Mahmood Reza

ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes

© Pro Active Resolutions - Mahmood Reza

Page Number

Introduction Examiners guidance, approach & exam Exam Reports: examiners comments SYLLABUS SECTION A • • • • • • • • Strategic analysis, choice and implementation Benchmarking Risk and uncertainty Activity one Budgeting ABC, ABB, ABM BPR PESTLE and SWOT

3 4 7 11 11 12 13 14 16 19 19

SYLLABUS SECTION B • • Pricing Stakeholder analysis 22 24

SYLLABUS SECTION C • Responsibility Accounting Systems 25

SYLLABUS SECTION D • • • • • • • • Mission and Vision Aims and Objectives Rewards and Values The Strategic Triangle Divisionalisation and transfer pricing Activity two: transfer pricing Porter: industry analysis - the five forces Boston Box or the BCG Matrix 27 27 27 28 28 32 32 35

ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes


© Pro Active Resolutions - Mahmood Reza

• •

Ansoff product matrix Performance measures o o o o o o Return on investment (ROI) Residual income Economic value added Net present value Internal rate of return EPS

35 36 36 37 37 38 38 39 39

• Activity three: performance measures SYLLABUS SECTION E • • • • • Performance management & evaluation Establishing a performance management system Criteria for designing performance indicators Types of performance measures Performance Pyramid, Lynch and Cross (1991) Table of potential scorecard measures

41 41 42 43 43 45 48

• Balanced scorecard •

SYLLABUS SECTION F • • • Target costing Performance prism Total Quality Management (TQM) 49 50 50 52 53 54 56

ACCA ARTICLES Activity one: solution Activity two: solution Activity three: solution

• • •

ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes


© Pro Active Resolutions - Mahmood Reza

These ACCA P5 exam support notes are based on my experience, not only in respect of teaching ACCA P5 but over 25 years of teaching business and management. These notes are not meant to be a comprehensive overview of the syllabus but focus on selected parts. The notes are provided to supplement existing texts and focus on areas that, in my experience, students find more challenging. Any feedback regarding the notes (positive or negative) would be greatly welcomed. I have adopted a sectional approach to the notes, i.e. notes are provided by syllabus section, some sectional notes being greater than others. ACCA P5, in common with the other option papers does not enjoy significantly high pass rates. However, people do pass the exam; a structured and focused approach to studying is highly recommended, as well reading around the subject. It is worth remembering that are an abundant level of support resources available to assist you in passing your exams. However, unless you have a photographic memory you will need to apply conventional techniques to passing your exams, e.g. question practice, question practice, question practice – you get the picture.

ACCA Qualification
The current ACCA Qualification syllabus was first examined in December 2007; a review of the pass rates for the option papers is shown below. Paper Dec 07 Jun 08 Dec 08 Jun 09 Dec 2009 P4 31 36 36 30 41 P6 P7 28 33 36 33 41 39 37 37 39 39

The ACCA Professional syllabuses are being updated with effect from June 2011, these notes are based on the existing syllabus and study guide for the December 2010 exam diet. The strategic planning process was examined in detail in the P3 paper. In P5 the focus is more on the performance management aspects of strategic planning and the role of strategic management accounting.

ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes


© Pro Active Resolutions - Mahmood Reza

The examiners approach article, originally produced in Student Accountant February 2007, provides guidance on how to tackle paper P5. The examiner’s approach interview complements the approach article and is very useful when tackling the paper for the first time, giving you a real insight into what the examiner is looking for in terms of exam performance. It covers the main themes of the paper, information on how the exam is structured, advice on exam technique, tips on how to succeed and potential pitfalls to avoid. The examiner’s analysis interview builds on the approach interview and looks at student performance in the December 2007, June 2008 and December 2008 exam sessions, highlighting where students are performing well, where students are performing less well, and how they can improve their performance. The analysis interview is related to the examiner’s reports, which are published after each exam session and are another very useful resource.

Examiner’s approach: Paper P5
Paper P5, Advanced Performance Management, is one of four papers in the Options module at the Professional level of the new ACCA Qualification. While not a completely new paper, it should be remembered that Paper P5 is not the previous syllabus Paper 3.3 with a new title. Indeed, Paper P5 is a challenging and innovative paper that aims to improve students’ understanding of performance management – a subject which touches on all management activity in today’s business organisations. Candidates who pass the Paper P5 exam will be able to: Evaluate the strategic performance of an organisation and recommend appropriate performance measures Assess the impact on organisational performance of macro-economic, fiscal and market factors, and key external influences Identify the information needs of management and contribute to the development of appropriate systems in order to improve organisational performance Understand the significance of the relationship between financial and nonfinancial indicators of organisational performance Identify where current developments in management accounting and performance management may be used to improve organisational performance. As Paper P5 builds on Paper F5, Performance Management, students are expected to have a thorough understanding of the Paper F5 syllabus. In addition, students will also be required to apply the principles and techniques covered in Paper F2, Management Accounting. Paper P5 has a strong relationship with Paper P3, Business Analysis, in the areas of strategic planning and control and performance measurement. The syllabus and relational diagram The syllabus contains six sections – designed to provide the comprehensive knowledge necessary to enable students to make a significant contribution to today’s business organisations. All sections are interconnected, and the syllabus, as a whole, focuses on

ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes


© Pro Active Resolutions - Mahmood Reza

These levels of understanding. Section B of the syllabus considers the impact of world economic and market trends. Because Paper P5 is at the Professional level. In addition. known as cognitive levels.Mahmood Reza . STUDY GUIDE AND INTELLECTUAL LEVELS The Study Guide. This section also explores other environmental and ethical issues facing business organisations. higher cognitive challenges – represented by the number 3 – are prominent. as well as the impact of national fiscal and monetary policy on the performance of business organisations. Consideration is also given to behavioural aspects of performance management. Particular consideration is given to management accounting and information systems. This section also considers the prediction and prevention of corporate failure. Section D of the syllabus is focused on the need for strategic performance management in both public and private sector organisations. Section E of the syllabus is focused on the evaluation of business performance and corporate failure. which breaks the syllabus down into separate subject areas. and the sources of internal and external information available to business organisations. In an area as fast moving as management accounting.the issues that are essential to the understanding of how performance management contributes to organisational performance. This involves a detailed examination of the role that strategic management accounting should play in today’s organisations. Section C is focused on performance measurement systems and their design. is focused on current developments and emerging issues in management accounting and performance management. is available on the ACCA website. Section A of the syllabus focuses on strategic planning and control. Consideration is given to alternative views of performance measurement and the use of non-financial performance indicators. The superscript numbers at the end of each outcome in the Study Guide indicate the level at which students should understand a particular subject or topic area. the importance of keeping abreast of current developments is essential for management accountants across the globe. This section considers strategic performance issues in complex organisations as well as divisional performance and transfer pricing issues. This means that this paper is much more ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 5 © Pro Active Resolutions . This section also requires students to appraise alternative approaches to budgeting in order to facilitate better control of business organisations. Section C considers the recording and processing methods and management reports used in business organisations. We live in an ever-changing business environment and Section A considers the effects of both evolving business structures and information technology on modern management accounting practices. are important as they indicate the depth to which each part of the syllabus may be examined. Section F.

but must also allocate an appropriate amount of time. These are marks allocated. ‘recommend’ or ‘advise’. Level 2 tasks concern application and analysis (‘compute. not for the content of an answer. As Section A is compulsory. and exercise professional judgement in selecting and applying strategic management accounting techniques in different business contexts. Candidates should remember that Paper P5 is equivalent in standard to a Masters degree. It may be. If. and answers that do not demonstrate this higher cognitive ability will be marked accordingly. ‘identify’. Some questions may require candidates to draw on their experience. etc). a question asks a candidate to ‘assess’ or ‘evaluate’ an argument or a statement. ‘calculate’. Some ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 6 © Pro Active Resolutions . In viewing the paper as a whole.likely to use higher levels of questioning. and level 3 tasks concern synthesis and evaluation. a letter. Whereas level 1 tasks might concern knowledge and comprehension (asking students to ‘list’. The syllabus for Paper P5 aims to ensure that candidates can apply relevant knowledge and skills. It is important to realise that if Study Guide outcomes indicate that learning is required at levels 2 or 3 then it is probable that the exam will test that area at that cognitive level. a report. a presentation. Section A includes two compulsory questions usually worth 60 marks in total. and the Study Guide reflects this emphasis. There will not always be a unique or ‘correct’ solution to many of the questions that feature in Paper P5 exams. It is probable that each Paper P5 exam will contain several questions at levels 2 and 3. ‘define’. ‘explain’. these assumptions are clearly stated. A range of solutions will be equally valid. say. STRUCTURE OF THE EXAM PAPER The exam comprises two sections. that one requirement asks you to present your answer in the form of. ‘assess’. and interpret a topic within the context of an organisation with which they are familiar. ‘contrast’.Mahmood Reza . candidates are required to answer two of these questions. answers that merely ‘describe’ will not achieve a ‘pass’ standard. and the emphasis is on higher-level skills. briefing notes or similar. candidates must not only attempt it in the exam. ‘discuss’. but for the degree of professionalism with which certain parts of the answer are presented. therefore. the balance between computational and discursive questions will not vary significantly from diet to diet. They will usually be awarded in Section A (the compulsory part of the exam paper) and will total between four and six marks. ‘design’ ‘formulate’. At least one of the questions in Section B will require an entirely discursive answer. for example. It is therefore important that if assumptions are made concerning a given scenario. provided they are supported by appropriate evidence. levels 2 and 3 are more demanding. It also enables students to make a significant contribution to the evaluation of the performance of an organisation and its strategic development. The marking scheme will reflect this fact. Section B contains three optional questions worth 20 marks each. ‘explain’. One of the features of the Professional level exam papers is the awarding of ‘professional marks’. and so on). Level 3 requirements might therefore ask students to ‘evaluate’. a memo. a maximum of 40 marks is available for either question in Section A.

