S R
, S S
: xeS, -*, (), -*, ().
x*eS, * (*).

. (, ) ()-&.
x*eXt * 2 1 2
, , (*, *)
.
. Xt 2
1 2 ,
12 .
,

-.^^^

{(*,.

Kiix1, j; 0 )=max ^ ( x , y0),

-(.0,0)^<(',')
Kz(x0, y')=max K2(x0, y),
. .
0 0 .
Kt 2
(, ) , , (0,
0) (0, 0)
^ 2. ,
{(, )}, ("0, yb)eXi. 2 {(? ')}, 0 4 ')(%,
) , . .
lim ("0, )=(0, \ In , ) = (', %
?
2 , (', ')(0, 0).
(*, y^eXj^xX^ (*, *)(*,
*), . .
(*, *)>, (, *), 2 (*, *)>2 (*, )
ye Y2. .
4.2.
2.
130


, [49].
. S R ,
. q> S ,
* , . . x*eS *=({*).

. =( 2, 2)
, X1(^Rm, X2aRn
, 1 2
. (, ) 2 (, )
XY 2, HY (, )
, 2{, )
.
(*, *).
.
= (, )12
q = (x,
y)eXixX2 .
(,)=1(,)+2(,).
, q*=(x*, *),

max

0(p,q*)=e(q*,q*).

, . qeX1x.X2
xX2, p=q, (, q)>6(q, q).

GP={q\e(p,q)>e(q,q)}.
( 2
), a Xt 2 ,
Gp . , ,
2 Gp.
2 ,
, XY x 2.
GPl, ..., GPk.
<Pj(q)=max.{0(pj, q)-9(q, q), 0}.
q>j(q) , G>.
q cpj
.
Xt x 2
:
131

</>() j

q>(q) = yj[1 (Pj(q). ^,


12 . ^)
, qeXt 2, ^(c[)=q, . .
?=(!/<? ())>?./j

,
0(q,q)=e(~Vcpj(q)Pj,q\
\) J
)
0(, q) q ,
,
e(q,q)>-^l<PjW(Pj,~q).
(4.1)
<()
, %)>0, 6(q, q)<d(pj, q), <pj(q)=,
<Pj(q)e(pj, q) = (pj(q)eQ, q). <pj(q)>0 j ,

0(5, 9)<-^. Z <PjG)0(py, q),
>(.)

(4.1).
, q*,
max 9(p, q*) = e(q*, q*).
,
(, *)+2(*, ,(**, *) + 2(*, *)
yeY2.
=* =*,
2 (*, )^2 (*, *), Ht (, *)^ {\ *),
xeXtH 2. .
,
( , )
, .
. =( 2, 2)
, HYu 2 Xv 2; 2
132


. (, v)
.
,

K,(ji, v)= J J H,(x, y)dv(x)dv(y), i = l, 2,
_

Xl

*2

Xl x X2
.



. ,

Hi () =]~[ X,
f-i

,

. ,
, {#(*)}, , ,
,
X
Kh i = l , 2, ..., . ,
.
5.

5.1. ,
.
. (/**, v*)
= (1, 2, 2) ,
, xeXt
2 :
^(x.v-X^Oi'.v*);
(5.1)
K2(n*,y)^K2Qi*,V*).
(5.2)
. ,
,
, (5.1), (5.2).

1 2 (5.1), (5.2).
( ) ,

(5.1), (5.2)
. (/)- (, )
133


, {, y*) = aty* ^**=, (x*, *);

(5.3)

2 (*, j)=x*l/^x*By* = K2 (x*, *),


(5.4)
ai(ff) () (), i= 1, ..., \ j= 1, ..., .
5.2. ,

(. . 7.6 . I).
.
. (, ) ()-
(, y)eZ(T)
.
^^^);
(5.5)
K2(x,j)=K2(x,y)
(5.6)
ieMx ujeNy, Mx(Ny)
().
. . 5.1
^^)
(5.7)
ieMx.
(5.7), . .
^^),
(5.8)
i0eMx. & =( ..., ).
K1(x,y)=fi^JK1(i,y)

i-i

= ^iK1(i,y)=Ki(x,y)
ieMx

b=Kt(x,y).

ieMx

(5.5). (5.6)
.

(, ). ,
, (, ),
Ny .

yat=vu
Xy=v2,

}34

(5.9)

ieMx,jeNy, vltv2 .
(, ) , (5.9)

Ay = Vlu,
(5.10)
xB=v2w,
= (1, ..., 1), > = (1, ..., 1)
, , vx = xAy, v2 = xBy
(, ).
5.3. . (, ) ()-
, .
,

x=vtuB~l;
(5.11)
l
y=VlA- u,
(5.12)

Vl

= \l{uA-lu),

2 = \1(-).

(5.13)

, , FT,
(5.11) (5.13), ^, ^, (, )
(, )
(vlt v2).
. (, )
,
(5.10). (5.10) '1,
'1, (5.11), (5.12). , = 1
=1, vx v2.
(, )
(5.10) .

.
, (5.11) (5.13)
==\.

^, ^ , (, )

.
(5/2,5/2)
. 5.1 ,
(, )

(, ),

aiy = Kl(i, y)^xAy,

i=T7rh,

=2 (, J) ^ xBy, j=T7m,
135


^(), ^().

-
~1

'

'1

=~7^=,
1

-1 ,-i

)>

( )( ')

uB~lu

(-)(-)

.

. 1.4. .
,
, (. 9, . 6).
, ,

(, ), (5.11) (5.13): =(4/5,
1/5),=(1/5,4/5),(1.2) = (4/5,4/5).
5.4. .
,
, 2,
( , ),
. ,

()=^2

( Z(T) , Z 1 Z 2
. 1 2
) (. . 2.5).
,
. 2 ,
, ,
, . ,
(. 2.4).
11 . 3.3 ,
, ,
.
, .
. (, ) ( )-.
()- (
) .
136

,
,
.
,
,
( )-.
[10].

5.5. ,
,
,
.
. * T = (N, {Xi}iBN,
{Hi}ieN) ,
, i
XfSXt
K^Wx^KiQi*).
.

.
. .* i
.*
^{ (* (,)>0),
Ki(M*\\xi)=Ki(p*).
5.6.
,
.
12. ( (22)- [10].)
(, ), .

(A B) = 3i R" 11' ^ n) ^ 12' ^1) 1


^2 |_( 21>

/*2l)

( 22.

hi)J

8lt 8, 1( 2
1 2 .
, , 12, 21, 22 (/?, /?12,
02 02) .
1. , , ,
1, , <5j
(. 8 . I).
. , 137

aii>a 2 1 , a 1 2 >a 2 2 ,
^
.
(<515 /jjj.>Pi2i @i. Pu<Pi2 2. .
) ):
) a 2 1 <a l l 9 a 1 2 <a 2 2 , Pu<Pi2,
P22<Piv
<a
) a u < a 2 1 , a 2 2 i2> Pi2<Pu> ^*
det ,
. 5.3. (*, *),

,J

bz..1

\Pii+Pii*

-
-

*HZ^

AiZ^

\ * l l +a 2 2 - * a i _ " 1 2

,.

( 5 1 4 )

11+22-21-12,

(5.15)

11+22_21_12/

vi v2

11 22 - 12 21
+ a22_a12_21

PllPl2-012011
Pll+P22-Pl2-P21

3. .
, :
) a 2 1 <a 1 1 , a 1 2 <a 2 2 , 12<, \.<>
) a u X 2 1 ,

22 < a 12' Pll<Pl2>

Pl2<Pll-

) (8, (52, 2),


) (61 2), (82, ).
(*, *),
(5.14), (5.15).
(22)-
, .
6.

6.1. .
2,
( ), ,
1, 2.
,

.
, .
138


(.
1 . 1.4).
13.
.
,

,
(. . 9 . 5.3).


(1, 4), (4, 1)

(4/5, 4/5)
. 10
( .
5.3), ,
. ,

: (al5 /JJ, (a2, /?2), (x*> *)'


* = (4/5, 1/5), = (1/5, 4/5), (al5 0 (<2, 2)
.
,
: 1/2
(al5 /?x) (a2, f}2).
(5/2, 5/2). ,

( . 9), . . ,
.

(i, j)
( ),
1 2.

.
(, ).
(/), 2 () 1 2

, () = < (^) = Pvtb


'J

A = {a,j), B={p,j) , ={/},


=\, />0, = (1, ..., l)eRm, w = (l, ..., l)eR".
,
,
139

.
13 , . 10.

='

, *

(5/2, 5/2). , *
.
. ()- {, )
= {}
(i, j), f=l, ..., ; 7=1, ..., . /*,(/)
] ,
i. , Vj(i)
i ,
].

ft</>="

% / /ty*0
0,

/(0=1

fjL,j=0,j=l, .... ;

/ty/E , n,j^0,
/-1

0,

Htj=0, il, ..., .

, A/* = {/xJ}
(, ),
:

twr(j)>*tjtf(f),
*(>(0
j - \
t-i
i-i

j-i

(6.1)

i, f e l l , 2, ..., ) ],]'{\, 2, ..., }.


6.2. (, 5)
.
*={^}
(/', /), . .
() i(j) . ,
. ,
, (
) f (/'). ,
* ,
( ]),
(6.1),
140

1 ( 2) i(j).
, i 1 , % = 0
7=1, 2, ..., . (6.1), ,
. , /=0 i=\, m,
(6.1) . {{])
(6.1). ,
*={^}

1-

J-\

i-l

]-\

zw>i^./'*>o
i-i

6-2)

(-1

/, /'{1, 2, ..., m)jaj,j '{1, 2, .... }.


Z c (r)
.
. .
1. ZC(T)
()- (, )
1.
2) (, ) (,
), ={)
, (,
)
{, ).
. (, ), x=*(gv ..., <!;), y=(nlt ..., )
(, ), = {}
, . . Zt'nj, = 1,
..., m;j=\
.
(6.2), . .
&^^),
n}K2{x,j)>VjK2(x,j'),
(6.3)
i, {1,2,..., m};j,j'e{l,..., }. &=0 (fy=0),
. (6.3)
:
, (I, )>, (/', ), (, J)>K2 (x, / ) ,
(6.4)
, i'e{l, ..., }; j , j'e{l, ..., }, i j
. , (, )
141

(, ).
. 5.2
K,(i, ) = 1(, ), K2(x,J) = K2(x, )
/ j .
(6.4) MeZc(T).
, (6.3) , , (6.3)
i a. j . 5.1, ,
(, ) .
ZC(F) ,
Zc ()
(6.2), ,
(. . 4.1).
.
, *

/2 0 1
1 0 1/.

(. 1 . 1.4),
(6.2).
7.

7.1. ,
, ,
.
,
.
14. R,

(, . 11).
,

R.
,
. , 1
(4, 1),
2 (1, 4).
%WM)
,
,

(
).
= (1/5,
4/5) 0 = (4/5, 1/5) ,
. 11

142

(,) (4/5,4/5). S,
, , , , d, (. . 11).
& . ,
,
ab, ( ab
, ).
7.2. (vu v2) S
. ,
. {, )
S
( v2). ,
, . . , ,
.2)=(1,^).
(7-1)
,
(7.1)
.
. S R2, (v, v\)
(, ). S, (vu v2)
< :
2)

).

(vltv2)eS.

3) (!, v2)eS (lf 2(xi 2)> (vi> vz) = (vi> vz)4) (vu v2)e!Sc:S (vlt v2)=q>(S, ?, i>), fo, v2) = <p(S, v?,

5) S
1 = <11+/?1, v2 = a2v2 + fi2, >0, 2 >0. , q>(S, v\, v2b) = {vl,
),
<(, arf + fii, 22+/*2)=(i*i + /*i, a2i2 + p2).
6) (vlt v2) S (v2,1>) S (vu v2) e S;=v%
(p(S, 1, v2)=(vlt v2), v1=v2.
,
(p(S, vlt )=(1, v2).
(, (S, v, v2)
(vlt v2)
1) 6), _ [11], 1)
6) , (vlt v2)
. ,
.
,
(. . 11).
1 2 , (ls v2) 143

, , , , d, . 3 ,
(vt, v2) , .
4 q>
, . . (15 v2)
7>, S ;
(vv v2), , !
5 ,
,
. 6
.
. 7.2
.
7.3. . (vlt v2)eS, i>i>?
v2>v2, (vlt v2),

SY<^S, Sx = {(vv v2)\(vt, v2)eS, ^?}.
. S^ ,
,
. , 6 .
{\, v'2) {v\, v'2)
St. , \%,
v'2=v2.
v'i<vl, v'2>v2. 5 ,
fo, v2)eSl9 1 = ('i+i)/2, v2=(v'2+v2)j2.

0O>i. 2)=

(;-^)+(^-;)

'

;-)

= -;)(^ 2 -^) |

(;-,>;-?)

-<)(;-v'2)
4

/2,
, ,
. , ( v2),
Slt .
J7.4. . S . 7.3,
( v2) (vlf v2)
<5(i v2) = (v2-vl)vl

(v1-v4)v2.

(lf v2)eS,
5(vu v2)^8(vy,

v2).

. ,
(vlt v2)eS, 8(vlt v2)>5(pl, Z2). S :
144

(v\, v'2)eS, v'^ v^ziv^ vj V'2 = V2 + E(V2V2), 0<<1.


div^ v^ v2v2)>0.
e(v'i, v'2) = 0(vlt 2) + ^(i;1-1, v2-v2) + az(v1-v1)(v2-v2).
0 ().
>0 Q(v\,
v'2)>6(vy, v2), 0(l5 v2).
7.5. . 7.2.
, ( v2), 6{vu v2),
.
. ,
v . 7.3.
G>vy2),
Q( i> vi)- , $ v2)
1) 4) . 7.2. 5
, v'1 = a1v1 + pl v'2 = a2v2 + f}2,

04*1, ^^-("+^-^+^^^,

v2),

(l5 v2) (1 v2), (v'lt v'2)


&Wi> v'i)- , (vlt v2) 6.
S 6 v=v2. (>2,
1)5'1 0(lf v2)=6(v2, Zj). ( v2) ^ ,
0(vit v2) Slt ( v2)=(v2, . .
, (vlt v2) 1) 6).
, .

= {(!, v2)\S(vlt v2)^S(Zt, Z2)}.
(7.2)
. 7.4 ScR.

*i==

-0,2=z

(7.3)

vt v2 (7.3) (7.2), ,
T={(v'l,v2)\v'1+v2^2}
0
t)i=t)2 = 0. , 6 ,
( ) v'l=v'2,
3 (1, 1), . . (1,
1) = (, 0, 0). (7.3) 5,
, (1 v2) = cp(R, v, v2). (vlt v2)eS, a S(^R,
4 (15 v2) (S, ?, v2).
, . 7.3 ,
145

. . (vlt v2)eS, vt>v v2>v2.


.
) , ^ " v2 =v2.
(vv, v2) S, vt
v2=v2.
) , vl=v1 v1>2-
(vt, v2) S, v2
=v.
) 5 (, v2) (, ).

,
1) 6), 1) 3)
. .
(. 14)
(t>lt 2)=(5/2, 5/2) (. . 11).
8.

6 7 , ,
,

( ).
,
. ,
( ),

. ,
( ,
)

,
,
(
).
8 10 .
,
,

.
8.1. N= {1,..., } .
SczN .
.
v,
SczN, , S (TczN,
146

S<zN)
v(T) + v(S)^v(T[jS),v(0)
= O.
(8.1)
(8.1) .
v(T)
,
.
(8.1) , S\jT
, S ,
.
v ,
Su ..., Sk

2>)<*(0, , ,
JV ,

v (N).
8.2. r=(N, {Xi\ieN, {H,}ieN).
, ScN,

. ,
. S
, S,
( 1),
,
S, . .

ATs=n*i.
ieS

S ,
S ( 1) S, . .

tfs(*)= #,(*),
ieS

xeXN, x=(xu ..., :) .


,
S . /
N \S
2 ^3=

^> , ieN \S

7 (. . 2 147

Hs (x)).
0 S
1
8=(8, XN\S, HS).
TS=(XS, XN\S, KS) 5 v(S)
1 5,

Ts. , , _ v (S)
8 ( ), a v (N)
. , v (S)
S (
,
), . ,
.
(8.1).
, ,
, (0)=. , ,

0 ()=,(),
(60

, 0 ()
, (0)=.
( ). =(,
{Xt}tsN, {Ht},eN)
v(S)=sup inf Ks 0is, v^s), ScN,

(8.2)

nseXs, v ^ e A ^ s , rs=(Xs, X^s, Ks)


5. S, TcN,
Sf\T=0,
v(S[)T)>v(S)+v(T).
(8.3)
. ,
v(S[jT) = sap inf

KifasyT, v^s^n),

^SUr yN \CS|J7) ''eS(Jr

Htfjr S[jT, . .
X#jT, V,(S\JT)
XN\{S\JT), KI i .
Xs\jT,
fis
148

vT Xs ,
, ,
. ,
v (S\J T) ^ sup sup inf

Kt (jis x , vN V(sUn ).

v(S(JT)> inf

Ki(fisxnT, v ^

= inf ( Y K'0*s x Pr. V/A(SUD)+ E -KiO*s x A*r. vM(sim )


,

v (S\J ) > inf Y *. 0*s 0. v*\(*im)+


+ inf ,(8, v M(SUn ).

/*, fis (
vT vs)
v (S[j 7) > inf inf Y Kt 0*s x vr, vM(5UT))+
+ inf inf Y ,-(vsx/iT, v M(sU )>
>inf ^ ( ^ s , v^sj+inf Y Ki{nT, v^r).

fis . ,

v(S{jT)>sup inf Y KiiVs, vjv\5) + sup inf X,(/i r , ^ ) .
H

y^s ieS

<h

v^ r ie T

, (8.2),
v(S\jT)>v(S)+v(T)
.
, (8.3) ,
v (S)
(5)=sup inf Hs(xs, x^s), ScN,
149

xseXs, x^seX/^s, FS(XS, X^s, Hs),


.
8.3. . r=(N, {X,}ieN, {H,}ieN
,
Y, #,(x)=c=const
ieN

xeXN, XN=Y[ X>ieN

. r=(N, {Xi},BN, {Hi}ieN)


, v(S), SaN, ,
. 8.2, 5, SczN, .

v(N)=v(S)+v(N\S),
ScN.
.
,
v(N)=Z

# , ( * ) = ! {) =

ieN

ieN

v (S)=sup inf Kt (jis, v^s)=sup inf I - Kt (jis, v^s)


= c-infsup Ki(ns,vNXS) = c-v(N\S),
V

N\S

Ms

ieN\S

.
8.4.
(N, ), v ,
(8.1),
, (8.1),
.
15 [10]. { -.)
100 . S, D
*. 80 . .,
65 . . 30 . .
,
. * .
150

50 . ., 20 . .
. .
1, 2, 3 S, D ,
(N, v), JV={1, 2, 3}, (1, 2,
3)=100, (1, 3)=50, (1)=20, (1, 2)=80, (2, 3)=65, (2)=30,
*(3) = 0.


v(N) .
, , i
v(N), iV= {l, 2, ..., }.
. =( 15 ..., ),

<x,>v{{fy, ieN;
(8.4)

I ,=(*),

(8-5)

i 1

v ({/})
S= {/}, .
(8.4)
, , ,
, ,
-
. (8.5),
at<v(N) ', ieN

/eJV , ,. ] at>v(N),
IeN

,
. ,
(8.5),
( ) .
(8.4), (8.5) , =( 1
..., ) (N, v),

^, ieN, v i = * ( i V ) - L ({*
IeN

ieN

. (N, v) ,
151

v({i})<v(N).

