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Security Engineering Electronic Security Systems

Security Engineering Electronic Security Systems

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5-4.3.4 Combination. As discussed previously, dual-technology sensors use a
combination of PIR and microwave technology. Techniques of “ANDing” or “ORing” the
microwave signal and the PIR signal are reviewed in Paragraph 5-5.

5-4.3.5 Vibration sensors sense intrusion through vibrations caused by personnel or
vehicular movement. These sensors are not well employed near railroad tracks,
roadways, rock quarries, or runways. Many of these systems use wireless battery-
powered sensors to send alarm signals to a notification station.

5-4.3.6 Video Content Analysis and Motion Path Analysis. The newest intrusion
detection technology for intrusion detection is sophisticated software analysis of the
camera images such as video content analysis and motion path analysis. As previously
discussed in Chapter Four, CCTV camera systems are increasingly being used as
intrusion detection systems. Application of complex algorithms to digital CCTV camera
images allow CCTV systems to detect intruders. The software programming
(algorithms) start by detecting pixel changes and evolve to include filtering to
differentiate and filter out normal video events (leaves blowing, snow falling) from alarm
events (intrusion). The application of software rules can further evolve to differentiate

UFC 4-021-02NF
27 September 2006
change 1, 23 October 2006

87

between a cat walking across a parking lot (irrelevant) to a person trespassing through
the parking lot (relevant to an alarm event). The application of complex software
algorithms to CCTV digital images takes on the aspect of artificial camera, whereby the
camera and processors become “smart video” and start to emulate a human operator.
The differences between a smart camera and a human operator are principally twofold.
It takes a lot of complex software programming (and associated rules) to get the camera
systems ability to differentiate and assess video events as well as the human mind.
With more and more project applications, the gap is closing as the camera systems
come closer to emulating the capabilities of fully alert, very motivated, intelligent security
guard fresh into a watch shift. The advantage of Video Content Analysis and Motion
Path Analysis is that the camera systems do not get tired. Studies have demonstrated
that after twenty minutes, the ability of a guard to discern an abnormal event are
severely degraded. Video content analysis systems do not suffer fatigue and remain
“alert” after monitoring hundreds of video events in a watch shift. Video content analysis
systems can monitor more cameras, more effectively, with less operators at a reduced
total cost (less dispatch center/command center staff) – hence, the increase in
popularity of their application. Figure 5-10 displays a typical system architecture for a
video content analysis system.

5-4.3.6.1 In the current marketplace, video content analysis and motion path analysis
are supported by software companies which are different from the traditional CCTV
component/system suppliers. These software companies supply unique digital
processing hardware and write software to process the digital image information. At the
writing of this guide, the cost of video content analysis varies from $2500 to $5000 per
camera on top of the installed cost of the camera.

Figure 5-10 Video Intrusion Detection System

UFC 4-021-02NF
27 September 2006
change 1, 23 October 2006

88

5-4.3.6.2 Table 5-2 provides additional design guidance and recommendations of use
of video content analysis and motion path analysis systems for wide area intrusion
detection.

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