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Security Engineering Electronic Security Systems

Security Engineering Electronic Security Systems

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Published by: Kasirye on Nov 05, 2008
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Camera Type

Use fixed cameras for video content analysis.

Consider use of pan-tilt-zoom cameras for
assessment, once intrusion detection occurs.

Image Resolution

320 by 240 minimum.

Frame Rate

15 frames per second minimum.

Camera Mounting

35-40 feet; higher is better.

Cameras mounted at 8-10 feet offer the ground end up
with too much occlusion.

Camera must be stable with good physical support.

Distance Between

200-300 feet.

Orientation to Fenceline
or Perimeter

Parallel to the fence line or down to 45 degrees to the
fenceline. (It is easier to detect an intruder moving
laterally than pick up a target traveling down the throat
of a sensor/camera axis.)


Property/Fence Line Detection. Several types of fence-mounted perimeter
IDS exist. With all fence-mounted systems it is critical that the fence construction be of
high quality, with no loose fabric, flexing, or sagging material. The fence should also
have solid foundations for posts and gates. Otherwise nuisance alarms may occur. Five
types of exterior fence-sensing systems will be discussed: (1) electro-mechanical
systems, (2) taut-wire systems, (3) coaxial strain-sensitive cable, (4) Time Domain
Reflectometry (TDR) systems, and (5) fiber-optic strain-sensitive cable systems.

5-4.4.1 Electro-mechanical systems. According to the Perimeter Security Sensor
Technologies Handbook,
electro-mechanical fence-sensing systems use either
mechanical inertia switches or mercury switches to detect a fence climbing or cutting
incident. An electronic controller looks for momentary contact openings of the inertia or
mercury switches. For more information on electro-mechanical fence-sensing systems
refer to the Perimeter Security Sensor Technologies Handbook. Due to advances with
other (better) technologies, electro-mechanical systems are not recommended for DoD

UFC 4-021-02NF
27 September 2006
change 1, 23 October 2006


5-4.4.2 Taut wire systems. Taut-wire fence-sensing systems use a series of parallel
wires under tension with a numerous micro-switches attached to it. The system is very
sensitive, but requires frequent maintenance. For more information on taut-wire systems
refer to The Design and Evaluation of Physical Protection Systems.

5-4.4.3 Coaxial strain-sensitive cable systems use a coaxial cable woven through
the fabric of the fence. The coaxial cable transmits an electric field. As the cable moves
due to strain on the fence fabric caused by climbing or cutting, changes in the electric
field are detected within the cable, and an alarm condition occurs.

Coaxial strain-sensing systems are readily available and are highly tunable to adjust for
field conditions due to weather and climate characteristics. Some coaxial cable systems
are susceptible to electromagnetic interference and radio frequency interference.

5-4.4.4 TDR Systems. Time Domain Reflectometry systems send an induced radio-
frequency (RF) signal down a cable attached to the fence fabric. Intruders climbing or
flexing a fence create a signal path flaw that can be converted to an alarm signal. When
the conductor cable is bent of flexed, a part of the signal returns to the origination point.
This reflected signal can be converted to an intrusion point by computing the time it
takes for the signal to travel to the intrusion point and return. The cable can be provided
in armored cable, which requires more than a bolt cutter to sever the sensing cable.
These systems require their own processor unit and can be configured in a closed loop,
such that if the cable is cut, a detection can be detected by the other return path.

5-4.4.5 Fiber-optic strain-sensitive cable systems are similar to the coaxial strain-
sensitive cable systems. The fiber-optic system uses a fiber-optic cable, rather than a
coaxial cable, woven through the fence fabric. Strain on the fence fabric causes micro-
bending of the fiber cable, which is monitored by the control panel and generates an
alarm condition. Figure 5-11 shows a typical fiber-optic fence detection illustration.
Fiber-optic strain-sensing systems are relatively newer detection systems but have a
strong following. The systems are readily available and are highly tunable to adjust for
field conditions due to weather and climate characteristics. The systems are impervious
to lightning, electromagnetic interference, radio frequency interference, or other
electronic signals and can be used over long distances.

5-4.4.6 Defeat Measures and False Positives. Possible defeat measures include
tunneling, jumping, or bridging across the fence system. Careful climbing at corner
posts may not generate sufficient vibration to generate an alarm condition.

Possible false positives can occur from debris, animals, and plants.

UFC 4-021-02NF
27 September 2006
change 1, 23 October 2006


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