(8.6)

ieN

(N, v) .
(5)
YJ <*i=tx(S), D.
=(({1}), ({2}), ..., ({})).

.
.
. S (
^=/?),
s
ai>puieS,a(S)^v(S).
(8.7)
(8.7) ,
S,
S (. . S
ie S ,).
. , \
S, ^.
S

^=\

N. , ^
Pi<at^v({i}), (8.4). ^
, <,-> Pi i eN ,-> /?,= (N), ieN

ieN

(8.5).
8.5.
.
.
. (N, v)
(N, v'),
ieN,
S N
v'(S) = kv(S)+Yc,.
ieS

152

(8.8)

(N, v) (N, v1)


(N, v)~(N, v) v~v.
, ~. ,
(8.8) , = 0, =\, ' = .
.
, . . v~v
v'~v. , k' = \jk, c\= cjk,
v(S)=k'v'(S)+Ydc'l,
ieS

. . v ~v.
, v~' v'~v", v~v".
.
(8.8).
,
,
.
. v v ,
-.',
a& = kat+Cb ieN,

v v',
^ oc'^jS'.
. , '
(N,'). ,
aj=ht,+c& kv ({/}) + cl=v' ({/}),

;= I (,+) = (0+ Ci=v'(N).


ieN

ieN

ieN

, ' (8.4), (8.5) . ,


^,
!>&, ieS, a<(.S),
ieS

<xj =fax,+,> kpi+,=\ ( > 0),


; = ,+ c^kv
ieS

ieS

ieS

+ I ct=v' (S),
ieS

153

. . '^=/?'.
(
).
.
8.6.

.
. (N, v) (0 ^
, ieN
v({i}) = 0,v(N) = L
.
(0 \)- .
.
1

k=

>0,

W- I ()
ieN

Cl

*. ,'(5)=(5)+^
'eS

W - I({/})
ieN

v' ({f}) = 0, v' (N) = 1. .


, ,
, (0 1)-
. v
(N, v),

-5>()
V'(S)=

, SfcN,

(8.9)

W-I(W)
ieN

(0 1) , .
< = (19..., ),

<tt>0,ieN, - = 1 >

(8.10)

ieN

. . ( 1)-
, w,=(0, ..., 0, 1, 0,..., 0),j=l,
R".
154

9. - -


. . 8.4,

.
9.1. .
(N, v)
N ( *),
*.
, S

v(5).
.
.
(N, v) -.
, .
. : -,
S^-N
(5)^(5)=

(9-1)

. ,
. 8.6
(0 1)- .
.
(9.1). ,
-. . /?, /?>,
. . P(S)>a(S) P(S)^v(S). (9.1).
(9.1). ,
(9.1), S,
a(S)<v(S).
(5)-(5)

l-v(S)

151
IM-ISI'
\S\ S. , /J (iV)= 1,
Pt^O /?}Sa. , -.
. 9.1 , - ,

(-
). v
9.2.
. v ,
155

N .
v(N), . .
xeR", <x,=v(N).
ieN



, . . , ^ ({/}), ieN.
.
S,
. S ,
(
, v(N)
). ,
N\S
S.
S (5). (9.1)
S
N\S. , - (N, v)

v (N).
-.
. (N, )
- , ScN

^a^v(N)-v(N\S).

(9.2)

. ^a,=v(iV),

v(N\S)^

-'
ieN\S

(9.1).
(9.1) , -,
S ,
J]a,=a(5), . . , .
S, JV.
. 9.1
-
. - ,

156

, -
- .
16. - (. 15 .
8.4). ( 100
.) .
,
65 + 20 ., , 30 + 50 . ,
80 .,
.
,

?
= (19 2, 3) - -
,
'<>20, 2 ^30, 3 >0,
1 + 2 + 3 = 100,
^ + 2 >80, 2 + 3 ^65, ! + 3 >50.

: (35, 45, 20), (35, 50, 15), (30, 50, 20). ,
5 .
(
) -, : * = (33,3; 48,3; 18,3).
* ,
: a, + ajv({i, y}) = 1,6. *
-.
9.3. , - ,
N. ,
,
. ,
.
.

/
1")

0 ;

" - \ s \
. 12


. 13

157

17 [10]. ( .)

. v :
(5)=|5|)
SczN, \S\ S.
, /(1)=0 # = { 1 , .... }.
(N, v)
FC:

a,=/(n)=i;(iV), a,>0, i = l, ..., .


i-i

- ,
(9.1), . . .
v(S) - , . .
al9 ..., a.
, , -, ,
, *
(a*=/(n)/n, i = l , ..., ).
(9.1), , - ,
|.S| = 1, ...,
(1/|51)/(|51)<(1/)/(). , -
, 5",

N. . 12 (13) , -
().
9.4. 18 [2]. (0 1) .
v(0)=v(l)=v(2)=v(3) = O, v(l, 2, 3)=1, . ( 1 , 2)= 3 , v(l, 3)=c 2 , (2,
3)= , 0<,^1, / = 1 , 2, 3. . 9.1,
-,
:
^ + ^ , oij + ^ 2 , a2 + a 3 ^c x

3 <1 3, 2 <1 2, a ^ l cv
(9.3)
(9.3),
< + 2 4- 3 < 3 - ( + 2 + 3),
, ,-, /= 1, 2, 3, ,
+ c2 + c 3 <2.
(9.4)
Cl

158


-.
, (9.4) ,

^ , \, 3,
3

(<?,+&) = 2, ,+{,<1, i = l , 2, 3.
/?,= 1, ,, f=l, 2,
3. /?,
(9.3),
/?=(/?!, fl2, /f3) - . ,
(9.4)
14
-.

: 1 + 2 + 3 = 1, ,^0, /=1, 2, 3 ( ABC, . 14).
-
() ()
0<,<1 i = l , 2, 3. ,

,= 1-/=1,2, 3
(9.5)
. . 14 / = 1 , 2, 3,
,
,= 1 ,
1 + 2 + 3 =1. , ,
, - (1, ])
,
(. 15, 16). , - ,
(9.5)
1 + 2 + 3 = 1 .

ci_ + c2~^\,ci + c3^\,c1 + c3^\.
(9.6)
( )
- . ,
(9.6), -
(. 16).
9.5.
-. -, -,

159

. 15

. 16

. -
, , -

.
,
.
. L
(N, v) -, :
1) <> , <, (
);
2) < f}$L, /?^=
( ).
, -
. ,
.
- /-
. , - , -. ,
-;
- L, 2)
', '^=. .
. (N, v)
(0 \)- (\ )

(S)<i,
-ISI + l

\S\ S, -
-.
160

. ,
-. {S},
, . .
S, <x(S)<v (S). {S}
, . . 5 , 1 >5 2 , ^ , ^ . S0, , , .
S0. , 2^^ 1.
/? :
'
(S0)-a(S0)
,
, 160,

.-* *5 f}(S0)=v(S0), /?,>,-, ieS0,


S0. , -.
, fJ(S)^v(S) S.
\S\^k. , S0, f}(S0)=v(S0)
5<= S0,
/?,>, (ieS0), a 5"0 ,
. S
So,
1
-
-
n-fc+1 n-|S| + l
, /J ,
.
\S\>k. S^S0,
/ (11-*)-"()> . , o w W - t
p(S)=
+v(S0)>
->

||-*+*-|1+1
1 ^ ,_
-*+*-|5| + 1 -151 + 1
S S0, S,
S0, \S\ k+1,
B(S)>
>->>v(S).
-
-+\ -ISj + l
, S.
, /? -. ,
. , , - 2,
-. 1 -
161

.
.
9.6. . {N, v) ( \)-
, S^N v(S)
1.
, ( \)- .
19 [2]. (0 1) , ,
, ((5) = 1), ,
, (({z}) = 0).
:
12 = (1/2, 1/2, 0), 13 = (1/2, 0, 1/2), 23 = (0, 1/2, 1/2).
(9.7)
.
(9.7) ,
( ai}) .
, - =( 1 2, 3).
(0 1)- ,
,^0 1 + 2 + 3 = 1. ,
1/2. ,
1/2, 0.
, . -
, ,
1/2. , , , ,- ,,
i<j, 1/2. a(V>a. ,

(9.7) -.
-.
[0, 1/2]; ,

L3,e={(a, \-c-a,

c)|0sa<l-c}

Af-. ,
, 3 ,
1 2 .
, /?
: >^ 15 2 <0 2 .
, ,
. L3,
- 3. , /?3>, <.
3>, /?3 = + .
:
<*i=0i + e/2, 2 = 2 + /2, 3 =
162

, <xeL3, ^ {1, 2}. <. ,


1^1/2, /?2^1/2 (
1). /? ^ 1/2. = (1 , , ).
1 ol/l^Pi,
^ {1, 3}. , !^, /?2< 1/2 , y^/J, = (0,
1-, ). , -,
,
3 0<<1/2.
/- ; ,
3 . Z^_ 0
, 3 .
,
/- Lh c Z^,
1 2 .
,
/-. ,
. /- ,
, .
/-
, .
-
, [5].
10.

10.1.
- Af- ,

,

. .
.
. (N, v)
, v(S)=v(S(~)T) S<=N.
, ,
, , . .
.

iV={l, 2, ..., }.
, . . : N-*N,
ieN n(i)eN N,
ieN .
. (N, ) .
N, an .
163

(N, nv) (N, ),


S={it, i2
i,}

^^),

ScN,

...,n(Q})=v(S).

(N, nv) (N, v) ,



.

. , ,
, (
) ,
, .
10.2. (N, v)
<pH=(<j0iM, ..., 9>n[v]),
,
. ,
.
.
1. S (N, ),

5>,=(5).
ieS

2. ieN

3. (N, ) (N, v) ,
<Pi[u+v] = q>,[u] + <f>i[v].
. q> ,
1 3 (N, v) q>[v]. <p[v]
(N, v).
,
.
. q>,
(N, v) 1 3.
10.3.
.
. SczN (N, ws)
:

164

(N, w,) 1, 2

9, = .'!*

(10-2)

-s= |iS| S.
. , S w
, S. 1,

ScT,

, <p,[wj]=0 i4S. ,
, S , nws=ws.
, 2 , jeS
<Pi[ws]=<Pj[ws]- s= \S\, 1,
<Pi[ws]=l/,s, ieS.
ws, (10.1),
. ,
, {N, ws)
(10.2). (N, ws)
.
. ^,
<p,[cws]-.

|,

ieS,

1 0, /#5.

. , (p[cws]=cq>[ws]
>0.
, ^c s )v s
,
<Pi (Z c s w s)=E^( c s w s)=S c s4 ( ''( w s)-

\s

(.)

c s >0 (10.3)
3, . , , v v
, 3
(p[uv]=q> [] q>[v]. (10.3)
cs. , csws ,
s
165

v = Ycsws=

csws-[

{S\cs0}

(-c s ))wS

'

\{S|c s <0}

<PM = <P

c w

(~ c s) w s =

s s -<P

L{S|Cs<0}

L{S|Cj0}

= E - E (- sM s]=E<v)K].
{S , |c s >}

{S|<:s0}

10.4. . (N, v) , 2* 1
cs, ,
= csws>

(.4)

ScJV

ws (10.1),
S N, .
(10.4) .
.
(-l)S~'v(T)

<*= I

(10.5)

{|=5)

( t 7). , cs
. , U
,

**.(0)- * ( (-1'(*))-

= <-ir'l<D.

. s / CJJIf
5 s , =5= U. ,
:
v-f

^=-1'=^-'<(-1'.
S-t
(1 1)" . ,
t<u 0, t=u 1. UcN

{S|.S<=JV}

166

csws(U)=v(U).

(10.4).
v
2"'1. , TaN.
= ,
v (). , , v.
, ws
, ,
. ,
(, ) .
,
Xsws(T)=0 TcN.
ScN

={] ws({f}) = 0, S=t{i}, ws({i})=\,


5'={i}. {(} = 0 iczN.
. As=0 ScT, 5 # . ,
=0. ,
Asws(7) =
ScJV

lsws(T)=XT=0.

ScT

, 21
Rz - 1 , ,
v
(10.4) ws.
.
10.5. . 10.2. . 10.4
,
ws, (10.4) .
. 10.3 q> [v]
(10.3), (10.2).
(N, v) .
q>[v]. . 10.3, 10.4
*=

cs(p,[ws]=

cs(lls),

cs (10.5). (10.5)
,

<Pilv]=

(1/*) I

= I I

(-1'(7)

(-ir'(mv(T)

167

ViV)=

(-iy-'(Hs).

(10.6)

{S\7\JieS<=N}

i$T T=T'\J{i}, y,(7")=-,(). ,


(10.6) ,
t=t'+l, , .
,
{|1<=}

, ieT, CnZ.'t S s ,
5 .
:

y,(T)=i(-l)'-'CnZ't(lls) =
1

= (-1'(7 - \x'- dx= f (-ir'Qi<*'-'<&=


S-t

J
0

J J-
0

1
_l

= f* i(-l)"'-',x -'dx=

, (-)
,~*

ix^il-xf-'dx.

(1-1)!(-0!

,()=
!

, ,
9iM=

(r

~ 1)! f" <)! [t>(7)-t,(7\{/})].

(10.7)

(10.7)
. 1 3 . 10.2.
, , < [] .
, v
. []>({*})

{T\ieT^ff}

;
n

=({}) LCJJi
t-l

= ({*})

nl

10.6. ,
, (10.7),
. , (
N)
. , -
168

;
, (. .
) , 1/(!). ,
/, , \ {/"}
( ), (7)v (7\{i}); ,
,
. <,[]
i
.
10.7. (. 9.6)
. , v(T)v(T\{i})
0, 1, 1,
, 7\ {} .
,

<,=('-1-0!


7 i, 7\ {/}
.
20 [2]. ( .)
, . S
1,
, 1 .
,
:
1, 5{/, }, 1,
1, * { 1 , .... 1.-1},
0, .

, ={} v(T)=l
(7\{}) = 0 ,
2<|71<-1.
(= X Ci-i
1.2

=
"

(0 1)- ,
-1
1=1

,
2

9t[v] =(-1)
~-, / = 1 , - , - 1 .
169


( 1)( 2)/2 ,
.
10.8. 21 [2]. ( .) ,
1 ( / = 1 , ..., 1) ( )
, k , f(k)
(f(k) ),
. :
(0, .
7{}, ||>1, v(T)-v(T\{n})=f(t-\),
(10.7)
=.-1
t-2

nl

'-1)=- I

t=\T\,

/0).

-1


<=
-1

(-1)- 1 "l '=1, - , " - 1 ,_,


1.
. 1- 2- /?
. >-
,->0, ,
i . i
, ,
i- , .
.) ,
,
.
) .
. 1 2 .
2. ,
. qt
, i- ,
0<x,<a i = l
, . 1-
(/1(,)) ,
q
. q
. 1-
5,-.
,

.

170

. 5 . 1.4.
3. ( )
(/ )- = {,^} = {/?,;/}.
) , . . =, (*{/=/?;,=, i?j
>0, >0, 1 = 1, ..., m,j=\, ..., .
)

.\ ' 51, .?
|_2 2 3j

'I;

L0 7 8 J

[
[

3 8 -1"1

1 3 4"|

4. ,
4 0
2 I
= 2 1 8 I
11 22 0~|3 j

L 24 30"|o j

(2, 2) .
?
1 3 1
, = 1
3
2
5.
2 2 lj
l_l 3 0_|
4 1 0~|
5 6~|

,


2
7
5 I =\
7 0.
2
?
1J
|_2
6. 6 0
(Kt, 6K2)1_|

(. . 1.4).
. 1 2
=({, 1 ), =(1, 11)> > VeV>> 1]-
,
,
(. . 9).
:
5A^+5X|_-IOA:1X2-I8(A:1+A:2)+45=O.

7.

6 0 2~|

6 0 7 1


0 4 3
, =
0 4.
0 I
?
.
(, ),
7
0 o j
|_2 3
Oj
=(^ 2, 3) "(flu f 2> ")> , {t =0,
. .
8. [23].
171

- W {X,},eHt Wi,id.

*,={0, 1}, ,(0, ....

0|1)->0,

tf,(l, .... 1||0) = ,>0,

,()=0 , || , '- .
i

) .
) .
9. . 10.1 . I ,
.

2 0 1~|

1 0 2~|

I 1 2 0 I
1_0 1 2_|

2 1 0 .
|_0 2 l j

,
.
10. [10]. ,
1, 2, 3. .
. ,
, /, ,
, j (, 1 3).
(, ),

(0, 0) (1, 2) (2, 1)"|


(2, 1) (0, 0) (1, 2) .

(1, 2) (2, 1) (0, 0)J

) ,
.
) ,
fl/, 1},
LihJ)=\
.
. .
I 0, ij.
) ,
3,
( /2, / 2 ), .
11.
,
(. . 6.1).
,
. ieN
(N\ {>}) ^ {,} = ]~[ Xj,
16

xeY[ Xi- ,
ieN

, ieN
nyieXf.
172

) ,
.
) //=(/*,, ..., fin) .
, = J~[ , = ]~[ X,

, n={jil3 -, pin) .
12. ) , , . 10,
,

.
) , -,
5
,
[( /3, 4 / 3 ), 7, 5/)], ,
, [(2, 1), (1, 2)].

2 - 1 -

13. =
5=1 1

- I, .

