AIR CORE REACTORS

Shunt Reactors in Power Systems

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the ACR for this application are designed in fiberglass encapsulated technology. Air-core shunt reactors are applicable to system voltages up to 72. One approach for a single line is presented below. including power generation.2 Pos. The range of reactive power varies from a few MVAr to 100 MVAr. XR X NEUTRAL W y e c o n nec t i o n (Fo ur R eact ors Schem e ) XR D e l ta co nn ec t io n Picture 2 – Winding connection of shunt reactors .95 to 1. for system voltages of 72. APPLICATION OF SHUNT REACTORS The calculation of optimum ratings and points of connection of shunt reactors is generally done by means of extensive load flow studies.2 Pos. Shunt reactors are commonly used to compensate the capacitive reactive power of transmission and distribution systems and thereby to keep the operating voltages within admissible levels. shunt reactors may be inserted directly connected to station busbars (Pos. OEM and electrical test laboratories. The benefits in using AREVA T&D air-core shunt reactors are: > Maintenance free and environmentally friendly > Conservative temperature rise for extended service life > Customized space saving solutions for installation in compact areas > Surface treatment for protection against UV radiation and pollution > High mechanical strength to withstand elevated short-circuit forces > Low noise level for sensitive applications Pos. which form the cooling ducts of the coil.3 Picture 1 – Shunt reactor application in power systems The majority of shunt reactors for system voltages of 72. Due to the required ratings. Typically. The winding connection of three-phase reactors or a bank of three single-phase units can be either wye (most common configuration) or delta. Due to the load variations. Future reactors in the range 72. industrial plants. Depending on the reactor’s ratings. 3). to transmission line terminations (Pos. one or more of these cylinders are connected in parallel between the aluminium spiders. taking into account all possible system configurations. 1). AREVA T&D’S TECHNOLOGY AND EXPERIENCE AREVA T&D has more than 30 years of experience in designing and manufacturing air-core dry-type reactors (ACR) for various market segments around the world. the reactors are wye connected with the neutral ungrounded.5 kV or above are in the 30 to 300 MVAr range (threephase power) and they are normally connected directly to high voltage busbar or transmission line ending. reactors are most commonly oil-filled type. typically. For these voltage levels. from 0. The purpose of this document is to present some information about the application and specification of shunt reactors for electrical power systems. 2) or connected to tertiary winding of large power transformers (Pos. Reactive shunt compensation is one of the most common applications of air-core reactors.5 kV. the reactor’s winding consists of numerous insulated aluminum connected in parallel. These conductors are mechanically immobilized and encapsulated in epoxy impregnated fiberglass filaments forming cylinders. as shown in the picture 1. In the following sections general information will be presented about the application of shunt reactors to electrical power systems and two different ways to specify the required ratings of the equipment (MVAr ratings). and capacitive for light load conditions). Depending on system voltage. Shunt reactors rated below 72.5 kV are either oilfilled or air-core dry-type units and they are normally connected to the tertiary winding of large power transformers.5 kV and typically they are connected to tertiary winding of large power transformers. transmission and distribution systems.AREVA T&D’s Expertise FORWARD During normal operation of an electrical power system. the transmission and distribution voltages must be maintained within a small range. shunt reactors and capacitors have been applied in power systems to compensate excess reactive power (inductive for heavy load conditions. the reactors are wye connected with the neutral grounded directly or through a neutral reactor (also named “four reactor scheme”).05 pu of rated value.5 kV or above. In fiberglass encapsulated technology.5 to 145 kV will tend to be air-core dry-type coil units. The individual cylinders are separated by fiberglass spacers. For system voltages below 72.1 Pos.

