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Technology for communicating information
The word ‘Information’ has many different meanings in everyday usage and in specialized contexts. However, as a concept it is closely related to data, instruction, knowledge etc. Information is usually a message, something to be communicated from the sender to the receiver. But, if information is viewed merely as a message, it does not have to be accurate. It may be a truth or a lie, or just the sound of a kiss. Strangely it may even be a disruptive noise used to inhibit the flow of communication and create misunderstanding. Information can also be viewed as a type of input to an organism or designed device. Some inputs are important to the function of the organism (for example, food) or device (energy) by themselves.
Communication is the process of exchanging information. People communicate in order to share knowledge and experiences, give or receive orders, or cooperate. Common forms of human communication include sign language, speaking, writing, gestures, and broadcasting. Communication can be interactive, intentional, or unintentional. It can also be verbal or nonverbal; Internal communication or intrapersonal communication (within oneself) and interpersonal communication (between two individuals). At larger scales of communication, small group communication takes place between few individuals such as organizational communication in settings like companies or communities. At the largest scales, mass communication can be from a single source to a huge number
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of individuals using various communication media such as newspapers, television or computers.
How do we communicate?
We all use different methods at different times to communicate. We can communicate by making gestures with parts of our body, for example shaking of our head or hands, winking, making faces etc. We also communicate by speaking or making sounds like laughing, weeping or sobbing. At a more advanced level we communicate by writing and reading. At this moment the author is communicating to you through the text and pictures printed on the pages of this book. But, there is yet another way we can communicate. That is by using electrical gadgets, invented by scientists and technologists, for example, radio, telephone, television and computers. For such communication electromagnetic waves come handy.
What are electromagnetic waves?
Electromagnetic waves are a kind of waves that pervade the universe. They are so called because they often originate due to interaction of electric charges and magnets. Light is also an electromagnetic wave. In 1831, a British scientist Michael Faraday discovered that changing electric current in a coil of wire induces a current in a nearby coil. The
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current induced in the second coil is proportional to its number of turns. In 1865, James Clerk Maxwell discovered the mechanism of interaction between electricity and magnetism. He suggested that a change in electric current can start a train of waves, the electromagnetic waves, that radiate into space just like light waves. According to him, the only difference between a light wave and an electromagnetic wave is a characteristic of waves-the wavelength. Not all scientists accepted Maxwell’s ideas; after all there was no proof of the existence of electromagnetic waves. The Berlin Academy of Science offered a prize to anyone who could prove that electromagnetic waves exist. In 1879, Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, a German scientist took the challenge in 1886. Hertz was aware of the work of Faraday. He devised a simple experimental setup made up of two devices. The first device had two coils placed near one another. He passed electric current from a battery into the first wire coil. The second coil had many more turns than the first coil. As per the discovery of Faraday the voltage developed in the second coil was much higher than that of the battery. This current was led to a pair of capacitors. (A capacitor is a pair of metal plates that can accumulate electricity until they can hold no more.) As soon as the capacitors were charged to their capacity they discharged by sending an electric spark between two small metallic balls. The second device had similar balls connected to a wire that was bent into a circle and it was placed at a distance from the first device. He demonstrated that whenever an electric spark was generated in
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the first device a spark could be observed in the second device also, even though the two were not connected through any wires. The only way these two devices could communicate with one another was through electromagnetic waves. This proved Maxwell’s ideas.
Do animals talk?
Animals make a wide variety of sounds, from the musical song of a bird to the howl of the wolf, to the contented purr of a cat. While they are unable to talk in the sense that humans do, they do communicate with sound in a way that is understood only by other members of their own species. Still, we have been unable to translate individual animal sounds in a framework that can be called true language. If and when two animals talk they must use a language. To understand what they are talking about we must know their language. Language is the method by which information is exchanged between two animals. True language is the means by which communication can be possible. Most animals communicate, not through language, but by instinctual behaviours that convey messages to others.
Can plants communicate?
Yes, many scientists believe that in their own language, plants communicate to insects, animals, other parts of their own bodies and neighbouring plants. Plants communicate when they are in danger. They communicate through chemicals secreted by them into air. For example, when insects chew a
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The information processed (communicated) by a computer can be in the form of numbers. remember. the personal computer (PC). words. which interfere with the insects’ digestive systems. a computer. Chemicals may also be released to attract other insects — predators of insects feeding on the plants. It can see. think. read. listen. which help it do its task by stopping or allowing the electric About some substances and their discoveries 5 . and it makes the deer retreat. Computers can also communicate with other computers. Inside all of them is a small device known as a microprocessor (an IC that has billions of transistors inside it. There are other kinds of computers as well. an electronic device manufactured in a factory that can process information and also facilitate its communication.W5H of Science tomato plant’s leaves. can be alive even when there is no electricity from the main power supply. if it is connected to a battery. letters. The terpene doesn’t taste good. The chemicals prevent the bugs from breaking down the proteins in the plant. Nevertheless. Similarly a pine tree can release a chemical called “terpene” in emergency situations. Leaves on the plant that haven’t been devoured produce these chemicals. You may be familiar with one kind of its kind. or sounds. But. Thus the plants issue a twofold defence system against hungry insects. analyze and decide. tell. write. such as when a deer might be chewing on its branches. learn. pictures. signals are triggered that tell the plant to release chemicals such as methyl jasmonate. a computer is not always a desktop PC. While they may look different there are some similarities between all kinds of computers. When the insects can’t properly digest. they become sick and die. What is a computer? A computer is a kind of machine. show.
we often cram up many facts so that we can remember them rapidly when we need them. scanner and web camera are all optional peripherals. A peripheral can be connected to a PC through any of its communication ports. serial and parallel. We often forget these facts and instructions once the examination is over. SCSI etc.) A microprocessor is somewhat like a brain. Then there are some optional peripherals like printer. All computers have memory to remember information and instructions (the programs. CD writer. it is called RAM (Random 6 About some substances and their discoveries . usually by a cable. that allow different peripherals to input information into a computer or take information out of it. fire wire. etc. software). modem. What is RAM? When we sit for an examination in school. The kind of memory we use for this purpose is known as the short-term memory. similarly monitors is an essential peripheral that “outputs” information. Keyboards and mice are the essential peripherals of a PC that help us “input” information. microphone.W5H of Science current through them. Till a few years ago these ports were only of two kinds. In a computer also there is a short-term memory. What is a peripheral? A peripheral is a computer hardware device that is connected to the computer. Now there are other kinds of communication port say USB. All of them need some software (education?) to enable them to perform their functions and of course electricity. One has to buy these peripherals in addition to the PC. speakers.