14. (2 2)-
Pi
Pi
1 (1,1) (1,2) "I

2 L(2, l) (-5, 0)J


(. 2 . 1.4),
. ( 1)
( 2) - ( (,, /}2)).
, (,, 2), . .
, .
15. a,=v({i})
. , Af-.
16. (N, ) a=(atj
), />({}) Z *<<- , L -
(N, ) a , L, fieL,
jS>r .
17. (N, v) ft

ft- max KSU0'})-(S)].


, /, a,>ft,
, Af-.
18. (N, ) (0 1)- (. . 10.6).
i -, f(7V\{i'}/=0.
173

) , , - ,
, -.
) S -. , ot=(aj,..., a)
-, ,-=1, ,>0, ieS, 0, i^S.
19. (N, v) a=(a,, ..., ), ,
Y.

OLI=V(N)-

>0 ,(),

i>v(S)-e.

ieS

) , <', ,()=,<, ().


) , , C,(t>)#0.
,() -
MC(v).
) - (N, ), N={1, 2, 3);
>({'})=<>> ({1 2})=50, ,({1, 3})=80, .({2, 3})=90, .{}-100.
) (iV, v), (N, v1) '
C,(c') = C,'(i;)#0. , 5>0,
C-i()=Q-(')- , MC(v)=MC(vr).
20. , (N, v) (. . 9.3),
if
(-*)!(*-1)!

-2

\-

~j~v(S)

\-v(N).

21. (N, v) , S, TaN


v(S\J1)+v(Sf]T)>v(S)+v(T).
) , -
-.
) , (N, v) ,

=( .... /) .
22. (N, v) (0 1)- .
i SczN, (5) = 1,
v(S \{/})=0. 0,- i .
P(v)=(fii ()

(")). A()=fy/ Z fy

.
) (N, ), S ,
{1} eS,
, , 0t=6, 2=3 = ^=2, /f()=(l/2,1/6,1/6,1/6).
) , /? () . (2.2 ) .
174

23. {N, v) , (1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 2, 3)


. ,
0j = 3, 2 = 3 = 1 , , /(() = (3/5, 1/5, 1/5),
<[]=(2/3, 1/6, 1/6).
24. (,, ..., ) 0>.

<0< '- (N, v),


1-

v
\ 0, ni<0>
(S)=<

ieS

( 1, Y, >0ieS

0=8=(4, 3, 3,2, 2,1), =6.


.

IV

1.

1.1.
.
(. . ,
) -
.
,
,
.
-
, . .

,
,

.

,
. ,
.
.

,
,
,

.
1.2. ,
, .

.

.
X . /,
X ),
X X ,
176

X X. F
X X ,
FxaX (
Fx=0).
,
.
F X X, X.

FA={jFx.

F(0)=0.
At<=-X, i= 1, ..., ,

*{ =U FA *{ ^)<= FA,
\;-1

i-i
2
3

V-i

i-i

F , F , ..., F, ..., :
/ = ) , F?=F(F?), ..., Fkx=F{Fk-\ ...
(1.1)
F X X
F,

A-MlteUtfU-UtfU-"

0-2)

-1

JF* , F,
F;l = {x\yeFx},
. . ,
.
Fx (F~1)*, . .
(F-^-F-'iiF-1),),
(1.3)
-,
, 1 (5) = { | ^ ^ ^ 0 } -

(1-4)

1. (.)
,
,
. : X
, F ,
.
, Fx=0. Fx, 177

(1.1), ,
; Fx ,
; F~l(A) (AczX) ,
(.
(1.2) (1.4)).

, yeFx, ,
. -
.


: , , .
. (X, F) , X
, a F X X.
(X, F) G.
X ,
, yeF
, .
X ,
(, ), yeFx . = (, )
,
, . q
, .
.
G=(X, F) F , ,
F . G
G=(X, F), G=(X, ).
G(X,F)
=( > > ) ,
. =(1 ..., )
1()= ;
1()= .
G=(X, P)
, , (, ), (, ).
.
, q, .
(pv p2, ...),
-\,
pk+i.
,
. ,
.
, ,
178

. 17

, .
0,
, FXa = X. 0
G.
2. . 17
0. .
,
.
3. , ,
,

,
. ,
, ,
,
(
),
(. .
, ),

.
1.3. zeX. Gz G = (X, F)
179

(Xz, Fz), XZ=FZ, a Fzx=Fx(^\Xz. . 17


, z.
xeXz Fx Fzx
, . . F.
F Xz.
Gz=(Xz, F).
1.4.
.
G=(X, F) .
+1

X . +l Xt, ..., , X+l, [j Xt=X,


Xk(\X,= 0, 1, FX=0 +1. X / = 1 , ...,
1- ,
Xn+i .
+1
Ht(x), ..., (), +1. # ( (), / = 1 , ..., ,
i-ro .
. N
, 1, ..., i, ..., (
iV={l, 2, ..., }). x0eA"ilS (
) 0 < i t Xj^eF^. ^,
, 2
() x2eFXi, . . , k-
() *_1 , /*
() Fxk_i. ,
() xieX+u . .
, Fx,= 0.

0, ..., , ..., xh
G,
0 .
. - G
Xi, , , ,
X/ . ,
I, i = l , ..., , ((1).
, i 180

xeXj , , - G .
, .
,
,
,
.
. ,,
() ,
() yeFx, i.
i
U,.
, i'-
X,
.
=(, ..., ..., ,), ( Uh

, U= Y[ Ut
. = (1, ..., ,-, ..., )
, , .
, x0eXtl. =( ..., ..., )

uil(x0)=x1. ^^. 2
,2(1)=2. fc-
*_1^

**=*(**-0. - u=(uv ..., ..., )


0, ..., /.
, i,
,
0,..., xh =(, ..., ), . .
K,(uv ..., , )=,(,), i = l , ..., .

Kt, i= 1,..., , U= Y[ Ut.


, U,
/ = 1 , ...,
181

,
T=(N, {,},, {K,}ieN),
iV={l, ..., i, ..., ) , /,
I, Ki /, /= 1, .., .
1.5.
, . .
G (. . . 1.1 . I).
zeX. GZ = (XZ, F),
2 .
2 Yj=Xif)Xz, i=\, ..., ,
YI+l=Xn+if]Xz,
()
H\(x) =
Hi{x),xsYUx,i=\,...,n.
] i-ro
u, i-ro Y],
. .
]{) = {), ?=,* i = l , .... .
-
. Gz

,=(, {/?}, \.
, / = 1 , ..., ,

( / = \ \ .
i-l

2.

. III
. ,
,
.
2.1. . u* = (uf,..., uf)
,
zeX (* = ((*/, ..., (u*)z), (uf)z
uf ,
Tz.
182

.
.

.
,
.
G=(X, F).
.
1, ,
,
, ,
.
x0eXit (. .
0 i\). zeFXo,
1. ,
,
: 1, . zeFXti,
\,

. 2,
zeFX(t,

(*)'=,..., (*

(2.1)

,
.
uf(x) = (uf(x))z, xeXif)Xz, zeF^, i=l, ..., , ufl(x0)=z*, z*

*"*)1= *("*-

(2-2)

*0

uf Xh i= l, ..., ,
1- , xeXt uf(x)eFx.
, uf, i= 1,..., , z'-ro
, . . ufeUt. , (,*) uf
Xtf\Xz ,
zeFx<>. ,
, uf,
/=1, ..., , (2.2),
. i^iv
183

* ii z*
Tz..
, (*) = ? {(u*f) > ' {(* || uf) = , (* ||i0,
u,eUi=l, ...,,1^,

(2.3)

z*

(*) 2*.
Uh il .
z0 = uh (x0).
(*)=* {(*)2*} =max K\ {(u*)z) >
*; {(u*)z}>K% {(*| = (*\\).

(2.4)

(2.3), (2.4).
2.2. 4. ,
. 18, N : JV={1, 2}.
. 18 .
1 ,
. -

18
184

. ,
Xt 2, , ,
.
"eFx, ,
,
. , ! = (2, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 1, 1)
1 2 1, 1
2, 2 3, 3 4 . .

, .
, 2
. 864 ,
576 . ,

864x576. ,
, . III, ,
.
,
,
1 . 2.1.
, v1 (x), v2 ()

. 16, 17, 2- ,
*.(1.7) = 6, 2(1.6)=2, M1.7)=2, 2(1.7)=4, Vl(2.7) = l, 2(2.7) = 8.
25, 2.6, ] 8. 25
, 2 ,
.
1, 2
+1, 2 +6.
, 2
(2.5) . 1(2.5)=1(1.6) = 6,
v2(2.5)=v2(1.6)=2,
vl(2.6)=vl(l.1)=2,
2(2.6)=t>2(1.7)=4,
v1(1.8) = 2, 2(1.8) = 3. 13, , 23, ^, 24.
Tj 3 , 1
, .
2,
1 1, 10.
, 1
(1.3) . 1(1.3) = 5, v2 (1.3) =10,
1(1.4) = 1(2.5) = 6,
2(1.4)=,2(2.5)=2,
^(1.5)=,(2.6) = 2,
2(1.5) = 2(2.6)=4, 1(2.3) = 0, *2(2.3) = 6, Vl(2.4) = 3, *,(2.^=5.
2
,
2^: v1(2.1)=vi(\.3) = 5,
2(2.1) = 2(1.3) = 10,
1(1.2)=1(2.4) = 3,
2(1.2)=2(2.4) = 5,
185

w1(2.2)=5, 2(2.2) = 6. = 1 .
1 (l.l) = 1(2.1) = 5,e 2 (l.l)=i a (2.1)=10.

(?, ?),
(2.5)
? = (1,2,2,2,2,3,2,1), ! = (1,3,2,2,2,1,2).
(uf, uf) (1.1), (2.1), (1.3).
, uf, i=l, 2,
, i
,
, ,
3 i.
,
.

.
vt (x), v2 ()
.

:
, (1.6)=,(1.6)=6,
,(1.6)=,(1.6)=2,
i(l-7) = ix(1.7)=2,
2(1.7)=t,2(1.7)=4,
1 (5.7)=-2,
2 (2.7)=2 (2.7) = 8. , 2.5
. ,
2 ,
1 .
1(2.5) = \, 2_(2.5)=2, 1(2.6)=1(1.7)=2, 2(2.6)=i;2(1.7)=4,
(1.8)= (1.8)=2, 2 (1.8)=2 (1.8) = 3. 1.3,
, IYJ, 2., 2.4. .
, ^
1. : , (1.3)=v, (1.3) = 5, 2(1.3) = 1, ,(1.4) = 2,
2(1.4) = 3, 1 (1.5)= 1 (2.6)= Vl (l.5)=2, 2(1.5)=i;2(2.6)=V2(2.6)=4,
i;2 (2.3)=2 (2.3) = 6,
v. (2.4)=Vl(2.4) = 3,
l (2.3)=i; 1 (2.3)=0,
2 (2.4)=2 (2.4) = 5. 2. , 2.2. :
Hi(2.1) = i 1 (1.5)=2,
*2(2.1)=2(1.5)_=4,
1(1.2)=1(2.4) = 3,
2 (1.2) = v2 (2.4) = 5, 2 (2.2) =_2 (2.2) = 6, Vi (2.2) = (2.2) =_- 5.
= . 1(1.1)=1(1.2) = 3, w 2 (l.l)= 2 (1.2)=5.
,
?) = (2,2,1,1,2,3,2,1), ?()=(3,3,2,2,1,1,3).
(2.6)
(2.6)
(2.5). (2.6), (2.5),
.
2.3. ,

186


. ,
,
.
. ,(), i = l , ..., ,
, i0 , ,
,0()=Hh(y), Hi(x) = H,(y) ieN.
.
. *
1().
1()= 1 iv

1( ()=max Hk ().
,
, () = {1(), ...,
(3)}. , ,1()=,1(),

() = {1(), ..., {5), ..., ()}.
, H,i{x)=Hil(x), ,()=;() ieN.
v(x) = {vi(x)}
, , ,
. , i0
vi(i(xr)=vh(x"), (!, " ,
, *. ), vl(x')=vi(x") ieN.
, x'eXil, "^,
vit (x?)=Hk (x1)=max Hh (),
vii(x")=Hii(x')=maxHii(y)
yeFx-

vi(x') = Hi(x'), vl(x")=Hi(x") ieN.


vh(x')=vio(x") , ,0(') = )0(")-
,() = 1(") ieN. vi(x") = vl(xH)
ieN.
,
/(*)< 1
187

- ,
IV , =\, vio(x')=vii>(x")
i0, Vi(x')=Vi(x") ieN.
0
i\. zeFXo

.
{;(z)J. , (2.2), ix
0 zeFx>
it(z)=max ^(z).

(2.8)

z, (2.8), ,
Vi(x0)=Vi(z)f i = l , ..., ,
1 \ .
z, z, vii(z)=vii(z),
, ; 2
1 vil(z)=vil(z),
Vi(z)=Vi(z) ieN. ,
vt(x0), ieN,
.
3.

3.1.
. . 1.4
N={1, 2} 2() = ^{) 3 (3
),

=<#,

. ,
- .
2()=1() ,
2(ut, u2)= Kt(,, 2) ( t u t eU Y , u2eU2,
(*, '2)
^i( "2X^1 ("I, "-^!(!, 2) ieU lt u2eU2. ('
'2)
188

, , ,
.
v .
3.2. . 2.1 ,

, . .
(\, \),
. ,
v{y),

. 3.2 . I,
(. .
1 ) ,
v(y) , 2
.
3.3.
v(y). v(y) ,
()=((\, (ulf)= -\ ((, (
((u\f, (2) ,
(\, MJ).
,yeXt zeFy. , (2.2),

v(y)=max K\ ((tf, (utf)= -max v(z).


(3.1)
zeFy

zeFy

yeX2
v(y)= -K\ ((, ()= -max K\ ((u\f, ( ^ =
zeFy

= max (w(z))=min v(z).


zeFy

(3.2)

zeFy

(3.1) (3.2)
v(y)=maxi;(z),>'eAr1;

(3.3)

zeFy

v(y)=mmv(z),yeX2.

(3.4)

zeFy

(3.3), (3.4)
*(y)Ux,=^ 1 C).

(3.5)

(3.3), (3.4) (3.5) 189


. ,
Tz l(z)^k 1
v(z), ,, 1() = .
1 v(y) (3.3), 2, v(y)
(3.4). v(z)
(3.3), (3.4) ,
fe1.
.
, 1 ()
zeFy,
. 2, 2 ()
zeFy,
.
,
( ), (3.3), (3.4)
. ,
, , , .
2 (
) , . . Fx 2 \J X3.

v (x)=max v (), xeXt;


(3.6)
yeFx

v(y)=mmv(z),yeFxczX2[jXz.

(3.7)

zeFy

(3.7) (3.6),
v()=max [min v(z)], xeXv
yeFx

(3.8)

zeF

2,
v (x)=min [max v (z)].
yeFx

(3.9)

zeFy

(3.8), (3.9)
() |,6^2=1 ().
3.4. . 2.1,
,
, ,
, (3.8), (3.9)
. ,


,
190

-
?

,
, (
, , )
.
.

.
4.

4.1. . 2.1
( )
.

,
.

. .
5. ,
. 19. N={1, 2} .
. 2.2, . 19 ,
2.
, .
, \ = {\, 1, 2, 2, 2), *2 = {\,
1) .
8 2 .
1 = (2, 1, 2, 1, 2), 2 = (2, 2).
10
1, 1
, ( '2).
(t/j, 2 )
,
.
, 4
1
,

1.4. 1
1.4

2,
1
2 2.2,

(?) it) am w

191

1 10 .
, ( 1)
( \ J .
4.2. .
.

r=
<UvU2,KvK2).
2 2
. ,
, 2 1, . .
2=1. 2 ,
, 1 2, . .
1 = 2- 15 ,,
. (\, 21) (', '22)
1\ 2 . Tix, 2
\, 2 ; vt(x), v2(x) .
{('), (u2i)x} {(*), ()*}
, * v1(x)=Kx((u*n)x, (*21)),
2 ()=^(( ; 2 ) 1 ,( 22 ) 1 ).
(uv u2) .
, ,.
Z=(x0=z0, zv .... zi) , (uv 2).
. (-)
1, :
(z*)=zk+, zk 6 Z(]Xt,
(4.1)
"i () = () yeXv .
2(*) 2, :
2 (zk)=+1 Zf]X2,
(4.2)
"2 () = "2i () 2, Z.

4.3.
:
1. ^ ( 2 i ( - ) ) , u 2 (-))=^(z,), ^ ( u ^ - ) , u2(-)) = H2(z,).
2. , 1,
!<! ( )> zkeZf]Xx Z,
-) t z'k+u
, ^ ) , . . z'k+i^zk+i.
192

2 () ,
* ! ( ! ( ) , 2(-)>1-

(4-3)

, 2 2(")
zkeZ(~]X2 Z, 2 (')
z'k+u
2('), . . z'lc+i^Zk+i,
() ,

^(SiOWO)^**)-

(4-4)

, , .
. (2 (), 2 ())
. (1(-), 2 (')) ,
fc=0, 1, ..., /1

- u2(-))>Vl(zk),
# 2 ("i( - ),

(4.5)

u2(-))>v2(zk),

z0, z1( .... zt , (^ (), 2 ()).


4.4. '(-) (')
1 2 1 2
Z = {z0, z lf .... z,},
(' (), ( ^, t^ () 2 ()
, 1() = 1,(5) zkeZf]Xt 2(*) = 22&)
zkeZf]X2. (].() 2 (-))
.
,
, (;,(), t 4 ( ) ) = * i ( 2 i ( - ) , 5 2 ( - ) ) > i & ) ,

K2(UnC), 22(-))=2{1{-),

(4-6)

2(-))>*2&)>

fc=0, l, . . . / - 1 ,
. 4.3.
(4.6)
1 ] (-) 2 2 (') \ 2
, .
, .
.
,
^|((")> 22('))> *,(-) \2{')
1 2 2
.
193

,
(
),
,
.
,
, , ,
.
5.


.
.

,
.
.
,
. 20.
5.1.
. ()
0, ,
u=(u 1 ,..., ) U, ut
,
/ = 1 , 2, ..., , .
, , i= 1, ..., , , ,(,), Vi(u,)
,
0. ,

, .
0
0 (, vu ..., ), , / = 1,..., ,
,
v, A, (u v,).
5.2.
(+1)- (
0
Bit .... )
.
0 ueU,

. 20
194

U={u = {uv .... u):Ui>0, UteR1, / = 1 , ..., n,

0 .
/ ,
0 i'- .
. 5.1 ,
0, vte Vi(ui),
VAud^faelfivtA^Ut+a,,
v,>0}.
(5.1)
v, 1-
;
At i-ro
(4,^0); <(
- (<,^0).