You should assume that if the question asks for a specific format of answer that some marks may be awarded for an effective presentation of that format.Mahmood Reza . Nevertheless it was pleasing to observe that there were far fewer candidates scoring very low marks than in recent diets and. and improving organisational performance. KEY AREAS As indicated in the syllabus. ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 7 © Pro Active Resolutions . This might be for the structure. but they are also reviewed by the examiner. Not only are they written especially for the syllabus. analytical. and market factors and key external influences on organisational performance Identifying and evaluating the design features of effective performance management information and monitoring systems Applying appropriate strategic performance measurement techniques in evaluating and improving organisational performance Advising clients and senior management on strategic business performance evaluation. the examination revealed a large number of candidates who were inadequately prepared for the examination. the key or core areas are: Using strategic planning and control models to plan and monitor organisational performance Assessing and identifying relevant macro-economic. making them invaluable in terms of coverage and insight into what is examinable Practise computational. or the logical flow of arguments in your answer. and on recognising vulnerability to corporate failure Identifying and assessing the impact of current developments in management accounting and performance management on measuring. in general. content. the overall performance of candidates was much improved. evaluating. style and layout. and discursive questions under exam conditions in order to improve speed and presentation skills Carefully study all articles that appear in student accountant (or elsewhere).marks may be awarded for the form of the answer in addition to the content of the answer. Shane Johnson is the current examiner for Paper P5 EXAMINERS COMMENTS This provides a useful insight into the general problems that students encounter and extracts have been reproduced below. CONCLUSION In order to pass the Paper P5 exam. P5 ADVANCED PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT DECEMBER 2009 Sadly. fiscal. students should: Clearly understand the objectives of the exam as explained in the Syllabus and Study Guide Ensure that preparation for a Paper P5 exam has been based on a programme of study set for the required syllabus and exam structure Use an ACCA-approved textbook for Paper P5. which are relevant to topics within the syllabus for Paper P5 Be able to clearly communicate understanding and application of knowledge in the context of a Professional level exam.

2 and 4) which should have given the more able and prepared candidates a sound foundation for success. In their answers to Question 5 a number of candidates discussed the mission statement of CFD in part (a)(i) although this was in fact a requirement of part (a)(ii). The P5 examination paper continues to examine the full syllabus and as such will continue to reveal those candidates who are poorly prepared. Many candidates continue to display their answers poorly. The overall results suggest that far fewer candidates than expected were adequately prepared for this examination. Candidates need to be aware whether they have the knowledge to answer discursive questions. Many candidates had clearly memorised solutions to past examination questions and were determined to include them in their answers to questions on the examination paper. with a lack of clear labelling to indicate which questions are being attempted. there were relatively few marginal candidates at this diet. with a lack of clear labelling to indicate which questions are being attempted. Hence.g.Mahmood Reza . many candidates would benefit by giving more thought to the presentation of their answers.Many candidates continue to display their answers poorly. using a past question on hotels as a template for dog kennels and suggesting surveying the dogs on quality of meals and room cleanliness! P5 ADVANCED PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT JUNE 2009 General Comments However the examination revealed a very large number of candidates who fell well short of achieving a pass. Question 5 was the most common place for this to happen e. Sadly. Each question should be started on a new page and candidates must give more thought to the layout and organisation of their answers. Workings were generally shown but were at times difficult to follow. ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 8 © Pro Active Resolutions . Candidates should avoid the temptation to undertake ‘question spotting’. That said there was still much in this examination that was consistent with previous examination papers (Questions 1. If they do not then it is essential that they realise that the quantity of work produced is not a substitute for quality. Many candidates would clearly benefit from planning their answers to discursive parts of questions. This was particularly evident from candidates’ answers to Question 3. For example. This is especially the case given the potential to earn professional marks in this or any other of the professional level examination papers. It was noticeable that many candidates begin their answers to discursive parts of questions by rewriting the requirement of the question and in doing so waste valuable time. many candidates did not answer all of the question subsections and in not doing so imposed limitations on the marks available to them. Indeed. This would not only improve the organisation of their answers but would also assist the marker by ensuring that they commence each question on a new page within their answer booklet.

even things such as a ‘lost items percentage’ being higher than the target was seen as constituting good performance simply because the number was higher! This suggests that candidates are taking a rote-learning approach which is inappropriate for this level of examination. the overall performance of candidates was good. which were and difficult to follow. Rather surprisingly. This practice was also evident from candidates’ answers to Question 4(b) with many different organisations mentioned and only the minority of candidates actually referring to BAG. a significant number of candidates produced workings. This is especially the case now that ‘professional marks’ might be awarded for wellpresented answers. a number of candidates ignored the advice given in previous examiner’s reports that each question should be started on a new page in their answer ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 9 © Pro Active Resolutions . Well-prepared candidates invariably provided concise workings which arrived at the correct solutions to the computational parts of the examination paper. P5 ADVANCED PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT DEC 2007 Sadly. The consensus of opinion from the marking team was that the paper provided the opportunity to obtain relatively high marks. Many candidates who clearly had knowledge of the areas of the syllabus which featured within the examination questions were unable to achieve a pass at this diet as a consequence of poor examination technique which frequently manifested itself via poor presentation and/or time management or not observing the specific requirements of each question. P5 ADVANCED PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT JUNE 2008 Many candidates did not answer all of the question subsections and in not doing so imposed limitations on the marks available to them. However. In general. Nevertheless it was pleasing to observe that only a relatively small number of candidates scored very low marks. the examination revealed a large number of candidates who performed poorly. Question 2(d) provided cases of this practice. staff uniforms and cleanliness.Mahmood Reza . However. notably in their answers to part (a) of Question 1. as well as specific mention of hotels. the examination also revealed a large number of candidates who seemed inadequately prepared for the examination. Also evident was the inability of many candidates to interpret the numbers and ratios and translate them into ‘good’ and ‘bad’.P5 ADVANCED PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT DECEMBER 2008 One major problem was candidates ‘memorising’ model answers to past paper questions and attempting to ‘shoehorn’ these answers into questions without even attempting to adapt these answers to the question context. yet there were answers such as ‘the quality of meals. The question clearly asked for performance measures to assess the quality of service of a software provider. The need for candidates to give more thought to the layout and organisation of their answers is of paramount importance. waiting time at reception. The overall results for this diet were not pleasing.

The poor performance of many candidates was exacerbated by a clear failure to carefully read the content and requirements of questions. However.booklet(s) and that there should be clear labelling to indicate which questions are being attempted. ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 10 © Pro Active Resolutions .Mahmood Reza . there was some evidence of poor time management. This contributed to some poor performances in both the computational and discursive parts of questions. It was pleasing to observe that the vast majority of candidates attempted all four questions. particularly affecting Question 1 which a significant number of candidates attempted as their final question.

Strategic management accounting monitors performance in line with the organisation’s strategic objectives in both financial and nonfinancial terms BENCHMARKING Benchmarking is the practice of measuring an organisations products or services against “best practice”. those are the areas that are critical to the organisation. customers. Strategic management accounting places an emphasis on using information from a wide variety of internal and external sources in order to evaluate performance appraise proposed projects and make decisions. The starting point for any benchmarking exercise is to determine the key performance areas. and it is a popular and effective management process. providing information on the financial aspects of strategic plans and planning financial aspects of their implementation. choice and implementation Johnson and Scholes’ 3stage model of strategic planning is a useful framework for seeing the ‘bigger picture’ of performance management and strategic management accounting issues. (b) significantly improve the relationship with their client groups. operationally and strategically. such as suppliers. Through benchmarking.Mahmood Reza . The term ‘strategic management accounting’ refers to the full range of management accounting practices used to provide a guide to the strategic direction of an organisation. Benchmarking originated in the USA in the 1970s. A number of commercial. It supports managers throughout the organisation in the task of managing the organisation in the interests of all its stakeholders. the primary objective is to improve processes or activities. Having defined the benchmarks the hunt is on for information to establish the benchmark performance. (c) impact on the viability of the organisation. public sector and not for profit organisations have successfully embraced the technique.SECTION A Strategic analysis. pioneered by Rank Xerox and was ‘exported’ to Europe and the UK in the 1980s. these are commonly known as “key performance indicators” (KPIs). For example a charitable organisation that relies on grant aid as its main source of income might benchmark fund raising activities. They should focus on those areas that (a) tie up most of the resources. Once the key performance areas have been decided upon an organisation must then set the key standards and variables to measure. There are four types of benchmarking ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 11 © Pro Active Resolutions . Benchmarking enables them to identify where they fall short of current best practice and determine action programmes to help then match and surpass it. competitors and the economy in general as much as on the organisation itself. Any activity that can be measured can also be benchmarked. It focuses on the external environment. and the best practices of others. organisations learn about their own practices and procedures. However this is neither feasible nor practical. Strategic management accounting gives a financial dimension to strategic management and control.

Finally the team decides what is needed to adapt the best practices to suit their own particular circumstances. Generic: this is undertaken with external companies in different industries that represent the "best-in-class" for particular aspects of the selected business operations. a company that wishes to benchmark customer service needs to decide what specific aspect of customer service needs to be examined. Each of these activities is different. but in different organisations and industries. For example. Many organisations forget this stage and therefore miss the real benefit of benchmarking. It is more likely than internal benchmarking to generate benefits to the specific function. Managers need to be as specific as possible when identifying areas to benchmark. Some choice is needed in the situation. Successful and effective benchmarking requires commitment and support from the board and senior management. the board and other stakeholders the confidence to pursue their mission without the fear of legal action or harm. This is an easy way to start benchmarking. RISK AND UNCERTAINTY Risk management is the process of managing your organisation's exposure to potential liabilities. Likelihood infers some ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 12 © Pro Active Resolutions . staff. each with its own thought processes. handling disappointed customers. Once the best practices have been identified. analyses it. this will a re-evaluation and re-design of existing procedures and approaches. benchmarking moves from simple measurement through to performance improvements. and then plots their performance against best practice to help identify improvement opportunities. clients. Customer service encompasses a diverse range of activities.Mahmood Reza . There can be practical difficulties in achieving this.Internal: this is done within an organisation arid generally between closely related divisions. likelihood and consequence. It is essential that programmes and actions are implemented and that ongoing performance is monitored. A cost-benefit exercise will usually be carried out and an implementation timetable with priorities is established. issuing refunds and taking payments. It gives managers. plants or operations. rather than being haphazard. Having measured one’s actual performance and compared it with some form of target. such as dealing with enquiries. Organisations then need to specify programmes and actions to close the gap. techniques and controls. namely choice. the benchmarking team collects the data. a manager does not have a risky situation a rather a bounded one beyond the manager's control. and approaches risk in a structured and calculated manner. but is limited to internal criteria only Functional: this is a comparison of performance and procedures between similar functions. Risk consists of three elements. but it is unlikely to give wide benefits throughout the organisation Competitive: this focuses on direct competitors within the same industry and with specific comparable business operations. if there is no choice. or on indirect competitors in related industries with complementary business operations.