and they use a lot more bits and bytes than text or numbers. Graphics are stored as values for colors and locations of pixels.W5H of Science Access Memory). To store or convey more information. This type of memory is also in the form of IC’s that are made up of transistors. In sharp contrast to the ROM. 9. About some substances and their discoveries 7 . ?. to do any thing useful. A brief letter may require just a few thousand bytes(kilobytes). it forgets all information in its RAM. When we type in some information through the keyboard. a PC usually has more than 64 MB RAM. it remembers it all through the RAM. ON (often indicated by the numeral 1) or OFF (indicated by 0). Soon after a computer is switched ON lots of instructions (software) get loaded in the RAM. including a part of the operating system (Windows). or a value from 0 to 255. A bit is a device made up of a single transistor. Nowadays. bits are organized into larger units called bytes — the commonly used unit of information in a computer. This enables the computer to act fast. Each byte contains 8 bits and can represent only a single character or command. As soon as a computer is switched off or its power supply is disrupted. However. RAM is a temporary memory. or a space). What is byte? A byte is a unit of information. but to store a postcard size colour photograph may require several million bytes(megabytes). One byte can represent a character (such as A. lots of bytes are necessary. Most data in computers is organized and measured in bytes. that has only two possible states. The smallest unit of the memory of a computer is a bit (an acronym for binary digit).
the hard disk drive. and several other kinds of components that are found in computers only. its brain. commonly known as IC. Computers use the binary system to work with data. the floppy disk drive and the CD drive. Display screens and printers convert the binary numbers into visual characters. the keyboard circuit generates and transfers the number 01000001 to the computer’s memory as a series of pulses with different voltages. made up of a large number of Integrated Circuits. It encases several different devices. All data in the computer is stored in binary code as 1’s and 0’s (bits).W5H of Science What is binary? Binary means “two. In addition all input to the computer is converted into binary numbers made up of the two digits 0 and 1 (bits). when you press the “A” key on your keyboard. What is inside a CPU? The most enigmatic part of a computer is the CPU.” The binary system is a way of counting using just the two numbers 0 and 1. The bits are stored as charged and uncharged memory cells or as microscopic magnets on disk and tape. Inside the CPU.” or “base two. In common parlance CPU refers to the big box that is an integral part of a desktop PC. the ROM and the RAM IC-chips are connected to 8 About some substances and their discoveries . For example.
slower processors was measured in megahertz (MHz). if we had a computer than contained a processor that was running at 1 GHz and it executed an instruction every 100 pulses. In addition the CPU also houses a power supply unit that provides power to different components of the components inside the CPU. 500 MHz is 500 million times per second. Clock speed is built into the processor and is measured in gigahertz (GHz). the CPU of About some substances and their discoveries 9 . the monitor. Since giga means billion and hertz means times (cycles) per second. which are timed by the electronic pulses.0 GHz is 1 billion times per second. For example. Similarly. CDD are all connected to the Motherboard through sockets and wires. it would process 10. The number of electronic pulses it can produce in a second measures the clock speed of a microprocessor. The speed of older. The keyboard. What is ROM? Our basic memory is responsible for the very basic functions of our body like breathing. FDD. HDD.000. What is speed of a computer? The speed of a computer is the amount of data its processor can manipulate in a second. the mouse. drinking or moving our limbs.000 instructions per second. 1. eating.W5H of Science the microprocessor through sockets and tracks of copper printed on a large circuit board. Since mega means million. Electronic pulses affect the speed with which instructions of a program are executed because instructions are executed at predetermined intervals. This printed circuit board is known as the Motherboard.
Next. the disk drives and the RAM. the time. it does not forget. ROM stores the basic functions a computer has to follow as it is switched on. called the Basic Input Output System (BIOS). initiates a check up. What is BIOS? BIOS is an acronym for Basic Input/Output System. called a CMOS. stored in the ROM. nonvolatile memory chip. It also stores all the information about the other parts present in the computer. Therefore.W5H of Science a computer has a chip — an integrated circuit. The BIOS stores the date. it is the memory that a computer uses to check up whether all the parts are present or not and raises an alarm in case something is amiss. First of all. As soon as the power supply to a computer is switched ON a computer program. 10 About some substances and their discoveries . it checks if there is a working monitor attached to the CPU. known as the ROM (Read Only Memory). and your system configuration information in a battery-powered. The BIOS also manages data flow between the computer’s operating system and attached devices such as the hard disk. If it finds one it prompts it to display the details of the BIOS (and the software that enables the display) on the monitor screen. It does not go easily just like our basic memory. Like the microprocessor it is also made up of a particular kind of transistors. this program enables the CPU to check the other basic items—the keyboard. Even when the electric supply to a computer is switched off.
It is squarish in shape (side about 3 cm) and has many electronic switches inside About some substances and their discoveries 11 . and printer. aluminum (or copper) and plastic. Many encyclopaedias. mouse. By interpreting “perfect mirror” as a “1. One can adjust/change the bios setting of a PC by pressing the DEL key as soon as it is switched ON. It is made up of silicon. The surface of the CDROM looks like a mirror. CD-ROM has become the standard for higher capacity storage media and is the best alternative to printed material. Celeron. How does a CD-ROM store information? A CD is a thin plastic disk that looks somewhat like miniature music disks. The laser that reads the CD can detect the difference between a perfect mirror and an imperfection caused by a bump because of the difference in reflectivity.” it is easy to store digital information on a CD. in a computer there is a small device called “microprocessor”.” and “bump” as a “0. It can hold up to 650 MB of information. Because they can store so much information in so little space. keyboard. are now available on a set of CD ’s that can be kept in a drawer. Athlon. the bumps disrupt its almost mirror-like surface. so they are permanent. Microscopic bumps on a shiny surface of a CD are used to store data. What is Pentium.W5H of Science video card. Core 2 Duo? Just as a part of our brain helps us decide and control. which hitherto occupied an entire bookshelf. The bumps on a CDROM are moulded into the plastic when it is manufactured. they have become very popular.
the pointer on the display screen moves in the same direction. which looks a bit like a mouse. the mouse is important for graphical user interfaces because you can simply point to options and 12 About some substances and their discoveries . It controls the movement of the cursor or pointer on the display screen of a computer Its name is derived from its shape. 486. These devices contain at least one button and sometimes. Athlon. PCs are often known by the name of the microprocessor in it. Pentium. Cyrix — they are all names of microprocessors used in the past few generations of PC’s. What is a computer mouse? A mouse is a small object you can roll along a hard. three. Each such switch is an electronic device known as a transistor. flat surface. Each transistor in a microprocessor is connected to many others through microscopic lines of aluminium that act as wires. Some newer mice also include a scroll wheel for scrolling through long documents. A microprocessor used in the PC’s is made up of as many as ten million transistors.W5H of Science it that help it do its task by stopping or allowing the electric current through them. one can imagine its connecting wire to be the mouse’s tail. Douglas Engelbart invented it in 1963. Through selective switching ON and OFF of transistors it is possible for a microprocessor to act like the brain of a computer. Celeron. In particular. Because the microprocessor is the most vital part of a computer. These buttons have different functions depending on what program is running. it frees the user to a large extent from using the keyboard. Xeon. say: 386. These processors differ from one another by their clock speed. As one moves the mouse.
