& FN SPON

T ay l or & Francis G rou p

1 9 8 8







































































































































































































































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of
































































































fi,



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A sreq











A ctu al





Characteristic

T ransformed

K dS













Factors













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W idth

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Nu mber

Characteristic


Characteristic

L imiting








T otal

Depth




















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Pi
6

V
Part I














































































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Safety factors, l oads and pressu res







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are





















O. ó 7 fcu / y m, k 2 = 0 . 5

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fcu / y rn,
k 2 = 0 . 5







dc,
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a











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with 1 — d'/ h) .














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and these
and

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1 5































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6 0 0











































































































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0 . 1 5 E ( h/ r) 2 .





0 . 6 E ( h/ r) 2 .
















































































































































2 5 0
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8 @ 2 2 5


1 2 @ 2 7 5
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. 1 IA T 'l . . I • I
anu raii. aic
Notes






















































T he






































































































































































































































E x cept
































































































































































































+



























of






















































and

































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































6 . 9 3

































in





— T A ) k hc/ k C,











= ±




























































































































Pressu res behind wail s
T he


































































































































































































































where


































































T he



is







T he




































































































is





















— 2 F,,5 / 3 ,













neg ativ e







— ( 2 F,,5 / 3 )





















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































otherwise.






k N

































































































































































































+

\ fl
















M / FV.









situ


















































































=
K


0 . 5 x ,,.


E l ectronic































































































































































































































































































































= 3 0 1 . 5












































at










1 0 0
E l ectronic






































































































Du ring




of
























































































































































































1 0 2
E l ectronic



























































































































































































































































































































































1 0 4
E l ectronic












stru ctu ral





































— X 2 — ( X ) 2 ,



































































ios
Fu tu re


















































































































































1 0 6
E l ectronic




















































































P
1


safety factors

























fk / Y m


for































— _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _























— 1 . 4







0 . 8

1 . 0





— — —







.
Shear




I 1 . 5



1 . 2 5

* M ax imu m +



ex cessiv e
= 1 . 0 5






characteristic







ends

T T
L oads 1 . 6 Q ,, - —
remaining





on







fix ed

For

RS8 1 1 O:

on





+








A S
For









Vertical






throu g hou t

4 -. ,
-o

5 ,,
en
• 0
0
U

























corresponding













































































2





0
0
0
0
I-
0
a

C


















1 4 4 to










































0
0
0
a

0
0






























































0

















G l ass-bl ock

























2 . 6 3






















3


























1
l b/ ft2

1 0 %

1 . 2 5 %

5 %
1 0 %




















































0
0
4






U ,
U ,
U ,
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0





0
0






4
2 . 5

U ,
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0
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a

E

c)
-a


























a
a






a


metres

. 0
Partition

1 0 0 0

1 2









( minimu m)
A rea = 0 . 4 3 3 1 2 — h,
= 0 . 8 7 ( 1 — — h





































1














































9 ,






























5
-0
E

'a,
• 0
























8 . 2
























































































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5 . 0



3 1 . 8












Notation D1 weig ht

9 8 0 7

v ol u me



=
+ h
If D1 ) : D,1 I

D1 h0

— fi) +



= 9 8 0 7 N/ rn3
6 2 . 4


















I










'
nil

3 . 6


.














.
B ars,v estibu l es

nil

d)
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per

)
nil













, 3 . 0

.
L ig ht






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7


I-

4 . 5



























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}
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l oad



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° .


u



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1 1 8
L oads




































Fa

( 1
Fd( l










































































0
a

0
0
E

L 5 6 ff
m
pl u s tender
8






3 m
pl u s tender


3 2 ft6 in
( tank )
4 . 7 m
( tank )






















y


T otal





-
ao-B O
ooi
2 1 . 2 m 2 0 . 7 m
1 5 . 2 m
1 3 2 0






7 . 9 m 6 . 1 m
3 0 0









tons

C
0
a

a









m





6 1 6 ft
1 . 8 3 m

2 . 4 4



8 5 0
8 5











'7 5
I






T ractor


0 0 0 0



4
9 ft





1 . 3 5 m Iø '. I
8 ff
H
9 . 7 5 m

k N







3 2 0















. 2 . 7 4 m


— 9

— l . 4 3 5 m
l . 3 7 m
G au g e

driv ing

driv ing






















dimensions

U nl ess

No






























.
From








































H B
Du e to v ehicl e as fol l ows:
per wheel = 2 5 0 0 / newtons ( where L imit of v ehicl e
j = nu mber of u nits of H B l oad)
1
1
1 m
I

O. 2 m. J
( whichev er has most critical
effect on member being considered)











(
* B u t



2 SOk N
rn_ fi. 6 rn_ fl . 6 mJ O. 8 rr



0





=


f
h'


in


=


J






f
=





L oad = 1 . 1 N/ mm2





















Dispersal of l oad
concrete sl ab
. 1 / 6 l oad transmitted
by this sl eeper
Dispersal of l oad throu g h
asphal t etc. su rfacing
I. .
ov er which sl eeper
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
transmits l oad to bal l ast
* aor
DIspersal of concentrated l oad beneath sl eepers
0 . 4 m































































































1 1
H A

U )



E

I-

I-




• 0
Ce

5 -.



