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LESSON PLANNING ImportancesOf Lesson Planning: 1) Give teacher opportunity to weigh the various options available&to make his

choices b4 the lesson is done. 2) Can acts as a route map&remind teacher of what the sequence activities should be&material needed for each phase. 3) Enable teacher to get the software&hardware necessary for implementing his plan 4) Act as a record of work done. Factors When Planning A Lesson Plan: y The general and specific objectives it set out to achieve/Student characteristics/Previous knowledge of the pupils/Tasks/Materials/ Language requirement of activity/Time/Amount&type of pupil-teacher participation/Balance in allocation of time/Sequence and grading of activities EDUCATIONAL EMPHASIS Multiple Intelligence a) SPATIAL * the ability to visualize with the mind`s eye * deals with spatial judgments b) INTRAPERSONAL * do with introspective and self reflective capacities. * students are skillfull at deciphering their own feeling and motivations c) INTERPERSONAL * do with interaction with others. * students communicate effectively and emphatize easily with others and maybe either leaders and followers. d) MUSICAL * do with sensitivity to soundsrhytms tones and musics. * students are able to sing play musical instruments and compose musics. e) KINESTHETIC * the control of one`s bodily motions * the capacity to handle object skillfully * includes a sense of timing a clear sense of the goal of a physical actions and the ability to train responses. f) LOGICAL MATHEMATICAL * do with logic abstraction reasoning and numbers. * students naturally excel in mathematics computer programming and other numerical or logical activities. g) NATURALISTIC * do with nature nurturing and relating information to one`s natural surrounding. h) LINGUISTIC * do with words spoken and written. * students are typically good at reading writing telling stories and memorizing. * students have high verbal memory and recall. Future Study The process of using their critical thinking to observe the past,present&predict the future Concept: € Self learning What? Why? & How? € Use the critical thinking when make the decision € Effective communication € Make the research and manage the information about the future studies € know and understand about the future studies € Build the positive attitude € Students centered € Integrated with multiple curriculum field Goals: € People accept that our future will be change € Motivated individual to facing the challenging future € Help individual to plan their happiness future € Build the creative, dynamic and rational community that can accept the challenging future € Prediction of the future can help people more ready and how to solve the problem in the future Technique Of Future Study € Environmental scanning € Future history € Cross impact analysis € Futures workshops € Trend analysis € Simulation and modelling Advantages of future studies PUPILS : € Build pupils futuristic thinking € Evaluate pupils confident and optimistic spirit € Arouse pupils interest with multiple knowledge € Pupils able to solve their problem by their own (critical problem) € Get the opportunity to give the miscellaneous ideas TEACHER :

€ Students centered € Teacher as the facilitator and the pupils will be the planner and the doer . € Multiple method can be use in P&P Learn How To Learn A process for technical or methods learn whether with or without a teacher of teachers Objective: y Prepare students to continue learning on their own without teachers y Enable students to use prior knowledge, friends & other materials as learning resources y Enable students to reflect & ratings y Enable students to transfer learning Rational: y Knowledge, information and time available in classroom limited y Encourage students to be independent y Train students responsible independent learning y Students should improve their ability to learn something y Fostering lifelong learning skills in students Teachers' Role : y Determine learning objectives y Adjusting teaching style in style student learning y Diversifying technique & learning activities y Selecting materials appropriate for teaching and learning activities y Assessing formative & summative y Take appropriate actions Role of Students: y Identify trends and learning styles y To assess the ability of self to learn y Setting goals that can be achieved y Planning& implement learning y Report on progress and achievements y Talk to friends & teachers about the assignment y Reward , reflection & evaluate self performance Learning Strategies: y Metacognitive strategy:process of planning, monitoring & evaluating y Time management :Schedule private time, time for other activities y Learning styles:VAK style(visual, auditory, kinesthetic)/Dunn & Dunn Learning Style ICT Skills Objectives: Knowing the process of technological learning information, communication technology (ICT) and Self access Explore the use of learning information technology, communications technology (ICT) and individual access Know the concepts and goals learning technology, communications technology (ICT) and individual access Understand the benefits and processes learning technology, communications technology (ICT) and individual access Learning Technology Communication & Information: Development of technology and electronic media allows information to move without limits & boundaries Computer as a tool to spread information Patterns of R & D today is more student-centered Curriculum ICT & learning concept bermodular Students define & design education - teacher as facilitator Use of ICT & Learning Effects: Increase level of ICT skills of students Diversify the skills, opportunities for learning and motivation Individual Learning (IL) Ease of access information Effective learning methods with minimal guidance The level of creativity, imagination & lessons in students' mastery ICT &Tutorial Learning Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)Intelligent Tutoring System & Software used in P & P tutorials Expository learning The system controls the filling sequence and System control & training drills Suitable for use when students: - Many& different abilities - Difficult to understand the lesson - Enrichment activities & practical needs ICT &Exploration Learning ICT as a medium for information searchweb site, portal, CD-ROM & database Students freely explore the teaching and learning process Learning appropriate explorationwith the use of ICT should: - Simulating the shape of learning activities - Activities related to future studies - Inkuari discovery learning - Learning on real life prob solving