almost any part of the HDD in a jiffy. or paintbrush. Each of these platters has a coating of a thin film of a magnetic material. HDD’s come as factory sealed units that are made up of several aluminum (or glass ceramic) disks. a computer also needs something for the same task. What is a Pen Drive? A pen drive. The mouse is also useful for graphics programs that allow you to draw pictures by using the mouse like a pen. The most common device for this is the Hard Disk Drive (HDD). or written to. What is Hard Disk Drive? Just as our brain stores all information that we have learnt in our long-term memory. The platters are rotated at a very high speed with the help of an electric motor and the read/write head can be moved from the rim towards the center of the platter. Such applications are often called pointand-click programs. It is often the most voluminous memory of a computer. called tracks. called platters. Unlike the RAM it is not an IC chip. This way information can be read from.W5H of Science objects and click a mouse button. The memory of a HDD is divided into concentric circles on its platters. the capacity of a HDD in a new PC has risen up to several GB. A read/write head attached to a movable arm reads information from or write information on these platters. pencil. just like the tape of an audio or videocassette. more appropriately called a USB flash drive is a flash memory data storage device integrated with a USB (universal serial bus) interface. About some substances and their discoveries 13 . By the end of the last century.
particularly the floppy disk. Additionally. although cost per megabyte may increase rapidly at higher capacities due to the expensive components. It is also more reliable because it has no moving parts. it has become increasingly common for computers to ship without floppy disk drives.e. some flash drives.. especially highspeed drives. the memory is a removable Flash memory card housed in what is otherwise a regular USB flash drive. USB ports. However. such as those built into some computer keyboards or monitors. as described below. whereby rather than being built-in. 14 About some substances and their discoveries . faster device that can hold lots of data. the drive must be connected to a computer. Flash drives are active only when plugged into a USB connection and draw all necessary power from the supply provided by that connection.) To access the data stored in a flash drive. or into a USB hub. and has a durable design. on the other hand. It is a compact. the ports found on the computer itself) or a self-powered hub. either by plugging it into a USB host controller built into the computer. (USB Memory card readers are also available. They are typically small. appear on almost every current mainstream PC and laptop. removable and rewritable. These drives will not work unless plugged directly into a host controller (i.W5H of Science USB flash drives offer potential advantages over other portable storage devices. may require more power than the limited amount provided by a bus-powered USB hub. Capacity of this kind of drive is limited only by current flash memory densities. lightweight.
sales of notebooks have been increasing because their prices are approaching those of the more economical desktop PCs. A notebook computer is also known as a laptop computer. Palmtops are generally very thin and have a large LCD screen that may display in colour or generic black on green. Many notebook computers are full-featured. with the power and capabilities found in desktop computers.W5H of Science What is a notebook computer? A notebook computer is a lightweight. portable personal computer. They have neat organizing About some substances and their discoveries 15 . One can carry a palmtop computer along almost anywhere.. and sometimes while in an airplane too through a Wi Fi connection or a wireless modem connected to its USB port. they are more expensive. These days it is often possible to connect a notebook to the Internet while one is at an airport. The notebook can thus conveniently be carried anywhere and is therefore becoming very popular. A notebook PC usually runs on batteries. In the past couple of years. They are used to view documents or show them to others. but can also be run through adapters which also charge the battery using mains electricity. What is a palmtop? Palmtop computers are computers so small that they can fit on the palm of an adult. Because they are designed to be lightweight and take up a small amount of space.
the primary difference between a digital camera and a conventional camera is the medium used to record the picture. the convenience and the ability to record. maintain a to-do list. a digital camera uses an array of digital image sensors.W5H of Science tools like calendars. Most organizers have a graphic user interface with menus for selection. While a conventional camera uses film. What is a digital camera? A digital camera is a camera that records images digitally rather than on a photographic film. the image can be downloaded to a computer and used either for digital documents or print media. Another great feature of palmtop computers is their ability to synchronize with the PC. Some even have the ability to read and store the handwriting that you enter onto an LCD screen with a special pen. Palmtops are useful to keep track of one’s schedule. to-do lists. Most palmtops also have a built-in calculator and some even have a clock with world time zones. edit and email photos 16 About some substances and their discoveries . and even Internet access. which you can use for appointment alarms. email addresses and many other types of information. A digital camera connected to the computer via the USB port appears on the desktop like an additional drive. a CCD. Most palmtops can store hundreds of contacts. numbers. and have the ability to synchronize with information on your PC. Thus. email. address books. from which the user can copy the image files onto his own hard disk or some other data carrier in order to edit or print them. and save contact information. Though digital camera picture quality is on par with the quality of most conventional film cameras. Once a picture has been taken.
Lithium-ion is the most advanced but expensive battery. Liquid crystal materials are rodlike molecules. it also runs approximately 30 min. they can be charged for over 500 times in their life cycle. The TFT-LCD (Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Display) is the non-emissive display device that acquires the visual effect using the characterization of the liquid crystal. Liquid crystal molecules have the unique structure of a bar shape. rechargeable battery. They are less bulky thus allowing more desk About some substances and their discoveries 17 .W5H of Science on a computer make them more attractive and popular. The liquid crystal is the material that possesses the liquid (characteristics of liquid like fluidity) and solid (characteristics of the solid like long-range order) state at the same time. This type of monitor has several advantages over a conventional CRT monitor. it runs approximately 30 min. What is TFT? It is a kind of computer monitor that is becoming popular slowly. (d) NiMH or Nickel metal Hydride is the most often recommended. They run approximately for 60 min. It has superior charge retention. which is inserted between a lower glass plate (film transistor is formed on it) and an upper glass plate. (b) NiCd or Nickel Cadmium is dependable and rechargeable but has a lower capacity. They are compact in size and weight and run for approximately 120 min. that charge very fast and hold their energy longer than other rechargeable batteries. The estimated life of the battery depends upon the type of battery one is using. The operation of a digital camera depends on a battery inside it.. There are a number of alternative types of batteries to choose from: (a) Alkaline batteries are used for heavy currents for a long period of time.
those that remember settings. What is a scanner? Scanner is a device that can be connected to a computer to capture either an image of a text document or a picture and transfer it into bits of information. Toshiba. Fujitsu. and Samsung are the most popular manufacturers of Flash Memory chips (silicon wafers). It can 18 About some substances and their discoveries . Many modern PCs have their BIOS stored on a flash memory chip so that it can easily be updated if necessary. The term comes from its ability to be erased in a flash. These wafers are typically 150 mm. We usually associate Flash Memory with the storage media for images taken with digital cameras. But they are more expensive too. TFT monitors produce less heat and radiation than CRT monitors. because of this you can position the monitor further away from you which is more comfortable for the eyes. Similarly. Cameras that have custom functions. Digital cameras are the largest consumers of high density Flash Memory. AMD. but any camera that remembers information when the power is turned off has some Flash Memory onboard. What is Flash Memory? Flash memory refers to a memory chip that holds its content without power. Mitsubishi. Such a BIOS is sometimes called flash BIOS. use it. most point-and-shoot cameras. and those that have program exposure tables embedded all have Flash Memory inside their housing. 200 mm. StMicro. which a computer can understand and manipulate. Flash memory is also popular in modems because it enables the modem manufacturer to support new protocols as they become standardized. or 300 mm in diameter.W5H of Science space. but must be erased in bulk. Sharp. even most modern medium format cameras. Intel.