U )






7 Smm. ø $
3 7 5 mm
Direction
9 0 0 mm 3 ft
trav el
H

C)
C)
iB m



6 . 1 m 1 . 8 m
mm-u
9 0 0 mm
Ii

mrnl _ f_
9 0 0 mm

trav el CeO
4 ---
* - 3 tt
mm
2 0 ft


















0






























C)

0
U )


l oad
dL rY ) 1 )
Su rfacing
/ /
a
=
+
I /
i '.
/ a contact l eng th
B l
b width of ty re
I
( = 7 5 1 0 4 5 0 mm or3 to l 8 in)
I
/
I
/
'. W heel -l oad dispersion area = A x B
C ov eral l width ( two sl eepers)
1 l eng th of sl eeper
A x l e-l oad dispersion area = A x B























1 2


2







area 2 5 %









1 / 5

ci,
0 )
C)
Ce
Ce
I-
0 )
3 .
0



E


2 0 2 1 . 8 6 0 — — 2 0 0 8
5 0 2 . 5 8 6 -— 1 1 5 1 3 0
1 0 0 1 0 3 . 0 1 0 0 — 1 8 0 2 0 0 2 1 5 — 1 8 2 0 2 1 . 5 2 . 0 6 9 9 . 5
2 0 0 2 0 3 . 2 1 0 6 — 3 1 0 — 3 1 3 3 2 . 3 7 6 2 8 0 1 1 may v ary du e
3 0 0 3 0 3 . 6 1 2 0 — 4 6 0 4 8 0 5 1 0 — 4 6 4 8 5 1 2 . 6 8 6 1 2 tomak eand
5 0 0 5 0 4 . 0 1 3 0 — 7 2 0 8 1 0 — - 7 0 7 2 8 1 3 . 1 1 0 3 1 4 u seofcrane











E l ectric








7


1 5 0 0
















Vsis 2 s3

1 . 1

0 . 9











1 3
Rel ation



( m/ s)

B A SIC W IND SPE E D ( mis)
5 4
1 0
1 2
1 4
1 6
1 8































































— — — — — — I — — — — —
1 0































E E 4 )

m
5 0 m

0 . 1 5 b,
whichev er

are described in more detail in section 2 . 7 . 2 .

FOR




1 4



6 b















































i1
a= h




— — — — — — — —

1 0








































— — — — — — —
— — — — — —


— —
— —




+ 0 . 7


— 0 . 6

— 0 . 7

— 0 . 6


+ 0 . 6

— 0 . 5


— 0 . 8


— 0 . 8
— -
+ —


— —
— 0 ,8



— 0 . 7



C
5 )


— 1 . 4
— 1 . 0

— 2 . 0
— 1 . 2


— 1 . 2


— 1 . 2
— 1 . 2
— 1 . 1
— 1 . 1
— 1 . 1


— 2 . 0

— 1 . 0
— 2 . 0

— 2 . 0
— 1 . 5
— 2 . 0
— 1 . 5
— 1 . 5
— 1 . 5




— 1 . 0
— 1 . 2
— 1 . 0
— 1 . 0

— 2 . 0

— 1 . 5
— 1 . 5
— 1 . 0


— 2 . 0
— 1 . 5


— 1 . 5
— 1 . 5
— 1 . 5
— 1 . 0
— 1 . 2
— 1 . 2
'I,
C
V

5 )

ci
I-
5 )
C




— 1 . 0
— 1 . 0



— 1 . 0
— 1 . 0

— 1 . 0
— 1 . 0
— 1 . 0


— l . 0 ( — 0 . 5 )
— 1 . 0 ( — 0 . 5 )
— 1 . 0 ( — 0 . 5 )
— —

— —
— 0 . 9

— 0 . 6







— 0 . 2







— 0 . 8


— 0 . 6

— 1 . 0 ( — 0 . 5 )
— 1 . 0 ( — 0 . 5 )
— 1 . 0 ( — 0 . 5 )
— —
— —
— —

C
V

5 )

C
— 1 . 0
— 1 . 0
— 1 . 0
— 1 . 0

— 1 . 0
— 1 . 0
— 1 . 0
— 1 . 0


— 2 . 0
— 2 . 0



— 2 . 0
— 2 . 0
— 1 . 8
— 1 . 8
— 1 . 8
— 1 . 8
— 1 . 5
— 1 . 5



— 0 . 5
— 2 . 0

— 1 . 8
— 1 . 8
— 0 . 9
— 0 . 5
— 1 . 5
— 1 . 5
— 1 . 4
— 1 . 4
0 . 9



Ou tl ine of basic procedu re
1 . Cal cu l ate characteristic wind pressu re W k as indicated on
T abl e

Determine appropriate ex ternal and internal pressu re Co.
efficients from T abl e 1 4 or T abl e 1 5 ( top. and Centre) .
3 . T otal wind force F on area A of stru ctu re as a whol e
w5 A ( C,,,5 — where and are ex ternal pressu re
coefficients on windward and l eeward faces respectiv el y .
T otal wind force F on area A of particu l ar face of stru ctu re=

wind force F on cl adding el ement = w5 A

where C,,. and
are ex ternal and internal pressu re co.
efficients respectiv el y .
T o obtain total force on entire stru ctu re, div ide stru ctu re into
parts, determine force on each part by steps 1 — 3 and then su m
resu l ts v ectorial l y . Consider appropriate v al u e of Is for each
indiv idu al part ( bu t for approx imate anal y sis, u se of sing l e v al u e
of wk corresponding to heig ht to top of bu il ding errs on side of
safety ) .
A l ternativ el y , first cal cu l ate characteristic wind pressu re. Nex t,
obtain v al u e of force coefficient C1 from T abl e ( bottom) . T hen
total wind force on area A = W 5 A C1 . For g reater accu racy ,
su bdiv ide stru ctu re and su m indiv idu al resu l ts v ectorial l y
as
before.