Moral Value: y Moral values are the standards of good and evil. foster students reflection and monitor own learning. building a repertoire of known or accessible texts as points of reference for comparing. interview b)Close-ended y Depends on how much freedom the testee has in deciding on the scope and quality of the answer. y Has predetermined answer y Answers are tending to be short. or to get original or otherwise appropriate results by the criteria of the domain in question. reflect and explain ` cross-checking and self-correcting to extend and reinforce knowledge. analogies and connections. noticing and remembering texts or parts of texts which are significant. and generalising to rules and conventions for application in other contexts ` teaching them to be pro-active readers.One to many person .g Guided composition. to be objective and logical WHY WE NEED TO COMBINE IN TEACHING PROCESS ` engaging their interest through selecting appropriate content and presenting it in ways that make sense and are relevant. including spoken.g. Types of test Item a)Open-ended y Expect the candidates to express the answers in their own words. Helps students to be autonomous learner.to identify the achievement domains being measured and to ensure that a fair and representative sample of questions appear on the test. ‡ Proficiency Test get general picture of a student s knowledge and ability. time-constraint. through helping them remember. Public examination. a) MCQ considered to be ideal test instruments for measuring students knowledge of grammar and vocabulary. E.to measure students abilities. relate texts to one another and use this organisational knowledge in their own writing ` judging and valuing texts. i) Summative to make a one-off measurement. y e.& ability levels and learning stylesStudents are responsible for self-reliance &independent Method is focus on students Teachers as supervisors & mentors PAK principles: selfdirected/selfaccess/self-assess/selfpaced Responsibilities of Teachers: Encourage students to interact with each other on their own Creating an environment & opportunities for students to test their own ability Make students aware of the various learning strategies To train students to learn their own way Guide students where necessary Student Responsibilities: Identify their needs Identify their own abilities Setting their own goals Identify their own learning time Provides their own learning plans Critical And Creative thinking Creative Thinking ` refers to the ability to form new combinations of ideas to fulfill a need. y There are two types of close-ended answer. the ease which a test can be administered and scored. LCD projector. Problems extremely difficult to write well. Characteristics of Good Tests y Practicality test designed must not beyond the means of a institution to administer or candidates to sit. hypothesising. y Individual s morals may derive from society and government. Does not improve students English. ‡ Achievement test only work if they contain item types which students are familiar with. especially in terms of the design of the incorrect choices/distractors. It should reflect progress. b) Cloze procedures Can be prepared quickly Can be used to find out about testee s overall knowledge. financial limitations.g. to interact with texts as they read through predicting.Technique one . Table of Specifications two-way chart which describes the topics to be covered by a test and the number of items or points which will be associated with each topic. y This is clearly demonstrated in the behavior of older infants and young toddlers. needs. Used as stages people have to reach if they want to be admitted to a foreign university.g end of year measurement. computer 4 techniques of communication through ICT: .g.g. y Reliability  A reliable test should be a consistent measure of performance. which govern an individual s behavior and choices. Critical thinkers try to be aware of their own biases. essay test. TESTING AND EVALUATION ‡ Reasons . assimilate. inferring and deducing. which give rise to four categories: ‡ Placement test e. e. E. Purpose .Person to person . criticising and as models for composing their own texts. the score obtained by a candidate on one occasion should be very similar to those which would have been attained by the same candidate (different occasion)  Students should be familiar with the format and techniques of the test they are going to take. MCQ b) Structured Items where the examiner determine the answer. ‡ Progress or achievement test design to measure learners language and skill progress in relation to the syllabus they have been following.  Test should be administered by under uniform and non-distracting condition y Validity  related to questions about what the test is actually assessing. not failure. E. ‡ Diagnostic tests use to expose learner difficulties. enjoyable and challenging. a) Objective Items where the candidates chooses the answer from the alternatives provided. . if it is intended to test a student's level of reading comprehension in a foreign language but instead tests intelligence or background knowledge. y Example of moral value : paying attention. 4 main reasons for testing. for example. gaps in their knowledge and skill deficiencies during the course. PMR ii) Formative feedback teachers give to students as a course is progressing which may help them to improve their performance. written and other media texts ` linking what they are teaching to what children already know. y Moral values also derive from within one s own self. and checking for evidence which confirms extends and refines expectations ` teaching them to be reflective readers with a developing awareness of text-types and structures which help them to see common features.  Hypothetically. Is the test telling you what you want to know? Does it measure what it is intended to measure?  A test is not valid. exemplify.Learning will be more convenient & enjoyable ICT is a medium of easy communication Medium use of ICT as communication tools . and to develop independence and confidence ` extending and refining their knowledge through seeing patterns. understand text purpose and organisation. Cloze the deletion of every nth word in the text. reflective thinking that is focused on deciding what to believe or do. Easy to mark. ‡ Formal and informal Summative and formative . Critical thinking ` refers to reasonable. video. cooperative. ‡ Portfolio provides evidence of students effort. or self.Application of ICT as a toolFacilitation & Communication Application of ICT help to assist students in the teaching&learning process .Audio. ‡ Progress test given by the teacher every few weeks to see the progress. religion. forming personal preferences and responses. placing new students in the right class. confident.alone . graphics.Many to many Self Access Learning (PAK) independent learning methodsthrough access to learning resources Students learn to follow the interests.

activities . Make sure student actively aware of information 3.story&song)personal satisfaction y Obtaining necessary for day to day living(listen to:news/direction) y Academic purpose(listen to:seminar/lecturer/tals to extend knowledge&skill) Process Involve In Listening 1) Hearing VS Listening -listen when we pay attention to the sound we hear 2) Top Down Processing -listen relate previous knowledge predict information 3) Bottom Up Processing -Listen to meaning/get clue from context 4) Listening is an active process -active construct meaning/distinguish fact from opinion/guess meaning from unfamiliar word Type Of Listening Activities Learner can respond to listening text are: y Simple enjoy show in expressions y Listen perform action operations y Listen transfer information : map/write/note y Listen & solve problems y Listen & evaluate y Listen & answer question Allen(1976) y Simple listening:hearing sound without particular meaning y Listening for information y Listening to organize idea y Listening for main points y Creative listening y Critical listening to judge msg y Discriminative listening :hear/identify likeness&diff in sound Burns &Iowe (1966) y Appreciational:enjoy the dev. Try to get student s interest 2. Check recorded material b4 learners to listen to it 7. Prepare learners:introduce topic/find out what they already know about 4. taskbased. Learner understand clearly what they have to do. task oriented listening is recommended but this stage. Comprehension question Teaching-Learning Strategies a) Beginner Characteristic:Cannot even distinguish English speech sound from noise environment/ no ideas of rules of English pronunciation or grammar Length of input: 1-3 minutes Type of input: Use teacher made material with features :short sentences. Pre-listening b4 main listening task 6. Practice in listening Planning Lesson Listening Pre Listening: 1. Question base on student proficiency 8. diff output 4) Jigsaw listening TEACHING SPEAKING SKILLS FuctionOf Speaking: y To introduce/To greet/To accept/To thank/To express emotion Automaticity Of Response: Person who asks expect an answer Involve learning to use expressions in diff situation Linguistic forms Involves many words + structure Diff structure for different purpose eg: to greet Hi!Hello! Social Appropriacy:Formality : formal(at school) / informal(at grocery) Topics:Every conversation have its own topic FuctionOf Language: Transactional:  Focus on convey information  Giving/obtain/information/greeting goods/services  Focus on messages  For information oriented: ask for direction/discuss plans/share opinion  For good&service oriented: ordering meal/shopping/checkin hotel  Teaching: role play/group discussin/information gap. Brainstorming session 5.TEACHING LISTENING SKILLS Why Need To Be Taught? y Important in daily life y Unique aspect compare to other y For developing skills of speaking Principle Of Teaching Listening 1.gesture. Give learners a chance to read through the question b4 they listen to tape 10. Give simple direct question after listening for 1 time 5. Let learners listen to same text many times st 4. Provide context for listening(What/Whre/About/to listen) 3. Be specific about what students need to listen for listen for selective details Activity: Answering MCQ True / false question Spotting mistake After listening: 1. To the next question) In Teaching Listening Make Sure: a) Students prepared 4 listening b) They clearly able 2 listen c) Consider principle of teaching listening Purpose Of Listening y For maintaining good social relations y Entertainment(listen to :joke.facial expression Xtvt focus on listening (minimal pair) Speed of delivery:Not slow down speech too much coz it prevent them from learning natural rhythm&phrase Outcome:Not expect full comprehension b) Intermediate Characteristic: Fairly good grasp of phonemic/ still have diff in authentic text / can remember long phrase&sentence Length of input: 5-10minutes Type of input: 2 way communication Some input must be authentic/ semi-script develop strategy dealing with normal speech st 1 introduce non-scripted.of story/listening for pleasing rhythm/reacting to the mood set by author y Informational:get answer for specific question/to follow direction/following sequence/for main ideas y Critical:discriminating both fact&opinion/detecting prejudice&bias/sensing the speaker s purpose Easy Activities:Not produce language in reponse  Physical respond to command(open the door)  Select correct picture/object  Circle correct letter/word  Draw a route on map  Fill in chart as they listen Challenging Activities:  Continue a story text  Solve problem  Role play  Participate in real-time conversation Difficulties Activities:  Repeat what was heard  Translate into native language  Take note  Make outline  Ans. Make sure quality of tape is excellent 9. relates to their own view(speaking) / write letter to speaker expressing personel respons(writing) Activity: Discussion group Writing task Summarizing Game Analyzing Strategi for dealing with heterogeneous class 1) Same skill different input 2) Enrichment material 3) Same input. 2. Get task that are spin-off the main activity pupils discuss how the information.clear pronunciation Use great deal of visual support in form of pic. Provide new vocab Activity: Informal talk+class discussion Looking pic&talking Reading related text Reading through question need to answer while listening While Listening: 1. authenthic material lost redundancy Need guide c)Advance Characteristic: Proficient in language/not frustrated if noise background or incomplete text Strategy: Use variety of authentic texts At all stages. Don t ask question on information too close together (miss the ans.

clarify&enrich original ideas Aims: *discussion trigger more idea&help student refine their thinking y Give pupils intensive practice but within naturalistic *resource:pic/chart can motivate student in generating idea y To build up pupils confidence in their ability to use the target lang *xtvt:brainstorming/listing/quickwrite/mindmap/organizing idea y Allow them to participate in peer communication b) While-Writing Typical activities: *drafting  Using model dialogues: put up on the blackboard/ohp&pupils used it to *feedback/conferencing make response *rewrite/revising  Communicative games:provide repetition but without boredom/minimum *making paragraph chance of error/attractive c) Post-Writing  Drills:design drills that allow pupils to apply the language they ve learned *editing:make well done paragraph to express something about themselves *publishing:write down final draft in notebook  Information-gap activities:can also be given at production stage Principle of gradually diminishing control d)Production 1) Controlled writing Aims: -maximal teacher input&minimal pupil input y To provide a context -encourage writing among beginner:little grammar knowledge/ little vocab y To enable teacher to evaluate her own teaching&pupils learning -xtvt:using substitution table/parallel writing(replace selected y Enable pupils to integrate new language that they have leant words)/Question&answer technique/fill in the blanks/dictation y To build greater fluency and ability to cope features of real communication 2) Guided writing -more learner input(ppl use idea to complete task) TEACHING WRITING SKILLS -xtvt:writing form class(generate guideline)/pic composition with skeleton A system for interpersonal communication using visible signs or graphic outline/writing from short notes/ dictation&composition symbols.q)  Teaching: use speeches.pasting.observation Type of Writing: a) James Britten: expressive writing(express feeling)/transactional (transfer info)/poetic(enjoy esthetic aspects) b) Traditional writing: narration/description/exposition/persuasion/ argumentation Stage In Learning How To Write: 1) Writing Readiness: y Dev student knowledge of english so he can understand what he copies&know how to say what he want to say .Performance: y Dev interest in wanting to write english  Features: an audience/speaker cretes product /single speaker y Recognize dat print is fidd from pic&meaning eg:classtalk.drawing(helpd dev fine motor skill)  Focus on participant+social needs 2) Early Writing  Maybe casual@fomal a) General guidelines  Reflect pattern&topic(opening.have a small discussion down would help them to remember y Focus on new vocab *make it a practice to read to ur pupil a variety of things-it serveas y Provide some language materials model 4 the pupil in writing y Telling jokes or real life event to introduce the topic *dev pupil natural curiosity&thinking skill-encourage in giving new b)Presentation: beginning of the lesson/completely controlled by the teacher ideas Function: b) Handwriting *space between leeter in a word&space between words in a y Enable pupils recognize the relevance&usefulness of what they are about sentences to learn *the proportion of parts of the letter-shoud be written in regular y Enable them to learn language what they need to learn size&height y To make them aware of the context in which language they learn can be *correct direction of pen movement appropriately used c) Futher copying activities Procedure:  Help student master the mechanic of writing.presentation/model text y Dev visual memory for shapes Interactional: y Dev large muscles of his arm&hands.explain the form&fuction shape or words/dev relevant dictionary skill/ help pupil devise ways 3) Drill pupils in the target structures of helping themselve to remember bommon but troublesome Aim: to give pupils rapid practice in target language b) Communicative writing xtvt 4 beginner How:get pupils repeat new language(chorally/individually) -create situations with no one is allowed to talk instead Types of drill: *pupil can t talk in class but they must write note if they want *mechanical drill-enable pupil to memorize the form&use it something from friend automatically.experiences. Purpose Of Writing: y Get thing done y Inform info y Persuade(cause to beleive something) y Maintain relationship y Document occurences.fine muscle of his forefinger&thumb  To maintain good social relationship y Eg:colouring(help children to discriminate shape/cutting.writing y Try to introduce the topic orally. a variety of 1) Deep-end activity:put the pupils in a situation they need to use the target copying activities may be used at the early stages language.welcome speech y Dev ability to discriminate shape&distinguish between letter(p.(little attention paid to meaning) *write diary at least 1 entry a week *meaningful drill-pupil choose the form that makes sense in specific Stages In Writing: situation a) Pre-Writing(begin when teacher give a topic) c)Practice *xtvt should help student devidea.ifcannot.events y Record feelings.  Copying task(not boring&mechanical/can be Function:enable pupils see language what they will learn to increase puzzle&game motivation 3) Developmental Writing 2) Provide a clear model for pupils to imitate a) Spelling&writing -can obtain from speech of better pupil -correct spelling is important in effective written communication -can obtain from introduction of picture/tape etc *focus on teaching the most common word/dev visual memory of Get pupils to deduce their own pattern.closing) *Provide meaningful context for learning the mechanic of writingPlanning Lesson Speaking giive motivation by showing good handwrinting a)Pre-Teaching Activities: *Use pupils own oral composition for giving them insight into y Motivate writing-pupil say wat they wanna write y Help pupils to become familiar with the topic *constantly keep the benefit of learning to write b4 them.  Give more importance to listener tracing.topic.

3) Developmental reading Content/Balance/Suitability of language/Concept in text/Level of reasoning require/Pedagogic suitability Involve: * Recognizing structure. Motivation *create a +ve attitude to read among pupils *enjoy learning about new thing&stimulatecuriousity 2.words * Predicting outcomes * Applying reading strategy to the text * Making connection within text * Thinking while reading:askQ. Aims of teaching Reading: 1) Helps pupils to become independent reader 2) Dev.classify.copy&read again * Theory:learning is individualized therefore more meaningful/fewer repetition bcoz language come from them/allow smooth transition from spoken to written language * Difficulty:often do not have enough English to dictate their own story/teacher-student ratio make individualization very difiicult Selection Of Text * Books learner himself will read:dev word recognition skills/knowledge of print convention/built self-confidence Features: =appropriate language(repeat use of word/simple& direct/legible print font&cast) =simple but interesting(clear&uncomplicated storyline/ repeating episode/within understanding) =illustration&colour(should support understanding/ bold&uncomplicated) * Book ppl will read to learn:chance to devlanguage&foretaste the joy of reading Features: =within experiantal background =simple.notusefull when they learn more word y Using picture clues Use pic as earliest clue Lost importance when child learn abstract words y Contextual clues Understand msg. * Involve simultaneous dev. Learning convention of English *basic:book front/right way up of book/diff words&pic 4. Dev.emotion.spiritual -new knowledge through existing knowledge 5) Reading is a thinking process attempt of reader to understand what the writer is thinking 6) Is an interaction process:create reaction based on previous knowledge/attitude&belief/the author/format of writing/degree of interest 7) Reading is a life support system-the need to read diff kind of text for all kind or purpose 8) Is not a single skill that we use all the time in the same way but multiple skills that used differently with diff text&to fulfill diff purpose 9) Wide reading experience in a kind of text is necessary for proper understanding of any one instance of that kind of writing 10) What reading enables a person to do must be perceived as interesting and worthwhile.TEACHING READING SKILLS Reading Process& Purpose: 1) Involves knowledge of certain writing convention -way meaning is put in print/direction text to be read -letter:sound correspondence is not always the same 2) Involve not merely sounding of the words but understanding the meaning or msg a word intended to carry -reading result in the extraction of meaning 3) Understanding of a text involve understanding a language in which it is written -prior knowledge of the language is needed to make sense of it 4) Involve utilizing previous knowledge -should extent our knowledge&skill -give new perspective regarding old knowledge -provide new info -development of intellect.deduce. Of all 4 skills * Use his own words to say what he himself want to say then sees these same words&experience for him to read.knowledge of englis so pupils could understand what they read y Motivation to learn to read in English y Ability to discriminate between shape so they can recognize between letters&words y Recognition that print has meaning just as talk has meaning 2) Early reading Aim: 1. Word recognition skills: a) Sight word skill:enable the reader to recognize word instantly Important:give sense of achievement(motivational purpose)/ enable student to decode(turn print into sound&meaning)automatically Choosing word:according to usefulness/determine how often a child will come across with the word Teaching technique:drill/involve repetition using a variety&media Ways:make flash card/keep record of work in English corner/label things around the classroom/get ppl to constantly use the words to express themselves/keep the word within reach so they can work individually when they want or need to b) Word attack skill:skills that enable the reader to recognize unfamiliar words Basic Strategy: y Using configuration clues Using shape of words to help pronounce&recognize word Useful at early stage only.repeating story line =be in language that easily understand Book Approach Strength: more emotionally supportive/encourage more involvement/allow learning mechanic of reading in less threatening environment. Response to text 3) Help pupils read with adequate understanding 4) Help pupils read at appropriate speed 5) Help pupils read silently Stages In Learning To Read: 1) Reading readiness Concern of pre-school teacher Need to: y Dev.predict * Having an affective reaction to the text * Building up unfamiliarity with many diff kind of text y Activities: a) Verbal *Silent Reading: MCQ/T-FQ/Open ended Q *Read Aloud:Reading while listening/choral reading/play reading/ reading aloud as feedback/audience reading/individual reading/for diagnosis purpose *Other:reconstructing(making a distorted text whole)/reordering jumbled sentence/completing incomplete text/jigsaw reading/replacement(make change to existing text)/expandsion/ comparison/serialization/prob solving b) Non-Verbal *Picture diagram:map/floorplan/bus schedule/timeline@flow chart/graph Guideline for preparing a reading lesson y Find suitable text y Identify the skill you want to teach y Think of a sequence of xtvt y Work out details of each xtvt y Look through the sequence xtvt y Work through the xtvturself y Check timing y Have all the material needed y - . Language&comprehension skill *understand what ppl say is a prerequisite for understanding what pplwrite 3.ignore unfamiliar words Guess possible msg of the words Used throughout the life Only effective when other words&ideas are known Dictionary Have enough words to understand explaination given y Structural clues Knowledge of prefixes&suffixes will help make sense of familiar words y Basic phonemic approach Theory:language is phenemically/after learning phonemic ppl can obtain pronunciation of words/once he get pronunciation he understand the word Involve: route learning (depend on visual&auditory memory)/ part learning (learning individual b4 assemble 2 whole takes time) Guideline:have large listenbing vocab to able to see&dear diff letter&sound/begin instruction after ppl begun to read using look&say method Strength&Weakness:become independent reader/inappropriate to average learner bcoz it unmeaning related/no one to one relation between letter&sound/only concentrated on decoding Language Experience Approach * Attempt to use the child s own language&experienceas basic for skill dev.