The organisation is actively encouraging free software developers to port their applications to the Simputer.W5H of Science capture images from photographic prints. About some substances and their discoveries 19 . Similar in appearance to the Palm Pilot class of handheld computers. a non-profit organization formed in November 1999. The Simputer specifications are released under an open distribution license called the Simputer General Public License or the SGPL. Scanner uses a light source. typically a cold cathode lamp to illuminate the scanned object. With the help of an Optical Character Recognition (OCR) software one can convert text-based document images into text that can be edited by a word-processing software. simple handwriting recognition software is provided by the program Tapatap. posters. magazine pages. and similar sources for computer editing and display. The light is then reflected off the object and into a Charged Coupled Device (CCD). It includes text-to-speech software and runs the GNU/Linux operating system. Scanners come in and flatbed types and for scanning black-and-white only or even colour. the touch sensitive screen is operated on with a stylus. intended to bring computing power to the masses of India and other developing countries. Scanners usually come with software that lets you resize and otherwise modify a captured image. The word “Simputer” is an acronym for “simple. The device was designed by the Simputer Trust. What is Simputer? The Simputer is a small handheld computer. and is a trademark of the Simputer Trust. inexpensive and multilingual people’s computer”.
While the Internet 20 About some substances and their discoveries . Bluetooth isn’t one company. and other wireless technologies. keyboard. The problem with this is that you had to have a ‘line-of-sight’ from one of the devices to the other. There are now thousands of companies using Bluetooth in their products but the first ones to get together were Erickson. monitor. King Blatand (or Bluetooth in English). but a standard way of getting computers and other devices to talk together. the devices just need to be within range of each other. mouse. PDA. For Bluetooth. which communicates using infrared rays with one another. this is within about 10 metres. With Bluetooth. so companies developed a technology to avoid the hassle. The name Bluetooth comes from 10th Century Danish Viking King.W5H of Science What is Bluetooth technology? Until recently.which then sent the data to the printer. Toshiba and IBM. With this one can point a device. It is useful because it not only saves on messy cables but also allows you to easily synchronize information between devices. What is broadband? “Broadband” refers to the technology for highspeed Internet connections that allow for transfer of information at rates far faster than those of dial-up modems. without any cables! Bluetooth is a technology that lets a computer. It’s a lot of work. Nokia. in fact anything with a Bluetooth chip communicates by radio instead of cables. if you wanted to print from your palmtop or digital camera you needed to get a cable and then plug it into the PC . Intel.
A typical dial-up modem operates in the range of 30 to 50 kbit/s. still photos. DVD is essentially a high-capacity. and business information with a single digital format. Transfer speeds for broadband are up to 50 times faster than via dial-up modems. is the new generation of optical disc storage technology. satellite. It is generally 10-20 times faster than dial-up modem. A broadband connection operates at between 256 kbit/s and 10 Mbit/s.5 GB of information as compared to 700 MB on a CD. About some substances and their discoveries 21 . DVD aims to encompass home entertainment. With this unprecedented support. DVD has become the most successful consumer electronics product of all time in less than three years of its introduction.W5H of Science has often been jokingly referred to as the “World Wide Wait” on account of slow downloads. digital video/versatile disc. A DVD can store upto 4. and could eventually replace audio CD and CD-ROM. cable. rather than the herky-jerky experience that characterizes dial-up modems. broadband connections allow people to view streaming media at speeds closer to what might be associated with television. and wireless. including DSL (Digital Subscriber Line). computers. faster CD that can hold cinema-like video. and computer data. It is well on the way to replace videotape and video game cartridges. better-than-CD audio. Broadband connections are offered on a variety of platforms. creating the opportunity for people to download MP3s (compressed digital audio files) or films without having to wait for hours. What is a DVD? DVD.
One of the chief characteristics of laser printers is their resolution: how many dots per inch (dpi) they lay down. What is a laser printer? Laser printer is a type of computer printers that utilizes a laser beam to print. The drum is then rolled through a reservoir of toner (ink). Some laser printers achieve higher resolutions with special techniques known generally as resolution enhancement. makes an image by spraying tiny jets of ink onto the paper. Resolutions vary 22 About some substances and their discoveries . Colour laser printers tend to be about five to ten times as expensive as their monochrome siblings. In addition to the standard monochrome laser printer. Laser printers produce very high-quality print and are capable of printing an almost unlimited variety of fonts. as its name implies.W5H of Science A DVD can be used to store big files from a computer or send them to others just like a CD. which is picked up by the charged portions of the drum. there also exist colour laser printers that use four toners to print in full colour. The available resolutions range from 300 dpi at the low end to 1200 dpi. which uses a single toner. but for doing so one needs a DVD writer installed on one’s PC. What is inkjet printing? The inkjet printer. the toner is transferred to the paper through a combination of heat and pressure. The laser beam alters the electrical charge on the drum wherever it hits. Finally. It is a printing device that generates images by shooting dots of liquid ink against a printing surface.
The story of its invention is rather long but can be very interesting. For monitors. Inks. made the first public demonstration of such a system. and blue because monitors emit light resulting in an additive colour process. These are optimized for nice saturated primary colours when used independently. and yellow. these are red. blue (not cyan). Higher the dpi. For example. inkjet printers use a limited number of ink colours. In 1894. so his work is not recognized internationally. How and when telecom became possible? Telecommunication. Sir Oliver About some substances and their discoveries 23 . Many inventors in different countries tried simultaneously to invent a communication device using radio waves. besides light. Nikola Tesla. He described and demonstrated in detail the principles of radio communication. Like most print processes. The apparatus that he used contained almost all the elements that were used later. green. the colours used in common inkjet printers are not really capable of producing photorealistic quality results since they are red (not magenta). In the same year a British physicist. in 1893 a scientist born in Hungary. absorb light so printing is a subtractive process. Jagdis Chandra Bose. an Indian scientist. Full colour can be derived from three primary colours. also demonstrated publicly the use of electromagnetic waves in Kolkata. the sharper is the image. Many inkjet printers are also capable of printing in colour. on the other hand. is communication through electromagnetic waves. popularly known as telecom. Inkjet printers themselves are very inexpensive. however the cost of printing is relatively high because of the cost of ink. Therefore.W5H of Science between 300 and 1200 dpi (dots per inch). just like a monitor. He was not interested in patenting his work.