Regret is seen as the pay-off lost v. Decisions under uncertainty are effectively where • Outcomes are known • Associated probabilities are unknown Decisions under risk are effectively where • Outcomes are known • Associated probabilities are known A number of techniques exist for decision making under uncertainty. Required a) b) Construct a contingency table How many kilos should be bought if the following approach were adopted? Maximin Maximax Regret ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 13 © Pro Active Resolutions . Maximin This maximises the smallest pay-off. The selling price is £1 per kg with any unsold apples being scrapped. and some unwanted consequence must exist in one or more of the choices available to the manager. not pursuing optimal action Expected Values (EV) This is used where decisions subject to risk EV = Total of probabilities of outcome × returns ACTIVITY ONE A retailer needs to decide how many kilos of fruit he needs to buy from the market and has assessed the possible daily demand as 60. 100. it is indicative of a pessimistic and Risk-averting approach Maximax This has the highest maximum pay-off. 125 or 175 kg He can buy quantities of 50. 150 or 200 kg at a price of £4 per 10 kg.Mahmood Reza . the more popular being contingency tables and its associated interpretation: Contingency Table This is used for decisions made under uncertainty. 100.level of uncertainty. albeit with the risk of loss to low returns Minimax regret This minimises the maximum possible regret and limits the potential ‘opportunity’ loss. it identifies & records all payoffs where action affects outcomes. it is indicative of an optimistic approach.

resources are allocated by need or benefit. ranked and resources allocated. This can encourage inefficiency and conflict between managers Control Assists managers in controlling activities with managements attention concentrated on deviations from a pre-set plan Performance Evaluation Measuring success of achieving the budget. therefore. Operational Control Operational control is ensuring that specific tasks are carried out. namely Planning Management produce detailed plans for implementation Coordination Actions of different parts of organisation are brought together Communication Everyone is informed of the plans and policies. The approach is that ‘budgeted’ expenditure starts from base zero and description of each activity is included in a decision package.Mahmood Reza . top management communicates to lower level management Motivation This influences managerial behaviour. Management control. This is primarily concerned with the processing of inputs and raw materials to get outputs. rewards like bonuses are given in some companies and is meant to iinfluence human behaviour Incremental budgeting Indirect cost and support activities are prepared incrementally Zero based budgeting Activities are justified & prioritised before decisions are taken. individuals motivated to perform in line with objectives. Management Control Management control is the coordination of the day to day activities in an organisation to ensure that inputs and raw materials are used efficiently and effectively towards achieving long term goals. a questioning attitude is created and the focus is on attention on outputs in relation to value for money Anthony (1965) categorised control into three main types: Strategic Control The setting of corporate strategy and long term objectives for the organisation. they are evaluated.c) Calculate expected contribution (EV) BUDGETING Budgets have multiple functions. links strategic control and operational control. ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 14 © Pro Active Resolutions . The benefits are that the deficiencies of traditional budgeting are avoided.

This will be discussed in more detail later in the session. Corrective actions are then taken to ensure that future results are in line with the budget. In the model. design and decision making. The budget plays an important role here in providing controls to aid management control.occurs where actual outputs are monitored against desired outputs and corrective action is taken where there is a variance between the two. BEYOND BUDGETING Budgets have conflicting roles and a single budget system can’t serve several purposes with planning and motivating roles potentially in conflict. The system providing the reports for this control system is known as ‘responsibility accounting’. Budgets as feed-forward control In putting budgets together. The traditional budgeting model has been criticised for its dysfunctional impact on performance improvement. Feedback and Feed-forward Controls Feedback control . the nature of performance responsibility is ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 15 © Pro Active Resolutions . So. with feed-forward controls any likely errors can be foreseen and actions taken to avoid them. Beyond budgeting is an alternative management model based on the decision-making needs of front line managers. Feed-forward control – predictions are made about future outputs and compared to desired outputs and action is taken where there is a difference between the two. followed by corrective action where deviations from plan exist.Mahmood Reza .Management control utilises regular feedback reporting systems so that corrective action can taken where variances from plan are identified. This was highlighted by Hope and Fraser in their article "Beyond Budgeting" which won the prestigious IFAC award for best management accounting article of 1998. is known as a ‘control system’. If the budget falls short of these expectations then it may be adjusted and alternatives considered. with feedback control actual errors against the plan are identified and corrective actions taken to achieve the remainder of the plan. The systematic comparison of planned inputs to actual results made using the budget. Budgets as feedback control During the budget period actual results are compared to the budget and any deviations from budget identified. and submitting them to the budget committee. they are compared against the future expectations of the organisation as outlined in the long term plan. whereas. The budgeting process is an example of both a feed-forward and feedback control system. This process may continue until a budget is agreed that will meet long term expectations.

can affect the entire organisation which is only as strong as the weakest link. Work place culture has a significant impact on the successful implementation of beyond budgeting. they all have associated costs. wastage reductions. They do not recognise or support the effectiveness of the key business processes. Inadequacies. planning action.transferred from the centre. In addition. Senior management focusing effort on corporate strategies but failing to communicate them down the organisation to the lower levels. departments are controlled against budget and past performance. Certain customers may attract so much cost that they provide no profit contribution at all. In their efforts to retain existing customers and attract new ones. resources and co-ordination.Mahmood Reza . companies may be unaware of the true value their customers place on the level ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 16 © Pro Active Resolutions . Customer Profitability The needs of customers can vary radically. new product introductions and customer satisfaction ratings. in any department which contributes to a business process. Setting targets based on internal and external benchmarks helps remove internal political negotiations. Businesses try to meet their corporate objectives and to meet the needs of their customers. Traditional management accounting and financial control systems reflect the needs for a hierarchical function in the organising structure. Medium term goals typically include financial performance expectations. As a result companies do not know the true cost of trading with these customers. it is the participation in decision-making and authority (according to Hope and Fraser) to use their own judgement and initiative that motivates employees to act in the best interests of an organisation and its shareholders. and control exercised. 2. or even with customer groups. number of order lines. quantity per order line. Conventional cost management fails to recognise that corporate success depends on the effectiveness of its key business processes. Within this system. Their contribution to meeting business and customer needs is neglected. salesmen's visits and special orders. the departments often allow budgetary targets to dominate. under commonly recognised general account headings. discounts given. Managers' performance bonuses can be linked to KPIs both at corporate and business unit level. Conventional cost accounting techniques rarely recognise them. Such processes frequently cross departmental boundaries. customer location. However with each department having its role to play in a cost budget. rewarding employees. companies can be drawn into providing widely different levels of service in respect of many different service elements such as frequency of delivery. These have one thing in common. This is a well tried and well understood approach but it fails due to 1. Goal setting needs to base targets on KPIs and relative benchmarks to ensure that managers pursue strategic and financial goals. ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC) Organisations are typically structured hierarchically on a functional basis and costs are typically reported. Beyond budgeting requires goal setting.

The relationships between the activity level volume driver and its root cause. such as variety and complexity . Activity based budgeting can take this a stage further by identifying and modelling a cascade of activity level volume drivers. How the root cause may be changed and how this can affect the activity resource required. In developing the activity based budgeting model it is important to understand and identify:What activities are being/need to be carried out? How efficiently the activities are being carried out and to what quality and standard. in order to achieve a target sales volume.Mahmood Reza . It can also be used as a basis for identifying and producing performance improvement. this understanding is not fully exploited unless management can use it to make changes in the way the organisation ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 17 © Pro Active Resolutions . particularly in the overhead functions. The need to be able to measure the cost of failure throughout the organisation. Once the final budget model has been agreed. giving them a costly service which they do not actually require.not just volume. The crucial importance of the key business processes. For example. ABB The idea behind activity based budgeting is to develop an activity model (or series of linked cost centre activity models) of resource requirements. it then forms the basis for management control through variance analysis with a more complete understanding of the impact of changing volumes on activity resource requirements. so as to focus management attention to the major opportunities for improvement. The need to identify the factors that drive costs and helps guide managers as to where they can best direct their efforts in order to control costs. What is driving the level of resource required to perform this activity (the activity level volume driver). However. companies may be trading at a loss with certain customers. ABC is one answer in view of the drawbacks of conventional cost management. an organisation needs to process so many orders which will result in so many invoices with so many complaints and queries to handle before the transactions can be completed.of service they provide. Understanding these cost linkages is vital to a good understanding of cost behaviour and this is at the heart of activity based budgeting. Each of these activity level volume drivers carries with it a unit cost that can be used to calculate the total value of the resources required. The ABC approach recognises the following The need to generate product costs that more accurately reflect the factors which drive them. Under such circumstances. The requirement to attribute the cost of differing levels of service to your customers in order to establish true customer profitability. This model can then be flexed to affect different volume assumptions which may need to be evaluated after the first stage of the budgeting process (external assessment).

but also on such factors as the number of orders placed in a year. Cost drivers apply at different levels: Unit level Number of hours required to produce a product Batch level These are costs such as machine set-up or inspection.goes about its business. This is done through cost drivers. division managers’ salary. as it is at the operational level. Using a customer perspective for managing the business implies that management will have to concern itself with some or all of the following issues: How does the customer perceive the quality of our product versus that of our competitors? How can we continuously improve? Do the activities undertaken by the company produce the value that the customer requires . Organisation level They are incurred for supporting the continuing level of operations i. organisations may need to evaluate the market profitability and should they remain in it? However the customer will perceive things from his/her own perspective. not just the plant. For example. these occur once per batch Processor product level These cover such items as engineering change orders which refer to a product or process. the number of calls made on the technical service department and so on. For example the profitability of a customer will depend not only on the price and costs of the products purchased.Mahmood Reza . Essentially this will involve making decisions about the value of the service or product to them compared to its cost. This means that costs will have to be traced to this customer from all over the company. ABM The determination of the cost of a product or service is vital at the strategic planning level. The most significant of the cost beneficial changes can only be made if incorporated into budgets through discussion and performance reviews.activity analysis? What are the costs of these activities and are they being carried out efficiently? How well are the activities/processes being performed relative to competitors? What are the important things that we should be controlling? Because the basis of this concern rests on the activities carried out this is called activity based management.e. ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 18 © Pro Active Resolutions . In order to determine the cost of each activity it is necessary to determine how time is spent and how costs build up. While there may be many identifiable cost drivers management will need to identify the minimum set that will allow the costs to be calculated. building depreciation. Cost drivers are those elements that give rise to the need for an activity such as the number of orders for a sales order department. number of complaints for the customer service department and so on.