— 0 . 6 0

— 0 . 2 5

— 0 . 7 0
— 0 . 7 0

— •


+ 0 . 7 0

— 0 . 6 0





+ 0 . 8 0
— 0 . s0 — 0 . 8 0




— 0 . 7 0

— 0 . 8 0
— —

— 0 . 5 0
— —

0 . 5 0


5
VA L U E S




± 0 . 7 0





— 0 . 6 0

— 0 . 5 0

— 0 . 2 0

— 0 . 5 0
— —




— 0 . 8

— 1 . 0



! i heig ht

W ind

— 0 . 3
— 0 . 3




FOR

1 . 0


b— 4 8 r



B etween






H I
b— 6 r









0 . 9


— 1 . 1
0 . 6


b1 2 r


— 1 . 1


b— 6 r





0 . 7




















Pressu res











1 0 . 1 . 1 E ffect




= ( k 2 D2 +













+ + —










k 2




1 6

= k Dh sin2



F

( 9 0

Force
F F1

0 ) : F1 F; 0 ;



ang l e






Incl ined
Incl ined
ou twards
inwards




Vertical



( 0
1 >
I-,
en
en
I)
0
( 0
I-
U
( 5

Cs

sin( fl


k _ [ ( + l ) sin$ j
sin2 fl



=
— tan

sin

sinfl

sin( / 3 — 0 )

— sine+ sinfl j

sin( fl — O) 1 2

— sin
1

k

( / 3 — 0 ) 1 2 C0 5


[ sin( 1 1 + $ ) sin( / 3 — 4 1 )

0
C)
Cs







--0

k 1 = k
Fsin( 9

F

k 3 = k
k 1 = cos2 0

= . . j [ sin
= k
= ,J [ 2

0 ) :

n



= 0 ) :
— sin


+





0
0

U





= 0 )




3
0
0
)

3
0
°
)

t
o

4
5
0

'
I
,
4
)
I
-
C

4
)
4
)
0
.

3
5
°
)

2
4
°
)

2
3
°
)

2
4
.
5
°
)

2
5
°
)

3
0
°
)

2
5
0

3
5
°

3
5
°

2
5
°

4
5
°

.

=
1
+
k
2
L
_
_
_
(
1
_
f
l
)
]
}

I

D
1
=
6
2
.
4
1
b
/
f
t
3

l
O
O
f
l
)


C
o
h
e
s
i
o
n

I
C
,,
0

4
)
0
,
4
)
0

0

4
)
4
)

}

l
9


q
2

I
-
(
0
0
0
= 0

9

5
0
1
0
0

1
8
'
1
4
°

0
2
'
1
5
°

2
+
s
i
n
O

1

I
-
_
_
_
_
_
5
0
0

6
0
°

0
.
6
1
0

0
.
5
8
9

2
5
°

3
4
'
3
0
0

3
0
'
4
5

0
.
8
2
1

0
.
5

1
9

0
.
7
8
1
0
.
7
7
0
0
,
7
6
0
0
.
7
5
1
0
.
7
4
3
0
.
7
3
5
0
.
7
2
7
0
.
7
2
5
0
.
7
1
1
0
.
6
9
9

0
,
3
0
0

0
.
5
5
6

0
.
5
1
4
0
.
5
5
3
0
.
5
3

0
.
4
7
5
0
.
4
5
9

3
3
°
4
1
'
l
i
n
l
.
5
0
.
6
9
2
0
.
2
8
6
0
.
2
1
7

4
5
0

D
1

D
2

0
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a = +

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M u l tipl ier
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doodddddd. -
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Interior span
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E nd conditions and
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
ow
I
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0 . 4
0 . 3
0 . 2
0 . 1
0 . 1 0 . 2
0 . 5 0 . 6 0 . 7 0 . 8 0 . 9
T otal wl ( 1 -a-j 3 )
W
B ending moment = coefficient x F!
Position of max imu m moment
= from l eft-hand su pport
0 . 4
1 0
0 . 9
1 3
0 . 8
0 . 7
0 . 5
T otal l oad

B ending moment = coefficient x F!
Position of max imu m moment
= if! from l eft-hand su pport
O0 1 5 \
/
0 0 0 7
and beams of one span
_ _ _ _ _ _
For = 0 . 3 7 5 and 0 . 2 5
= 0 . 1 0 4 W 0 . 0 3 9 0 w! = 0 . 3 7 5 w! ) .
For 0 . 7 5

0 :
0 . 0 2 5 W 0 . 0 0 3 1 w! = O. 2 5 w1 / 2 ) .
For 0 ,6 2 5
= 0 . 1 3 0 W = 0 . 0 2 4 4 w! = ( 1 / 2 ) 0 . 3 7 5 w! ) .
= 0 . 0 3 9 0 0 . 0 6 6 5 w! .
Simil arl y ,
0 . 2 5

0 . 3 7 5 :
=
0 . 1 2 9 W 0 ,0 4 8 9 w! .
For 0 . 6 2 5 =
0 . 0 4 9 W 0 . 0 0 9 2 w! .
0 . 7 5