,()>
,: (1(..., ,, .... ) U ,(;) Vt(ui).
V i = l , ..., .
. 0

(, !(), ...,())= * '("')>


,>0, ateRm , / = 1 , ..., ; a(Vi(Ui)
, ,(().

Ki(u, V^),

..., Vn())

= CiV,(u,),

,>0, Cje.Rm , i = l , ..., .


, =(/, Vv .... F, K0, Kv .... .).
5.3. .
,*(() Vt(u,)
( )
max / =, * (, i= 1, ..., ,

(5.2)

t)(eK,(uj)

195

* U
max K0(, v\(), ..., v'(.)).

(5.3)

lieU

, (5.2) (5.3)
. , (5.3)
(
, a v'(u,), ,
,). , (*, [(), ..., v*n())
. ,
0(*. v\0, ..., v*())>K0(u, .;(.), ..., JO), ue U.
, /= 1, ...,
,(*. !(), ..., v'()) = ct v'i(u')^Ci ,(*) =
=Kt(u*,

!(.), ..., *-i(), <(), *+i(), -., v'())

,() Vt. , 0, , ....



(*. !(), - ())> - - . ,

Sc{Bl,.... }, Kt i-ro
vj(),je{l, ..., n},j=i.
6. ( )


( ,
. 5.1, 5.2).
-.
6.1. . 5.1, 5.2
, ,
S<=.N= {0, Bv .... }
v (S) :
' 0, S= {A0};
(6.1)
/?(0), 0 #
v(S)=i

196

(6.2)

IBieS

max

{el/: i=*}

i-BjeS

i:BeS

(cii+Ct) v*(ud, 0 S,

(6.3)

v*(u,), i= 1,...,
(5.2).
(6.1) , {Blt ..., }
0,
v,=0, 2 = 1, ..., ; (6.2) ,
0 S (6.2),
5 ; (6.3)
, S, 0,

.
S , 0.
=(\, ..., ') ,
(6.3) ( i'.BrfS
(=0). S<zS, 50, 0S
:
(,+ ,(?)^ I (,+,);(?)=
I-.BJBS

i:BteS

= I (a,+c,K(J)+
i-.BieS

(,+,);(0).

i:BieS\S

S, RcN, Sf]R=0 00. 0.


( ^0, ,^0, ( >0, / = 1 , ..., ,
i:BteS\jR

i:BieS[jR

= (ai+ci)v'i(ud+ E (,+*(0) =
i-.BjeS

i.BjeR

=v(S)+v(R)4>.

a,v'(0)>v(S)+v(R),

UBjeR

a,-i>*(0)>0 0
i:BieR

. .

. A0fS\jR
S=A0R
v(S[jR)>v(S)+v(R) .
, v(S), (6.1) (6.3),

({0, , .... }, v) v.
6.2. (+ 1)-

= (,'((), ,v\(,), ..., '()),

(6.4)

/-1

197

u = uN. ,
:
fc0

i-1

2){o=I>.e?(Ui)>0=0*o).
^=c,;(i)>c,i;*(0)=i;(5(), / = 1 , ..., .

-.
. 10.1 . III
(0, t, ..., ) -

&>(5)

(6.5)

ieS

Scz{A0, , .... }.
, ' -.
S={A0], S e ^ , ..., }, (6.5) ,

0=2>^(".)>0=*({0}),
i-l

&= <^&)> I c,*;(o)=e(s).


/5

i-.BjeS

i-.BidS

i 4 0 e 5 / ^ 0 , (6.5)

^^(+
f:2,eS

i:B,-6S

(*(=
(:(#

i:B,6S

, (6.4) -,
S:A0eS
,;(,)> (a,+cf) ['("-v.'(",
,
198

, v(N)=ma.x (a,+ci)v'(u), ,

<-1

,
max max
ueU vkeVk(u0

X( a *+ C *H
\_1

( . III
).
6.3.
, : S

N\S.
.
,
.
, , 0
Blt.... ,
.
0 1 ,...,
, Bt, .... . ,
0, . () 0
=(1, .... )

U={u=(u1, ..., Un):uk>0, !, *$6, =7}.


*-i

,
0 .
() , 0, . .

Bk(uk)<zfT .
, ()
, . . >
{') =>(), , (0) = 0 (
).
x=(xlt .... ). 0
/0 ()^0,
1()^0, =\, ..., (
199

).
, 0

/0(*)= /(**),
1() 0,
. , /(jtfc)^0
() 4(0) = 0, /(0) = 0, =\, ..., .
5,
. 6.3 (+1)
, 0 U,
.
() , . 9.2 . III.
S v (5)
( . 6.3)
S N\S, S
, S .
N={A0, Bit .... }.
S(A)=

sup

sup

{ueU: Y.uk=b}

{,

*-1

{['(**)+4(**)]|U-1

*=1

, Sc{Blt .... }, v(S)=0,


0
N\S, , , ,
S (. . 0 =0 k:BkeS,
(0) = 0 BkeS). ,
v(Ao)=0, BV ....
0 , *=0 = 1, ..., (
). , S 0,
, 0
. :
Z(S)=

sup
{ueU:

Z
k-BkeS

sup
*=*}

xkeBk(uk)

J
^k:BkeS

[l(xk)+lk(xk)]\
J

k:BkeS

S:A0eS.
, 200

= (0, 15 ..., ):,^0, '=0, 1, ..., , a,=(JV)


1=0

.
6.4.
(. 21).

i?2. , Bv
, 2 ,
.

.
,
.
, .
, ,
,
.
,
. .
, , 1- 0
() u = {ult 2)
U, U 0. U
2
. ,
ut ( Bt (uj), , ,
2
( 2(2)). co^sB^(ux) 22(2)
1 2 .
^ 2, 2,
3- , . .
1 2.
( 2), (
) .
0, Blt B2,

v, ,
lY (v), l2 (v), l3 (v), / 4 (v),


,
0 =(1, 2 ) U,
Bv B2 ^ (),
>2(2) uvico^ 2)
201

1(1), 2(2), {w, 2) (


1; 2, Q,
( ),
, .
,(, (), 2 (), ())/((((!( 2(2)), i=lA,

= (7. 15 2, , Klt 2, , 4).
6.5. .
.
(15 2), (eols
2) (J Bx () 2 (2) v* (coy, 2) ueU


max /4 (v)=/4(* (!, 2))-

(6-6)

(>,,) 3 )

(, (6.6) .) *()=* ( ,
2) (6.6) ,, >2 v* () .
(
1( 2) '(1# M 2 ) = {BI(I)> (" '2- '}
By 2?2, /2 = /2 (* ( , 2)), /3 = /3 (* ( 2)).
.#! '(1, 2) coy e l ^ (
2 22(2). , '(, 2)
,
(co*(uy), cof(u2)). , ?()
MiHco.QeB,, i = l , 2 .
, , * = (*, *)
:
max ly{v*(a>t( ? (2))).
(6.7)
ueV

. (*, cof(), *(), *())


.
. * (6.7)

(*, cof Q, ?(), v*(.))=maxly(v*(cof(11 a>J(u2)))>


^/ ( (mf ( ?( 2 )))=^ (. o)f Q, ?(.), * ())
U. cof (uf), cof (*)
'(|, *2),
(), (*) = (*)
2(*. (), <?(), v*(.)) = l2(v*(cof(uf), cof(uf))>
202

> / 2 ((&!, 2*(K2*))) = * 2 ( U * ,

1(.),

0*0,

())

.
v* (6.6) :
4(*, cof , >?0, * 0 ) = / 4 ( ' ( 4 * (<?))) =
max
/4 () > /4 (v) = * 4 (*. cof (), ? (.), ())
t;eC(cu*(f),cu*(J))

i;()eC, v(cof(uf),
cof(uf))=veC(cof(uf),
co?(uf)).
.
6.6 ,
5 {0, Bv B2, Q v'(S)
S S,
,
S' = {A0, BV C}\S. ,
v 0 e(^ 2) 15 2, /,(0) = 0, /=1, 2, 3, 4.
:
\)S:C$S;2)S:CeS.
Sa{A0, Bv Bz) ,
N\S, vo:/f(vo) = 0, i = l , 2, 3, 4,
v'(S)=0.
v (S)
:
) S= {}
v'(S)=min min
min
max /4()
uet/ a ^ e B , ^ , ) 2 2 ( 2 ) DEC(cDlt<U2)

( , max min );
) S={A0, )
i/(S)=max min
min
max (/x () + /4 ());
n e t / ^,) <D 2 EB 2 (U 2 ) oeCCtBi.a)!)

)5={5 1 ( }
t/(S)=min

max

min

max

(l2(v) + U(v))'>

ueU <U,EB,(U,) <B2eB2(u2) ^ . ^

r)S={B2,C}
v'(S)=min

max

min

max

(/3() + /4());

n e t / U J E B J ^ J ,,(,) (,, 2 )

) 5 = ^ , 5 2 , }
4

v'(S)=min

max

max

max

)'>

ueU <u,6B,(u,) 2 2 ( 2 ) 6C(ma)j) ,-_2

) 5 = { 0 . ^ 1 . }
203

v'(S)ma\

max

min

max

/,();

)5={ 0 , ^ 2 . }
v'(S)=max

max

min

max

J] /,();

et/ OjeBjCuj) o^Bjfu,) oeCfOj.ojj) fi 3 4

3) S={A0, Bv B2, C}
4

'(S^max

max

max

max

/,().

17 ,,(,) eu2eB2(u2) oeCCo^.CDj) ,- = |


, . . S, Ra {0, , , },

Sf]R=0,

v(S{]R)>v(S)+v(R).
7.

7.1. 1 4
,
=(, F),
,
.
/ ut(x),
Xt Fx.
,
,
, ,

Xh ,
. ,

.
.
.
,
[9].
6. ( ). 1- , 1
{1, 2}. 2.
1, {1, 2}.
1. 2 ,
{1, 2}. ,
1 ( 2 (), . .
204

-2

-5

. 22

),
:
( 1 , 1 , 1 ) = - 3 , (2,1,1) = 4,
( 1 , 1 , 2 ) = - 2 , (2,1,2) = 1,
(1,2,1) = 2,
(2,2,1)=1,
(7.1)
( 1 , 2 , 2 ) = - 5 , (2,2,2) = 5.
G = (X, F) . 22.
, 1,
, 2.
X, 2 Y
X, Y, 1 , ()
1 ()= { (xt), ut (x2), uv (3), (), (5)},
{1, 2}
X. 2 () 2
2 ( ' ) = : { M I ( } ' I ) , ")}'
{1, 2}
. , 1 32 ,
2 4 .
32 4, , (
. 2.1), .
, 4.
1 : (2, 1, 1, 1, 2),
(2, 1, 2, 1, 2), (2, 2, 1, 1, 2), (2, 2, 2, 1, 2), 2
: (1, 1), (2, 1).
7.
6. . , 1
{1, 2}. 2.
1, {1, 2}.
/. 2 ,
205

.23

{1, 2}.
(7.1), 6.
G = (X,F) , , 2,
, ^., 5 ( 3- ), 1 ,
, ,
(3- ), , xt.
G 2, 3, , 5 (. 23).
,
1 ,
. ylt ,
, 2, ,
. ,,
4 , ,
1.
, ,
.
.
2 , ,
6, . . (1, 1), (1, 2),
(2, 1), (2, 2). 1 .
3- ,
, . ,
(
{1, 2}) ,
. 3-

{1, 2}.
(,/), {1, 2},je{l, 2}, i xt,
j 3- 2, , , 5.
, j
206

{2, 3, ;4, 5} =j.



(1.1) (1.2) (2.1) (2.2)
(1.1) - 3
-3
2
2
(1.2)
-2
-2
-5
-5
(2.1)
4
1 4
1
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1 5
.
19/7,
1 (0, 0, 4/7, 3/7),
2 (4/7, 3/7, 0, 0). 6
1 .
.
, 7
4 4, 6 32 4.
,
, ,
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.
,
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8. , 1
{1,2}. 2, ,
1, {1, 2}. , 3-
, 1 {1, 2},
2 .
, 6 (. 24).
, ,
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. 24
207

-5

i i

. 25

,
.
9. , 1
{1, 2}. 2, /.
, , 1
{1, 2}, 2 1- .
, 6 (. 25).
1 (, j), /-
1- , a.j 3- . 2
j 2- . , 1
, 2 .
4 x 2 :
1
(1.1) 3
(1.2) - 2
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4
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2
21
-5
1 .
5

19/7,
1 (, 0, 4/7, 3/7), 2 (4/7, 3/7).
,
7, . . ,
2 1.

.
10.
, , , . ,
.
,
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( 208

) .
, 1,
{1, 2}. 1 1,
, ,
{1, 2},
{1, 2}.
1 2,
. , 1
(, , z), , , z 1
2 . (, , z)
:
*(1,1,1)=1, *(1,2,1) = 7,
*(2,1,1) = 5, *(2,2,1)=6,
*(1,1,2) = 3, *(1,2,2) = 9,
(2,1,2)= 1, * (2,2,2) = 7.
, ,
, ,
2- 3- .
. 26. 2
,
. 1 . 2
,
, , . . (1,1), (1,2),
(2), (2,2).
,
, {2, (2,1)}. )
2, ,
(2.1) 1. , 2.
, {2, (2,1)} (2, 1, 2)= 1. -

. 26
209


(1,1) (1,2) (2,1) (2,2)
11
3
7
9]
2|_5
6
1
7J

17/5,
1 2 (2/5, 3/5), (3/5, 0,2/5,0).
, (.
. 2.1)
,
.
,
7 10,
.
7.2.
.
.
:
1) G={X, F)
0, .
2) X + 1 X,,
2, .... , +1, X,
i- i=\, ..., , X+l = {x:Fx=0}
.
3) - K(x) = (Kt (x),..., ())
xeX+i; Kt(x)
i- .
4) i=l, ..., ,
{,
i- .

, . .
, {: \FX\ \Fy\ (\FX\ Fx),

, . . \,
{ , yeFx (. . 1.2).
(. .
1.4) 4,
Xt
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210

, ,
XJ,c:X,(xeX{).
4
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,
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i ,
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8.


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8.1.
.
.
, , . . {(, y):yeFx}.
\Fx\ = k, .
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1, ..., ,
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. 0
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(F~l, ), (. 27).
,
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={: = }. l = {X\:X\<z
X,}
i.
i

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27
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211

/ xeXJt, (=1, /
.
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() = (1(), ..., ())
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.
xeX+i
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() i .
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, , xePossM,().
212

8.2.
, . 4.2 . I
.
. , i

i, ut()
qUj() (
qu).
fi=(p.i, ..., /
(,
+1)

() = 1, (), ()=0
.
. )
.

_,..=

{u():xePossuj(), / - 1 , )

(8.1)

/ - 1 {<:,}


. 8.1.
,() i

,(/) = ()(),
(8.2)
xeXn+i

() (8.1).
. /
,
, :)>0. \ i
{
,.
/*, Poss
,
Rel/i,.
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213

(. 3.3), ,
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( )
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( ),
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.
, . .

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.
, .
.
. ft, i
,
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b(XJ,, v)^0, v = l, ..., ,

2>(nv) = l,
V

Ak={x:\Fx\ = k).
b(X{, v)
v X{czAk,
.
P=(filf ..., )

:
^/>= b(X{v).
(8.3)
X'fp+0

\ v , {(~]0,
{ (~) v
, .

,
().
E,(fi) fi = (fil} ..., /?,,)

,(/?)= 1=1
,
, +1.
214

8.4. ,
,.
.
n,= {qUi} i,
, .
XJ,eRelfih
{{, v)={*,***-*)
I

(8- 4)

AT^Relft, \ /?,
, (8.4) . { Af-^Rel
Hi (8.4) .)

{,)=
X
9,
(8.5)
.
. /?, i, a # = {?<,}
,

pt , /*,.
8.5. .
i- , ut(-), X\, x AT{eRel
< xeXJt , jcePossw,.
, i-
,()
,(-).
, ,
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(. . )
( ).

,
.
8.6. . ;
. xeXJ,
, i, veco.
215


Tl(o))={ui:XJleRduu,(X])

= v}.

Tt{co)
i.
{) = {1{-), -, {)), ,({).
. . ,
, ,{), , ()
I, (, , /
). , Tt{co), .Y^eRel ,
, Poss (). , . 8.1,
,
.
. ,
(), ,{) i.
AfjeRelM/, , ^^.
. .
8.7. . .
v {) , xeXJh
, i { )
,. S ,
S={ut:XieRelUl,u,{Xi)=v},
T={u,:X'!eRelui}.
S=T.
. u,eS. A^eRel uh
, xePoss ut. , . 8.1
,
0 ut{XJi)=v. ,
i 0 , . .
G Poss uu Xki eRel , .
(. .*eRel , ,
j>ePoss . , xePossu, ut{X^)=v, . .
u,eS. .
8.8. . ,
{
).
216


E,(P)=E,(n),i=U:.,n,
,
.
. .
. .
, ()=11() .
/, (
, XJ,eRelfilt {[\0, ,
/?,,
b(X]it v)=0, veto. <) = 0.
/|()=0 .
, 1-
, ,
i= 1, 2, ..., . i
, \,.... \,
{ Vj, j=\, ..., s. (8.4)
. 8.7
Ub(Xivj)=
J-l

qU{.
(,()

, i 1-
X), <(-),
(8.4) b(X\, Vj) .
. 8.7 (8.4) ({, ,)
({+\ vJ+1),j=l, ..., s. (8.3)

-1

u,eTt(fo)

,() . 8.6.
. 8.6

, = ..,-9()=
"

qv.4m.

. . ()=^(), .
.
. i, , 217

A^eRel , , yeXJ, ,
xePoss Poss ,. ', ,
Poss u' ,
'. , /,
1/2
, ,. Pulltl{y)-PuUi{co)=\j2
( '/z, ,
, /z,).
Poss , , ,
'\\ . , ,
[) = [)0 u,(Arf)^u,(Arf). , ,
A"feRel u eRel ,. /?, ,
,. b(Xk, M,(Arf)) = l/2. He ,
, ,('^{X1,). (\, ,() = 1/2.
/? ,
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PU|ft(co)= 1/2. .
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9.

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218

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[5, 11] ,
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1 2
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,
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, . 8.8
.
, , 1.
xeXi
, .
-
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, , ^ (
=)
. . 8.8
(. .