He also discovered the need for antenna (aerials). He added a telegraph key to the spark generator. He began by building an apparatus similar to the one used by Hertz. An Italian. they transmit signals from the transmitter to space and from space to the receiver equipment. Edouard Branly of France and Alexander Popov of Russia later produced improved versions of the coherer. In 1898 Marconi successfully transmitted signals across the English Channel. During these experiments he made a lucky discovery: When one terminal of the generator and receiver were connected to the ground. Marconi had developed a device with which he could send signals across a few kilometres. After patenting his invention Marconi established a company called Marconi’s Wireless Telegraph Company in London. By 1895.W5H of Science Lodge. The most dramatic use of wireless was for rescuing ships in distress. an Italian. This coherer was a tube filled with iron filings. Several ships were equipped with wireless 24 About some substances and their discoveries . the world’s first patent for “radio communication”. Many people claim that Popov was the first person to develop a practical communication system. demonstrated the reception of Morse code signalling using radio waves with the help of a detecting device — a coherer. Marconi got a patent for his inventions in 1896. communication was possible across longer distances. To check whether it was a practical communication device Marconi moved his apparatus outdoors to try its transmission.reception over long distances. so that he could send signals corresponding to the dots and dashes of the Morse code. invented it in 1884 to drain off electricity during lightening. The inventor who is generally recognized as the inventor of wireless telegraph is Gugliemo Marconi. Temistocle Calzecchi-Onesti.
a public radiotelephone service for people at sea was inaugurated in 1929. During the First World War radiotelephony between ground and aircraft was also tried. The most notable amongst them was Nikola Tesla. but the technology to achieve that was not available. Many people dreamt of wireless telephony at that time. However. At that time telephone contact could be made only with ships within 2000 km of shore.W5H of Science telegraphy equipment. The first ship-to-shore two way radio conversations occurred in 1922. These networks are cellular About some substances and their discoveries 25 . wireless communication was limited to telegraphy. How cell phones work? Cell phones are based on networks of many radio transmitters/receivers. from New York City to San Francisco. Although the exact time when the human voice was first transmitted by radio is debateable. For wireless communication a sound signal has to be converted into a radio wave. Several inventors invented such devices. who invented the alternating current and Ernst Alexanderson who built the first alternator that could produce alternating current having frequency about 50 thousand cycles. it is claimed that speech was first transmitted across the American continent. Each cell phone company has its own network. in 1915. their frequency is much lower than that of electromagnetic waves. Today every large ship wherever it may be on the globe can be contacted using wireless equipment. they could send or receive distress messages from ships sailing nearby. It was soon found that any electric signal can be carried on a radio wave (modulation of electromagnetic waves). Till the beginning of the twentieth century. All that was necessary for wireless communication of sound was equipment that could generate electric current having frequency of the radio waves. Sound waves are continuous waves.
If it is addressed to another cell phone serviced by the parent company. It can transmit and receive signals from its closest base station (when it is powered on. .W5H of Science akin to the body of a living organism. In case the call is addressed to a cell phone serviced by another company or to a landline telephone the cell directs the call into relevant network. Each cell has a radio transmitter/receiver and a ‘computer’. located at a place known as its base station. Thus base station of each cell knows the location of every powered ON. cellular companies like AirTel. When one dials a number on a handset signals are first converted into electricity and then into electromagnetic waves that are transmitted by it.) It transmits a signal to the base station of its parent company every few seconds to enable computers attached to these transceivers keep track of all the handsets registered with a company present in a cell. It is in then communicated to its computer to find the nature of the addressed party. 26 About some substances and their discoveries . it finds out the location of the addressed handset and transmits signals to that base station. This is done with the help of computers that can communicate this information from one base station to another. a city. The network of a cellular company is made up of many such cells. These base stations can communicate with other base stations. What are GSM and CDMA? GSM is an acronym for Global System for Mobile Telecommunications. A cell phone handset is also a low power radio transceiver and a kind of computer. The radio receiver of the cell in which handset is located at that time receives this signal. which then directs the call in a similar fashion. which in turn alerts the handset about the incoming call. The area covered by a cell phone company. a state or a country for its services is divided into zones that are called its cells.
that is converted into electrical pulses like in GSM. GSM is the international standard in Europe. What is bandwidth? The amount of data that can be transmitted in a given time period is known as bandwidth. Bandwidth is measured in bits per second (bps) and its multiples. Australia and much of Asia and Africa. CDMA takes an entirely different approach from GSM. GSM is efficient because in the intervals between bursts. Idea use this technology for providing mobile phone connectivity to their subscribers. bandwidth is explained a bit differently. a spoken word or sentence from a user is first digitized. This technology is older then CDMA. Why width? Consider a pipe carrying water. In technical terms. At the receiving end they are combined together through the same code. In this technology mobile phones convert voices into a series of on-or-off electrical pulses. We know that telecommunication uses electromagnetic waves. But these pulses are coded and transmitted using the entire range of frequencies after ascribing them a particular code. this digital technology enables up to eight conversations to be held on the same channel virtually simultaneously. which are relayed in short bursts as packages of data.W5H of Science Hutch. The electromagnetic waves used for a About some substances and their discoveries 27 . In covered areas. the more water can be carried in a given amount of time. The wider the pipe. Therefore handsets that are used for GSM services cannot be used for CDMA and vice versa. In this technology. other phones can also send packets of data: in this way. cell-phone users can buy one phone that will work anywhere where the standard is supported. CDMA is the acronym for the more recent technology called Code Division Multiple Access.