0 :
CRA
0 . 1 1 0 W 0 . 0 1 3 8 w! .
0 . 0 4 8 9 0 . 0 7
0 . 3 7 5 0 . 0 9 7 W 0 . 0 6 6 7 w! .
0 . 2 5
= 0 . 3 7 5 ,
= 0 . 1 0 4 W 0 . 0 7


3 u nits 3 u nits
I
2 u nitS
0


A l fi
( C) A
( d) A
Q
cc= O6 2 5 0
0



9
can

CA B IA B — C8 4

M B A

CA B IA B CRA


FA B ) = FRA )

CA B IA B CB A

FB A A C


A

D=

= _ or_ _ or_ or_ _ j =

z

'A S

CRA
--a) F —
F! ) Fl ] F! j F! )
$
1 2 ( j +
j
factor


0 . l 0 4 F

A ny nu mber of l oads ( j )
spaced
,
+ — —

O5 F 0 5 F

or u se



F( total )


Parabol ic
'




L aiJ
— _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ — — _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
M


IIIT II1 U U IIIIIIIU IIT I
FIIIT T IT IT T T n,. . . _ =
minu s
A ny nu mber of l oads


3 ( CA R

3 1
0 4 0 6 0 . 7 1 0
1 D
0 9
for
CA B


to /
0 1 4 8 2
T otal l oad F= wl ( 1
B
0 . 1
0
0 1 0 2 0 4
1 0
fi
for
CA B x

to then FE M B A = CB A x

0 1 1 1 9
oad F = a / 1 )

beams
































whil e
where














































3 2


=

= — ( F — V. )



















coefficient







5

M max

W 1 ST
+ f] — M ST



SF du e to restraint B M s
SF du e to l oad ( if any )
diag ram V7 = + VM )


















— 1 / 9 . 1

— 1 / 1 2 . 5



— 1 / 1 1 . 6

— 1 / 1 6 . 0



— 1 / 1 0

— 1 / 1 0

— 1 / 1 2

— 1 / 9 — 1 / 1 0

— 1 / 9 — 1 / 1 2
— 1 / 2 4



— 1 / 1 0
— 1 / 1 6

a




0
— 1 . 0 0 0



— 0 . 0 6 7

— — —
+
— 1 . 2 6 7





+


— 1 . 0 0 0


+

— 1 . 0 0 0



— 0 . 0 0 5

— 1 . 0 0 0


.

— 1 . 0 0 0
— 1 . 0 0 0



+
— 1 . 0 0 0
— 1 . 0 0 0



+
— 1 . 0 0 0
- 1 . 0 0 0


— 0 . 0 5 3

— 1 . 0 0 0











— 1 . 2 5 0







+

— 1 . 2 6 8





— 0 . 0 8 9



— 1 . 2 6 8

+ 0 . 3 4 0

— 0 . 0 9 1
— 0 . 0 2 4




— 1 . 5 0 0
— 1 . 5 0 0


— -



+

— 1 ,2 0 0





0
— 1 . 2 0 0


— 1 . 2 8 6




+
— 0 ,4 2 9
— 1 . 2 8 6


— 1 . 2 6 3


— 1 . 2 6 3



B f

B f J f
K t
H t
A dj u stment


span




>
.


0 . 1 0 1

[ 0 . 1 0 7 ] [ 0 . 0 7 1 1
















°

=

A
0 . 1 2 7

r








A
dA E E

0 . 1 2 1


L .


4 1




max .

0


A

0 . 1 2 4
A

0 . 0 8 9 0 . 1 3 3
0 . 1 3 1 0 . 0 9 8 0 . 0 9 8 0 . 1 3 1

A
0 . 0 5 0
A

A

A
0 . 1 0 4
-A
0 . 1 2 7 0 . 1 2 7



[ 0 . 1 3 3 ]
( 0 . 1 3 3 )
0 . 1 3 3 0 . 1 4 9
A
A
0 . 1 3 2 0 . 1 0 9 0 . 1 0 9
[ 0 . 1 3 1 ]
( 0 . 1 3 2 ) ( 0 . 1 3 2 ) ( 0 . 1 4 4 )
0 . 1 4 9 0 . 1 3 8 0 . 1 3 8 0 . 1 4 9
A A

A

A
0 . 1 3 3
0 . 1 0 7 0 . 1 1 5

1
4
Q
o
0 . 1 5 6
A O. 0 9 5 0 . 0 9 5 A

A

A

0 . 0 8 9 0 . 1 3 4
A
0 . 0 5 6
A

A

A
0 ,1 3 2 0 . 0 9 9 0 . 0 9 9 0 . 1 3 2
A



0 . 1 4 6

0 . 1 3 6 0 . 1 0 4
[ 0 . 1 3 4 ] [ 0 . 0 8 9 ] [ 0 . 1 3 4 ]
( 0 . 1 4 5 ) ( 0 . 1 3 4 ) ( 0 . 1 4 5 )
0 . 1 5 1 0 . 1 3 4 0 . 1 5 1
A
A
0 . 1 1 1 0 . 1 1 1
[ 0 . 1 3 2 ] [ 0 . 0 9 9 ] [ 0 . 0 9 9 ] [ 0 . 1 3 2 ]
( 0 . 1 4 5 ) ( 0 . 1 3 3 ) ( 0 . 1 3 3 ) ( 0 . 1 4 5 )
0 . 1 5 0 0 . 1 3 9 0 . 1 3 9 0 . 1 5 0
A 0 . 1 1 7 A