PESTEL AND SWOT One of the key features that differentiated strategic management accounting from traditional management accounting is the external focus. Identify the business processes to be redesigned 3. Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) is the strategic analysis of business processes and the planning and implementation of improved business processes.Mahmood Reza .BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING This is often referred to by the acronym BPR and one of the ways that organisations aspire to become more efficient and effective. Understand and measure the existing processes 4. this is not necessarily true The existing way of doing things is disregarded No real focus is provided for process improvement on organisational constraints The model (US origin) may be culturally biased towards a US perspective. and marketing. as opposed to functional specialties such as production. Design and build a prototype of the new process 6. A key element underlying the BPR philosophy is that one should look at an organisation as a series of processes. Identify IT levers 5. The approach advocated by Davenport (1992) is to 1. if appropriate an organisations organisational structure and governance model BPR is not a universal panacea and criticisms of the approach include Ineffectiveness of processes is what limits an organisations performance. cultural differences make it difficult for this approach to be universally applicable. By looking at the organisation’s competitive position we will be concentrating on this external focus The business environment can be thought of as comprising the wider macroenvironment and the competitive (operating) environment ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 19 © Pro Active Resolutions . Develop the business vision and process objectives 2. Adapt.

Some form of impact analysis and scenario planning is especially useful to explore different possible futures. it is important to identify the key opportunities and threats facing the company (a) at present. Social. Technological. on your company. (b) in the future and how these are. i. This exercise allows “what if” questions to be explored. Ecological and Legal factors impact. Economic. A mere listing of PESTEL influences has little value. STRENGTHS: What we are good at WEAKNESSES: What we are not so good at OPPORTUNITIES: Favourable events trends THREATS: Unfavourable events trends ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 20 © Pro Active Resolutions .Mahmood Reza . This is known as a PESTEL analysis. an assessment of how Political. (b) in the future. It is useful to identify what macro environmental factors are affecting an organisation and then to consider which of these are most important (a) at present. A PESTEL analysis should also examine the differential impact of these macro environmental influences by asking how they affect different companies differently. SWOT This is a strategic planning tool which summarises the key issues from the business environment and the strategic capability of an organisation most likely to impact on strategy development.e. or are likely to impact. This can be used as a basis against which to generate strategic options and assess future courses of action.Economic Substitutes Suppliers Customers Political Your Organisation Entrants Social Stakeholders Competitors Competitive Environment Macro Environment Technological PESTEL ANALYSIS (MACRO ENVIRONMENT) The figure above shows the range of environmental influences. in effect drivers for change.

If the strategic capability of an organisation is to be understood the SWOT analysis is only considered useful if it is comparative. examining strengths. focus on major and not marginal areas. opportunities and threats relative to competitors.e. weaknesses. i. ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 21 © Pro Active Resolutions . be open and honest and have a priority and emphasis. An effective SWOT should be limited to four to five factors. A SWOT analysis should help focus discussion on future choices and the extent to which an organisation is capable of supporting these strategies. and not absolute to its “competitors” or other organisations.The primary aim is to identify the extent to which the current strengths and weaknesses are relevant to and capable of dealing with the changes taking place in the business environment.Mahmood Reza .

which includes Target pricing Market skimming Price differentiation Competitive pricing Cost based Cost plus Economic approach MR = MC MARKET-BASED PRICING STRATEGIES The actual approach to be adopted will be influenced by the stage in the product life cycle and general market considerations such as Company’s Market Position The nature of the market & its share Whether the company is price setter or price taker The likely competitor reaction The Macro-Economic Status Is the economy experiencing boom. recession or confidence? Other Aspects of the Marketing Mix The product mix Any constraints of range Are there bundling opportunities Place Promotion Product / service attributes COST STRATEGIES Marginal-Cost Unit Selling Price = Variable Cost + % contribution Normally used for short-run tactical or scarce resource situations A danger that low prices become norm Full-Cost Unit Selling Price = Total Cost / Budget Volume + % Profit This ensures that profits are above break-even volumes There is a risk of a spiral of declining demand Minimum-Price Unit Selling Price = Incremental (cash) Costs only ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 22 © Pro Active Resolutions .Mahmood Reza .SECTION B PRICING There are three general approaches to pricing Market based approach.

tabulation. Establish revenue function ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes © Pro Active Resolutions . a = Constant (Intercept). these being ones that are Homogenous Has no distinctive USPs (Unique Selling Proposition) Product substitutes exist That there is no perceived value in the product A strong correlation between price and demand. or differential calculus The calculus approach effectively involves solving the equation of a straight line.e. Profit Maximisation occurs where marginal revenue = marginal cost. i. a % increase in price causes a corresponding % decrease in demand (and vice versa). P= a .bQ P = Price. VC = Variable cost.Mahmood Reza 23 . FC = Fixed cost. Q = Quantity DEMAND CURVE (ALTHOUGH IT IS A STRAIGHT LINE!) b = is the gradient for demand curve and = Change in price Corresponding change in qty demanded Marginal revenue is the increase in total revenue from the sale of one additional unit Marginal cost is the increase in total cost when output is increased by one additional unit Stages 1. where P is known as the dependent variable and Q is the independent variable.or opportunity costs in a scarce resource situation ECONOMIC APPROACH This is considered a theoretical approach to pricing for products exhibiting elastic demand. Q= Demand 2. Establish cost function TC = FC + Q×VC TC = Total cost. this can be determined by graphical interpretation. b = Gradient.

these consisting of providers of finance.which stakeholders have the most power or influence over the organisation? Decide criteria . Q = Demand 3. 4. C. government. what should we do? Assess performance . Stakeholder power A.are our actions on generating the appropriate outcomes. It may be easy to assume that the owners of an organisation as the most powerful stakeholders. Keep informed.are we meeting the stakeholders’ expectations? If not. P = Selling Price. or should we change? One analytical tool way to help manage stakeholders is Mendelow’s Matrix.who are the stakeholders? Assess and rank . clients and suppliers. Key players.Mahmood Reza .what are the stakeholders’ expectations? Decide actions . B. Stakeholder Analysis is a process that involves the following stages: Identify . this is often not the case and so the leader in an organisation should have a clear view of where the most powerful influences are likely to come from. as the most powerful stakeholders are the ones who ultimately determine the purpose and direction of the organisation.Establish maximum selling price Revenue = P × Q. Keep satisfied. managers. Minimal effort. employees. D. Establish marginal cost and differentiate cost function Establish marginal revenue and differentiate revenue function Optimum selling price is where: Marginal cost = Marginal revenue STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS Stakeholders are normally seen as individuals or groups that are affected by organisations activities. competitors. Low High A C Low Probability of exercising power/level of interest B D High ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 24 © Pro Active Resolutions . It is important to conduct a Stakeholder Analysis. however.

Mahmood Reza . If a manager is allocated responsibility for uncontrollable items then no matter what variances occur for that item the manager will not be able to take actions to correct the situation. There are four types of responsibility centre: 1. which may require overtime payments for attendance. training courses for direct workers. Guidelines for reporting 1. For example. If a manager cannot control either the quantity or price paid for a service or goods then both usage and expenditure are uncontrollable and should not be attributed to the manager. Managers are allocated responsibility centres and held responsible for its performance. Profit Centre – managers are responsible and accountable for both revenues and costs 4. 3. Problems of dual responsibility It may be for some items an element of shared responsibility exists.SECTION C RESPONSIBILITY ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS Responsibility accounting systems identify individual areas of responsibility in the organisations structure. direct labour may be the responsibility of the production manager. This only serves to demotivate the manager concerned. Investment Centre – managers are responsible and accountable for revenue. Each area of responsibility is often referred to as a ‘responsibility centre’. may be the responsibility of the human resources manager. If a manager can control the quantity of the service or goods but not the price paid for that service or goods then only the variance in usage should be attributed to that manager. Arbitrary costs ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 25 © Pro Active Resolutions . However. 2. In these instances a responsibility accounting system should seek to assign and report on cost to the person having ‘primary’ responsibility. If a manager can control the quantity and price paid for a service or goods then the manager is responsible for all of the expenditure incurred for that service or goods. Cost Centre – managers are responsible and accountable for costs only 2. costs and capital investment decisions In operating a responsibility accounting system a number of issues have to be considered: Controllable and uncontrollable costs Managers should only be judged and measured on costs and revenues that they control. Revenue Centre – managers are responsible and accountable for revenue only 3.

This would prevent the abuse of services. ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 26 © Pro Active Resolutions . therefore. Therefore. It should also be borne in mind that they may have some influence on the costs involved.Mahmood Reza . e. For managers operating in a responsibility accounting system this would render them uncontrollable. if managers do not see these costs then they will not understand the costs that are incurred to support their business areas. heating and rent are apportioned to cost centres on some sort of arbitrary basis. However. that managers should be made aware of arbitrary costs. floor area. such as IT support.Generally costs. There is an argument. managers should not be held responsible for them. such as insurance.g.

or respected. Rewards can be either financial or nonfinancial. In most instances a mix of both and non-financial rewards will be expected. customers. It is the foundation for any strategic plan and expresses its “reason for being”. Organisational and strategic aims represent the link between mission and objectives and act as a statement of intention. however. They serve to explain the concept of organisational purpose in order that managers may better understand and be able to apply it. It often includes references to products and services. Rewards What we can expect as a result of our efforts. OBJECTIVES Objectives are statements of specific outcomes that are to be achieved. from the strategic to operational levels. AIMS These normally flow from the mission statement and are subsequently used to develop suitable organisational objectives. They tend to be positive in nature and unquantifiable. and forces the Board members and staff to align themselves around a specific agenda.Mahmood Reza . would cause us to be unhappy. some organisational objectives are important but difficult to quantify or convert into measurable terms. and if they were not met. unlike objectives. It sets the standard to which the organisation aspires. VISION A statement of what the organisation will be. A mission statement is the foundation for the entire strategic planning process. or be perceived to be. vision and/or value statements may also be developed alongside the mission statement. new technology and social responsibility.SECTION D The expressions Vision and Mission are used to describe aspects of organisational purpose. Milestones and indicators of achievements are essential to monitor progress of all objectives. Conventional wisdom is that unless objectives are SMART (Specific Measurable Attainable Relevant Time Bound) then they are not helpful. Objectives are developed and extended from an organisations mission statement and goals. they can be stated in financial and nonfinancial terms. MISSION A mission statement is a statement of the overriding direction and purpose of an organisation. now and in the future. The term vision statement is used by some organisations instead as mission statement. ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 27 © Pro Active Resolutions . such as to be the leader in ones field. markets. Values Those things that we believe to be important. employees.

Reasons may include: Size – a large organisation with centralised management become unpractical Nature of work – specialists become necessary to deal with the diverse and complex activities of a business Motivation – managers need incentives to perform well Uncertainty – volatile market conditions are better coped with by a manager with a smaller. A transfer pricing policy is needed if goods and services are passed between divisions. However.The Strategic Triangle Vision VALUES Mission Rewards DIVISIONALISATION As a business expands it eventually reaches the stage where it becomes appropriate to split it up into smaller. subject to legal restrictions. Two of the main organisational structures are functional or divisionalised. closer. this is unlikely to be the case and a certain amount of inter-divisional trading will take place. a decentralised structure automatically arises. more manageable units – to decentralise. be diverted in such a way as to minimise tax liabilities It may well be the case that some degree of decentralisation arises as a result of the way in which a business expands. One condition for a successful decentralisation is that the various divisions should be more or less interdependent of each other. in practice.Mahmood Reza . represented as follows: ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 28 © Pro Active Resolutions . sphere of influence Geographical – it is important to get close to markets and sources of supply Fiscal – profits can. If the expansion is by take-over of companies that then become subsidiaries within group.

FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE DIVISIONAL STRUCTURE TRANSFER PRICING Transfer pricing deals with the problem of pricing products or services sold (Transferred within an organisation). Decisions over suitable transfer prices are needed if a firm has split itself into autonomous units i. it has decentralised or is involved in setting prices between connected companies in different countries. At first sight it would seem that setting prices for internal transfers is less critical than for external sales. The decision over transfer pricing is even more critical since top management is in a position to identify whether it is more economical for a product or ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 29 © Pro Active Resolutions . however it has to be appreciated that the divisions into which a large group will split itself expect to act as self-contained units.Mahmood Reza . The approaches to setting transfer prices are similar to those for external sales. there are cost-based methods and market based methods.e.

(goal congruence) Setting the transfer price In the majority of cases the transfer price will be set somewhere between these two extremes. as far as the whole organisation is concerned. This is true in terms of the physical application of a transfer pricing system once it has been decided upon and implemented. Adopting a transfer pricing policy will result in: • Total corporate profit to be divided up between divisional profit centres. but at the same time needs to take into account behavioural considerations such as the motivation of divisional managers. can affect the level of motivation of each divisional manager. It might appear that the credit to the supplying division is merely offset by an equal debit to the receiving division and that therefore. therefore. it may result in a cost centre being converted into a profit centre • Information becoming available for divisional decision-making • Information being made available to help assess the performance of divisions and divisional managers The rules for the operation of a transfer pricing policy are the same for any policy in a decentralised organisation. Is it to be an actual or standard cost? Will it be fully absorbed cost or variable cost and if so what will be included? Will there be additional elements to cover general and administrative costs for example? ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 30 © Pro Active Resolutions .Mahmood Reza .service to be bought and sold internally or externally. In addition there are four specific criteria which a good transfer pricing policy should meet: • It should provide motivation for divisional managers • It should allow divisional autonomy and independence to be maintained • It should allow divisional performance to be assessed objectively • It should ensure that divisional managers make decisions that are in the best interests of the divisions and also of the company as a whole. there are important behavioural and organisational elements associated with transfer pricing and the choice of which method to adopt. However this division of profits may be extremely important for internal reporting since it affects the results of the responsibility reports and hence the success or failure of the segment. However. Cost-Based Transfer Prices The big problem with cost-based prices is deciding on the cost to be used. It is important that the criteria used to pick a price are easy to understand and that the impact of the price on the profits of the two segments can be easily evaluated. The difference between the upper and lower prices represents the corporate profit/savings generated by producing the product or service internally. The chosen price “divides” the profit between the two segments. it has a net zero effect. There are three main methods used to set the transfer price. A system should be reasonably easy to operate and understand as well as being flexible in terms of a changing organisational structure. The transfer price does affect the profit of each division separately and. For external reporting this is irrelevant since the profit element will be eliminated when the financial statements are consolidated.

Negotiated Transfer Prices Some companies allow business segments to negotiate the transfer price. delivery and marketing expenses. Here the agreed transfer price is used only for the purposes of financial reporting of individual segment results. Such freedom runs the risk of sub optimisation as segment managers’ fight to gain the lion’s share of the available profit. That is to say the amount of mark-up in the buying segment’s accounts must equal the amount of mark-up in the selling segment’s accounts. The mark-up is accounted for by assigning it to a different account that is used for reconciliation purposes. The product or service may not be available on the open market. in a market. For this reason the company may specify arbitration processes and for performance management purposes may evaluate managers on the basis of the total profit made by both segments. What additional costs are included and are they reasonable or have they been inflated? Market-Based Cost Market pricing is believed to be an objective arm’s length method of arriving at a transfer price. This reconciliation is the same as is done for the purposes of consolidation of the accounts. although this is less true of commodity products. For management evaluation purposes the variable or absorbed cost is applied to the results of one or both segments. irrespective of the segment n which they work. usually between the upper and lower limits set out above. Dual Pricing To overcome these problems companies can adopt the practice of dual pricing. the normal or the temporary? Finally. discounts on price are ordinarily given when volume orders are placed or longterm contracts are signed. The difference between the “entity” and management price is called the “mark-up”. Similarly if the receiving segment is operating efficiently it should be able to make a profit since it would have to purchase at this price if the item was not manufactured internally. ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 31 © Pro Active Resolutions . However several problems may exist in practice.If actual costs are used then the cost may vary according to the season or according to the efficiency of the supplying segment and the receiving segment will have no idea how to set its sales prices. Using dual pricing allows a company to get the best of both worlds.Mahmood Reza . If a supplying segment is operating efficiently it should be able to make a profit at this price. Finally the market price may not equal the LRMC and in this case the company will fail to set it price/output decisions correctly. First market price may not be appropriate because internal production should lead to savings in bad debt. If the market price is temporarily depressed or increased due to events beyond the control of either segment which price should be taken. There is an implication here that the buying segment has the right to purchase form external sources if it cannot agree a price. The transfer price can be set to meet the regulatory and corporate finance constraints while the price used by local management can be based on a close approach to the economist’s long-run marginal costs so allowing the company’s global operations to optimize their third-party pricing and output decisions on a decentralized management basis.

Additional processing costs at of $5 per container. and (ii) At the higher potential level indicated by the market research. Competition in an industry continually works to drive down the rate of return towards the competitive floor rate of return. Calculate the monthly profit position for each of Provide Inc. are trading subsidiaries of the Happy Group of companies. Buyer Power 2. Required a. AND RECEIVE INC: TRANSFER PRICING Receive Inc.000 per month. 1980) initially as an investor’s tool. It sells one quarter of its output to Receive Inc.000 containers per month for the year ending 31st March. and Receive Inc. at a transfer price of $14 per container. where known. b. the following cost information has been obtained. An industry is a group of firms producing products that are close substitutes for each other. manufactures a branded product sold in containers at a price of $30 per container. could increase their market share by 75% in volume if it were to reduce its price by 20%. are (i) At their present level. Rivalry 5. PORTER: INDUSTRY ANALYSIS . produces a standard product which can be converted and used for a number of final products. but competition is tough and it plans to sell no more than 36. Recommend. Barriers to Exit and Entry.000. a possible transfer price. and Provide Inc. Threat of substitutes 3. Receive Inc. Provide Inc. is 52. The Happy Group’s transfer pricing policy is to use market prices.THE FIVE FORCES The factors that determine the returns that are possible in an industry are known as the Five Forces. subject to a cut in price of 15%. This approach to analysis was developed by Prof. Its direct product costs per container are: Raw materials from Receive Inc. and the remainder to customers outside the group. if the sales Receive Inc. Michael Porter (Competitive Strategy.ACTIVITY TWO: PROVIDE INC. Receives monthly fixed costs are $60.Mahmood Reza . a market research study has indicated that Receive Inc.000 containers per month. with supporting calculations. Its variable processing costs are $7 per container and its monthly fixed costs are $80. The production capacity of Provide Inc. According to Porter five forces determine industry structure: 1. Supplier Power 4. ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 32 © Pro Active Resolutions .

If the product is unimportant to the quality of the buyers products or services. ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 33 © Pro Active Resolutions . If the buyer has low profitability it will have to press for low prices. The more attractive the price-performance of alternatives the firmer the lid is on industry pricing. Substitute Products Firms in one industry are also competing with firms in another that produce substitute products. If the products are standard and undifferentiated the buyer will have more power over prices.Mahmood Reza . If the buyer can exercise significant power over which products its customers purchase as in large retail stores. If the buyer has few switching costs it will not be locked into a particular seller.Threat of Potential Entrants Competitve Rivalry Bargaining Power of Suppliers (Supply conditions) Your Organisation Bargaining Power of Buyers (customers) (Demand conditions – across total market / segments) Threat of Substitutes Buyer Power Buyer power is the ability of the buyer to determine the price at which they will buy irrespective of the decisions of the firm. A group of buyers is powerful if for example a buyer purchases large amounts relative to the seller’s total sales. If the product bought represents a significant portion of the buyers total purchases the buyer will tend to shop around for lower prices. Substitutes limit returns in an industry by setting a ceiling on the prices the industry can charge.

advertising battles. not brought about by scale. Slow industry growth High fixed or storage costs. such as selling. Lack of differentiation or switching costs. They consist of specialised assets. Exit barriers can be economic. If they are not.Substitute products that need to be closely watched are those with improving priceperformance ratios where the industry that produces them is more profitable than yours. Intense rivalry is the result of a number of factors: Numerous or equally balanced competitors. government denial or discouragement of exit and so on.Mahmood Reza . Access to distribution channels which may be difficult if they are controlled by the industry. improvements to warranties and so on. However these economies of scale must be real. as a result of proprietary technology. the new entrant may enter at a lower price than the incumbents are manufacturing for. favourable access to materials. Threats of Entry New entrants to an industry bring new capacity. favourable locations. strategic and emotional. Capital requirements Switching costs. Capacity augmented in large increments Diverse competitors High strategic stakes High barriers to exit. or by operation. Product differentiation leads to brand identities and customer loyalties. experience curve effects ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 34 © Pro Active Resolutions . Price competition can leave the whole industry worse off while advertising battles may increase demand and hence wealth of firms. fixed costs of exit. fear for one’s own career. as Xerox discovered when Japanese entrants started following the expiry of patents. Cost disadvantages to the entrant. The threat of entry depends on the strength of the barriers to entry: Economies of scale. product introductions. the need to gain market share and they can bring substantial resources. Scale economies can vary by function. increased customer service. Supplier Power Profitable suppliers can squeeze profitability out of an industry if that industry cannot recoup the cost of higher priced supplies in prices of its own products. identification with the business. loyalty to the workforce. The conditions making suppliers powerful are: It is concentrated with few firms It does not have to contend with other substitute products for sale to the industry. The industry is not an important customer. The supplier group as built up switching costs Rivalry Rivalry takes the form of price competition. If these are large then the new entrant has to come in on a large scale. The significant cost here is fixed cost relative to value-added. The suppliers’ product is an important input to the industry. For example there are large economies of scale in manufacturing television colour tubes but not in cabinet making or assembly. strategic interrelationships.

The most widely used of these is the Boston Consulting Group Matrix. Conglomerates will seek to minimise the risks found in individual industries by holding investments in a range of industries. cash cows and dogs.on other words it is below the ‘Entry Deterring Price’ .he will not enter. There are various tools and techniques for analysing a product or Business Unit investment. PRODUCT PORTFOLIOS Because of the inevitability of the eventual decline of all products and services. ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 35 © Pro Active Resolutions .the so-called product/market decision. stars. businesses seek to reduce their exposure to the risk of a product decline by maintaining a portfolio of products. often referred to either as the Boston Box or the BCG Matrix. Where however the industry price is significantly above these then new entrants will tend to bring the price down to it. BCG MATRIX High Stars Question Marks Market Growth Cash Cows Low Dogs High Market Share (Relative to biggest competitor) Low ANSOFF PRODUCT MATRIX Apart from competitive advantage and entry barriers the company strategy will also include its decisions on which products to sell in which markets. called after Igor Ansoff who originated it in the 1960s. Products/ services are placed in the matrix and identified as question marks. portfolio. The matrix plots markets against products giving in each cell the type of strategic decision.Mahmood Reza . A balanced portfolio will contain products at various stages of the product life cycle.Expected retaliations The entrant will have costs of entry and if the industry price is insufficient to allow him to recoup these . This decision is often illustrated by the Ansoff matrix. This framework allows the product portfolio to be identified in terms of market share and market growth.

PERFORMANCE MEASURES RETURN ON INVESTMENT (ROI) ROI is similar to the ROCE concept. Sadly the evidence is that this is not only the most risky strategy but also one which is frequently fails. A market development strategy is one where the company seeks to increase its profitability by selling its existing products to new customers (markets) it has never sold in before. The strategic information required here is the direct profit contribution by unit and an investment strategy based on incremental/opportunity costing based on future outcomes. A product development strategy is based on selling new products to existing customers.Existing Marke ts Existing Products Market Pen etration Exisiting customer strategy New Markets Existing prod uct led strategy New Products Diversificatio n A market penetration strategy is one where the company strategy is to increase its market share in an existing market with current products. Advantages and Disadvantages The main advantages are that Calculations are very simple The entire life of the project is taken into account Profit is a well understood concept and easily obtainable As a relative measure ROI enables comparison against projects or SBUs of varying sizes ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 36 © Pro Active Resolutions . This is most successful when it is based on the most profitable existing products.Mahmood Reza . by customer segment. its volumes and prices. it is the use and application of the measure that is different to ROCE. The diversification strategy requires the company to sell new products to new customers. The key strategic information required is that on the market. This will require a soundly based customer profitability information system. ROI is more commonly applied at the project or SBU (Strategic Business Unit) level. Clearly the strategy is most successful when the customers who are approached are those that are the most profitable to the firm. This is particularly successful at developing super-profits when the market is growing strongly. Here the management accounting system must be able to clearly identify the competitive advantage by which the company is going to create its super-profit.

The crucial factor in investment decisions is cash flow and the ROI uses profits. EVA. Disadvantages In common with most other divisional performance measures.Imputed Interest Charge on Project/SBU Investment The interest charge is a notional charge based normally on a risk adjusted cost of capital applied to the book value of the value of the investment at the start if each year. Residual income gives the symptoms not the cause of problems. There are a number of different definitions of ROI and various ways of calculating it which can lead to confusion. Averages can be misleading. Advantages and disadvantages of residual income Advantages It makes divisional managers aware of the cost of financing their divisions. is simply the net operating profit after tax less the cost of capital (the weighted average cost of debt and equity) used in the business. In the long run it supports the net present value approach to investment appraisal (the present value of a project’s residual income equals net present value of that project). If residual income falls the figures give little clue as to why. Problems exist in comparing the performance of different sized divisions (large divisions will earn larger residual incomes simply due to their size Residual income when applied on a short term basis is a short term measure of performance and may lead managers to overlook projects whose payoffs are long term. RESIDUAL INCOME This is expressed as an absolute figure. according to the book The Quest for Value – the EVA Management Guide. problems exist in defining controllable and traceable income and investment. The technique takes no account of the time value of money. the concept being that true shareholder value is created when an organisation generates economic profits in ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 37 © Pro Active Resolutions .Mahmood Reza . EVA is seen to the true economic profit made by an enterprise.The main disadvantages are The timing of profit flows is completely ignored. it is normnally calculated as Profit (EBIT) . It is an absolute measure of performance and not subject to the problems of relative measures such as return on investment. ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED Stern Stewart New York Consultancy Group has ‘trademarked’ the term EVA (Economic Value Added) for what is an extension/refinement of the Residual Income concept. It takes no account of the incidence of profits.

ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 38 © Pro Active Resolutions . the IRR for a project is compared with the target return required by the organisation. an investment is likely to be worthwhile if the present value of the inflows exceeds the present value of the outflows. Using the NPV approach it is possible to demonstrate that a project which is discounted at. INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN The internal rate of return (IRR) is a technique of investment appraisal which is related to the NPV method. and then become negative. Investments in mutually exclusive projects are ranked according to the size of the IRR. NOPAT is arrived at by making a number of adjustments to accounting profit. provisions and interest charges. If it is greater than or equal to the latter. that is. provisions for doubtful debts. This condition is a positive net present value and indicates that the investment as projected will earn more than the interest rate used to discount the cash flows. after discounting the projected cash flows. Once calculated. hence the accept/reject approach adopted above where respective positive and negative net present values are achieved. The discount rate used represents the rate of return required to make the investment worthwhile. If it is less than the target return. that is the project yields a negative net present value. example adjustments being for amortised goodwill. the NPV represents the change in the value of the firm if the project is adopted. If the discount rates are successively increased. say. go through zero. this being a proxy measure for net cash flows. both in and out. then the investment as projected is earning less than the discount rate and should be rejected.Mahmood Reza . the project is likely to be worthwhile. The economic capital is arrived at by making a number of adjustments to the accounting measure of capital. non-cash expenses. example adjustments being for amortised development costs and goodwill. The IRR is the discount rate which applies when the present value of inflows equals the present value of outflows. If the present value of the outflows exceeds the present value of the inflows.excess of the financing costs of the economic capital of an organisation. the project should be rejected. illustrating that higher discount rates cause fewer projects to be worthwhile. The economic profits are described as NOPAT (Net Operating Profits after Tax). In economic terms. The financing costs represent the target WACC applied to the economic capital NET PRESENT VALUE The NPV approach to capital investment appraisal is based on the simple notion that. the net present value is zero. the net present value will steadily fall. a discount rate of 10% will be feasible because it gives a positive net present value.

Investment requirements are excluded (changes in for example the working capital are not considered in reported earnings). Earnings are based on the accounting measurement of post-tax profit. The project is forecast to have a contribution to sales ratio of 60% throughout the three year period. Intangible assets. is currently considering a capital project that will last for three years. Risk is excluded and is not accounted for in annual reports. 5. Incremental costs $40million $45million $50million 4. Assumptions and additional information: All cash flows other than the initial capital and working capital investment occur at the end of each year. ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 39 © Pro Active Resolutions . 2.EPS AND THE MEASUREMENT OF SHAREHOLDER VALUE EPS (earnings per share) is an accounting based measure and is considered. Use the net book value of the asset at the start of each year to represent the value of the asset for the year Ignore taxation. Intangibles are generally still not regarded as assets in traditional accounting systems. Some of the reasons cited for the weaknesses of EPS are 1. 3. Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Sales volumes 1. on its own to be a weak measure of shareholder value. 4. ACTIVITY THREE: PROJECT ASSESSMENT PERFORMANCE MEASURES Global Inc. measuring increases in shareholder value using profit based measures are usually weaker than using cash based measures. 2. Dividend policy is not considered 5. albeit different ways of reporting earnings does not affect underlying economic value. unless they comply with formal accounting recognition rules. Immediate investment in working capital will be as below. it will have no residual value and depreciation is calculated on a straight line basis. such as intellectual property play a greater role in an increasing service and knowledge oriented economy – this is not directly reflected in the EPS figure. Inventory $5m Receivables $5m Payables $3m The cost of capital to be used is 12%. The project will require an investment of $66 million.8 million 2 million 2½ million Unit selling price $60 $60 $60 3. The time value of money is ignored 6. Alternative accounting methods may be employed. $90m in year 2 and $100m in year 3. these amounts would be recovered in full at the end of the three year period.Mahmood Reza . The project is expected to generate annual revenue flows of $80m in year 1. the following data has been collected: 1.

