Chapter 11

GENERAL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS IN EUKARYOTES

or mRNA .Transcription  Synthesis of RNA under the direction of DNA  Transcribing DNA nucleotide sequence information into RNA sequence information  DNA sequence is enzimatically copied by RNA polymerase to produce complementary nucleotide RNA strand.

RNA Polymerase  Nucleotidyl transferase that polymerizes ribonucleotides at the 3 end of an RNA transcript  An enzyme that produce mRNA .

5 end capping. and addition of a polyA tail  While RNA polymerase interacts directly with prokaryotic DNA.Eukaryotes Transcription compares to Prokaryotes  Eukaryotes transcription is localized to the nucleus (separated from the cytoplasm by the nuclear membrane)  Eukaryotic cells modify mRNA by RNA splicing. other proteins mediate the interaction between RNA polymerase and DNA in prokaryotes .

and gene-specific transcription factors (activators)  Task: getting the RNA polymerases together with their promoters .Transcription Factors  Proteins which mediate the interaction between RNA polymerase and DNA  Grouped into 2 classes: general transcription factors.

General Transcription Factors (GTF)  General transcription factors combine with RNA polymerase to form a preinitiation complex that is competent to initiate transcription  This tight binding involves formation of an open promoter complex in which the DNA at the transcription start site has melted to allow the polymerase to read it .

Class II.General Transcription Factors (GTF)  GTF + TATAA Box = TATA Binding Protein (TBP)  GTF + Polymerase = Preinitiation complex  GTF = GTF Class I. and Class III .

TFIIE. TFIID.The Class II Preinitiation Complex  Class II preinitiation complex = RNA Polymerase II + 6 GTF (TFIIA. TFIIH) . TFIIB. TFIIF.

GTF bind to class II promoter. forming DABPolFEH preinitiation complex . in the following order: 1. forming DA complex 2. TFIIE and TFIIH then bind together with the previously formed complex. TFIIF and RNA polymerase bind to extend this protected region (another 34 bases on the nontemplate strand) 4. TFIID. with the help from TFIIA. forming DAB complex (TATA box region is protected by this complex) 3. TFIIB binds next. binds to TATA box.

+ F F DABPolF F A DAB complex A D TATA A D TATA B B DABPolFEH F E H D TATA B + E H .

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