A

A
0 . 0 6 8
A
0 . 1 0 5
0 . 1 3 5 0 . 1 0 9

0 .
m
o
a

0
c
0
0
0 . 1 8 8
A

A
0 . 1 5 0
A

A

A
0 . 1 0 7 0 . 1 6 1
A

A

A

A

A
0 . 1 1 8 0 . 1 1 8 0 . 1 5 8
A
0 . 1 8 8
A

A
0 . 1 7 5
A
0 . 1 7 5
A
0 ,2 1 3
A

[ 0 . 1 0 7 ] [ 0 . 1 6 1 ]
( 0 . 1 7 4 ) ( 0 . 1 6 1 ) ( 0 . 1 7 4 )
0 . 1 8 1 0 . 1 6 1 0 . 1 8 1
A

A

A

A
0 . 2 1 0
A
[ 0 . 1 1 8 ] [ 0 . 1 5 8 1
( 0 . 1 7 4 ) ( 0 . 1 6 0 ) ( 0 . 1 6 0 ) ( 0 . 1 7 4 )
0 . 1 7 9 0 . 1 6 7 0 . 1 6 7 0 . 1 7 9
A
A


A

A

A
0 . 1 3 2
A
0 . 1 7 1
0 . 2 1 1 0 ,1 8 1
a
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0

°

°
0 . 1 6 7
0 . 1 6 7
£

A
0 . 1 3 9
A
0 . 1 5 6
A

A

A
[ 0 . 0 9 5 ] [ 0 . 1 4 3 ]
( 0 . 1 5 5 ) ( 0 . 1 4 3 ) ( 0 . 1 5 5 )
0 ,1 6 0 0 . 1 4 4 0 . 1 6 0

A

A

A
0 . 1 3 3

A

0 ,1 4 3 0 . 0 9 5 0 . 1 4 3
0 . 1 4 3 0 . 1 1 1
[ 0 . 1 4 0 ] [ 0 . 1 0 5 ] [ 0 . 1 0 5 ] [ 0 . 1 4 0 ]
( 0 . 1 5 5 ) ( 0 . 1 4 2 ) ( 0 . 1 4 2 ) ( 0 . 1 5 5 )
0 . 1 5 9 0 . 1 4 8 0 . 1 4 8 0 ,1 5 9
A £ 0 . 1 0 8 A

L

A

A

A
0 . 1 1 9
0 . 1 4 0 0 . 1 0 5 0 . 1 0 5 0 . 1 4 0
A

A

A
0 . 0 5 0
A

0 . 1 0 8
( coefficient)




















5 2 . 5
6 0 . 0
1 1 2 . 5

3 9 . 5
5 5 . 5
9 5 . 0

3 9 . 0
5 0 . 0
8 9 . 0

2 3 . 0
4 3 . 0
6 6 . Ok Nm


2 0 / 2 0 1 .




9 0 . 1
6 9 . 9





4 5 . 3

8 5 . 3





l Ok N/ m 2 Ok N/ m,
l Ok N/ m
3 6 k N/ m.




2 6 . 3
1 0 4 . 4

1 3 0 . 7

2 0 . 0
9 6 . 3

1 1 6 . 3

1 9 . 5
9 0 . Ok Nm
1 0 9 . 5

1 1 . 5
7 7 . 4

8 8 . 9







5





0 . 4 5 0

0 . 4 4 6




.
V

J


=



V
Q )

E
— 0

0 . 6 4 3

For any trapezoidal l oad.
SF ( k —

+

0 . 5 ,

i
0 . 5 ) ( 1 — 0 . 6 5 6 .

3 6

CP! 1 0



— — — — — — — — —
— — 0 . 0 6 3 — 0 . 0 8 5 — 0 . 0 8 8 — 0 . 0 6 3 — 0 . 0 8 5 — 0 . 0 8 8





— 0 . 1 8 8

0 . 1 6 9

0 . 1 3 1

0 . 1 8 8

— 0 . 1 6 9

0 . 1 3 1

0 . 1 8 8

— 0 . 1 6 9



— — — — — — —















+


+





. —
+




+









— 0 . 0 5 0








0 . 0 7 4







— 0 . 0 7 0








— 0 . 0 5 0








— 0 . 0 7 4




— 0 . 0 8 2



+


+



+



0 . 0 0 0

































+ 0 . 0 3 3








+






























± 0 . 0 9 4 ( 2 3 )










3 7











g iv e








U niform









+



+






— 0 . 0 5 3




— 0 . 0 7 6


0 . 0 7 4




0 . 0 5 4




0 . 0 7 6




— 0 . 0 8


+





+


— 0 . 0 7 9




— 0 . 1 2 2









— 0 . 0 7 9




— 0 . 1 2 2




— 0 . 1 2 2

oau s











+ 0 . 0 3 8






+ 0 . 0 5 1





+ 0 . 0 7 7







































a
E






— 0 . 0 8 3

— 0 . 0 7 5


— 0 . 0 5 8

.
0 . 0 8 3



— 0 . 0 7 5



— 0 . 0 5 8


— 0 . 1 0 6



— 0 . 0 9 5

— 0 . 0 7 4


















— 0 . 0 6 3



— 0 . 0 8 1



— 0 . 0 8 8



— 0 . 0 6 3



— 0 . 0 8 1











































coefficient

1 5 8 Continu ou s




and




+






















the
























































the





























3 8
factored dead l oad = factored imposed l oad
= 1 2 0 0 u nits per span
1 6 0
Continu ou s



q


0 . 2 6 2 g 1 2

0 . 0 8 5 0 . 2 5 5 g 1 2
— ( 0 . 2 6 2 — 0 . 2 5 5 ) x
— 2 . 5 % :














this














8 2
















































































9
Deformation


a
centroid of A A S of

— aA —
— a8 ] — 6 [ A A $ zA B — Z B C) ]