Mahmood Reza . Calculate the projects Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR) ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 40 © Pro Active Resolutions .Required: a. Prepare a table for each year of the project showing EBITDA Net profit Residual income using straight line depreciation Return on investment using straight line depreciation Residual income using annuity depreciation Return on investment annuity depreciation b.

we then set a target and then consider ways to achieve the target KPI. The criteria for selecting performance measures for the scorecard are ESTABLISHING A PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM The start point is usually an organisation’s underlying mission. In attempting to establish a clear link between performance and strategy it is vital that management ensures that the performance measures target areas within the business where success is a critical factor. ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 41 © Pro Active Resolutions . monitored and reported to the board and operational managers. vision and strategic direction. in general the approach 1 2 3 4 5 6 Identify key objectives – known as Critical Success Factors (CSFs) Establish measures for CSFs – measures are known as Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). i. If the target KPIs are not being met then appropriate action can be taken. This methodology.Mahmood Reza . if developed and implemented effectively replaces the conventional budgetary reporting system where the focus is more on cost control – important but not the sole determinant of achieving our ultimate mission. CSFs determine KPIs. The need for good performance management is an ongoing issue. Some sense of prioritisation has to occur otherwise we will merely end up calculating and monitoring a list of KPIs that have no cohesive linkage and can cause us to lose sight of our main strategic purpose. these are driven by CSFs Set target KPIs Establish initiatives and ways to achieve the above Devise methods of capturing the data and processing the information Monitor the above via management reporting The above can be seen as a cascading effect.e.SECTION E PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT & EVALUATION It has become increasingly important for organisations to develop systems of performance measurement which not only reflect the growing complexity of the business environment but also monitor their strategic response to this complexity. some of the main issues requiring consideration by management are: Setting performance standards and targets Linking rewards to performance Considering the potential benefits and problems of performance measures. the KPIs are then calculated.

narrative formats) Identifies proactive notifications and workflows Identifies an expirations or revision date Estimation of the costs incurred by introducing and maintaining this indicator Evaluation: e.g. good Written comment Reproduced from Strategic Performance Management. 2006 Ownership Targets and performance thresholds Reporting/notifications • • • • Audience/access Reporting frequency Reporting formats Notifications/workflows Expiry/revision date Cost estimate Confidence level fair : imperfect ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 42 © Pro Active Resolutions . and thresholds for traffic lighting Identifies the audience. benchmarks. graphical. a core competence.CRITERIA FOR DESIGNING PERFORMANCE INDICATORS Name Strategic element being assessed Purpose Data collection method • • • • Formula and/or scale Source of data Frequency Data entry Clear indicator name Identification of what strategic element is being assessed (e. Identification of targets. B Marr.g. outlets. and access rights Identifies how often the indicator is reported Identified how the performance is presented (numerical.Mahmood Reza . a specific resource. one of the output deliverables) Descriptions of the key purpose Short description of how the data is collected Identification of the scale used to assess performance Identification of where the data comes from How often is the indicator measured? Who is collecting and updating the date? Identification of the person(s) of function(s) responsible for the measured element.

Focus on outcomes. There are a number of models of performance measurement which can be used by management. are demanding from public and non-profit organisations.Mahmood Reza . or units produced by a program or service. Thus the pyramid links the business strategy with day-to-day operations. They may sometimes be referred to as activity measures. Outcome measures Outcomes track the benefit received by stakeholders as a result of the organisation’s operations.from corporate vision to individual objectives. PERFORMANCE PYRAMID. Administrators cannot hide behind data indicating numbers served. Outcome measures shift the focus from activities to results. outcomes reflect the concerns of the participants (clients. Outcome measures offer many advantages: Outcomes demonstrates results. Output measures Results generated from the use of program inputs are the domain of the output measure. LYNCH AND CROSS (1991). The performance pyramid derives from the idea that an organisation operates at different levels each of which has a different focus. but must outline specifically how targeted audiences are better off as a result of their program or service. Whereas inputs and outputs tend to focus internally on the program or service itself. and in today’s environment that is exactly what everyone. three types of performance measures have been encountered in practice. Theses metrics track the number of people served. Inputs are generally the simplest elements to measure. Funding can be directed in alignment with those actions that produce documented results. Accountability is enhanced when the focus shifts to outcomes. rather than inputs or outputs. Input Measures At the lowest end of the performance measurement spectrum is the tracking of program inputs. customers. Each is discussed in turn. serves to guide the entire organization toward its true aims. In proposing the use of the performance pyramid Lynch and Cross suggest measuring performance across nine dimensions. from how a program operates to the good it accomplishes. Depending on the nature of the program or services. output measures may provide information on whether desired results are being achieved. from the general public to the world’s most generous philanthropists. but provide limited information for decision – making and analysis of actual results. ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 43 © Pro Active Resolutions . These are mapped onto the organisation . However. other stakeholders).TYPES OF PERFORMANCE MEASURES Traditionally. services provided. it is vital that these different levels support each other. Outcomes provide guidance in resource allocations. Typical inputs include staff time and budgetary recourses.

The four levels of the pyramid are seen to fit into each other in the achievement of objectives. Lynch and Cross concluded that it was essential that the performance measurement systems adopted by an organisation should fulfil the following functions: 1. The measures chosen should link operations to strategic goals. For example. It also makes explicit the difference between measures that are of interest to external parties .separately and together .Mahmood Reza .Within the pyramid the corporate vision is articulated by those responsible for the strategic direction of the organisation. These objectives can be achieved through measures at various levels as shown in the pyramid. quality and delivery . At this level a number of non-financial indicators will be used in order to measure the operations. reductions in cycle time and/or waste will increase productivity and hence profitability and cash flow The strength of the performance pyramid model lies in the fact that it ties together the hierarchical view of business performance measurement with the business process review. In addition. These measures are seen to interact with each other both horizontally at each level.such as customer satisfaction. The real value of the system lies in its ability to focus all business activities on the requirements of its customers. ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 44 © Pro Active Resolutions . and vertically across the levels in the pyramid. It is vital that departments are aware of the extent to which they are contributing .and measures that are of interest within the business such as achieving strategic aims. At the bottom level of the pyramid is what Lynch and Cross refer to as 'measuring in the trenches'. The measures chosen must make use of both financial and non-financial information in such a manner that is of value to departmental managers. These conclusions helped to shape the performance pyramid which can be regarded as a modeling tool that assists in the design of new performance measurement systems. cycle time and waste. Here the objective is to enhance quality and delivery performance and reduce cycle time and waste. 2. The pyramid views a range of objectives for both external effectiveness and internal efficiency. 3. or alternatively the re-engineering of such systems that are already in operation. the availability of the correct information as and when required is necessary to support decision-making at all levels within an organisation.

Mahmood Reza .The performance pyramid (Lynch and Cross. 1991) BALANCED SCORECARD The Balanced Scorecard was developed by Kaplan and Norton as an attempt to counter a rather narrow-minded approach to performance management that relied too heavily on financial measures. are measured: Customers Internal Process Learning and growth Financial The balanced scorecard depicted above is a carefully selected set of quantifiable measures obtained from an organisation’s strategy. the framework is made up of: Objectives Measures Targets Initiatives ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 45 © Pro Active Resolutions . A framework is developed within each of the four perspectives that helps describe the key elements of strategy. The Balanced Scorecard approach relies on the organisation defining key dimensions of performance for which discreet yet linked measures can be reported. The following categories. or perspectives. The measures selected represent a communication tool to employees and external stakeholders the outcomes and performance drivers by which the organisation will achieve its mission and strategic objectives.

Mahmood Reza . partnering with the community. meeting ongoing demands? Customer Perspective Two key questions need to be asked here: Who are our target customers? What is our value proposition in serving them? Example measures could include Specifications (customer driven): Product quality (restaurant) & service quality Service: Responsiveness & customer satisfaction surveys Market share: Product/service mix & Innovations and competency Internal Process Perspective What are the key processes which we must excel at in order to continue to add value for customers? Service development and delivery. and reporting are examples that could be used. at which business processes must we excel? Employee Learning & Growth How do we enable ourselves to grow & change.Mission Customer Whom do we define as our customer? How do we create value for our customer? Financial How do we add value for customers while controlling costs? Internal Processes Strategy To satisfy customers while meeting budgetary constraints. ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 46 © Pro Active Resolutions .

information systems. ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 47 © Pro Active Resolutions . Typical examples include shareholder value increase. education training. employee satisfaction.Mahmood Reza . Financial Perspective The measures in this perspective tell us whether our strategy execution and implementation. Employee skills. and organisational culture and the level necessary to achieve the results that are desired. internal rewards and recognition are examples of such measures. The measures that are used and designed in this perspective will help close the gap. leads to improved bottom-line results. gearing.Learning and Growth Perspective There will normally be a gap between current organisational infrastructure of employee skills. detailed through measures in the other perspectives.

interest income Customer Service & Satisfaction (Looking from the outside in) Customer Satisfaction Customer retention Quality customer service Income from new products/services Internal Operating Efficiency (Looking from the inside out) Delivery time Cost Process quality Error rates on processes Supplier Satisfaction Customer retention Number of new Customers Number of products per customer Face time spent between loan officers and customers Sales calls to potential customers Thank You calls or cards to new and existing customers Cross selling statistics Test results from training knowledge of product offerings. sales and service Employee satisfaction survey Learning and Growth (Looking ahead) Employee Skill level Training availability Employee satisfaction Job retention Amount of unpaid overtime worked ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 48 © Pro Active Resolutions .TABLE OF POTENTIAL SCORECARD MEASURES Generic Financial Strength (Looking Back) % of earned income Income growth Operating surplus Cash balances Reserves Health care Patient census Unit profitability funds raised for capital improvements Cost per care Percent of revenue – new programmes Patient Satisfaction survey Patient retention Patient referral rate Admittance of discharge timeliness Medical plan awareness Weekly patient complaints Patient loads Breakthroughs in treatments and medicines Infection rates Readmission rate Length of stay Training hours per caregiver Number if peer reviewed papers published Employee turnover rate Airlines Revenue/cost per available passenger mile Mix of freight Mix of full fare To discounted Average age of fleet Available seat miles and related yields Lost bag reports per 10 000 passengers Denied boarding rate Flight cancellation rate Customer complaints filed with the DOT Load factors (percentage of seats occupied) Utilisation factors on aircraft and personnel On-time performance Employee absenteeism Worker safety statistics Performance appraisals completed Training programmes hours per employee Banking Outstanding loan balances Deposit balances Non.Mahmood Reza .

having regard to the rate of return required on new capital investment and working capital requirements. The initial consideration in target costing is the determination of an estimate of the selling price for a new product which will enable a firm to capture its required share of the market. and hence return on investment. therefore. The main theme of target costing is. are to be achieved. what a product should cost in order to achieve the desired level of return. it is essential that this gap is closed. Target costing will necessitate comparison of current estimated cost levels against the target level. Where a gap exists between the current estimated cost levels and the target cost. It is then necessary to reduce this figure to reflect the firm's desired level of profit.SECTION F TARGET COSTING Target costing should be viewed as an integral part of a strategic profit management system. The deduction of required profit from the proposed selling price will produce a target price that must be met in order to ensure that the desired rate of return is obtained. This must be achieved if the desired levels of profitability.Mahmood Reza . Target costing overview: Understand Customer Need Price Sensitivity Value of product Features What Price What Features Set Profit Set Target Cost ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 49 © Pro Active Resolutions .