)
.
v(x), 1
v(x).
xeXt 1,
1 ( ),
Fx. '
: 1 , ,
2 yeFx,
2. , ?
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2 2, . .
'=,/?).
,
xeXt 219

Ax = {v[Tx(a, )]}. ft () = {{ (, )}, #,(*) =


= {'(, /?)}
.
.
.
1 ( 1
)

1 , . .

bt(x, a) = bf(x, a).


{2({, /?} 2
ft
2
, . .
x=F~\ {.

:
v(x)=Vtd{v[Tx(a,P)]}*xeXi,
(9-1)

(*W,=#(x).

(9-2)

( Val A ).

. 2.1.
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. N
, .
(), ,

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, ( 1),
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); ,
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1. ,
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:
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1 %-J'
1_ 1

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%=Va

'["i !-,}

(9)

v ()
.
v(x) vN. , vN_t < 1,
, (9.4) , . .
(9.4) . (.
. 9.1 . I)
V

N =

>

(9-5)

-^(~1 S)-

(9 6)

vN. (9.5) 1

tN=

tN=tN_1,
-1
2
tl l. tN= (N+l)/2,


. , (9.4)
-1
1 1
, , . , , :
|_ 1
(N-2)/N J
221

\JV+1 +1/

\JV+1 JV+1/

12. (-
). 1 2
Rr ,
. ,
, 2
. ,
1.
, .
1 , 1,
2 , 1,
.
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1 k(k=\, 2, ..., ) , 2 1(1=1, ..., Rr)
.
rvairv,.,,
VallV.n
Vair t / =Val Valr
v

*-u

air*.,_iJ'

1 . 0 =1,1 =-1.
1- , . .
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= I
: r^i

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(1/2, 1/2).
2- , . .
,
^ 2>1.
e, 2 =Vair,,=Val

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1

2,,=12,, = 1

_U

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l_ , ' I .i+ 1 _ 1

1_~~2'

3- (. .
) 222

: 13, T w , 3,1.
/ IT! t[Vl*
w=Vairu=Val

"U-1
3
=^-=--,
2

L-l ,J

w =Vair w S =Val|

3,i=Vair3,,=Val

2,1

1,2*1

2,lJ

1 - ^ - 0 .
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4'

iV-ro
, :
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-1.-

,.*_,=Vair r .,_,=Val
J>r-l,R-r

.--lj

TrR_r
1,
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Kvr.R-r-l+vr-l,R-r),


(1 /2, 1/2).
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2 ); 2 (1 2 ).
.

: ;
; ;
. ,
.
, , , .
v{mv m2, 1, 2).

v(mlt m2, nv 0)=v(mv m2, 0, 2 )=1, mlt m2>0,


, ..
v(mlt 0, 1( n2)=v(Q, m2, nv 2)= 1, nv 2 >0.
: (/i !)=(! 1, 2, nv n2),
v(m2\)=v(mi, 2 \, 1( 2), v(nl l)=v(m1, m2, ^ , 2),
=(2 \)=v(ml, m2, n l t 2 1). . 9.1

223

v(mv m2, nv n2)=Val


LflOij-l)

-1)"
e ( m 2 - 1).

,
. . 9.1 . I
(1( m2, n^ n 2 )=-

v(m,-l) (/w^-lJ-tKnj-l) (2-1)

(/!1)+(2 !)(! l)(n2 l)

(9.8),
e(mlf 1, 1, 1) =

(!- 1)+1

-(^-+

v(l, 1, 1, 1)=0. (9.5),


(9.6), , v(m, 1, 1, l)=(m 1)/(/+1)

11.

1. 4 . 2.2.
2. , -
()
.
3. v1(x), v2(x), ..., v(x) 1, 2, ...,
.
) , i>,-(), i=\, 2,..., ,
:
i(x)= max ,(JO. xeXu i=l, 2,..., ,
()
!


.(*W +1 =#<(*)

(-2)

) ,
(10.1)
(10.2).
4. ,


.
5. - 4 . 2.2.
6. ,
-
.
7. , ,
Uz . ()=1/1).
224

, , ( ) UXo
~

zb

, ()eU:k, ()={1 (), ..., ()) {)


:, 0 = {0, zlt .... z^} , u()eUXo.
, 1
- I/', .
8. , . 7,
, () UXo, z* e {z,} = , {z,} = <
(), () UZk () UXa,
z

() - z*
(-).
, ,
, .
9. , ,
% - ,
.
10. , v ({/}, z), i = 1,..., ,
1- %, . .
v ({/}, z) ,
\ i N\i, .
N\ i
ke{N\i}, ^
[\
/ (UJ, ^,) ](, ^),
N\i ](, AT\I)-

i({i'}, z) 4 . 2.2.
11. ,
(,->0, i = l , ..., ) ({/}, z) = 0 / = 1 , ...

..., z e [J Xh
i=i

.
12. fc-
, , /- (i= 1
~\),
/<fc1
i=kl.
,
.
13. . 12 fc-
.
14. , a = {JJ(JV), 0, ..., 0} -

(5). , ,
, .
15. ,
.
16.
225

. 0
5 , , ..., (,
, i).
17. . 7.1.
.
18. 8 . 7.1.
19.
. :
. ,
1,2,..., i,
i + 1 , i1 .
j , =0, 1, ...,
. , ,
.

, . . i,
i + 1 , i i 1.
, , ,
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,
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, .
(,/> ,
i,
j . (i, J) ( ).
, 4TO(i, 0)=0, i = l , 2
v=(l,j)=0,j=l, 2

|>7, i=2, 3
=1, 2
(
, ), . :
i 1, i, i+1,
. : i 1, i,
i + 1 . ,

" 1 + ( i - 1 , j-1)

(i, j-1)

(i-l, 7-1)

l+t>(i,7'-l)

(i-1, 7-1)

(i.7'-l)

0-1,7)

(i,7)

(i+1, j-1) "


(i+1,7-1)
1 +(i+1, 7 - 1 )
(i+1, J)

*! (i, j), x2 (i, j), x3 (i, J), x^ (i, j) ,


1, 2, 3 4- , y^i, j), y2(i, j),
& , 1, 2, 3-
(
{i,7'})) , (i, j)
(xt (i, f), x2 (i, J), x3 (i, J), xA (i, 7)) (, (i, j), y2 (i, 7), ^3 ('. )
:
(l+(i-l,7-l))x1+(i-l,7'-l)x2+(i-l,7-l)*s+(-l,;')**>0'.A
(i,7'-l) *j + (l+(i,7"-l)) *2+(i.7'-l) xa+v(i,j)
x^v{i,J),
( i + l , 7 ' - l ) x 1 + ( i + l , 7 - l ) x 2 + ( l + ( i + l > 7 ' - l ) ) x 3 - t - ( ' + l. J /)^>('.7).
xl+x2+x3+x4. = l, X!>0, x2>0, x3>0, xA^0;
(l+v(i-l,j-l)) yi+v(i,j-l) y2+v(i+l,j-l) y3^v(i,j),
226

v(i-l,j-l)y1
+
(l+v(i,j-l))y2+v(i+l,j-l)y3^v(i.J),
v(i-l,j-l)
y^vQ.j-l)
y2 + (l+v(i+l,j-l))
y^vfrj),
0'-l.y) yi+v(i.J) y2+vQ+\,J) y3<v(i,J),
\ + + = 1. 34 >0, 2>0, >0. ,
v(i, J) v(i+\, J), (i+l, 7)
v(i+2,J) . . rpj)
.
) 4>(i,j), i = l , 2, ...,70, 1 ,

(j(i, 0)=0, / = 1, 2, ...; <(1,)=0,7=1, 2 , - >
fl)(/,7)-min{(l+4(/-l,7-l)+9(i,7-l)+9(i+l,7-l))/3,

Q+9Q-l,j-l)+9(t,J-l))l2}.
1) , v(i, J)=(p(i, J), v(i, J) = (l+v(i-l,

7-1)+ ft jl)+

+t,(i + l,7-l))/3,TO

*i ft = 0". j)- ('-1, -1), * 2 ft = 0'. J)- ft J-1).


* ft j) = ft / ) - 0 + 1, j-1). *4 J)=>
2) , {i,j)*=<p{i, j), 0',7)=(1+(-1,7'-1)+0",7"-1))2,
*i('.7)=0'.y)-0-1,7-1), * 2 ft /)-(. /)-*('. -1), *s ft -**('../)-,
(/.-(4-1/2:

^ftJ)=o.

) , 7=0, 1, 2,... :
i)ft/)=y/3,1-7+1J+2,...;
2)ft7)<0'+l,A = l,2,...;
3)ft7)<ft7'+l),'=2, 3, ...;
4) ft7) +(!+2,7)<2(i+l,7), / - 1 , 2, ... .
) , :
1) ton (',)=/3 70, 1, 2,...;
2) ton v(i,f)=i\ / = 1, 2, ....
_/-

20. , ,
/, ,
.. /
' , i+\
, i + l, ..., i+k.

.
G(i,j) ,
i- , 7 . v(i,J)
G{i,j). G(i,j)
.(/. 0)=0 /=1, 2, ... , v(i,j)=0, = 1, 2, ..., t,J=\, 2
G(i,J), i=Jfc+l, ...,7=1, 2fc+2
, (2+\) .
: ik, ik+ 1,..., i+k,
227

. :
ik, ik+l, ..., i+k.
, {< (, _/)}
(2fc+2) (2+1),
1+(1+ 1, j 1), = = 1, ..., 2+1,
v(i+n-k-l,
j - \ ) , ; . =1, ..., 2+1,
j), m=2A+2, =1, ..., 2+1.
! v(i+n-k-l,
) , G (z, j) , v (i, _/),
, (,, 2 ,.... 2^+). ( > 2+) , :
2*+2
Omnd.f) Xm>v(i,j),
+1
2*+2

= 1, ..., 2-1,

xm = l, >0, = 1 , ..., 2*+2,


=1
2*+1

". 7) ><0'- = 1> > 2fc+l,


-1

2*+1

I -1,>0,-1, ...,2*+1.
-1

. x1(i, J), x2(i, f)


+ j)
( ),
1-, 2-, ..., (2fc+2)-K> (i, j),
'< (}> JX > +ii'' J) ,
1-, 2-, ..., (2+1)-
(j, j). G{i, j)
.
) <p(i, J), j=0, 1, ...; i = l , 2, ...,
:
<Z>(/,0)=0, =1,2,...;
?(,;)=0, /=1, 2,..., k;j=\, 2,...;
(p(i,j)= min

((l+^v(i+t~k-l,j-l))l(k+2)\

!-/. , * + l \

,.,

(10.3)
/

i=k+l, k+2, ...,j=\, 2


,
1) v(i,j)=<l>(i,j)l
2) i=fc+l, ...; j = l , 2, .., xm(i, j)=v(i, j)v(i+mk 1, j 1)
m=l,..., fc+r*, xm(j',/)=0,>'(i,7')=l/(fc-)-r*) = 1,..., fc+r*, j>=0.
r=r* , (10.3).
) , ./=0, 1, ...:
1) v(i,J)>Q, J = 1, 2,...;
2) v(i,j)=jl(2k+l), ''==fc/'+l, */+2, ...;
228

)(|,<0"+1.=1.;
4) v(i,J)^v(i,j+l), i=k+l k+2, ...;
5) (|'.+1)<(/./)+1/(2*+1), / - 1 , 2
) G(i, oo). , fimv(i, j)=u>(i) i = l, 2, ...,
j-ao

u> (i)

- I W(!-P)-1, t-k+l, k+2,...


-\
:
*(!)*= -(2)=...=>(:)=0.

1.


,
(), 1 2 ( )

.
,
,
.
1.1. xeRn, yeR, ueUczRk, veVczR, f(x, ), g(y, v)
- , R" x U R* x V
.

*=/(*, );
(1.1)
y=g(y,
(1.2)
0, 0. ()
0 (0)
R" (1.1) (1.2),
ueU(veV)
, .

. ,
t ueU, veV
/ .
, ,
/ ve V,
. , ,
.
ueU, veV
230

. (/), y(f),
(1.1), (1.2) ,
, .
1.2.
,
x(t), y(t). , ,

. (), ()
.
((), ()), (, ) ,
R" Rn. ,
((), ()) = ((), ()),
(1.3)
((),

())= /^(),())2

(), (), ,

.
.
(1.3) ,

.


, .
,

:
min p(x (t),y(t)).
,

. "
m- F, .

tn={mmt:(x(t),y(t))GF),
(1.4)
. . tn ( (/), (/)) F.
/>0 (x(t), y(t))$F, tn +.
(t), (t)
t ( /). , F
/3s 0,
231

,
/>0.
1=0,
,
.
.

,
/,
,
,
/ .
(, Z),
(, Z). ,
, ,

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,
. /<
(. (1.4)), 1.
t = , +1 (
, ).

.
1.3. . ,
(, )
FcR ,
.
. ,
+1,
F ( )
. ,
F (
/, / ^ 0),
/, F.
,
F.
1.4. 1. ( ).
.

1 = 1, 2 = 2, uf + M^a 2 ,
232

xt (0)=*?, x2 (0)=*S, , )=\, )=2, 0&.


(1.5)
(1.5) ,
,
/?
.
= (1, 2),
ui + ul^cr ( U),
( ).
, ,
= (!, v2), v] + v2^p ( V),

. , >", (, Z)
, . .
/ /-
.
t
(t), . .
. ^/?, (, Z)
(, ),
(, )^1. , (0,
)>1, ,
,
0, 0, .
,
. ,
,
0, 0, >/?
, ,

.
2.
,
.

}=3, 2 =, 3 = 1 3,
4 = .2 4., \+\^2,
1=.2=4.'=1>1-3,

4 = 2- 4>

(1.6)
2

V l+v\<P ,

(xv x2), (ylt 2) , (, 4), (,


4) ,
, /? ,
.
233

,(0) = 1, ,(0)=1, 1=1, 2, 3, 4.


,
. 2
U, V
U{u = (ul, 2)\\ + \^< },
F={w = (l5 v2):v]+vl^p2}. ,

,
/?. ,
, > ( )

.
1.5. U, veV

. ,
.

. , .
. IV,
,
.
x(f),
y(t) t tt0,
.
() (, , t) (v(x, , t))
U(V).
[1].
.
. ,
(, , t), v(x, , t) .
, ,
( ) (, ,
t), v(x, , t) (1.1), (1.2)
, v 0,
0 [0, 7].
:
x=f(x, u(x, , /)), y=g(y, v(x, , 0).
(1.7)
(1.7)
f(x, ),
g(y, v) (, , t), v(x, , t).
,

. -
() (, , t), v(x, , t).

234


.
, (, , t),
v (, , t), ,
.

(1.7) [t0, 7].

(, , i), v (x, , t), (1.7)
, [/0, \.
(
) ,
(, , t), v (x, , t),
(1.7) , .
1.6.
- .
- ()
{, ), 0=t'0<t\<...<t<...
[0, ) ik, ;
, 4
x(ik), (tk)
u(t)eU te[ik, 4+i) ( (f),
U). , -
() {, ],
0 = t"Q < t\ <... < t' <...
[0, ) tk, ;
, 4 x(t'k),
y{tk) v(t)e V
[4. 4+i) ( v{t),
V). - ,
,
[tk, tk+l), .
-
, -
.
u(t), v(t)
(
U, V).

x=f(x, (/)), y=g(y, v(t)), t>0.
(1.8)
(1.8) .
- f(x, ), g(y, v)
, . . fix, )
R"xU, a giy, v) R"xV \[f(x, u)\\<a,
235

Il^(y. II </? ( ||z|| R"). , f(x, ) g{y, v)


, v, . .
\\f(x. u)-f(x2> iOIKaJXi-XjH, ueU,
h(yi.v)-g(y2,v)^piyi-y2\\.veV.
,

0, 0, (/),
v(t), [7\, TJ, 0^.<2,
- x(i), y(i),
(. . ,
) [^

x(t)=f(x(t), (/)), y(t)=g(y(t),,(/))


(1.9)
(1)=0, y(Tj)=y0 (. [68, 36]).
1.7. (0, 0)
(1.8). S={x0, y0; (), ()}, (), (),
. S
x(t), y(f) ,
JC(0)=X O , (0)=, fe[0, 7], >
(1.9).
, ()={8,
], () = {, ).
0 = tQ<t1<...<tk<... [0, ),
8, . (1.9)
. [tk, tk+i), =0, 1, ...,
a, b
u(t), v(t), [f0, tt)
(1.9) (0)=,(0)= .
[tlt t2), x(t1)= lim x(t),
-/,-0

y(t^)= lim y(t), (1.9), u(i), v(t)


[tk, tk+l), =\, 2, ... . x(t2)= lim x(t),
(()= l1 (*)> , ->(j-0
x(t), y(t) , (0)= , (0)= x(t)(y(t)),
{0, 0; (), v()}, (
).
1.8. . ,
S=(x0, y0; (.), ()} -
x(t), y(t) .
236


,
.
() ( , ,
).
.
. >0
(, ) (, ).
S={x0, y0; (-), ()} :
K(x0,y0;u(.),v(.)) = H(x(T),y(T)),
x(T)=x(i)\t=T, y(T)=y(t)\tmT ( x(t), y(t)
, S). ,
(, )
, .
. (, )
. 5={ 0 , 0; (-), ()}
min H(x(t), y(t)), >0 .
(, )=(, ), .
. R"xR"
F (, ).
S={x0, y0; (), ()}>
(x(i), y(t)) F.
(0, 0; (.), ())=/ H(x(t),y(t)) dt

( t=ao, = ), x(t),y(t) ,
S. =\, K=t
- .
.
: +1,0, 1
( (/), (/)) R" R". R" x R"
F L mY 2 .
S={x0, y0; u(), v()}t
(x(t), y(t)) F.
( + 1, ( (tn),y () 6 L,
(0, 0; (), ()) = < 0, f = oo,
1-1, ( (/), y(t)) .
1.9.
,
237

. . . 1.1 . I
= <, Y, ), XxY
,
1 .

, 0, 0.
(0, y0)eRnxRn
, . .
,
(x0,y0)eR*xRn.
.
( 0 , 0), ,

(0. ) = <- JV . (> 1 (). ())>.
K(xQi y0; (), ()) ,
.
,

. ,
.
,
.
,
.
1.10. , -
( )
. ,
>0 -.
s- (. . 2.3 . II).
>0. S,=
= {0, 0; (-)> ,()} - (0,
0), () v()eE
(0, 0; (), v,(.)) + e>K(x0, 0; ,(.), .())>
(1.10)
^(0,0;, (),()) ~.
,(), (), (1.10), - .
. 2.5 .
.
. (0, 0) >0
-.
238

lim K(x0, y0; ,(.), .()).


-

. V{x, ),
(, ) DcB?xl?
lim (, ; .(.), .())= V(x. ),
(1.11)
-0

(, )
(, y)eD.
>0 -
(0, 0) (. . 2.5, . )
sup inf (0, 0; (), ())= inf sup (0, y0; (), ()).
() ()

()()

(0, 0) > 0 - , , (0, 0)


.
. * (); v* () ,
(0, 0; (.), v*(.))>K(x0, y0; *(), (.))>
*( 0 .; 0 ; *(.). )
(112)
() u vQeE. S* = (x0, y0; *(), *())
( 0 , ;0).
*() v*() (1.12)
.
(0, 0)
(. . 3.4 . I)
max inf K(x0, y0; (), ())=
(.)(-)

= min supAT(x0, y0; (), *(.)).


()()

, ,
>0 -, . .
V(x, ) (, ; * (), * ()) (.
. 2.3 . II).
1.11. .
. (* (, , t), v* (x, , /))

,
(0, 0; (, , t), v*(x, , t))^K(x0, 0; u*(x, , t),
v* (, , t))^K(x0, y0; *(, , t), v(x, , /))
0-13)
( (, , t), v* (, , t)) (* (, , t), v {, , t)),
, [, )
239

(1.7) 0, 0. *(, , i),


v* (, , 0 .
. ,
(,
, 0> v(x, , i) -
, . .
(1.13) (, , t), v (,
, i), (*, v), (, v*)
( (1.7)

).
, ,
-
.
- ,
.
2.

2.1.
,
1 . IV. -
R". R" ()
1, yeRn 2.
xeR", yeR" Ux, Vy ,

R". 0, 0. 1-
1 2 / e F>0.
2 1 JCX e UXo.
xt, yt 1 2 UXl ny2e Vyx,
2 / 2 UXl . .
- _ _ xkeUXk_x, Vyk_v
2 /
xkeUXk_v JV- x w e [/,_,,
yNe VyK_t xN, yN.
Ux, Vy, xeRn,yeRn
, . ,
> 0 >0, |JC0|<^ (\0\<&)
240

(U^=>UX. (/,).=>/,; (V,X=V,.

(V,)t*V.

Ut(V,) - U(V).

(. [12]).
. /(1, / )
Uxx Vr \UX}, \Vy}
, ,
f i (, y)=ma.x minf(x', / ) ,
/eVy

x!eVx

F2(x, y)=min min/(f, / )


*eVx?eVy

_ , .
x=(x0, .... xN) y=(y0, .... yN)
1 2 , .
2
max f(xk,yk)=F(x,y),
(2.1)
/(, ) , . 1
(-F) ( ).
, ,
. . ( )
, +l, 1, ,
yk+i 2 .
1
(, , t) , (.. , ) UXk_r 2
v(x, , t) , v(xk-\, - k)eVyk_v
(
).
1 2 (, , t), v(x, ,
t). ( (), v ()) .
1- 2 0 yt=v (0, 0
1) 1 0 = (0, j>i \) = (0,
v(x0, 0, 1), 1) ( 1 2). 2-
2=^(1, yi} 2), = (1, ,
2) = u(xlf v(JCX, yv 2), 2) . . -. 1 2
_ yk-i yk=v(xk.i, - ), ={- ,
k) = u(xk-i, v(xk-i, -i, ), ). , ((),
()) 1 2: =(0, ...
., xN) =(0, .... yN), , ((), v()=F(x,
), (2.1).
:
241

(, j'o) N,
(0, 0, N).
(0, 0, N) (, , ),
:, , .
2.2. ,
. 2.1 . IV .
. (0, 0, N)
V(x0, y0, N)

V{xQ, y0, A:)=max {f(x0, y0), max min V(x, , k-1)},
(2.2)

xeUXi)

k=l,...,N;V(x,y,0)=f(x,y).

. N=1. *(), *()
( 0 , j'o, 1) :
min f{x, y)=f(u* (0, , 1), ), ye ;
*
max min f(x, y)=f(u* (x0, *, 1), *), v* (x0, y0, l)=j>*.
,

xeV

xa

(*(), v*())=max{f(x0,

y0), max min f{x, )}


yeVy<> xeUXo

(), v () (0, 0, 1)

*(*(.), .(.))<*(*(), v*QHK(u(.), *(.))
N= 1.
,
N^n N=n+1, . . (0, 0, +1).
(, , ), xeUx, .
ujy(), vlyi) (, , ).
x

("(-)> *()~ V( ' > )> ( > - )


(2.2). f(x, ) . 2.1,
V(x, , ) , .
" (), v" () ( 0 , j'o, + 1)
:
min V(x, , )= F(w"+1 (0, , 1), , ), {);

*eUx0

max min V{x, , )= ("+1 (0, , 1), , ), v"+ (x0, 0, 1)=,


* **VXa

0, 0 vn+ (, , 1) "+ (, , 1)
:
242

un+l(., *)=;1(.,

-\),=2,...,+1,

+ '()=<, 1 -.:-1)=2 ) ...,+1.


^ 6 UXo, y16 F>0 , 1-
(0, 0, +1). ,
("+1 (), vn+l())=max{/(x0,

y0), max min V(x, , )}. (2.3)

(.) 1 (0, 0,
+1). (0, , 1)=1 j>=,,+l (:0, 0, 1), ^(-)
() (:, , ), UX(>, ye Vyo.
:
("+1 (), Z"+1 ( max{f(x0, y0), V(xlt , )} =
=max{f(x0, y0), K(unxJ(), <*())}<
<max{Ax0,>;0), K(uxj(.), ^ ())} = *((), " + 1 Q ) .

(2-4)

K(un+l (.), S"+l 0 ) > * ( 5 " + l (), ())


<2-5)
() 2 ( 0 , 0, +1).
(2.3) (2.5)
N=n+1.
.
_
( 0 , 0, N),
(0, 0, N) ,_ 1.
, (0, 0 N) 2
*_1, -\ UXk_v
/. 1 *- -
, . 2.5 , (0, 0, N)

V (0, 0, N)
"(*> - k)=max{f(x0, y0), min max V(x, , k-l)},
_

**

k=l,...,N,V(x,y,0)=f(x,y).
(2.6)
2.3. '(;0, 0, N) ' (0, 0, N),
(0, 0, N) ( 0 , 0, N)
. ,
2 1 243

, . . (%, yN). . 2.2


(2.2),
(2.6)
V'{x, , fc)=max min V'(xf, ', -I),
/eVy

x-<=Ux

k = l,...,N,V'(x,y,0)=p(x,y);
V'{x, y, A;)=min max V'(xf, y',
3ieUx

(2.7)
k-l),

/eVy

k=l, ..., N, V'(x. , 0)=p(x, )


(2.8)
. ,
Ux
, Vy /?
(>). , 2 ()
, /?,
1 () , .
,
1 .
.
N , 2
.
,
(2.7).

V{x, , l)=max min p (', / ) .


(2.9)
/

x!eUx

Ux V, /?, ,
Ux-=iVy, V(x, , 1)=0, Uxj>Vy, V(x, , 1)=
{, y)+fl a=p(x, y) (apr) (. 8 . 2.6 . ).
,
, Ux-=>Vy, . . (, )-(~)<:0,
[>
)
'
\(,)-(-),,
, ,
V(x, , 1)=[0, {, )-(-/?)].
(2.10)
, ,
:
V(x, , Jt)=max[0, p(x, y)-k(a~fi)], k^2.
(2.11)
(2.11) =\. ,
=. (2.7) 244

(2.9), (2.10),
V{x, , m)=max min V(x', ', /1) =
=max min {max [0, p (x', y') {m 1) (a - /?)]} =
=max[0, max min {p(x', /)}-(>" 1) (/01=
y'sVy

xfeUx

=max [0, max {0, p (x, y) - (a - 0)} - (m -1) (a -ft)]=


=max[0, p(x, y)~m(a~P)],
.
V(x0, 0, )=(0, 0)-(-),
. .
(0.0)()>0, 2
- _
yk-i Vyk_v x*_i. -
yk-.i ( 1)- , =1, ..., N.
1 -
UXk_v .
,
0, xv .... xN, y0, ylt..., yN ,
0, 0. V(x0, y0, )=0,
2 , 1 .
max min (, )=0, , &

xeUXk

(+ 1)- , 1 2.
3. -

3.1.
-
-
, . 1.6. ,
( (7), (7))
.

:
P:x=f(x, );
(3.1)
E:y=g (, v).
(3.2)
(/), (t)elf, (t)eU, v (t)eV, U, V 245

R R , te[0, ).
. 16.
. ' (0) xsR",

u(t)eU, 0 t, . . x(t0) = x0,
(t0+t)=x. ' (0)
0 t.
'()
t 0.
, / , g ,
' (0), ' {)
:
1) ' (0), ' (0) 0, y0^Rn, t0, te[0, )
(t0 ^ t) R";
2) ' (0)
, . .
<5>0, \tt'\<5,
' ( 0 ))<8. '
,
R" :

>0, 0 ", te[0, )


(0, '0)<8, * (.0),
(0).
*

* (, ) = (' (, ), ' (, )), ' {A, )=max p (. )

{a, i?)=min (, ), R".


(0, >>, ) , 0,
y0eRn ,
. (0, 0, )
. /0 = 0
0, . t=T
, ,
( (7), (7)) (. . 1.8). te[0, 7]
246

(0, , ) t,
. (0, t0, t) ( (,
t0, 0) (3.1) ((3.2)),
0 () [/, t].
3.2. > 1 . <$=/2"

(0, jo, ) ? (0, , ), i = 1, 2, 3.
* (0, , ) . 1-
, 0, (0),
, 0
, (0). - , =2, 3, ..., 2",
, xk_xeCP{xk_-i)

-1(-), ^{-\).

, *-

- , (x*_i). 2"- ,
, ( (), (7)), ; {) ,
()=2.
, - ,
(xk_t), CE {-\)
(-
(1)8, ), (_, (1)6, 5), ,
t=8 ( (), v () [( 1) 8, kb~\,
(3.1), (3.2)).
I (0, ) ? (0, 0, ) ,
- 6 (x*_i), - - ,
, , , ykeCsE (yk-i) ' (0, , ) | (0, 0, ) ,
2"- 2 (x2_,),
( (), (8)),
(T)=Xg. (-8)=2
3.3. . Tf (x0, yQ, T), / = 1 , 2, 3,
, , < Val ? (0, , )
0, R". ^ 0

Val Tf (0, , T K V a l ^ (0, 0, ), =2"8.

(3.3)
247

. r f (0, , ), i=\, 2, 3,
, 2.
f (0, , )
Val r f (jc0, y0, ) 0, 0 . 2.2
. Tf (0, 0, T), i\, 2

Val ? (, , )= max

min Val r f (x, ,

T-S),

Val ^ (x0, y0, T) = min

max Val | (x, ,

T-S)

xecr(XQ>
Val r f (x, y, 0)=Val * (x, , 0)= (x, ).
. 2.2. . I,
(3.3).
3.4. . > 0
Val rf (0, 0, 7)<Val rf+' (x0, y0, T),
Val J- (x0, , Val rf+' (0, 0, ),
8=*/2.
.
. .
? (=* (,),
* (x,)=Cffr (,), i=0, 1, ..., 2 " - 1 .
Val rf+ (XQ, , ) = max
min
+1
+1
,,. <0) ,
ty
max
min Val rf+' (x2, y2, T-28+1)^
H+l

y2eC

+1

frj)

x2eC

(*,)

max

max

+1

+1

y eC

min

l
min

+1

+1

x eC

V x2eC
= max
n

^(P 2 <V
Val rf+ (x2, y2,

(x

p
min
n
x eC (

Val rf"+' (xu yu

i*c fr(P i
V
,
248

-2+1)=
T-5).

Val Tf+1 (, , 7)2* max


n

y^C

max
n

min

(y,,)

min ...

*]6C

(xj

p (x2, y2)=\al ?" (x0, , 7")-

3.5. . 0, yo^R", T<ao


:
lim Val ? (, , ) = \ Val |- (, , ),
-

/<5=/2 .

. >0. (),
v () *" (0, >0, 7).
" (, , 7). (), v ()
0, {, ..., 2, 0, ..., 2.
2" (0, , ), |" (0, 0, 7)
2 ( (), v ()) = (2, 2), ( (), v ())= (2, 2_^.

2 ( (), * ( ) * 3 ( (), ; ())+ {2_{, 2).


(), v () :
Val | (, , Val | (0, j 0 , 7) +
+ max

max

(, 1).

(3.4)

\$6 (), Cj - *" (y\n) Cj(y 0 ).


(3.4) 0, yfy.
,
Val (0, \\ 7)<Val | (0, \, ) +
+ max
^

max p (, 1).

(3.5)

'()

Tf" (0, 0, ) |"( 0 , 0, )

249

Val Tf (JCO, y0, T)= max Val J (x0, yfr T).

(3.6)

t ' ()
()= (3.5) -.
^ (). (3.5), (3.6)
Val ? (0, * T)>Val | (0, \\ ) - , ().

(3.7)

V a i r f " ^ , , T) (3.7)

Val ? (*, , 7 > V a l J- (x0, y0, ) - , ()-, (),


(3.8)
2 ()-0 -+. (3.8) -
( . 3.3, 3.4

),
Urn Val ? (JKO, 0, ) > lim Val f- , 0, ).

(3.9)

. 3.3 .
, (3.9) .
3.6. . 3.5 ,
[0, 7]
<={/ 0 =0</!<...</= ),

=\,...,

tj+l tj=TI2",j=0, 1,..., 2" 1.


. 3.5 . 3.3, 3.4
<7 [0, 7], . .
, +1 ( , an+i
)
(()=max (f,+i-/,)-* 0.
/


[0, 7] {<} {}.
.
lim Val ? (0, , 7) = lim Val rf-

0, y0eR", T<co.
250

(JC0, y0,

T),

. ,
, ,

lim Val ? (, , )> lim Val ( (0, 0, )..
-*

. 3.5
lim Val ? (0, 0, ) > lim Val rf (0, , ).
-+0

-00

Val pi (0, 0, 7)>Val rf-i (JC0, 0, ).


[, \ ,
crm], '.

'
Val \ (0, , 7)<Val rf-i (0, 0, )<
<Val (0, , 7)<Val ? (, , ).

Val * (, , 7)<Val ? (0, 0, ).


(3.3), ,
.
3.7. . 0, 0, < (0, 0, )
- >0.
Val (JCO, , ) = lim Val ? (0, 0, ),

(3.10)

{}
[0, 2].
. >0
, , () , ()
, (-) v Q e E

(, , (), v ())-^

(0, , (), v, ())<

< (, , (),.()) +

( 311 >

. 3.5 [0, \,
251


Val Tf (x0, , 7)-lim Val ? (x0, y0, T)<
n-+cc

lim Val (JCO, , 7)-Val (x0, y0, T)<


2

'() = (, au,), ve () = (er, b^, a^, b^


P"u J (0, , )
1(,,7).
:
(0, 0, (), v 0)<Val ? (, , )<
< lim Val 5 (0, , 7)+-,();
-

(3.12)

* (, , (), ' ())^Val (0, , )>


>lim Val (, , 7 ) - - , ().
-

(3.13)

(3.12), (3.13) . 3.5


-'-< (, , (), v ())-Urn Val " (0, 0, )<2

(3.14)

(3.12)(3.14) (3.11).
(3.14) (3.10).
.
3.8. .
( (7),
()).
. .3.7
, ( (7), (7))
(/), (t). ,
min p (x (t), (*)), . .
.


.
252

4.

4.1.

, . 1.8.
, .
, Rn x R" F= {(, ): (, ) < /,
/>0}, (/), (/)
( (), v ()) 0,
tn (*, , (), v ())=min {t:(x (/), (0)?,
(4.1)
/, (JC (t), (t))eF, t (0, y0; (), v ())
+.

(0, , (), v ()) = / (0, ; (), v ()).
(4.2)
5=( 0 , 0, (), v ()) { (S)}
( ).
0, ,
(0,0).
(4.2) ,
(, )
/>0. , ,
.
4.2. (0, 0)

.
(0, , )
(
min p (x (t), (/)). ,
> 0 -
- (. . 3.8). V (0, 0,
) , V (0, 0) (0, ),
.
. 0, V (0, 0, )
[0, ].
. 7'i>7'2>0. vjl ()
253

(0, , {),
, [, {\
max [, V (0, 0, \) ]. ,
max [, V (0, , 7\) ]
[, TJ, T2<Ti.
V (, , 2 )> [, V (0, 0, ,)- ]
(4.3)
(- (0, 0, ) (0, 0, 2)).
, (4.3) .
V (0, 0, ) . ,
, V (0,
0, ) , 4.3.
V(x0,yo,T)=l
(4.4)
. :
1) (4.4) ;
2) ;
3) .
3) V (0, 0, )
, (4.4) , . .
V (0, , ) .
.
1. :
a) V(x0, , )<1 7>0; ) inf V(x0, 0, )>1;
20

) inf V(x0,yo, T) = l.
)
V(x0, , 0) = ( 0 , 0)<1,
. . / (0, , (), v ())=0 (), v ().
(, ) V (, ) = 0.
)
inf V (, , )= lim V (xQ, 0, )>1.
> 0 ( ) 254

v QeE,
/- [, \.
, /-
. ,
, /-
. ,
,
. , /<lim V (0, , )
-

, (0, 0), ,
, . . +;
) 3).
2. 0 (4.4).
V (0, , )
,
V (0, , T)>V (0, , ) < 0,
(4.5)
V (, 0, T)<V (, 0, ) > 0;
lim V (, , T)=V (, , ).

(4.6)

->0

>0.
(0, , ). - >0. ,
, >0 , ( ) ,

V (, , ) + , . .
(, (), v ())< V (, , T) + e,v (),

(4.7)

( (), v ()) (, , ). (4.5),


(4.6) >0 , <
(), < t (e)< T,
= V (, , ) - V (, , ()).

(4.8)

(4.7), (4.8) , <


(, (), v ())< V {, y0,T) + e^V (, 0, ()) + =
= V(xo,y0, ) = 1, (-),
. . , () /- . ,
255

> 0 , >
() , /-
. , 8 > 0 ()
h (, , , (), v ()) < 0 +8 v () .
(4.9)
vs ()eE,
tn (*, , (), vs ()) ^ - 5 () .
(4.10)
(4.9), (4.10) ,
(0, ) 8>0 -
- 0,
(4.4).
3.
(4.4). , , ,
Val (0, 0) = 0. , V (0, 0, 0) = /
, (0, , 0) >0
, (), 0
/+,
(4.4) V (0, 0, )
V (0, ,
) [0, ]].
(JC0, , 0) 8, 8<{ 0,
, . . [0, {\
1+
( >0), , -
[0, ]] . (0,
, ) ( -
), (0, 0) 0 3.
4.4. (0,
). (0, 0,1)
(, ), , (0, ., 0
/.
tl (0, , (), v ())
/ ( (), v ()) ^, <5>0.
. , us, (), v\ ()
, 8- (0, 0, /),
256

t'n+S (, ; (), vi (-)) + e>t'n+s (, ; ? (), v\ ())>


>t'n+i(x0,y0;Zi , v ())-,
(), v QeE.
.
{$}, &^0, <5*-*0, (0, yQ; l+Sfc) >0
-.
V (0, , /+<5*)= V (, , /)
Jfc-oo

(0, 0, I) .
, V (0, 0,1)
{8}
V (, , I) /.
. , (0, 0, I)
,
{8}, 8-*0, >0 8 {8} (0, , /)
, -.
, (0, , I)
, V (0, , (
)
lim /i+<* (, , \ (), vt ())= V (, , /).
-.
6-+0

(0, , /) (
) , (0, , >0
- (. .
), V (0, , 1)= V' (0, ., 0 (
<5*=0 ).
. (4.4)
0 , 0<.
V (0, , 1)( )
(, , V" (0, , /)= .
.
(, , )
257

-* 0 , V (0, 0, )-* V (0, 0, 0)=I


(*( , ) .
8k=V(x0,y0,Tk)-l^0.
V (0, , )
, V (0, 0, )=1+5
. , 8{8) (0, 0, 1+8)
- >0 (. 2) .
4.3). , (JC0, y0, /)
:
Urn V(0, 0,1+ 5k)=lim Tk= 0= V (0, 0,1)
t-0O

/fc-QO

.
) . 4.3. : inf V (, , )=1.

-*. lim (0, , ) = 1. -*

V {, , ) , {7*}
, V {, 0, )
. . 4.4
, {8},
lim V(x0,y0, /+5*) = 7't=7'o=oo.
fc-oo

Jk-oo

,
, (0, , I)
.
4.5. ,
/- ,
. ,
/- .
V (, , )
, yeR"
min ( (0, (*)) :
0<!
1) V{x,y, T)>1;
2) V{x,y, T)<1.
1. V (, , ) ,
>0 ,
258

()
(, ; (), v'B (.))> V (, , ) - .
,

(, ; (), ; (.))> V {, , )->1


() .
, , * (),
min ( (/), >> (/))>/
, . .
/- [0, 7]
.
2.
V (, , )=/ , ( (, )<1, 0
0). V (, , 0) ,
(, , 0) >0 * (),

(, ; .* (), v (- V (, , 0 )+=1+
v ()eE .
, , \ (),
min ( (t), ())</+ -

.
* () [0, 7], , 2
>0 (/+)-
.
( ).
. , yeR", >0 ,
, :
1) ,
1-
;
2) >0 (1+)-
,
.
4.6. > 0 R"x.R
: A = {x,y:V {x, ,
)<1), ; =
= {, : V(, , )>1), 259

, ={, : V(, , )=/}


.
, . >0
\ (),

K(x,y;u;0,v())<V(x,y,T)+E
v () .
>0,
(, ; ,' (), v ())< V (, , )+</.
, ]
/- , .
. 4.5.
. >0
, , ,
:
1) , ', (),
l- [, ]
;
2) , v\ (),
l- [, 7]
;
3) , >0, ', (),
(1+)-
.
5.

5.1. ,

( ).

,
. ()
(() ()
() , . . ,
() ()
,
(/), (v (/)), /[0, 7] ,
x=f(x, ) (y=g (, v)).

(, )= max
min p (x, ),
> 6 W *6C,r<V
260

(5.1)

(. [7, 39, 40])


\ (0) (0) (. 8 . 2.6 . II).
(0, 0) :
1. (0, )>0, (0, 0)\ = (, ,
2. (0, )=0, ? (*) => | (0);
3. V (0, 0, ) (0, , )
( (),
()),
(0,, )^(0,).
, 1
(, ). () ? (). ' \ (0)
jc'eCj (0), (', ')=0, {'=),
2. 3 , ,
| (0),
(, )= min (, ),
)

(0, ).
.
5.2. 4 (0, , )
8 (S = tk+l tk), ,
0, 0.
.
. 0, ^" =,
= 1, 2, ...,
(, )=\ , (0, , ),

(5.2)

, 0, y0elC, 5>0 =5,


= 1, 2, ...,
(0,)= max

min

pT-s (x, )

(5.3)

(Val Ts (, , ) 6 (0, 0, )).


.
261

. 0, y<>eR , ^
(0, )< max

min

yeC^tm)

pT-s(x, ).

xeC'r(x0)

.
max

min pT_s (, y) =

'^)

= max

(:)

min

'(0)

max

1()

min

^)

p (x, y).

i e C j < ()

? (0) Cp~s () cz (x0).


, (0), ~~6 ()
min

p(x,y)^

min p (, ).
ieCTr(xo)

CJ-'M

(0), yeCsE(y0)
max

min

-)

;-'**)

(, )^ max
-'()

min (x, )
)

min

max

min

xeC^xo)

yeCT-'(y)

^)

(,)^

max
^)

min

p(x,y).

xeC^xo)

,
max
yeC^o)

min - (x, y)^ max


xeC^(xo)

= max
>eCjOo)

yeC^lyo)

max
yeC^fy)

min p (x, y)=


)

min p (x, y) = pT (x0, yQ);

xeCTr(xo)

.
.
. (5.2)
(5.3). <5>0,
, R", = 80, 0^1,
ho (*o, )< max
yeC'^fyo)

262

min pVo-a (:, ).


'^)

(5.4)

u () (0, 0,
0) 1- j*eCi(y 0 ),

min

- (, *)= max

min

_ (, ).

(5.5)

(8) , 1-
(), ()
( (8), *, 8).
v () rs (0, 0, 0): /=0
*, t=8,
z

<>

() () [8, 0].
(5.2), (5.4), (5.5) ( (5.2) (0, 0)
{ (, , )
(0, 0) (0 (), v (); XQ, , 0)=
=((.),;(.);
(8), , 0-) =
=-(),*)> min pTo-S(x,y*) =
xeC'r(xo)

= max
'()

min

PT0-S(X,

y)>pTQ (x0, y0).

xeC^lxo)

(5.3).
. , (5.3)
(, .)|-= (, ) , (0, 0)

Fs (, , ). . 2.2,
, (0, )
(0, 0, ).
5.3. . (0, , )
(. . ,
), ,

Val (, , ) = (, ).
(5.6)
. . v* (0, te[0, T]
, 0
263

,
(, 0) = min

(, ).

(0)

v* () = {ff, v* (/)}, [0, 7]


t0=0, tx = T. , v* (-). .
3.4 . I v* ()
(, , ),
Val (0, , )=

( (), ** (); 0, 0, ).

()6

(5.6),
inf ( (), v* (); 0, , )= (, 0).
()

. (0, 0, )
,
Val (, 0, )= sup
()6

= max

inf ( (), v (); 0, 0, )=


()

inf ( (), )= (0, 0).

.
. 0, ^?, >0
(0, , ) ,
, <5>0, 0, ^", ^

(,)= max
'^)

min

- (*. ).

(5.7)

*'(0)

. . (5.7)
. 5.2 (5.2),
(. . 3.7)
(0, 0) = Val (0, , ).
. 5.3
.
264

(5.7) . 5.2,

(0, , )
(0, 0, ), =8, ^ 1, (5.3).
6.

,

, .

. [1] .
6.1. .5.3,
.
, (, , )
. 5.3. (, )
(, , ) , .
ft " " [, )
(, )
. , (,
) ft -

-max gi (, )-mm // (, )=0,


01

veV (_] oyt

ueu

(6.1)

,_! OX,-

ft (, ), gt (, v), i= 1, ..., ,
(. (3.1), (3.2)).
, (6.1)
(, , ) eft. , ,

'

' <

-max gi (, )-max ft (, )<0.

6 , _ ,

ueV

iml

OXi

veV , (, , )eft

V

'

~\

'

<

h gi(y. )=max 2^ gi (, v).


U (, , ) ft :
265

-tft(y.3-lyi(*..i)<0.
ST

~ dyt

(6.2)

~ ,'


, (6.2)
S (, , ). 8>0
, ( (), (), Tx)eS [0, 8].

() = + j * (0, (0) , (t)=y+\g(y


(0, * (0)

(3.1J, (3.2),
(/) v (t) = v
(0) = , (0)=.
8 \( (), (), -)

. _ , 8yt |( (), , (),

-?,

-)

;((),()),[,].

G () , <0 ,
(7 ()< [0, 3].
s

{ G () ?<<5.

(6.3)

,
dp
A f o ^ j W . T-x)

(6.3)
(*. )~- ( (8), (8))^8.
(*)
(, )< max
''()

min - (', 1),


'^)

(5.7).
, , ,
(, , ) , R", > 0
, V (, , ) ( 266

(, ) . 5.3)
R" " [0, ),
,
dV

" dV

" dV

=max gi (. )+min ft (x> ")

(6-4)

V (x, , )\0= (, ). ,
- , v, max min
8V 3V

(6.4) , , , . .

(6.5)
(6.5) (6.4),
(6.6)

(6.7)

V(x,y,T)\T.Q=p(x,y).

, V (, , )
(6.6)
(6.7).
. (6.4), (6.6)
. 5.3
,
( (),
()). (, )

(, )= max

min

H(x',yr).

(6,4)

, . .
(, , )
( (), ())
, V (, , )
[0, ),
, (6.4) 267

V (, , )|== (, ) (6.6)
.
6.2. ,
. ,
, ^
(, )=1, />0. , () ' ()
t .

(, , /)=max min t' (, ; (/), v (/)),

t ' (, ; (t), v (/)) /
. , ,
(t) v (t)
. , (, , /)
.
(0, 0).
4, 5,

.
.
. 0, y0eR"
(XQ, ) ,
, S>0 Xu,yuetC

(, , l)=5+ max

min (', ', I).

(6.4)

"

"


0(x,y,t)Wy)-,=0.

(6.9)


(, , I) , . ,
- , v, max min


- -(
8\ t
(6.8) , , , , . . =\, 1, i> =

\ )
268

4-

(6.8)


(6.11)

0(,,1)\(*.)-1=0-

(6.8) (6.4)
.
(6.4), (6.7) (6.8), (6.9)
,
.
6.3. (6.4).
, V (, ; )
. ./
dV\ .
/
v=v\y,
, g, (, ), / ( ( , ) =\, I ,
3

, U,

V a m ^u m <A m , m=\, ..., c9<v9<<7f, q=\, ..., /,


=(, ..., uk)eU, =(i,..., vj)eV.
dV

dV

" dV

(x. , )-- Z *. )- Z - ft . ")


(, , )=0, xj

8*V

"

8*V

*SV

I r r / r l

imldx,dxk

df,

(_{,

8V

-Z
- * ' - Z I Z -rfA-
,_, 8ytdx
k

'

m-\

dUl

dx

\-l

( 8V \ Xf

>

-Z-[-'0'

'

dx

k hn

(612)

" -

(,_, T)eR [0, )


v (6.4) ,
. ,
( " 3V \
( dV \
0

- Z-/<

.-. -

-- -

(v) , .

269

8V\
( '
- [,
I .

vv .
, (',
(', ',
'. )
.
. I , 8V(x', ', )\
=[.
j=a
1. R ',

.
. / dV(x. ', )\
^ [X,

\ =

, '
=0,
0{

1 - 1 , . . , .

2. . ,
,=' ,
-

_ /

8V(xr,y',

T)\

"

8 / " 8V\

><W

\_

8u

m V/.i dXi\(xr, '. ) '\(. ))

8V /,
. _ / dV(x,y, )\
, =\,
I dxt
\

)
, (', ', ).
, (6.12) ,
(, , T)eR [0, )
d2V
" d2V
I
fi(x, ) 18,
" 82V J ) = 0
- imlI"dxjdx
r8Vr k8ft
- E,1

^'
' *=1, 2, ...,.
,
(f), (<). ' [0, 7]
.
/ . / 8V(x,y,T-t)\\
.
/ _/
x=f[x,u[x,
Jj, y-g\y..\y.

dV(x,y,T-t)\\
JJ

(0)=< (0)=>>- x (f), (l)


270

32V ( (/), (, - " 2v ( (, (, -


88
8,3
1{
8V

_ $> lb ~'> /i (* (0. fi (0)_


,_1

Sxi

_ /

" ( (0,^(0. -

, - -,

-,

-f-r,

3V(x(t),y(t),

(0- ( (0,

T-l)\

J,

-, - / ^ , *(0, - 0 \
,

d (dv ( (, (0, - )\ ((, (, -


.
;
1-1

// (* (0, (
\

J (._,
dxkdxj
^d*V(x{t),Ht),
T-t)
,_ ((0,(0, -Q
+1

( (, (0)
-
. * - 1 , > . (6-14)
,
. (6.13) (6.14)
d fSV (x (), (), - 0 \) \ _ "
( (), (), - 0 9/i ( (0, 2 (0)
arfr(0.y(0.

._,
*-1

<

/8V ( (/), J (,
(0, -\_
-1)\
_rfd /((,

(0, (, - fy ( (, (D)
_"ev(x
,
1 = 1 , ..., .

fe [, ]
( (0, (, - - ( (), ()),

dt\

, dV(x(t), J (j), - 0,
F (0=
,

271

A dV(x (t), (I), T-l)


dyt
yx{t)={vXi{t)},

vy{i)t{vyt{t)},

VT (,/ ) (5(0.>, r-i)



(/), (, Vx (/), Vy (/), F r (r):

,-/, (, (, vx)i - , ; -, ,,
" * . (. )

^ _

*
^ =0, /,

^ _

"

(. (. ,

(6.15)

/-1
fc=l

, , (6.6)

= I Vg, (, ; (, ,))+ 21 VXift (, 5 (, Fx)).


f-1

i-1

(6.15) ((), . (,
(0> ^ (0> ^(') .
(* (Of (0. 0 t=T,
= / .
= , = . :
*.= - / , ( * . ), yt=-gi (. v),
(6.16)
>'
"
(, )

Sgl. (, 5)
* ,, *'

3xfc

3j>*

(6.16)
V(x, , 1) \-= (, ). | t _o=J. |-=-'-

F,lt-o=
'
5( *-*,

y-f'.

*V. lt-0 =

By, xs,

y-/i

(6.17)

Krlt-0- I ^ | t .O ft (5', S (5', , | t - 0 ))+ Z VXj I,.,/, (5, U (J. K, | t _ 0 )).


i-1

(6.16)(6.17) .
[1].
, (6.8),
.

272

7.

7.1. 6 (, , )
(, , ) >0
8 <5>0 .
Vs (, , ) Ts (, , )*.

\imVi(x,y,T)=V(x,y,T)
Ts (x, , )
8
(, , ).
7.2.
6 (, , ).
.
.
Vs (x, , )
Vs (, , )= max

min p (, \),

(7.1)

,6 I () ()

(), ()
, yeR" .
V\ (x, , )
, (
)
(, , ). :
V\ (, , )= max
i,6C(y)

min V\ (, i\, T-S),


{eC(x)

V\ (x, y,T)= max

min V\ ({, r\, T-8),

V\ (x, y,T)= max

min V\ ({, q, T-S)

(7.2)

T>8 V\ (x, y, T)= Vl (x, y, T) T^S, > 1.


(7.2), max min
(), () 8, . .
(, , ).
, ,
: ., ., . . ., 1968.
273

7.3. . , , , 8
[Vg (x, , 7)] .
.
V\(x.y.T)>Vt(x,y,T).

() : \~ ( <= ().
6
~ (\), ()
min

p (I, rj)^ min (?, \).

Vls (, , ) max
ueC^CO

^ max
4 eC^(y)

= max

min

max min p (5, jj)>

(eC'r(x)

ijeCj-'fo) fsCj-'(f)

max min p (, jj)=


iieC'-'O,)

}ecTf{x)

min p (, n)= V (x, , ).

, l^k
V,,(x,y.T)>V'fl(x,y,T)
(7.3)
1=+1. (7.2) (7.3) ,
+ 1 (. , )= max
>max

min V\ ({, IJ, - 5 ) >

min Vtx &4>T-S)=V\(x.y,T\

, >8
. ^ .
7.4. . {Vg(x, , )}
N, iV< - +1,
.
. N=[T/6] + l. ,
VHx,y,T)=V^l(x,y,T).
(7.4)
(7.4)
[V* (x, , 7)]. ,
V, (, , )= max
JeC'^ty)

= max
^)
274

min V?~l \ if1, T-8) =


l

( eC'r(x)

min
{';

max ...
2^()

...

max

V\^N~\ r,N~\ T-(N-l)

min

8).


V$+l (x, , )= max
4eC^O0

...

max

min

min

max

feCjW

if'eC^Oi)

...

V\(f~\ r\N~\ T-(N-l)

8).

(N 1) 8 = <x<8,
VsKS,

,4

,<*)= s\S

,4

,)=*'(?

> 4

> ah

(7.4).
V\ k^N
(7.4) . .
7.5. . {V* (x, , )}
(, , ).
. , ,
. 7.4. ,
Vs(x,y, r ) = lim VI {, , ).
Jt-QO

,
'N=[T/8]+1, (7.2)
-*. Vs (x, , )

V, (, , )= max

min V, ({, , -8)

(7.5)


Vs {, , ) |0<<= max

min p (<!;, \),

(7.6)

,
Vs (, , ) Ys (, , ).
1.6. Vs (x, , ), , (7.5),
-
(, , ). , (, , ),
- (, , ).
(7.4),
+1 , 275

6 (, , ),
-.
.
. ,
, ,
. 7.4,
1-
V\ (x, , ) ( ).
7.7.
, .

Vs (, , ) = V\ (, , ), Vbs (x, , )
(7.1). :
+1 (., ) =

max

16[1:1

ijeCjJC)

min V% (<!;, r\, T-iS)


{6CJW

>5, N=[TI5\, *,*1 (, , )= V\ {, , ) ^8.


{* (, , )} ,
{* (, , )},
. 7.37.5.

