SALIVARY DIGESTION

GROUP NINE Maranian, Francis P. Mendoza, Jeramie Mitchao, Delbrynth P. Mondia, Naomae Nolasco, Aysel Mae

SALIVA 
Saliva

is a colorless, slightly viscid, opalescent fluid that is secreted from the salivary glands. is produced at a rate of 1-1.5 L/day, 20mL/hr at rest, 250 mL/hr under stimulated conditions. While sleeping, salivary flow drops to almost zero. 

It

COMPOSITION 
     

Water Electrolytes Mucus Antibacterial Compounds (i.e. thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide, and secretory immunoglobulin A) Various Enzymes ( -amylase, lysozyme, and lingual lipase) Cells (8 million human and 500 million bacterial cells per mL) Opiorphin (a newly researched pain-killing painsubstance found in human saliva)

IMPORTANCE OF SALIVA 
Lubrication

and binding  Solubilizes dry food  Oral hygiene  Initiates starch digestion  Evaporative cooling  Forensic evidence  Chinese delicacy (for other species)

INFLUENCE OF SECRETION
Psychic Factor - reflex stimulation due to thought, sight, and/or smell of food  Chemical Factor - due to stimulation of taste buds (i.e. (i.e. by salt, sugar, and condiments)  Mechanical Factor - mastication of substances in the mouth 

REACTION OF SALIVA 


Resting saliva has a pH of 6.4 to 6.9. 6.9. Stimulated saliva has a pH of 7 to 7.3. 7.3.

INDICATOR RESTING SALIVA STIMULATED SALIVA Blue Litmus Paper Blue to Red Blue to Blue Red Litmus Paper Red to Red Red to Blue
Congo Red Phenolphthalein Red Colorless Red Colorless

Congo Red Below pH 3.0 Above pH 5.2

blue red

Phenolphthalein Below pH 8.2 colorless Above pH 10.0 fuschia

MUCIN 
The  Has

glycoprotein in saliva.

considerable water-holding capacity making them resistant to proteolysis, thereby protecting the mucosa.

PRESENCE OF GLYCOPROTEINS
Test for Presence of Proteins Millon s Test Biuret Test HopkinsHopkins-Cole Test Test for Presence of Sugars Benedict s Test ² + + +

PTYALIN
Also called -Amylase  An endoamylase that attacks the interior of the polysaccharide chain, acting only on the -1,4 glycosidic linkage. 
polysaccharide Small amount of glucose is formed dextrins Reduction of viscosity

Slower maltose formation

ACTION ON STARCH PASTE
TIME 3 min 6 min 9 min 12 min 15 min 18 min 21 min 24 min 27 min 30 min 33 min 36 min 57 min BENEDICT·S TEST ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² + IODINE TEST + + + + + + + + + + + + ²

ACTION ON STARCH PASTE
IODINE TEST blue-black bluepurple red clear clear BENEDICT S TEST clear blue clear blue bluish green w/ orange ppt w/ brick red ppt

starch amylodextrin erythrodextrin achroodextrin maltose

FACTORS INFLUENCING PTYALIN ACTIVITY
1.

Temperature increase in temperature increase in kinetic energy increase in effective collisions increase in velocity of molecules increase in reaction rate

NOTE: NOTE: Optimum temperature: 40oC Above and below the optimum temperature, the rate of reaction will decrease due to the inactivation of ptyalin.

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE
Increasing Temperature

TEST TUBE NUMBER Test Tube 1 (ice water) Test Tube 2 (room temp.) Test Tube 3 (40oC water bath) Test Tube 4 (boiling water)

BENEDICT·S TEST

IODINE TEST

² + + +

+ + ² +

FACTORS INFLUENCING PTYALIN ACTIVITY
2.

Dilution (of Ptyalin) With the same amount of substrate, ptyalin activity is directly proportional to enzyme concentration, so as the amount of enzyme increases, the rate of reaction also increases.
If the enzyme concentration was kept constant and the substrate concentration was varied, increasing the amount of substrate increases the velocity of the reaction until it reaches the maximum activity of the enzyme.