Make sure all the words the students would need are in the second sentence-maker 3. y A grammar rules presented overtly or explicitly should be supported by activities which encourage students to use the structures for communicative purpose. y Inductive approach / discovery method where the students are first given a number of sample sentences containing the target forms and then the teacher guide the students into deriving the rules for themselves. different contexts. y When choosing activities : Can my students relate to this topic?/Do they know anything about it?/Would they like to know more about it? 2. Use a multimedia approach y Use senses.preposition) -positive& negative version y Grammatical Facts And Rule -tense. * The students attention is focused on the activity&not the grammar rules.thank. Be purposeful y Good learning activities : Involve students in doing things with language/Give them some challenge/Catch their interest and attention.wordderrivation y Form&Fuction -communicate to persuade. Overt: * The teacher explicitly explains the rules when presenting the new language. Provide plenty of practice y Let learners use similar language in different ways(lLSRW)and contexts (poems. Story-Comic Approach Technique Used During Presentation: Flashcards Highlighter Wall charts Activity in classroom Sliding sentence strips Word cards and pocket charts B)FOCCUSED PRACTICE Purpose: To build student confidence in using new language/enable students to gain control of the structure within controlled framework Characteristic: Controlled to minimize scope for errors/clear&precise/ maximized student talking time Typical Activities:Drills/dialogue/text completion/problem solving/role play Role Of Teacher: Conductor/Corrector Correction: Immediate correction by teacher or peers Length&place in lesson:Depend on students needs&difficulty of the structure/immediately after presentation Teaching and learning materials: -Drills -Substitution Table -Jazz chants -Meaningful drill -Blank-filling -Motor activities -Recombining activities: 1.diff Q 2) Form mixed ability group 3) Do jigsaw reading 4) Work long term basis 5) Supplementary reader Integrating other skills in Reading: a) Speaking&Writing: -provide model for imitation -introducing word structure -creating context for generating spoken&written discussion b) Other through reading: -mean of expressing understanding -note taking -writing can be use to increase reading readiness -set purpose of reading -introduce words aurally that ppl need to understand b4 learn it in written form Testing Of Reading: Discrete:speed of recognition/contextual clue to understand unfamiliar word/range of word known without clue Holistic:MCQ/cloze test/unjumble sentences to reconstruct text/sentence or text completion/open ended Qs/T-FQs/summary/info transfer WHAT IS GRAMMAR? Rules of a language governing(tentukan) the way in which words are put together to convey meaning in different context Knowledge Required In Grammar y Word Order(Basic sentence patterns that student should learn) -position of word classes(adjective.sentences to express function -word.pluralization of nouns.Use two sentence maker 2.give several seed sentences to help the student grasp the concept&pattern.complexsentences.phrases. * Two options available to the teachers : y Deductive approach a teacher present the rules/pattern/generalizations and then goes on to provide practice in the application of these rules. reading. Stages In Grammar Lesson A)PRESENTATION Purpose: To illustrate how the structure is formed&what it mean&how it is used/lead student to use the structure to talk about themselves/check student understanding Characteristic: Clear. y Design tasks that allow student to manipulate the new language and challenge them to think or interact with each other.appreciation -use word.logicalconnecteors.structure that we used to do this is called form y How To Link Ideas In Different Sentences -compund.tables or texts 3.she s)not allowed in formal writing but necessary in spoken language y Meaning Od Different Grammatical Option -many sentence forms exist to express the same content but the different forms have different meanings. Be meaningful. 6. 7. Problem In Learning English Grammar 1) Mismatch between form and function 2) Exceptions to the rule -many exception to grammar rules cause difficulty in learning English 3) Interference from the learner s own language -differences between English and their own language 4) Lack of motivation to learn grammar -grammar learning is boring because it requires multiple repetition Features Of Activities That Support Grammar Learning 1. songs.Use appropriate stimuli to ensure the student used the target structure .expressagreement. different genres. 3. Have a social function y Give opportunities for interaction so student can: y Get a sense of the usefulness of the language y Get chance to check and test their understanding 4.pronouns y Grammar of Spoken&Written Sentences -abbreviations form(i m. games and jokes. Do you like ? * Students have to go round asking their friends in order to complete the task. y Get to know your students interest.Mix Ability Student 1) Same text. * Eg : to teach the structure.student apply the rule in drills 2. likes.adverb.visual support. auditory support. Provide variety y Use all four skill.interestingrelevant&appropriate/includes an element of personel involvement Typical Activities:Buildup of appropriate situational&linguistic context for new language/listen&initial repetition of new language/use new language to talk about themselves Role Of Teacher: Informant Correction: Necessary to correct to ensure student grasp the correct form Length&place in lesson:short&usually at the beginning Factor for presentation that should consider: Interest & Suitability Approaches: 1. Encourage active participation. y Relate to students own need and therefore engage them as people.) y Give plenty of exposure target structures become part of the automatic response and language (habit) 5.conjunction. Discovery Method -student are given several carefully chosen instances of grammatical feature&try to derive the pattern in the given sample for themselves -the rule is explicitly stated by the students or teacher -futher practice is given in applying the rule Eg:usingsituation. The ImportancesOf Knowing Language Grammar: y Understand the grammar items in the syllabus to select appropriate language forms for teaching y Grade&sequence the grammar item appropriately y Integrate grammar with the teaching of language skill (LSRW) y Select appropriate technique for presenting grammar item y Identify and anlyse student error&providefeedback&correction Approaches In Teaching Grammar Covert: * Teachers get the pupils involved in using the structure without drawing their attention to grammar rules. and dislikes. Didactic Approach -teacher explains the rule. stories.