The organisation considers what its stakeholders need and want from the organisation. The concept of stakeholders is more inclusive. There are four categories of TQM costs ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 50 © Pro Active Resolutions . This is contrasted with the ‘traditional’ approach which takes the view that that less than 100% quality is acceptable as the costs of reaching 100% outweigh the benefits. The basic principle of TQM is that costs of prevention (getting things right first time) are less than the costs of correction. namely Stakeholder satisfaction – Who are the key stakeholders. and consequently what the organisation needs and wants from its stakeholders. maintain and enhance our processes? Stakeholder contribution – What contributions do we want and need from our stakeholders if we are to maintain and develop these capabilities? TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) TQM is a philosophy of quality management that originated in Japan in the 1950s.PERFORMAMCE PRISM The performance prism was devised by Cranfield University and is one that considers all organisational stakeholders. and does not just consider shareholders and customers Success is seen as based on ‘successful’ partnerships and inter-relationships between the organisation and stakeholders Measures can be generated and used for all levels within an organisation When designing the prism.Mahmood Reza . without necessarily focusing on one group. namely Stakeholder satisfaction Stakeholder contribution Strategies Processes Capabilities The Performance Prism is distinct from other models in that: It is stakeholder driven. it seeks to integrate the quality management efforts of all groups in an organisation and is considered to be a significant factor in Japanese global business success. There are five facets to The Performance Prism. and not strategy driven. the five facets referred to above prompt specific questions (and answers). what do they want and need? Strategies – What strategies do we need to put in place to satisfy the wants and needs of our key stakeholders? Processes – What critical processes do we need to put in place to enable us to execute our strategies? Capabilities – What capabilities do we need to put in place to allow us to operate.

They include costs incurred before the product is despatched to the customer. They include the costs of preventive maintenance. quality planning & training & the extra costs of acquiring high quality raw materials.Prevention costs Costs incurred in preventing the production of products that do not conform to specification. They include the costs of handling customer complaints. Costs within this category can have a dramatic impact on future sales. warranty replacement. Internal failure costs Costs associated with materials & products that feel to meet quality standards. They include the costs of inspecting purchased parts. Opportunity costs Advocates of TQM argue that the impact of less than 100% quality in terms of lost potential for future sales also has to be taken into account. repairs of returned products & the costs arising from a damaged company reputation. ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 51 © Pro Active Resolutions . quality audits & field tests. work in process & finished goods. downtime & work stoppages caused by defects. External failure costs Costs incurred when products or services fail to conform to requirements or satisfy customer needs after they have been delivered. Appraisal costs Costs incurred to ensure that materials & products meet quality conformance standards. such as the costs of scrap.Mahmood Reza . repair.

Transfer Pricing. Not-For-Profit Organisations. J Stone.ACCA ARTICLES: NOT AN EXHAUSTIVE LIST. Dec 1998 ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 52 © Pro Active Resolutions . April 2006 10. S Johnson. The risks of uncertainty. Just-in-time operations and Backflush accounting. Beyond budgeting.Mahmood Reza . G Morgan. Environmental management accounting. The pyramids & pitfalls of performance measurement. April 2009 4. S Johnson & M Bamber. August 2006 9. May 2004 16. M Pogue. Defining Managers’ Information Requirements.a pre-requisite for survival. Performance measures to support competitive advantage. K Garrett. June/July 2008 6. G Morgan. Sept 2005 11. Creating Value. Critical Success Factors. Mar 2005 13. Oct 2007 7. prediction and prevention. Accounting And Organisational Cultures. October 2009 3. S Johnson. J Stone. Budgetary control . S Johnson. S Johnson. S Johnson. August 2006 8. M Pogue. M Tayles. Business Strategy And Performance Models. CHECK THE ACCA SITE 1. Jun 2004 15. Oct 2004 14. Management control .the organisational aspects. Business failure. Aug 2005 12. R Souster. Economic Value Added. Sept and Oct 2009 2. S Johnson. Nov/Dec 2008 5.

ACTIVITY ONE: SOLUTION Contingency tables Purchased Demand kg 60 100 125 175 Contribution Minimum Maximum Maximin Maximax Minimax regret Purchased kg Demand kg 60 100 125 175 Qty purchased Max regret Minimax 50 100 0 30 35 65 10 0 5 35 150 30 20 0 5 150 30 30 200 50 40 20 0 200 50 30 20 30 60 30 95 0 90 -20 95 50 100 30 30 30 30 20 60 60 60 150 0 40 65 90 200 -20 20 45 95 50 100 65 35 ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 53 © Pro Active Resolutions .Mahmood Reza .

Sales outside group a.000 (252.000 Qty Containers 15.000 ( 20.500 (299.000) 99.000 9.500) ( 78.000) 18.ACTIVITY TWO: SOLUTION Provide Inc.250) Sales £ 598.: Total output Sales to Receive Inc.000 (220.0% Unit data $ 24.000 9.000) 219.750) 78.750 Unit data $ 14.000 Revised Containers 42.000 Unit data $ 30.000 (126.00 14.00 36. Monthly profit at revised sales level Receive Inc. and Receive Inc: Transfer Pricing Provide Inc.000 ( 60.00 7. Receive Inc.000 ( 80. Monthly profit at existing sales level Receive Inc.00 Provide Inc.000) 252.0% 0.000 27.750 15.00 14.00 Sales £ 270.000 14.250) 299.000) 172.750 ( 60.000) 39. Sales Costs: Materials Contribution Fixed costs Profit Qty Drums 42.00 5.750 27.00 Revised sales levels Total output of Provide Inc.250 Containers 36.Mahmood Reza .00 ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 54 © Pro Active Resolutions .750 42.750 39.000 Provide Inc.750 15.000) ( 45.750 Change % 75.250 ( 80.000 Sales £ 504.000 Sales $ 378.000 9.000 7. Sales Costs: Materials Contribution Fixed costs Profit Qty Unit data Containers $ 36.00 5. Sales Costs: Materials Costs: Other Contribution Fixed costs Profit Qty Containers 9. Sales outside group b.000 27.750 15. Sales Costs: Materials Costs: Other Contribution Fixed costs Profit Initial profit b/f Profit movement Existing Containers 36.000 9.

000 – 36.000 6.000 47.250 238.Initial profit b/f Profit movement Total (consolidated) Revised total profit Initial total profit b/f Total profit movement c.750 -$20.000 Containers 16.000 211. Spare capacity of Provide Inc.000 27. Receive Inc: loss of profits Receive Inc. (52.: existing variable cost Set transfer price above $7 per drum and below $14 172.: loss of profits/container Provide Inc.Mahmood Reza .250 -$3 Per container $7 ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 55 © Pro Active Resolutions .000) Additional output of Provide Inc.

00 $108.0 -$2.3 -$0.0 -$22.0 $40.Mahmood Reza .0 2.: Project assessment performance measures Investment Year 0 Year 1 $m $m 66.0 2.0 $72.0 $24.0 $25.8 -$22.4 113.0 1.8 -$5.402 $27.4% $27.0 66.0 -$22.00 $150.0 $47.6 Net book value (NBV) b/f Imputed interest at 12% on NBV (NBV b/f ! cost of capital) Annuity depreciation ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 56 © Pro Active Resolutions .0 $27.9 Year 2 $m 44.0 $90.0 -5.0 -$45.0 2.0 $5.0 -$3.4% Year 2 $m 44.ACTIVITY THREE: SOLUTION Global Inc.0 -7.0 -$5.0 Year 3 $m 22.0 $3.5 $60.00 $120.9 -$12.1 -6.6 $22.3 11.6% Net book value (NBV) Sales volume: million Unit selling price Sales: million Contribution Incremental costs EBITDA: million (Contribution less incremental costs) Working Capital (WC) Inventory Receivables Payables Net operational cash flows (NCF) (EBITDA less WC investment Less: depreciation Profit (NCF minus depreciation) Imputed interest at 12% on NBV (NBV b/f ! cost of capital) Residual income: straight line (Profit minus interest) Return on investment: straight line (Profit " NBV b/f) Annuity depreciation approach Initial investment: million Annuity factor 12% Equivalent annual cost $66.0 -2.2 -$7.0 $5.0 -$4.0 -$5.8 -$40.3 Year 3 $m 22.0 $5.5 Year 1 $m 66.0 $60.8 $60.0 $17.0 -$50.0 $64.

6 19.8 0.2 Year 2 $m 27.0% 1.5 33.2) ACCA P5 Exam Support Notes 57 © Pro Active Resolutions .8 18.0% 1.8 -19.2 -5.8 Year 3 $m 47.0 $17.6 -1.0 0.0 47.712 $33.797 $21.7% Year 1 $m $17.9 ) × (20-12)% (4.8 27.712 22.893 0.8 22.2 -2.579 Net operational cash flows (NCF) Annuity depreciation Profit (NCF minus depreciation) Imputed interest at 12% on NBV (NBV b/f ! cost of capital) Residual income: annuity depreciation (Profit minus interest) Return on investment: annuity depreciation (Profit " NBV b/f) NPV Investment Net operational cash flows Total net cash flows Discount factor: 12% Present value NPV Calculate IRR Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 0 $m -$66.2 4.9% IRR 12% + (4.2 15.5 7.8 -7.0 $47.5 Discount factor 20.8 -$66.0 0.0 PV $m -66.7 -2.5 24.797 0.0 17.694 0.3% Year 2 $m $27.9 Cash flow $m -66.0 15.9 21.000 0.3 -0.9-(-5.0 $27.0 1.0 -24.9 PV $m -66.5 33.0 -22.5 4.0 $4.9 Discount factor 12.0 14.Mahmood Reza .6 Year 1 $m 17.000 -$66.9 -9.000 0.(EAC minus interest) 19.6% Year 3 $m $47.833 0.8 27.8 -5.893 $15.

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