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Indicate subjects by coming after them

Meanings: is, am, are *One thing to know about is that its not pronounced ha but pronounced wa emphasizes what comes after it emphasizes what comes before it : I am Koichi : I am Koichi * The rst example would be used when youre introducing yourself to someone, the second one would be more like one of those movies where one person has the gun pointed at two identical targets, where they are saying I am Koichi and No, Im Koichi! The important (emphasized) part is the I portion, so youd use . Examples: I am a student (where is am in this sentence) That student is stupid You are interesting What is it that you want to eat? I like sushi / it is sushi that I like Examples:

The Possessive
Meanings: Apostrophe S & of *Makes something possessive, like saying my monkey, Jennys friend, or Bobby of Sony (i.e. Sonys Bobby). Examples: Me too / Me also

Also / Too
Meanings: also and too - it can also emphasize any

My name is is Koichi Its Bobbys dog

Bobby also will go to Ikea I didnt eat anything

The Direct Object

How its used: All it does is shows what the direct object is. Used when youre directly doing something (the verb) to something (the object). Examples: (object) (particle) (verb) Eat sushi Xbox I will buy an X-Box *Not used when you arent directly involved or responsible (i.e. the radio is broken vs. I broke the radio - the second one uses ) Examples:

Movement and Time

How its used: Used to show what an action is directed to, and also shows destinations, directions, places, and time. Remember, when you move you use your knees (ni) I will go to Japan At 3 oclock I will eat sushi *Some Movement Verbs:

Emphasizing the Destination

How its used: This is a lot like the particle ni but emphasizes the destination. Its more like heading towards than anything else (see examples below) Examples: Heading towards Japan Examples:

Shows Context
Meaning: By way of / at Can show how and where an action takes place. I went by Car I ate at the restaurant

Other Particles
Question marker - used on the end of a sentence to make a question, like a question mark! Used to list nouns when you are listing everything and you know everything on the list Used to list nouns when you arent listing everything, and maybe there are other things not included. Sentence ender that gives an isnt it feeling used to receive agreement for what youre saying. Sentence ender that gives a you know feeling, often when relaying new information.

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