— 6

=
— 6 ( OB A —
'A b

'A R + 2 M B ( IA B M CIB C
— 6 [ A A B Z A D

K A A D K CCF









( A 8 0 Z 2



Ratio






— 2 8 % — 1 5 ° /

moment
moment

— 2 0
one — 4 0 % — 2 0 % — 8 %





















































— 1

























l A B

1 2
=


= span

and
l cD)

3 . 0 / 0 . 0 0 5 2 5 7 7 m3 ; 5 0

1 8 . 7 = 3 . 0 1 . 6 m.

1 8 . 7 5 7 7 0
4 . 5 / 0 . 0 0 7 8 7 5
l 2 6 k Nm per metre width; z2 = 4 . 5 / 2 2 . 2 5 m.
w,= 5 Ok N/ m
w2 k N/ m
w3 = 6 Ok N/ m
1 ,= 3 m
A
I,= O. 0 0 5 2 m4
1 2 = 4 . 5 m
1 2 = 0 . 0 0 7 8 m4
D
! 3 — 3 . 6 m
1 3 0 0 0 6 5 m4
D


4 0









1 / 1

K A B / ( K A B
0 .



— E FE M

u nbal anced














I
U niform moment of inertia
A






where is
are
0
= 0 . 5 .


for




'PA B W B A



1 .
— E FE M










Distribu tion factors
3 B 2
5 1 5
4 c3
5 5
Fix ed-end moments
First distribu tion
1 St carry -ov er
0
0 — 2 0 3 — + 2 0 3
0
1 2 2
0 0 0 0
2 nd distribu tion
2 nd carry -ov er
3 rd distribu tion
3 rd carry -ov er
6 1 +
— 1
— 1 2
4 th distribu tion — 1 3 + 9 + 6 - — 6 — 4 + 2 + 2 0
Su mmations 0 + 1 5 2 -1 5 2 — 3 3 + 3 3 + 1 6
0
A
Rel ativ e stiffnesses
4 - 4
3 0 k N/ m
9 r
4
- U niform moment of inertia
D
Continu ity factors
0
0 . 2 1 5
0 3 0 0
0 . 2 3 7
0 3 0 5
0 . 3 3 3
0 2 2 0
0 . 5 0 0
Distribu tion factors 1 . 0 0 0 0 5 6 9 0 . 4 3 1 0 . 5 6 7 0 . 4 3 3 0 . 3 7 1 0 . 6 2 9 0
Fix ed-end moments — 2 0 3 + 2 0 3
Distribu tion carry -ov er c
— 8 8 i
— 3 6 + 3 6
Su mmations 0 + 1 5 0 — 1 5 0 + 1 0 9 — 1 0 9 — 3 6 + 3 6 + 1 8
1 6 4 Continu ou s

1 2 6 3 6 5 1 0 k N/ m2
3 . 6 / 0 . 0 0 6 5 5 5 4

6 0
3 2 . 4 — 3 . 6
1 . 9 2
— z3 ) / 1 3 1 3 3 2 . 4 9 5 7 0
M D
0 .



— 6 ( 5 7 7 0

— 6 ( 3 6

2 5 3

— 2 7 6
4 :

8 5 2 2 4 0 :
1 0 0 ,6 k Nm

— — —
8 4 . 8






















al teration
'













Pi)

— —
































4 1








= 0 . 3 3 3 ( 1 2
— 1 k ) ; x 3 0 . 3 3 3 ( 1 3
x 4 0 . 3 3 3 ( 1 4 1 3 ) etc. ,
















6 A 2 ( 1 2 —

CN 3 / 1 2 / 1 2 .
CN F1 2 / 4 .
CN 3 F1 2 / 8 .


— a) ( 2 — ct) Fl 2
area = distance
total
















— p2 ( CN

see
— —

_ _ _ _ _ _ _
— — —

'2
























T he




tabu l ated










which









fu rther
k '2 can


























0 . 5 8 / 1 2 0 . 6 6 7 .
1 . 5 1 . 6 6 7 , 5 / 9 0 . 5 5 6 .
0 . 3 4 7 0 . 4 1 7 ;
1 . 2 9 6 1 . 1 1 1 ;
0 . 7 4 1 0 . 5 5 6 . T hu s

From


— 0 . 0 5




— —
— —
— 0 . 0 4 9 — 3 . 6 8
— —
=
— 1 7 . 0 1
— 1 7 . 0 1 8 5

=
1 6 6 . 7
— 1 5 1 6 . 7
+


4 2












E 2 P2 zero
E 2


E 2 P2 x

— a)



P3 H
P3 J 1 ) .






































( b) A u x il iary diag ram
F
'7
1 6 8
Continu ou s




k 1 F1 l 1 — k 2 F2 l 2



0 . 0 4 6
x — 0 . 0 6 5
— —


1 5 7 1 . 4
— 0 . 0 6 6 7
— —
M r — 1 6 0 5 . 6 k Nm


— 1 6 1 8 . 4 k Nm.