This range is called frequency band.000 times as wide as the voice signal. Transmitters and receivers have bandwidths. So the viewer on his receiver can’t capture the signal unless he is in the line of sight of the broadcaster’s signal. Thus a radio transmitter sends a message using electromagnetic waves in a certain range. broadcasters use satellites to transmit their signals to the viewers. while an analog television broadcast video signal has a bandwidth of six megahertz (6 MHz) — some 2. such as communication through telephones.W5H of Science particular application of telecommunication have a certain frequency range. The “wider” the receiver’s bandwidth is. Therefore. trees. How does cable TV work? Cable television allows us to view several TV stations with the help of geostationary communication satellites. bandwidth is defined in terms of the frequency signal components. The ultimate source of this radio signal is the broadcast station. They use a powerful antenna to transmit their broadcasts to the viewers. and other such obstructions. bandwidth is measured as data speed in bits per second (bps). It determines how quickly bits of information may be sent through a telecommunication medium. these radio signals can travel only in straight lines. 28 About some substances and their discoveries . The difference between the upper and lower frequencies in a band is called bandwidth. In analog systems. In digital systems. The bandwidth of a typical voice signal is approximately three kilohertz (3 kHz). Satellite TV is a wireless system for delivering TV programming directly to a viewer’s house. can’t block the signal. measured in cycles per second (hertz). the more information it can receive on different frequencies. Tall buildings. but it could be blocked by the curvature of the Earth. However.
paper covers etc. Packaging saves the product sold from outside interference during its journey from the factory to the shop. Frequency modulation is a type of modulation where the frequency of the carrier is varied in accordance with About some substances and their discoveries 29 . The modulating signal is a slowly varying signal as opposed to the rapidly varying carrier frequency. they want the cable operator to pay them a fixed regular amount of money from each of his clients. because many TV channels are pay channels. The characteristics (amplitude. The term FM stands for frequency modulation. These high frequency carrier signals can be transmitted over the air easily and are capable of travelling long distances. Modulation in layman’s language is packaging information for broadcasting. What is modulation? You must have heard of the terms FM and AM in the context of radio transistors and radio stations.W5H of Science Each cable operator installs huge satellite that picks up the TV programs telecasted by various stations. Similarly. frequency. The cable operator then decodes/modulates and transmits these signals to the clients through cables. modulation is the process of packing a signal wave into radio waves. cartons. it also helps the consumer recognize the product from other products displayed in a shop. In radio communication an information-bearing signal is superimposed onto a carrier signal. or phase) of the carrier signal are varied in accordance with the information-bearing signal. even live feeds between broadcast stations. The operator needs to decode the signals. We are all familiar with packaging of consumer goods. that is. in pouches.
In DTH. At the user end. there will be a small dish antenna and set-top box to decode and view numerous channels. encoders. TV channels are transmitted from the satellite to a small dish antenna mounted on the rooftop of the subscriber’s home. Since the amplitude is kept constant. modulators and DTH receivers. Originally developed for connecting far-flung areas which do not have cable access. The encoder converts the audio. So the broadcaster directly connects to the user.W5H of Science the modulating signal. DTH can reach remote areas since it does away with the intermediate step of a cable operator and the wires (cables) that come 30 About some substances and their discoveries . which is used for music and speech in hi-fidelity broadcasts. set-top box (STB) and LNBF (lownoise block down converter). A DTH service provider has to lease Ku-band transponders from the satellite. The information-bearing signal (the modulating signal) changes the instantaneous frequency of the carrier. DTH TV can be viewed at home by using a small antenna. A DTH network consists of a broadcasting centre. What is DTH and how does it work? DTH refers to direct-to-home satellite television. FM modulation is a low-noise process and provides a high quality modulation technique. multiplexers. DTH does away with the need for a local cable operator and comes directly from the satellite to the house of the viewer. video and data signals into the digital format and the multiplexer mixes these signals. satellites. Receiving dishes can be as small as 45 cm in diameter at the user’s end. this technology is now used world-wide for premium programming direct to the home bypassing cable operators or other forms of satellite TV delivery. The amplitude of the carrier remains constant.
Computer animation is the art of creating such moving images via the use of computers. each drawing differed slightly from the one before it. There are two main types of animation: 2-D (or paint systems) and 3-D. All of the scanned images can be imposed on top of one another creating depth in the picture. To create the illusion of movement. rather than reproduced multiple times on sheets. Cel animation the traditional technique for animation was the process used for most animated films of the 20th century. DTH reception is superior to that through cable TV.W5H of Science from the cable operator to the house of the subscriber. Internet access. Today. the animators’ drawings and the backgrounds are either scanned into or drawn directly into a computer system. which were first drawn on paper. Apart from enhanced picture quality. it wasn’t until the 1960 s that computer scientists. Drawings are simply scanned into a computer and small changes in each frame incorporated. The individual frames of a traditionally animated film were photographs of drawings. Computers today replace cel-animation. This is because cable transmission is largely analog. with About some substances and their discoveries 31 . While animation itself started to become popular at the beginning of the twentieth century. video conferencing and e-mail. What is computer animation? Animation is the rapid display of a sequence of images of 2-D artwork or model positions that creates an illusion of movement due to the phenomenon of persistence of vision. The traditional cel animation process became obsolete by the beginning of the 21st century. DTH also allows for interactive TV services such as movie-on-demand.
the list is almost endless. play DVDs. started to experiment with technology. and the character animators’ work has remained essentially the same over the past 70 years. It creates the characters and background. are where CGI created characters begin. see television programs. MIDI and MOD files). bitmap and TIFFs). Multimedia can flow both ways. What is multimedia? Multimedia simply means being able to communicate in more than one way. and watch movies (AVI. Thus a multimedia PC is often equipped with two speakers. wave. MPG and RealVideo) is often taken for granted on a modern PC. images and moving video. One can watch movies. Computer-Generated Imagery (CGI) is an important part of the animation. 32 About some substances and their discoveries . The final animated piece is output to one of several delivery mediums. The term ‘multimedia’ once meant that your PC had a soundcard with an output marginally better than the PC speaker. including traditional 35 mm film and newer media such as digital video. Maquettes. make international telephone calls. and animates them. as input and output. The ability to play music in many formats (for example. Various software programs are used to colour the drawings and simulate camera movement and effects.W5H of Science the help of artists. Computer multimedia today is a mixture of things: sound. The “look” of traditional cel animation is still preserved. without taking the pictures. which are small sculptures. a microphone web camera and a scanner. view pictures (JPEG.
gov. such as a file or newsgroup. Thus it has information on most topics. It also helps people to send messages and chat with their friends. that charge a small fee for an hour of usage. It is a draft standard for specifying an object on the Internet. often called a cyber cafe.in/about_us/far99-2000-ai-vp. Often a modem is necessary to do so. URL stands for “Uniform Resource Locator”. can often avail this facility through commercial outlets. Most often it is more than what any library anywhere can have. What is URL? A URL is the Internet address of a particular site or document available via the World Wide Web. One can acquire one’s own little corner on the internet having a unique address at a very low cost and put there any information one wants to communicate with anybody who is interested.W5H of Science What is Internet? Internet is a network of millions of server computers spread worldwide that are connected to each other through cables and satellites. People who do not have a computer at home. The Internet has information on almost all topics.htm protocol address of host computer path file name About some substances and their discoveries 33 . Uniform Resource Locator http://dst. These server computers can constantly communicate with one another. People can connect their Personal computers to the Internet through the services provided by many companies.