{ Vf (x, , )}
{Vks(x, , )}.
(, , )
{(, , ) \ > 8}
Vs(x, , ) =

max

/e[l:A1

46C(y)

min Vs (, t\, T- i8),

(7.7)

(*()

N=[T/8), , . .
(7.6).
7.8. (7.5) (7.7).
. (7.5) (7.7) (7.6)
.
. Vs (x, , )
(7.5) (7.6). ,
(7.7) {(, , 7)\>8}.
, :
Vs (, ,)= max

276

= max

min

max

,6CC)

{ec;w

^)

min Vs (,/, T-S)=


min Vs (2f, rj, T28)^
?GC)

^ max
,6Cr(y)

max

min

'^)

(eC'r(x)

= max

min

()

min Vs (5, rj, T2S)-feCf(0

Vs (, r\, T-28)^...

{6C(x)

...> max

min Vs (, rj, TiS)^... .

{ 6 C(x)

i= 1
V, (x, y, T)= max

min F, (5,?, T-5),


Vs (x, , 7)= max

max

ie[l:N\

r,eC'(y)

min Vs (<!;, ?/, TiS),


(eC(x)

N= [/8], .
Vs(x, , ) {(, , )\>}
(7.7) (7.6).
, (7.5).
. {(, , )\>8}

Vi (, , )> max
'

min Vs (,t], T-S).


ieC'tx)

max

min Vs (, rj, T8) =

')

= max
tieC^iy)

min

max

feC^(x)

tell-.N-l]

> max

max

4eC't(y)

ie[l:N-l]

= max
W-.N-l]

()

max
jeC'W

max

min

jeCjfo)

(eC^x)

max

max

min

^)

;()

feC^M

= max
ie\l:N\

max
*()

min Vs (, rj, T (i+l) 8)^


JeC^K)

min Vs (, rj, T (i+l) 8)=


JeCj)

min Vs (, rj, T (i+l) 8) =


JsCjJtf)

min Vt (<!;, r\, T-i8)= Vs (x, , ).

(eCur(x)

277

8.

8.1. 4. ( ).
(jc0, , ),
tC
:
:=(/), ||(/)1, (0)=0,
: = \ (, II* ( O K I , (0)=,

(8.1)

, /? >/?>0, , , , veR".

((),())=\\()-()\\.
* (, ,)
(, , ) >0 .
ts (, , ) N , N= /8.
2 (. . 2.3) 4 (, , 7)
V, (, , 7 , )= {0, \\x-y\\-NS(a-P)}
=
={0,\\-\\-(-)},
,
, .
3

V(x, , r)=lim Vs (, , )= {0, \\-\\-(-0)}.

(8.2)

,
V(x,y, T)= max

min

\\''\\=(, ),

Cl(y) = S (, ) R" /? ,
Cp(x) = S (, <). . 5.3
(0, 0, )
v* (t), te[0, ],
y*eCl(),
(0, )= min

'(0)

278

\\x'-y*\\.

,
v* (j)=v*-<

-
1>-*1

^,

0=0,

v eR" , ||v|| = 1.
6 ,
={(.*7):||-:||-(-/?)>0},

SV__.

3V__dV_

--(fi-P),

Jx~

~Jy-lx_yl>

V (, , ) (6.4):
dV

(dV

- - a m i n [-,u

(dV

-/? i,v

=0.

(8.3)

(8.3)

- (

dV\

dV

3V\

I , =

-=

ly-x\'

(8.4)

dV

-(
v

_ ~

' ~~)~~~1-\\

(8.5)

(8.4), (8.5)
(8.1). (, ),
(8.4), ,

.
8.2. 5. ( ).
.
:
:
/

p^au.-kpp,,

i = l , 2, ||||<1;
279

:
ri=s

s^fa-k^,

(8,7)

i=l, 2, ||||<1;

?.(0) = ??,(0)=^?, ( (0) = ?,


st (0)=sl i= 1, 2; , 0,
fc)

fc,>0.

(8.8)

q=(qi, q2) r=(ri, r2)


1 2 ; p=(pi,p2)us=(si, s2) ;
, ,
.

H(q(T),r(T))=\\q(T)-r(T)\\

=Vfo. ()-, (T)]2 + [q2 ()-2 ()]2.


q=(qi, q2) \ (q, p)
(0)=, q (0)=q
(. . 18)

RP{T)=j^~kpT+kpT-\)

a(q0,p0,T)

q+po1-^-.

, (,

S)

7)=^("*+^-1)

1-"**"

b(r,S, ) = +

5.

priq0, P> r, s),


(5.1),
PT(q,P. r. s)=
280

max

min

\\qr\\.

(. (2.10))
(, . , 5)= {0, \\ (q, , )- (, s, T)\\ -(Rp (T)-RE ())} =
=max

*-"'"^-"^-?.!^4t!_,t^5t!V
2
1

( 8. 9 )


, >/?, > ,

kg

q, p, r, s ,
(q, , , s)=0.
(q, , , s) -
(6.1) = {(^, , , s, J):pT(q, p,
, ^)>0}. , 1

*

dqi

-, ,-

8pi

(6.1)

v (8?

\ \8*

<

8s

'

'

-pm&x - i-amin ,=0.

(8.11)

|u|<i (., dpi

<1 ,, Sst

, v,
:
dPi

,= -

,,

(8.12)

/
dp

W \8pJ

vt=-

/=1,2.

(8.13)

VUi/ + UJ
281

(8.11),

[dp
dp
dp

\
[ \8qt
dp,
dst
)

(8.10), ,
(> > r> ?) Q (8.14).
, (, , r, s)
(8.6)(8.8), ,
(8.12), (8.13),' Q.
(8.12), (8.13), (8.9)
Tj-qj+Si

,=

,
,

"*
1- -
"

= ,

1- -

=, 1 = 1 , 2 . (8.15)

, v
,
( (8.15)), ,

.
9.

9.1.
, ()
, . . ()
(t) [ (/)] (/) [ (t)].
-

. ,


,
.
,
.
,
282

,

/>0.
9.2. />0,
. 0 < / < /
t (;), t
0 . /<<<
/ (t), t (t I)
//. t
(/), (/) t.
,
(
). (0, , ).
. -
v () {, ),
[, 7] 0^ti<...<tk=T

, (tt), (t,) tt
v (<)
Enpute[th
. -
() {, },
[0, 7]
0^t\<t'li<...<t'1=T, , (*1)> {u~h> t't /<f)
(/) te[t'u t'i+i).
f',</ (/',), 0, t\
(/)
te[t'u 'i+i)-

-
.

x=f(x,u), usl/cR?,
xeR",
y=g (. v), veVcR9, yeR".
(9.1)
,
(9.1)
(i), v (i)
, -
(9.1)
- ' Q e P , v ()
0, - , ( (), v ())
0, 0
283


(*, * , v ()) = ( (7), (7)),

(9.2)

(f), (0 (9.1) 0,
0 ( (), v ()), .
9.3. ,
(0, , ) -
>0.
, . .
[47].
-
(),
.
6.
\=, ||||<,
E:y=v, | | K l ,
(9.3)
a>p>0, x.yeR1,
u.veR2.
( (7), (7)), (t), (t)
(9.3) (tQ)=x0, (t0)=y0.
0
,
(1=).
v (, , t) -
. v (, t)
,
, ,
, ( (7), (7))<
7 > (jc0, 0)1(). , * (, , t)
,
: t
, * < /< (t)
- .
(.
4 . 8.1). (t), (/)
(* (, , t), v (x, , t)) 0, >

=* (, , t), (t0)=xQ,
y=Z (x, , t), (h)=yu.
(9.4)
284

( (), ())<. {t) = u* ( (/),


(t), t), * (, , /),
, ,
(/) ,
,
. , ( (t), v (, , t))
(* (, y,J), v (, , t)) ,
v (x, , t) * (,
, /), (/) v ( (/), (/), J*)).
, , v (,
, t) (/),
_ , ,
(* (^L ())<, (f), (t) .
v (, , t) , ,
1>((),;()) = 0,
(9.5)
supinf
.
(, )
v (, , t) , ( (, ),
v (, , /)) . ,
(, /) .
(f),

= (, t), (t0)=xu
(9.6)
. (/) ,
(9.6).
() 0 [ (7),>>0]
() .
,
() /?.
_ v (t). ,
( (, t), v (?))
. ,
infsupp(x(r),>>(r))^pT,
(9.7)
inf sup
.
(9.5) (9.7) ,
.
9.4. . -
() ft () = {,
d}, [0, 7]
0=ti<t2<...<tk=T
d-, 285

(f;), (t, t), t, tt>l (/,),


, tj t,^l , (),
(t) t e [th
v ()={,
}, [, 7]
0 = ti<t2--<t,= Tu -,
(, (t\), t\
v, (),
v (t) f e[f *1+!).
F (. .
8.3 . IV).
(), v ()
(/), (0)=JC0; (f), (0)=j>0.
R (0, 0; /* (), v ())
(0, 0; (), v ()),
,
(), v ().
, ,
(0, , ) (0, , ).
9.5. CTf (x) / ()

, ()
" (). , ,

(, )= min
max p (, ).
(, )=(, ), ), ).
, ,
\ (). ,
.
() ,
.
(t) ( (0)=0)
0 < / < .
( (/), 0 , .
(t) , (/).
MeCl~' () ,
(/, /)= max
'^)

286

(', I).

9.6.
_
(). (),
w e | (). ,
\ , .
(<!;, ).
V (, ),
, \ ()
() .
:

(,7)=<5(),5,(',')>.

,
(', ")
. . 5.5 . .
(, )
. ,

(+1) (),
V (, )= (, ). (, )
,
()-
(+1)
() (
, ).
(. 11. 5.5 . II).
9.7. (, /),
. (), ...,yn+i )
' (),
(, /), ()
.
. * (t) -
, * (0)=0,* (1)=,* ()=, (/)
i 1, ..., + 1 .
i -
.
. T^l >0
- (7)
, '( (1)).
(0, , ) (, I), -
,
/2- ().
: 0< /< 1
- * (t)
...,+1 {
287

(, /)) - ,
* ([)= yt (), '=1, ..., +1,
(, I).
. , () v, ()
, .

:
R(< \ II (), v, ()) + >(0, , . (), v, ())>
>R(0, 0; . (), v (.))-, (), v ();

(9.8)

Urn R (0, ; , (), v. (.))=y (M, I).

(9.9)

(9.8)
, (), -
Q e P
R (0, , (), v, ())+>(, , . (), v, ()).
JC* (/)
(. , v, ()).
(0, , , (), v. ())=" , (* (), , ())-

(9.10)

(-1

R ,
'(), . . R=y (M, I). R-s/2^p(x*
(T), , (M))^R+/2
i = l , ... , + 1, * ()
/2- (/). Pi1> &, TO
(9.10)
-/2<( 0 , , . (), v# +8/2,

(9.11)

(9.9).
(), ( I) (, (),
v
()) Q () ,
(( [)). =(\, ...,
+1) {, I)
* = " l , ( (), > ())>7 ( {-), ) =
= ( (-[),[)>
288

p(y\y(T-f)],y)dQ,

(9.12)

[ ( /)] ,
' ( (-1)).
( (), \ (-1)])^/2,
' ( (-1))

( (), )^/2 + ( \ (-1)], y)^R + e/2.


(9.13)
(9.11)(9.13) ,
&(,, . ( ) , v , Q ) >

p(x(T),y)dQ-B,

(9.14)

p (x (T), y) dQ=R (xo, y0; ue (), v ()).

(9.15)

(9.14) (9.15) (9.8).


.
<1
7 > / , ' (0), ' (0) (, I),
(1) (0), (0), (, ), 0.
/-*0 '() , ,
,
(, I).
V, (0, , )
(0, jo, ) ( /
). (,
I), +1
' (), , . .
. ,
1-*0 (0, 0, )
.
7.
=, ||||<; y=v, ||||<j8, >\ x.yeR2.
> (0, 0)/( ) + 1.
' () = ' (0)
/?/ 0. (, I)
'(), . . V(y,l) = pl.
V (, I) ,
~1 (0)
. (, I)
,
289


1() (1/2, /2).
(0, , )
(t l) l^t^T
( 0 < / < / 0) , ,
/2- .
-
0
~1 (0) 1,

'(). 1(0, ,


1.
.
2. =*([, %)
/?. ,
xo=(xf, )
(>), (/-)
. .
3. =(1,

0,
=(, )-
. ,
, .
4. /-
.
5. (, )
, ( ).
( )
.
( (), ()) (), ()
. .
, (< ) ( (), ()) ,
, ( (), ()) (XQ, ),
(0, ).
6. (t)
/}. ,

V(T)={V1 , } {>j (T)+I>J ()=/}. -
.
, [, )
290

{) (), vi ()} (
/?).
, -, [ (), ()],
,
[0, ].
7. ()
/?. -
.
8. , -
(0, 0),
(0, ).
.
, . 5,
.
9. ( -).
, :
() ()
. 2, \, yj, (.
29).
.
.
(. . 29).
.
(\C'P\ = \PC\=R), .

, \, * .
R/\PCi\,
], , ;
, 1 < < 1. , :
Xi=<u1sin9, JC2 = U>ICOS0,

yi=a>2sm<p, 2=>2&(, 0=a>{/R .


10. ( -. .) ,
, .
\, 2
;
.

. 29

. 30
291

I
C=(R/u, 0) </(. 30).
,
. , ,
] (du[R), , .

(,-*/?)/<*).

x^d

, :
]

xi = +^,
R

?= \coi+abcosdr,
R

- 1 < < + 1, 0<^<2.


11. , =/2 +2 >0. , max (acos \+) , costy=ajp, sinifi=bjp .
12.
XjaF+a>sinu, l+wcosu,
0<<2,

- 1 < < + 1,

2.
(5.64) (5.66) ,
(5.69)
<*> V-mp-vn=0,

P"y/v2x +v2, P=sgnx,, snu^-vjp,

co&u=-vy/p.

. . 11.
13. ( -.) (6.8) (6.10)
(. 9)
(. 10). vx, vy, v t>2, , ,
5, ,
.
14.
-. (6.10)

(ismfl+2Cos0)+a)2PH 5 + l = 0 ,
R

P = y/v\+v\,

= -Sgns, ='3/,

COS<p=V4/p.

15. . 14 , -,
.
16. (6.6)
xi=u+p, M<a, x2=u+v, M<A\ x(0)=xo

292

( (), ), , AeR2,

.
17. . 16
, ,
.
18. ,

?|=.
4i(0)=q4.

Pi=aul-kpi,

(0)=?. ?+*<1, / - 1 , 2

(q\, qi)

5=?+/>(1-

)/ = (

+kT-l)jk2.

19. , (q, , , s) (6.6),


.
20. ,
:

4i=Pi. Pi="i-kpPi, <1 ' = 1, 2,

- . W<1. '=1.2.
qtiy , .
,
, ,
, .

.
( (), ())= (,? (), ())= / (qi ()-,

())2.

(q, ).
21. (6.6) . 20.
22.
F, . . ,
F.
.
23. pj (x, )
.

24.
={ }>
, .
:
' - 1 , l n 1 ! ^ ! , 0<min{a, 2 },
2
=2,\2\2, JCX, x 2 , yeR2,
=, \ 2 ,
l

veR2.

x40)=x vx (0)=xl,y(0)=y0.
293

min ( (7), (}), . . 1-1,2


.
(\, xjj, ) .
25. . 9.7 ,
Pit .... Pm, ,
.

)
1. . . .: , 1967.
2. . . . .: , 1985.
3. . . . .: -
, 1978.
4. . . . .: . ,
1964.
5. . ., . . . .: ,
1981.
6. . ,
. .: , 1964.
7. . . .
. .: , 1985.
8. . . . : , 1977.
9. - . . .: , 1960.
10. . . . .:
, 1985.
. . . .: , 1971.
12. JI. . . .: - ,
1977.
)
13. . . . : , 1974.
14. . ., . ., . .
. .: , 1986.

)
15. ., . . .: , 1977.
16. . . . .: . 1981.
17. . . .: , 1961.
18. . 3., . ., . ., . .,
. . . .: , 1974.
295

19. ., . . .: ,
1958.
20. . . - . .: -
, 1974.
21. . ., . .
. .: . , 1980.
22. . ., . 3. : , ,
. .: , 1981.
23. . . . . .: ,
1984.
24. . . . .:
. , 1969.
25. . . .: , 1963.
26. . . . .: ,
1976.
27. . ., . . -
- . .: , 1982.
28. . .
. .: - , 1983.
29. . . . : -
, 1981.
30. . . .: . , 1970.
31. . ., . . . .: , 1972.
32. . ., . .
. .: - , 1984.
33. . . . ., 1982.
34. . ., . . . .:
- , 1982.
35. . /.
. [].
36. . ., . .
. .: , 1981.
37. . . - .
.: , 1986.
38. . .
// . 1976. 231 2. . 285 288.
39. . . . .: , 1970.
40. . ., . . .
.: , 1974.
41. . .
. .: , 1977.
42. . ., . . . .:
- , 1977.
43. . . . . 1979.
44. . X. . . .:
, 1961.
45. . .
296

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7. . 12 - 16.
46. . . . ., 1981.
47. ., . .
.: . 1970.
48. . . . .
. .: - , 1984.
49. ., . .
.: , 1974.
50. ., . . . . /. . [. 3].
51. . ., . .
. : - , 1985.
52. . ., . . . .:
- , 1986.
53. . ., . . .
.; - , 1987.
54. . ., . . . .:
- , 1982.
55. . ., . . .
.: , . ., 1983.
56. . ., . . -
. .: , 1982.
57. . , . ., . ., . .
. .: , 1976.
58. . . //
, 1966. . 21. . 4. . 219 274.
59. . . //
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60. . . .
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61. . . . .: ,
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62. . . .: , 1974.
63. . . .: , 1973.
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65. . .
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66. . /. . [. 3. . 40 46].
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70. . .
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71. . . . .: , 1976.
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56 60.
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1967.
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1. . . ., 1967.
2. . . -. ., 1985.
3. . ., . . . ., 1981.
4. . ,
. ., 1964.
5. - . . ., 1960.
6. . . ., 1985.
7. . . ., 1971.
8. JI. . . ., 1977.
9. . . . , 1974.
10. . ., . ., . .
. ., 1986.
11. . . . ., 1981.
12. . . . . ., 1984.
13. . . ., 1963.
14. ., X. . ., 1961.
15. . ., . .
. ., 1981.
16. ., . . .,
1974.
17. . ., . .
. , 1985.
18. . ., . . . .,
1986.
19. . ., . . .
., 1987.
20. . ., . . .
21. . . .: . 1973.
22. . .
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23. . . ., 1954.
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25. . . ., 1974.
26. Owen G. Game Theory. Second Edition. Acad, Press, 1982.


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