b)Reading o Reading texts can become rich contexts for practice of variety of grammatical forms o Structural readers are used for extensive reading can provide the intensive practice necessary for internalization of grammar rules. Polysemy: word has a a single word form but 2 or more meaning 4. legless.using more complex structures. Homophones: word sound alike but not spelt alike(eg:blue&blew) 6. Help students who start with smaller vocabulary.fittingsturctures appropriately 4) Better students can be given more sophisticated forms and be asked to choose between forms according to situation 5) Poor students need constant practice WHAT IS VOCABULARY? Word which make up a language constitute Can be categorize in 2 main group: Content word(specific meaning)&Function word(show grammatical relationship in&between sentences) Vocabulary Development y Know what it means in the context y How it similar to or different from other words with similar meanings(eg:jog. if you look up the word snake in a dictionary. 2.Unit by unit mapping of grammar."¨ For example. mean in some way no or not pre-.table. Synonyms: word have nearly equivalent meaning(eg:happy. Connotations: refers to the associations that are connected to a certain word or the emotional suggestions related to that word. translation can be used in the classroom to effectively conveying meaning.bed.puzzles&riddles Integrating Grammar With Other Language Skills Ways Which Integration Of Grammar With (LSRW): 1. :Have students draw a word from a hat and act it out.cupboard) Techniques And Activities For Teachiing Vocabulary a) Visual Technique y Visual are extremely effective in conveying meaning ^_^ A single picture is worth a thousand words!! ^_~ y Interesting stimuli for various language activities to generate the production of vocabulary items y Besides static visual teachers can use gestures.graph. c)Writing o Provide real&extended contexts for the practice of specific grammar items o Editing&creative writing provide context for the sensitive use of grammar in dynamic interaction with other consideration in the communicative process. y Using diagrams: use a variety of diagrams to explain classifications or procedures b) Verbal techniques y When dealing with abstract items of vocabulary. y Translation is probably best used where there are no contextual clues where explanation of the meaning of the word may be long and involved or where the english word refer to the same thing eg: meja----table y . Activities: y Words picture associations: presents a single object and ask the students to tell you what words they associate with eg. race. y help students learn enough words to become better readers. facial expression and mime to convey words meanings.g. and post.maps. y Play Spelling bee :try to find one words using the last alphabet from the other student words before them.Do you think it would . the prefixes non-.runs) y How the word can be used with other words&the meaning these phrase have(eg: run into/run over) y The situation in which the word is used(eg:he will run in the event) Purpose Of Teaching Vocabulary Reading is difficult and frustrating.pleased) 2. un-. you will discover that one of itsdenotative meanings is "any of numerous scaly.creating awareness of inter-relationship between words Activities: y Fill In the Blank y Play "vocabulary charades. Opportunity to learn new words as well as effective instruction. mono. d) Translation y In a bilingual situation. The connotations for the word snake could include evil or danger. Adapting Lesson For Mixed Ability Class 1) All student do not need to do all the items or exercises 2) All student do not need to do the same kinds of activity 3) Activities can be designed so that all students can do them minimally. The connotative meanings of a word exist together with the denotative meanings. il.tables) -Poems -Role play -Quizzes. tri-. Factors Influencing Vocabulary Development y Word learnt through active use are more likely to be remembered y Repetition&regular use of such word y Four ten-minute sessin of vocabulary practice Amount of intelectual&emotional effort put into the learning process by the learner Active vocabulary: Word used actively when produce own speech/writing Passive vocabulary: Word used passively in listening&reading Words And Meaning 1. y Vocabulary groups. c) The Use Of Dictionary y The students who able to use dictionary will be able to continue learning outside the classroom. y It can be used as a source to clarify uncertainly in arras of words meaning. Homographs:word written the same way but pronounced differently (eg:lead& desert) Sense Of Relation 1. Save time by quickly dispensing with the explanation of the words. tapering.dash) y Other meanings it can have(eg:period of time) y How the word changes depending on its grammar(eg:ran.Through specific ways in which grammar supports&is supported by each language skill Integration of grammar with each skill: a)Listening&Speaking o Most grammar presentation&drills are oral o Certain sentence structure such as social formulae like Would you mind .deal with time and uni-. sometimes venomous reptiles¡Khaving a long. the "dictionary definition.but better students can do them at more sophisticated level. poem and song-to explain the meaning of a word y Use of antonyms and contras: The word tall for example is explained by constructing it with its opposite-short y Word part clues: y The base word or root as well as it affixes could me examined to encourage students to guess the meaning y E. Hyponyms: word can be related to the meaning of one word (eg:furniture : chair. cylindrical body and found in most tropical and temperate regions. 