Application Example Consider a lossless radial transmission line. which is energized by a generator at the sending ending (V1) and is opencircuited at the receiving ending (V2). the ABCD parameters of the line are changed. the reclosing time varies from 0. For air-core drytype units. Solution: > Total impedance and admittance of the non-compensated transmission line OPEN-CIRCUIT OPERATION OF RADIAL TRANSMISSION LINES The operation of a lossless radial transmission line. . therefore. to allow the automatic reclosing of the transmission line after a fault elimination (typically.5 seconds).0 pu in the sending ending.MAIN CALCULATION OF SHUNT REACTORS For the calculation of the positive sequence reactance and the current requirements of a shunt reactor. when the line is energized with 1. RATING Reactance WYE CONNECTION DELTA CONNECTION Rated Current Maximum Continuous Current (Design Current) Parameters > rated reactance per phase (positive sequence) > rated three-phase reactive power > rated reactive power per phase > rated system voltage > maximum system operating voltage > rated current > maximum continuous current The zero sequence reactance (X0) depends on the winding connection and grounding of the shunt reactor. the relation between the ending voltages of the transmission line is given by: Neutral reactors generally are used in shunt reactors installed in transmission line terminations to provide a faster extinguishing of the secondary arc current and.5 to 1.32886 Ω/km and bC = j 5. can be represented in the matrix form by the ABCD parameters. it is necessary to know only the rated three-phase reactive power and the rated system voltage and frequency. and parameters z = j 0.097 µS/km. it can be calculated as follow: > Wye connection with neutral directly grounded > Wye connection with neutral grounded through a reactor > Wye connection with neutral ungrounded > Delta connection Inserting shunt reactors at the receiving ending.05 pu at the open-circuited terminal (receiving ending). length ℓ = 350 km. To estimate the reactive power of shunt reactors to be installed in the transmission line to provide a maximum operating voltage of 1. as summarized in the table below. as described below: + So. frequency 60 Hz. where I2 = 0.

The determination of the shunt AREVA T&D Worldwide Contact Centre: www. it is not considered the on tap changer (OLTC) operation of power transformers near to the point of connection of the shunt reactors.5 kV and three-phase ratings up to 100 MVAr. Its contents do not constitute an offer for sale or advise on the application of any product referred to in it.5 kV busbar in order to reduce the voltage level from 1.© . AREVA T&D’s air-core shunt reactors are maintenance free. this brochure should only be regarded as a guide and is intended for information purposes only. Picture 3 – Practical circuit for voltage control analysis The shunt reactor rating is given by: Application Example To estimate the reactive power of shunt reactors to installed in the 34. All trade names or trademarks mentioned herein whether registered or not. To request technical information. please contact us by e-mail: aircorereactors. compensation degree is: AREVA T&D is able to supply air-core shunt reactors to provide reactive power compensation for electrical systems with rated voltages up to 72. are the property of their owners.com/contactcentre/ Tel. the voltage variation at the high voltage busbar after switching of a shunt reactor shall not be higher than 2 to 3% of rated voltage. MVAr CONCLUSIONS So. Solution: > Calculation of the three-phase reactive power of the shunt reactor: > Calculation of the three-phase reactive power of the shunt reactor: MVAr MVAr > Calculation of the compensation degree of the transmission line: In order to make possible line energization on both sides.389191982 RCS PARIS Our policy is one of continuous development.areva-td. > The line charging of the transmission line is: Remark: > In the analysis above.com BUSBAR VOLTAGE VARIATION AFTER SWITCHING OF SHUNT REACTORS Typically.02 to 0.2007. We cannot be held responsible for any reliance on any decisions taken on its contents without specific advice. the AREVA logo and any alternative version thereof are trademarks and service marks of AREVA. AREVA.areva-td. . environmentally friendly and maintain a conservative temperature rise offering an extended service life.AREVA . Accordingly the design of our products may change at any time. : +44 (0) 1785 250 070 www. it is recommended to install shunt reactors with similar ratings in their two terminations. A practical circuit is used to simplify the analysis of voltage control (see picture 3).com . S CC > Operating voltage at the receiving ending of the noncompensated transmission line V2 V1 S R3Ø > Calculation of the shunt reactor reactance: Products-L4PS-Shunt reactor-71695-V1-EN. Whilst every effort is made to produce up to date literature.> Parameter A: reactor to provide a required voltage variation in the busbar can calculated through the short-circuit power of system at the busbar where the reactor will be connected. considering a fault current of 25 kA (or short-circuit power of 1495 MVA).99 pu. which occurs in a few minutes after the shunt reactor switching.itr@areva-td.

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