=
= =










u nity

su pport

U u nity

k 1 ,
4 3







1 . 2 5

1 . 3 3 0 1 6 7 Ff
F FFF
A ny nu mber of l oads
( 1 ) eq u al l y spaced





8 '\ 1 + j J
Odd

— IF!
8 \
/ I






Q 4
Q c

U
2
U ; se I
t
A l
SPØ fl
= u nity
— --— -— — . — — — — — -
t I
. . —
— — --— -— -


— — — — — —
— 0 . 0 6 2 5
— .
— — — — ----


1

— — — —


-—

A
B 1 = u nity
J
span
k 2
B ase


U s 0 . 5 Y U c
=
— — —


5
— — — —
— 1
— --
— —

H ( x

t t I t
A l l
— —
— — —


ri 1 • ( I I-I

k
span
A B
u nity

0 0 6 7 0


.
— —
+ 0 . 0 1 3 4


— U 5 ]



x = k 1 + l
y = k 1 + k 3
z— k 2 + k 3

— — —
H 1 = 1 4 k 1 Y


— 0 . 0 4 9 1 — 0 . 0 5 3 6
I
— —


— U B ]
I f
f
— 0 . 0 0 4 5 —


2 H 4 ( 4 x y —

— —

5
( 1 )
C. ) C) L
U -
2 2
II C) C. ) 0
2
. 2

In— II
II
-
.
U -
ii II . —
II
U
2 — :
I II
II
II
I
I
N
N
N
N
C
0
0
0
0 0 2 /
I I l iii I I I
o 0 0 0 0
0 C 0 CD U S 0 U S C 0 U S 0 U S C) 0
o 0 0 0 U S 0 U S U S N U S U S U S U S C c-s C C'J C')
U S CD C') ,- ,- 0 0 0 0 0 0 CD 0 0 0 0 C) C
0 0 0 0 0 0 C) 0 0 0 0 0 0 CD C) 0 0 CD 0
o o 0 0 0
0 0 0 OOooO 0 0 0 0 0 C
j o)

for
continu ou s





























-- ( 0 . 0 8 2

+





— ( 0 . 0 8 2


+ ( 0 . 0 3 5 1 0 x 2 2 4 0 x 2 0 )


= — 6 5 ,6 k Nm
+ 2 8 . Ok Nm

— 3 6 8 0 0 l bft
+ l S7 0 0 l bft
— 2 1
4 6











( ordinate
F
0 . 4
0 3
0

0

/

A
C4 )
0
0 . 1
0 1
Ol E
0 . 1 0
5 )
0 . 1 5
B
Short span L 1
-
D 1 : 2
a

0 — 1 .
B — 1 . 1
A B
Short span L 1 C_ _ _ _ _ _ D
L ong span L 2 . E
0
C -l : 2 j
-
C— 1 : 1
a

C
d
e
Cs
Cs
I-
0
Cs
Cs
V
Cs
Cs
0 .
C,,
0
0 2 0
0 2 5
g h
/
k








a c e
f
g h
I

4 7



0
0 .
Q )


Ca 0 0 5
0
0 .
0 3
0 2 0
ci
L ong spanL 2
0
I-
0
E

0
0
0 '
0
Ca
a


5 )
U
l B D & Sk ort span L 1 B ' N
9 h
k
j
m




a c e
f
g
j
m n
















































1 : 1 . 5 : 1


























































































( ordinate

I
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1
















g ,,
k 4 / ( k 4 1

the



and

2 .






=


=


which
1 — 0 . 8 3
T he

M arcu s's








B ending -moment



and









+


+
and are

0
Condition



0 . 5 0 0














l ong span =
Conditions:
edg e
torsional



= middl e



= edg e
total

























Ratio
— w



M , = + = M ,j k 2
Corners
+ +

+ + M ,/ k 2





M ,4 —







diameter) .







bey ond


torsional








cross-sectional

cross-sectional



1 8 0

= — 0 . 2 7 7 k 2 / ( l +





Span +

= —
+
















4
6 3 . 0 3 . 7 5 m.

=
= 1 . 2 5 .
( i)
0 . 7 0 9 = 0 . 2 9
l Ok N/ m2 .


1 0

0 . 2 9 1 5 . l 2 k Nm



( 1 . 4 1 5 . 2


1 2 . 1 8











CP1 1 O



and
and
and







Span











5 . 0 2








M iddl e
— 1 0 . 6 7 / 2




— 7 . 7 0 / 2







withou t torsional — —
restraint at corners — —
o
p p
/
(
at corners V
0 0 6

I
5 )
_ . . 4
with torsional
— _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
. 9

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ —
I I I I -_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
0 0 2
withou t torsional
0

1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8 2 0 1 0 1 2 1 4 l b 1 8 2 0 1 0 1 2 1 4 1 8
Ratio ot spans
N I I I I
H Iii
0 0 2

— fl y 1
fl y 1
0


0 0 8 —

fl y i fl y )
I
m
y y
fl y 1
fl y i fl y i
0
1 . 2 1 . 4 1 6 1 . 8 2 0 1 ,0 1 . 2 1 6 1 8 1 0 1 2 1 . 4 1 . 6 2 . 0
Ratio of spans
edg e which
continu ou s
B ending -moment





— 1 0 . 2 6 / 2 = — 5 . l 3 k Nm


0 . 0 3 6 +

7 . 7 0 / 2 — 3 . 8 5




1 0






— — 8 . O7 k Nm

— 6 . 1 6 / 2 — 3 . 0 8


• + 3 . 8 5 k Nm

— 0 . 0 2 4 — 5 . 1 3





0 . 0 4 1
. + 5 . 6 1

— — 7 . 3 9 k Nm

— 5 . 6 1 / 2 — 2 . 8 1




+ 3 . 8 Sk Nm

— 0 . 0 2 4 • — 5 . 1 3


1 )

0 . 0 4 5
0 . 0 2 5 . 1 0 1 1 2 . 5


x
1 5 . 2
1 7 1

( 0 . 0 4 5 +
+ +







T he
















1




rev erse

1 .
0 . 8 0 . 2 , 0 . 0 7 2 ; 0 . 2
0 . 8 , = 0 . 1 0 3 .