3. Homonymy: word written in the same way&sound alike but have different meaning(eg:well(health) well(perigi) 5. -mapping of grammar that comes after the texts&situations for the four skills have been determined/the grammar slement is then built to support the skills based activities." 2.this cannot be explained as grammatical rules because the students would not be able to understand the rule. verbal techniques are very useful y Use synonyms and definition :to explain the meaning of a word y Use of context : texts. pronunciation grammar and spelling. Denotations: refers to the literal meaning of a word. Antonyms: opposite meaning to another word(eg:good-bad) 3. and multi deal with number.Systematized mapping of the grammar syllabus within thematicallyconceived(pendekatan merangkumi) series of units.C)COMMUNICATIVE PRACTICE Purpose: Give student opportunities to use the new language in freer(terbuka) more purposeful&creative ways/give teacher feedback on the level of mastery Characteristic: Learner-centred/interaction activity/clear instruction from the teacher Typical Activities: Communicative activities(games&discussion) Role Of Teacher:Monitor&organizer Correction: Without correction but errors-noted Length&place in lesson: Depends on profiency of student&type of activity/ after presentation&practice/within or across lesson Teaching and learning materials: -Problem solving -Stories -Songs and nursery rhymes -Using personel experience -Games -Using visual (eg:picture.diagrams. 3.

man. Every students would become a perfect speller. Purpose Of Teaching Dictation A natural way to teach proper spelling to a child. An example might be the ending ight and the list would then contain examples such as sight. fight. can ‡ Syllabication: learn to devide words and speel by syllabication e.word webs = words in a poem or an excerpt from a play or story may be clustered to show the relationship between them .speaking and pronunciation can be developed if the students do the dictating rather than the teacher. feelings and experiences of people who exist outside his own surrounding 3. for example.g. Can be done with any level. Activities On Spelling: y Look at short and long sounds or diphthongs and in particular the difference that the letter e can make to pronunciation. WHAT IS DICTATION? when one person speaks while another person transcribes what is spoken. To develop writing skills. Social / moral development = brings the pupils into contact with the thoughts. as well develop an appreciation of the language. 2. Can focus on both accuracy (form) as well as meaning. acting. depending on the text used. the pupils acquires an experience which he can communicate to others in various forms such as talking. To develop all four skills . This might produce examples such as tree.g. Purpose Of Teaching Spelling Helping children learn to spell. such as encouraging children to "use invented spelling" in their early attempts to write.WHAT IS SPELLING? the writing of one or more words with letters and diacritics. ‡ Learning to pronounce words correctly to spell correctly ‡ Learning the basic sight words. experience and so on.cloze exercise = one way of getting pupils to think about a writer s choice of words is through cloze exercise Phase 3 :Working out from text Having read the poem. Can be used to decrease preparation time for other activities. Designing Activities Based On Literary Texts Phase 1:Preparing for the text Draw the pupils into the text Activate any personal knowledge related to the text Relate the text to their personal lives Create interest or curiosity in what is to come Introduce key features of text which will facilitate comprehension e. Spelling Is The Study Of ‡ Phonics: as related to the grouping of words for spelling such as . Aesthetic development = The pleasure we get in reading a poem.explored through the plot. novel and etc. character and events Working with language . an. flight and so on. y Relate spelling to particular sounds. Brainstorm the different spellings of a particular phoneme. words containing the sound /i:/. the theme. please. Usually require very little preparation and photocopying. Can be graded for a multi-level class. One approach is to use word lists. where words with similar spelling patterns are listed. might.make sure pupils understand first the text . the mood and etc Strategies to made the text familiar with the pupils in the preparing phase: Using visual Exploiting the theme Using the language of the text Using drama and role-play Phase 2 :Working with the text 1 )Encounter with text Reading aloud . = The activities will motivate pupils to learn the language because of its interest value.brings the text alive .the following is useful checklist for good story telling : = sit close to the audience = know the story very well = use the voice in an interesting manner = use facial expression = look at every pupils so that they feel warmly include in the story 2)Exploring the text Working with content . y Encourage your learners to look for patterns in spelling. story or play. A sense of when something may not be spelled correctly. receive. y Reading texts can be used in several ways to assist with spelling. right. dic-ta-tion ‡ Prefixes and suffixes: what they mean and how to use them. Language development = Reinforcement of vocabulary and grammar and patterns of discourse =Pupils learn the formal conventions of written language =Can serve as both stimulus and context for language learning activities in the classroom.consider on 12 elements Silent reading An individual activity The pupils is free to make his own meaning as his experiences and knowledge of the world interact with the text Story telling . LITERATURE AND LANGUAGE TEACHING Purpose : 1. drawing or writing Checklist For Assessing Children's Literature Story Characters Themes Settings Illustrations Other Consider .

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