phone lines so you can dial in. indicating (a) the Internet protocol used to access the document or site you are trying to reach. An ISP may also be host your web site. 34 About some substances and their discoveries . It is the text name corresponding to the numeric IP address of a computer on the Internet. technical support for the machines and customer support for customers who need help. It supplies the computer(s). email account. Internet Service Provider provides the connection between the user and the Internet. Every website. ISPs provide local dial-up access from your personal computer to their computer network and their network connects you to the Internet. high speed communications links to the rest of the Internet. (c). What is domain name? A domain name is a name of a computer on the Internet that distinguishes it from the other systems on the network.W5H of Science URLs are composed of several parts. The directory path on the host computer that will take you to the exact file you are trying to retrieve. What is an ISP? An ISP is a company that provides access to the Internet to individuals or companies. They are sometimes colloquially (and incorrectly) referred to by marketers as “web addresses”. and finally the name of the file you are trying to retrieve. (b) the Internet address of the “host computer.” on which the document you want is stored.
or which may be present inside the CPU of a PC. An IP address is a unique number. one has to specify its IP address in an appropriate application. timeservers. This is expressed as bits per second (bps) or thousands of bits per second (Kbps). FAX machines. Obviously a domain name must be unique. which a modem on the other end of the phone line can translate back into information (the DEModulator part). an IP address is associated with a fully qualified host name (a domain name). used by network devices (routers. or receive (download) a document sent to you via email. but can now be up to sixty-seven characters. What is a modem? It is a device that can be connected externally to a computer. About some substances and their discoveries 35 . Earlier the length of permissible domain names used to be up to fifteen characters. The speed of a modem is measured by the rate at which it sends and receives data. It allows you to send and receive information over the phone line with your computer. The term baud is approximately equivalent to bps.131.235”. “Modem” is an acronym that stands for “MOdulator/DEModulator. which is nothing but a set of numbers. Each server has a unique IP address. however because it is difficult to remember numbers. These are the technical terms for the way your modem converts information you send from your computer into sounds (the MOdulator part).142. computers. some telephones) attached to a network to refer to each other when sending information through a LAN (Local Area Network) or a WAN (Wide Area Network) or the Internet. You could send a picture of your dog to a friend. such as “207. To access a particular Internet service. similar in concept to a telephone number.W5H of Science on the Internet is hosted on a server computer.
determines where the information needs to be sent. but if a network is communicating over some other protocol the gateway translates this information and passes it along. it will die on the network. it will send it to that gateway for routing. A gateway passes information from one network to another network as information travels across the Internet. Eventually. If it is within the segment. A network is a number of computers connected to one another through cables or satellites. it broadcasts it out on the network. If it cannot determine where it should go. it has to pass through a gateway. There are two main kinds of LAN. Without it the network would crash due to an overload of undeliverable Internet packets. This feature is built into the Internet packet. A PC is connected to a small network and there is a gateway that connects the smaller network to the Internet. A LocalArea Network is a relatively small group of computers running on a network inside a building. In client server networks each 36 About some substances and their discoveries . reducing network traffic. One is client server LAN and other is peer-to-peer network. A gateway helps to break the network down into smaller. more usable segments.W5H of Science What is a gateway? Whenever a computer is connected to the internet. it keeps the traffic local. which is a router. What is a LAN? LAN is the acronym for local Area Network. If it can determine that it belongs on another segment. bridge or computer recognizes the address. if no gateway. The gateway. Most of the Internet communications is done over TCP/IP.
) can be attached to email messages and sent with the text message. fax. Files. thus all communication between different computers is through the server. Email can be sent to anywhere in the world where internet facilities are available About some substances and their discoveries 37 . The main advantage of Networking is the capability to share resources.the most common through a computer program. video. Expensive peripherals such as colour laser printers etc. Email can be sent and viewed various ways . In peer-to-peer networking each PC can communicate with each other PC through cables. such as ‘Outlook’. pictures etc. the Internet. all of these are resources.W5H of Science user PC is connected to a server computer. These messages are most commonly text messages. What is email? Email is a shortened version of the two words ‘electronic’ and ‘mail’ and is the electronic version of the letter. Documents (audio. can also be shared rather than one machine using a printer on its own. printers. Each user/computer on the network has the potential to access data stored on other machines. It enables messages to be transferred from an individual to another individual or from an individual to a group of people. It is one of the most used and popular services on the Internet. but one can send messages through pictures or sounds also.
There are two main types of spam.read or receive their mail while the meter is running. Usenet spam is aimed at “lurkers”. stealing Internet mailing lists. vsnl etc. it costs money for ISPs and online services to transmit spam. often for dubious products. get-rich-quick schemes. or searching the Web for addresses often creates email spam lists. Email spam targets individual users with direct mail messages. and these costs are transmitted directly to subscribers. Spam costs them additional money. rediff mail. Most spam is commercial advertising. gmail. in an attempt to force the message on people who would not otherwise choose to receive it.g. Spam costs the sender very little to send — most of the costs are paid for by the recipient or the carriers rather than by the sender. Scanning Usenet postings. 38 About some substances and their discoveries . Many people . people who read newsgroups but rarely or never post and give their address away. On top of that. so to speak. but to do so one has to register with a service provider. or quasi-legal services.anyone with measured phone service . What is spam? Spam is flooding the Internet with many copies of the same message. Email spams typically cost users money out-of-pocket to receive. and they have different effects on Internet users. Usenet spam robs users of the utility of the newsgroups by overwhelming them with a barrage of advertising or other irrelevant posts. yahoo mail. Cancellable Usenet spam is a single message sent to 20 or more Usenet newsgroups. e.W5H of Science and viewed whenever the computer user logs onto the local network or the Internet and checks the ‘mailbox’ where emails are stored. hotmail.
The most common web server software is Apache. Generally. What is a web camera? A web camera (or webcam) is a real time camera whose images can be accessed using the World Wide Web. or a PC videoconferencing. hear and interact with people in real time. It has very low cost but not very good picture quality. most web servers are therefore connected to the other computers through optical fibres or satellite link. About some substances and their discoveries 39 . However the best servers can only guarantee 99% uptime due to server errors and updates to hardware. which contains the files of a web site and allows them to be accessed by people on the Internet. either continuously or at regular intervals. instant messaging. followed by Microsoft Internet Information server. accepting HTTP connections from web browsers and delivering web pages and other files to them. a digital camera delivers images to a web server.W5H of Science What is a web server? A web server is a server computer. as well as processing form submissions. It is a small digital camera with a cable that connects it to the computers’ parallel or USB port. many other web server programs also exist. A server is usually connected to the Internet continually with webmasters wanting their web site to be online 100% of the year. Using a web camera allows learners to be a part of either a conference or class/studio. They can see. You usually do not have to use batteries with a web camera since the PC supplies their power. many. The term “web server” also refers to the piece of software that runs on server computers.
It is called a website because it represents one of many possible distinct locations (or sites) where information is available within the World Wide Web. What is a website? A website is a collection of electronic documents linked together logically in order to provide consistent information. because users can add peripherals without turning off their PC. In general terms. It allows virtually unlimited PC expansion ‘outside the box’. Till a few years ago these sockets included serial ports and Parallel ports. In a PC there are certain some sockets at the back of the CPU cabinet through which information can be fed or taken out of the PC. by making current visual information available. USB’s ‘hot insertion and removal’ feature makes expansion even easier. the Universal Serial Bus. Documents available on a website are stored on a computer that is connected to the Internet.W5H of Science WebCams can help maintain the learner’s interest in the course. They facilitate communication with the external world. help promote active learning. is the communication port. USB features a ‘onesize-fits-all’ connector that makes it easy to add and unplug peripherals without ever opening the PC. which is becoming common in the new PCs. Ports are to a computer just as seaports and airports are to a country. Serial ports were used to connect the mouse. What is USB port? The channels through which a PC communicates with various peripheral devices are known as communication ports. scanner etc and the parallel port to connect a printer. USB. and thus. and made available via the World Wide Web. a website is a communication tool. its primary function being to enable individuals and organisations to share and 40 About some substances and their discoveries .
university. a business house or a government. Through a website. industry.W5H of Science exchange information over the Internet. college. How can one make a website? One can indeed make one’s own website provided you have a reasonable access to a computer linked to the Internet. For these reasons. If you know HTML you know nothing else. You can walk into a cybercafe. you can write your webpages using a text editor. (such as Reliance Webworld) which charge you a nominal fee per hour of use. it is possible to make information available in electronic format or to gather information and to provide electronic services. This is really not very difficult if you live in a city. About some substances and their discoveries 41 . websites can be useful tools for any organization be it a school. However. such as Notepad in “Windows”.
If the file is software that has to be installed. and save it on your own computer or floppy disk. What is downloading? To download a file is to get it from someone else’s computer. including images and software. Downloading over DSL or cable modem can be up to 100 times faster. A communications 42 About some substances and their discoveries . What is FTP? It is the acronym for File Transfer Protocol. most browsers give you the option of running the program without worrying about where to save it first. You can also download a webpage editor from a shareware website. Downloading from a file server on a local network (LAN) can be faster yet. The time it takes to download data depends on the size of the file and network speed. For that you will need FTP software. “Macromedia Dreamweaver’” etc. Download means “receive. Once you have made your webpages you will need to upload them to a webserver. Alternatively you can host your webpages on a websites that host amateur website free of cost. Your Web browser prompts you where to save the file. If you want your own domain name you need to register and pay the charges. but for doing so you need an application software such as “Microsoft Frontpage”. the protocol for exchanging files over the Internet. but a 10MB video file can take a half hour. over a network. Downloading files from the Internet has become a snap with “click here to download this file” messages on Web pages.W5H of Science if you do not know HTML you can still design a webpage. Small Web pages take a few seconds if everything is running smoothly.” One can download many kinds of files from the Internet.
is also running FTP and is attached to the Internet computer network. FTP is most commonly used to download a file from a server using the Internet or to upload a file to a server (e. authentication. given that: The machine you are using. the “remote host machine”. like these technologies.g. is running FTP application software and is also connected to the Internet. Files can be transferred between a pair of machines with the FTP command. FTP works in the same way as HTTP for transferring Web pages from a server to a user’s browser and SMTP for transferring electronic mail across the Internet in that. FTP uses the Internet’s TCP/IP protocols to enable data transfer. uploading a Web page file to a server)..W5H of Science protocol is the set of standard rules for data representation. the “local host machine”. What is a portal? About some substances and their discoveries 43 . signalling. and error detection required to send information over a communications channel. It is also necessary that the machine you want files to be transferred to/ from.
Because all the important information about a business enterprise resides in a central repository. Many business organizations have discovered unique and creative uses for intranet technology to solve real business problems by developing their own portal. readily access that information. users navigate to locate content of interest and everyone sees the same version of each page. using a simple web browser.000 different Usenet sites). and others leave every single day. all in a familiar. manage documents. There are special programs that have to be used to read from 44 About some substances and their discoveries . In a conventional website. Portals are very different because they deliver unique and customised views to different people. What is a newsgroup? Newsgroups are discussion groups that are all part of a global system called Usenet (there are over 250.000 different newsgroups from all over the world. share calendars and enable efficient collaboration.W5H of Science A portal is a private space that gives employees in a company the ability to organize information. it’s available at any time. It is almost impossible to know how many different newsgroups there are. Newsgroups are started to carry on discussions about all sorts of things. presenting a personalized view of diverse information and services relevant to the individual who needs it in one convenient desktop location. browser-based environment. from anywhere in the world. The reason for this is that new ones come on board. It is said that there are currently over 20.
Some of the most interesting blogs have multiple r e g u l a r contributors. Not all Internet service providers (ISPs) carry all newsgroups. Blogs didn’t really start to take off until About some substances and their discoveries 45 . A blog does not have to have one author only. The first blog is said also to have been the first website in 1992. A blog is a diary or journal where the writer or “blogger” will write his/her observations and provide links to other websites that s/he considers useful for the reader. There are also newsreader programs available whose sole purpose is to read newsgroups. write about different themes. then you have to find another ISP or start your own news server.W5H of Science and write to a newsgroup. one can put information or thoughts that one wants to share with world at large through websites known as blogger sites. these two browsers have incorporated a newsreader in their software. If your ISP doesn’t carry the newsgroups you are interested in. Many blogs serve as discussion communities about particular issues. referred to as news readers. sort of like a newspaper columnist but with no specialized training necessary. Bloggers. If you are using Netscape or Explorer to navigate the World Wide Web. What is a blog? To be present on the Internet one need not really spend money to make a website.
The field office will have the same access as those at the home office. they’ve evolved to something different. Early blogs were mostly lists of recommended links with some commentary. Since then. and they gained in popularity after 2000. A VPN or Virtual Private Network allows a home office or the intranet in a field office to connect them via the internet. however. Access in either direction can be controlled right down to the level of an individual computer. Thanks to easy-to-use programs and websites. Usually. What is Intranet? An intranet is a mini internet inside an organization. This isn’t a bad thing. 46 About some substances and their discoveries . and even some people who don’t. has a blog on the Internet. Now anyone who fancies himself a writer. Usually. A firewall is used to selectively isolate the intranet from the internet. the most technically challenged person can get a blog online. as there’s something out there for everyone. outsiders are given little or no access to the information inside the intranet.W5H of Science the late nineties. users inside the intranet are given access to most or the entire internet.