0 . 1









5 8 . 5

3 . 3 k Nm
T
I






0 . 3 3 / 2 . 1 5 0 . 1 5 0 . 5 5 / 2 . 1 5 0 . 2 6 ,
= 0 . 2 3 = 0 . 1 2 .
2 7
6 . 8 6 8 . 8 8




6 . 8 4


2 7 [ ( 0 . 2
4 . 4 8









0 . 6 7 ( 2 . 1 5 2 . 2 0 m
2 7 / 2 . 2 1 2 . 3

( 1 / 4 ) 1 2 . 3 [ 2 . 1 5 — ( 1 / 2 ) 0 . 3 3 ] 6 . 0 8






0 . 5 5
— 1 / 2 ) ] 1 . 8 4 m.


x 7 . 2 8

7 . 1 6











— 3 . 7 5 / 3 . 0 1 . 2 5 ; 0 . 5 2 5 / 3 . 0 0 . 1 7 5 ;
1 . 0 5 / 3 . 7 5 0 . 2 8 . = 0 . 1 9
= 0 . 1 2 .

1 . 2 5 , 0 . 4 5 0 . 1 7 .

1 . 2 5 ,
1 ;
and being





3 4 . 2 4

3 . 5 3
3 7 . 7 7


2 5 . 2 8

2 . 5 2
2 7 . 8 0



0 . 5 2 5 —
0 . 9 7 5
0 . 5 2 5 m.



1 ) .

— 2 ( 0 . 5 2 5 3 . 0 1 . 0 5

3 . 0 / 3 . 0 1 . 0 5 / 3 . 7 5 0 . 2 8 .
1 . 2 5 , = 0 . 0 7 3 0 . 0 6 3 ;

1 . 5 0 . 0 7 3
0 . 1 0 9 ; 0 . 0 6 3 0 . 0 9 5 .

2 1 . 9 5 1 . 0 5 1 . 9 5 / 3 . 0
0 . 6 5 ; 1 . 0 5 / 3 . 7 5 0 . 2 8 . = 0 . 1 0
= 0 . 0 8 8 ;

0 . 1 0 0 . 0 9 8 ;
0 . 0 8 6 .

= 0 . 1 0 9 — 0 . 0 1 1 ; — 0 . 0 8 6
0 . 0 0 9 ;
2 F



mu st


C
0
0
0
C
ci)
E
0
E
0 )
C
D
C
ci)
horizonta' moment at
-M ax positiv e v ertical moment
1 . 0
Vertical


coefficient
1 8 6 Sl abs

2 0 0 / 0 . 5 2 5 3 8 2

3 8 2 1 ( 0 . 2 4 . 2 8





— 0 . 9 5 — 4 . 6 5
— 0 . 2 5 — 1 . 2 3










g iv en
















































































— —
— — 1 . 0 7






















































— = 1
— —



u / v .


— dv / dx

— ( i) 2 }
which

\ l y /





















1 2 ]
— 1 2

( T he



Simil arl y


sin ( A s
























the



A












l x i. .







4 m, 3 / 2 0 ,


6 = 1 / 2 , 1 / 2 0 ,



7 . 0 3 m

} 2
c J r
( 3 . 1 0 \ 2 1
= O. 7 2 6 n





[ \ / { 3

— [ ,J ( 1

= i1 ) + +




( \ / ( 1

c—

— 3 +
x rt

I

Find

( iii)





a

C

C.

L I
U
L u
for


( iii)




2 x a,.



( iii)


a,

a, 2 y ,



( iii)




2 ( a,1
+ x ) ( a,1 + y ) .
( ii) a1 = 2 x 2 y ,


and




( v )

-C

( C) ( d)
( e)
( 1 )
( g ) ( h)

;

k k 1 1 . 0 ,
k 1

( or k 1

0 . 7 0 ; 0 . 8 5
0 . 2 5 ; 0 . 9 5 ; 0 . 9 5

a

C

a
Span
U nsu pported edg e
U nsu pported edg e
z+ a/ 2
— 1
L X J 4
Span
Span
For 1 1 / 2 , where x a,/ 2 )


I (
1 —
— fl
1
— — ) I. where

L \ 1 II\ 2 1 ,ij

_ _ )
y = z+ a,+ 1 . 2 e( 1 _ 7 )
For 1 1 / 2 , where x

— ( 1 ,— —

a, z
a,






























4 n/ 3 .
1 / 2 .

2 M

2 M .
2 M .
4 n/ 3 ,
2 / 3 .
1 / 3 .






3


= 3 . 7 5 n

3 . 7 5 n = Sn

6 M .
5 / 6 0 . 8 3 3 .
0 . 7



1 . 3 3 3 n
5 . 0 0 0 n
= 0 . 6 6 7 n
3 . 0 0 0 n

6 . 0 0 0 M
2 . 0 0 0 M





1 0 . 0 0 0 n 1 4 . 0 0 0 M