DILUTION OF PTYALIN
Decreasing Concentration TEST TUBE NUMBER
TT 1 (1 TT 2 (2 TT 3 TT 4 TT 5 TT 6

BENEDICT·S TEST

IODINE TEST

mL H2O) mL H2O)

+++ ++ + + ² ²

² ² + + ++ +++

(4 mL H2O) (6 mL H2O) (8 mL H2O) (10 mL H2O)

FACTORS INFLUENCING PTYALIN ACTIVITY
3.

pH
A change in pH alters the state of ionization of the enzyme, affecting its catalytic activity. If there is a lot of H+ around, more H+ will bind to the protein, giving it a more positive charge. If H+ ions become scarce they will come off the protein, making it more negative. As the pH rises, H+ ions become scarce (high pH means low H+). This will cause H+ to leave the enzyme, making it more negative.

NOTE: NOTE: Optimum pH: 5.6 6.9 Above and below the optimum pH, the rate of reaction will decrease due to the inactivation of ptyalin.

EFFECTS OF ACID
TEST TUBE NUMBER

Decreasing Acidity

BENEDICT·S TEST

IODINE TEST

TT1 (2mL 0.2% HCl) TT2 (1ml 0.2% HCl, 1ml H2O) TT3 (1ml from TT2 + 1ml H2O) TT4 (1ml from TT3 + 1ml H2O) TT5 (1 ml from TT4 + 1ml H2O) TT6 (1ml from TT5 + 1 ml H2O)

² ² + + ++ +++

+++ ++ + ² ² ²

EFFECTS OF ACID
What is the relation of the digestive action of ptyalin to the degree of acidity? The digestive action of ptyalin is INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL to the degree of acidity.

EFFECTS OF ALKALI
Decreasing Alkalinity
TEST TUBE NUMBER
TT1 (1 ml 0.2% NaOH) TT2 (1 ml 0.2% NaOH + 1ml H2O) TT3 (1ml from TT2 + 1ml H2O) TT4 (1ml from TT3 + 1ml H2O) TT5 (1 ml from TT4 + 1ml H2O) TT6 (1ml from TT5 + 1 ml H2O)

BENEDICT·S TEST

IODINE TEST

+++ ++ ++ + + +

² ² ² ² + ++

EFFECTS OF ALKALI
What is the relation of the digestive action of ptyalin to the degree of alkalinity? The digestive action of ptyalin is DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL to the degree of alkalinity. Which has a greater depressing action, acid or alkali? ACID

FACTORS INFLUENCING PTYALIN ACTIVITY
4.

Compounds Certain anions in compounds serves as activators for salivary amylase, thereby accelerating the enzymatic action.
Chlorine and bromine most effective Iodine less effective Sulfate and Phosphate least effective

EFFECTS OF COMPOUNDS
TEST TUBE NUMBER
TT1 (Toluene) TT2 (CHCl3) TT3 (HgCl2) TT4 (NaCl) TT5 (distilled water)

BENEDICT·S TEST

IODINE TEST

+ + + + +

² + + ² +

DISORDERS
Sialadenitis is a painful infection of a salivary gland. Staphylococcus, streptococcus, Haemophilus influenzae or anaerobic bacteria are usually the cause. The condition is common with elderly adults who have salivary gland stones, but infants can also develop sialadenitis during the first few weeks of life.

DISORDERS
Mumps or epidemic parotitis is a viral disease of humans. Painful swelling of the salivary glands (classically the parotid gland) and fever is the most typical presentation. Painful testicular swelling and rash may also occur. Complications such as infertility or subfertility are relatively common in adults.

DISORDERS
Sjögren's Syndrome is chronic disease. White blood cells attack the moisture-producing glands such moistureas the salivary glands, the teartearproducing glands, and sometimes the sweat and oil glands. MiddleMiddleaged women are most affected. Sjögren's syndrome is frequently seen in people who have rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, scleroderma and polymyositis.

DISORDERS
Pleomorphic adenomas are the most common parotid tumor. It grows slowly and is benign. A pleomorphic adenoma begins as a painless lump at the back of the jaw, just below the earlobe. These are more common in women.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful