Table of Contents

Introduction...............................................................................2 AC.Motors.................................................................................4 Force.and.Motion......................................................................6 AC.Motor.Construction............................................................ 2 Magnetism.............................................................................. 7 Electromagnetism................................................................... 9 Developing.a.Rotating.Magnetic.Field.....................................24 . Rotor.Rotation.........................................................................29 . Motor.Specifications. ..............................................................34 . NEMA.Motor.Characteristics. .................................................37 Derating.Factors......................................................................43 . AC.Motors.and.AC.Drives. ......................................................45 Matching.Motors.to.the.Load..................................................49 Motor.Enclosures....................................................................53 Mounting.................................................................................56 . Siemens.AC.Induction.Motors. ...............................................6 Review.Answers......................................................................72 Final.Exam...............................................................................73 quickSTEP.Online.Courses...................................................... 76 

Introduction

Welcome.to.another.course.in.the.STEP.series,.Siemens. Technical.Education.Program,.designed.to.prepare.our. distributors.to.sell.Siemens.Energy.&.Automation.products. more.effectively..This.course.covers.Basics of AC Motors.and. related.products.. Upon.completion.of.Basics of AC Motors.you.should.be.able. to:

•. •. •. •. •. •. •. •. •. •. •.

Explain.the.concepts.of.force,.inertia,.speed,.and.torque Explain.the.difference.between.work.and.power Describe.the.construction.of.a.squirrel.cage.AC.motor Describe.the.operation.of.a.rotating.magnetic.field Calculate.synchronous.speed,.slip,.and.rotor.speed Plot.starting.torque,.accelerating.torque,.breakdown. torque,.and.full-load.torque.on.a.NEMA.torque.curve Apply.derating.factors.as.required.by.an.application Describe.the.relationship.between.V/Hz,.torque,.and. horsepower Match.an.AC.motor.to.an.application.and.its.load Identify.NEMA.enclosures.and.mounting.configurations Describe.Siemens.NEMA,.IEC,.and.above.NEMA.motors

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This.knowledge.will.help.you.better.understand.customer. applications..In.addition,.you.will.be.better.able.to.describe. products.to.customers.and.determine.important.differences. between.products..You.should.complete.Basics of Electricity before.attempting.Basics of AC Motors..An.understanding.of. many.of.the.concepts.covered.in.Basics.of.Electricity.is.required. for.Basic.of.AC.Motors.. If.you.are.an.employee.of.a.Siemens.Energy.&.Automation. authorized.distributor,.fill.out.the.final.exam.tear-out.card.and. mail.in.the.card..We.will.mail.you.a.certificate.of.completion.if. you.score.a.passing.grade..Good.luck.with.your.efforts. Siemens.is.a.trademark.of.Siemens.AG..Product.names. mentioned.may.be.trademarks.or.registered.trademarks.of.their. respective.companies..Specifications.subject.to.change.without. notice. NEMA®.is.a.registered.trademark.and.service.mark.of.the. National.Electrical.Manufacturers.Association,.Rosslyn,.VA. 22209. Underwriters.Laboratories.Inc.®.and.UL®.are.registered. trademarks.of.Underwriters.Laboratories.Inc.,.Northbrook,.IL. 60062-2096. Other.trademarks.are.the.property.of.their.respective.owners.

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to.mechanical.to.wide.motors..a.AC.AC. transform.basic. connected.a.of.AC.types.are.a.to.or.electrical.in.course.mechanical.In.motor.other.such.fan.equipment.some. overview.applications.AC.or.energy. used. variety.threephase AC induction motors.motors.into.used...conveyor. about.winder.also.this.form.includes.motors.general.are..part. An.the.of.of.pump..this.Siemens.There.of. Winder Pump Conveyor 4 .an.motor.type.information.type.on.applications.but.of.motors..common.energy.worldwide..in.course. many.of.addition.many..manufactures.industrial.may.providing.Siemens.focuses.be.this.of.or.. as.AC.mixer.in.AC Motors AC motors.most.

the.products.standards.standards.largest.designed..NEMA.standards. develops.NEMA.motors.follow..standards.that.IEC.the.example. Siemens.Keep.-based..in..the. Throughout.standards.to.IEC.to.In.as.for. perform.. countries.to.however.also.standards.electrical.same..export.for.States.to.to. NEMA.larger. manufactures.of..build.companies.Standard.motors.These.and.For.also.with.Publication.. is.motors. including..course. to.motors.are.National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA).made.as above NEMA motors. requirements.referred.referred.but.frame.NEMA.comply.wide.In.the.frame.as.. that.than.IEC.application.commonly.standards.commonly.meet.manufacturing.respects.motors.U. United..common.mind.International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).are.motors.electrical. IEC Motors.AC.another.are.NEMA.commonly.IEC.is.. MG.reference. size.NEMA.S.responsible.is..built.for. Above NEMA Motors.size.many.used..are. 5 .sometimes.function.NEMA.addition.many.differ.to.Siemens. organization.many..products.motors.IEC.to.specific.AC.NEMA.although. In.NEMA Motors.countries. in.range.electrical..manufactures.equipment..motors.covers.more...this..a..motors.

of.0.For.in.to.the.a.When.the..a. including.pounds.course.friction..pounds.be.familiar.force.are.how. Net Force.of. Force.the. Net force. 10 LB 5 LB = 5 LB 6 . Many.applied..move..these.object.force.gravity.of.vector.0.would.is.operation.basic..of..or.direction.. be.act.one. greater..in.added. 20.be.to.terminology.is.on.direction.net.in.direction.and.are.motors.understand.force.Force and Motion Before.applied.a.discussing.the.the.some.the.a.and.pounds.is. caused.pound.terms.are.in.motor.all.apply.two.the.these.object. In.direction.5.associated.pounds.5. Later.is.are..an.Force.combination.forces. some..force.force.to.with.in.terms.the. physical.direction..of.gravity.if.would.AC.would.we.in.will.force..in.by.of.AC.the.example..terms.applied.they.see.applied.context.may.that. same.simple.and.necessary. motors. 10 LB 10 LB = 20 LB If.the.the.of.opposite. forces.push.is.net.means.same.electromagnetism.pull.sum.other.forces.it.or.us.

foot.causes.the.(lb-ft)..to.resulting.. Torque.equally.in.applied.force.is.to.lb-ft.. 0.or.lb-ft.radius..Increasing.is. Force = 10 pounds Torque (t) = 20 lb-ft 2 feet 7 .that.if.not..and.twisting.is.x. net.system.example.If.object. 10 LB 10 LB = 0 Torque.(lb-in).a.object.both.force.is.a.in.of.pounds.force.applied.distance).lever.corresponding.feet..turning.the.lbs.Force.or.force.or.a. a.torque..=.in.to.results.in.would.example..the.0.turning.force.to.. increase.would.English.measured. example.is.radius.the. of.Radius In.radius.the.two.a. rotate.is.the..point. Force = 10 pounds Torque (t) = 10 lb-ft 1 foot An.the.force.measurements.(lever.in.increase.of.or.product.torque.applied.lever.be.torque. pound-feet.force.For.0..(τ).in.an.torque.For..of.long. τ.causes.end.the.zero.of.move.pivot.effect. Torque.and..results.torque.a.pound-inches.of.for.directions.20.at.

travel.to.determines.the.it..a.angular speed.is.of.to.long.Speed.called.speed. Angular.or.speed.RPM. Linear Speed.distance.units. RPM.for. it.occurs.has...seconds.take.to. An.rotate.speed.distance.travel.travel.change.is..speed.to.a.object.distance. (RPM). the.per.change.motion.rotating.in.only.in.deceleration.in.for.specified. distance.RPM.angular.RPM.can.expressed.RPM.object.for.when.the. The.acceleration)..units.travels.ratio.object. in.lower. Linear Motion Angular (Rotational) Speed.of.ten.as.takes.object.a.For. (negative. acceleration.minute.speed.a.. second.(m/s).of.decelerate....distance.is.example.example.one.there.a.An.Speed.A.can.complete.time..object.0.takes.how. An.an. Linear speed.per. accelerate.speed.An.upon.time.from.per.that.change.to.speed.of..Linear.the.20.can.Therefore.in.a.. the.and.object.acting... the.is.an.0.a.which.expressed.time. by. revolutions.traveled.m/s.miles.or.to.0.hour.if..is.higher.at.rate.distance..is.20.This..any.takes. 10 RPM Acceleration 20 RPM 20 RPM Deceleration 10 RPM  .the.rotating.an.in.object.minute. from.is.often.object.it.specified.also.example.makes..to.force.Acceleration.from.object.meters.meters..is.revolutions.20.40.the..increase.divided.2.known. Direction of Rotation Rotional Motion Axis of Rotation Acceleration.of.

move.the.force.to.takes.friction.times.for.because.for. inertia.its.is.is.times. system.a.states.. measurements.expressed.in. know.however.that. of.when..in.joule.energy.compound. Friction..times.the.is.all. machine. Friction.force.that.joules.force.example.the. Friction.of..of.be.ft-lb. where.and.is.energy.that.not.inertia.causes.force...roll.newton-meter.moving..applied.is.in.it.system.of.expressed.physics. of.. can.start.is.resistance.is..to.applied...Work.The.we.inertia.. 9 .to.distance.increases.The.a.occurs.equal.another.upon.the. For..we.constant.in.reverse.If.of..causes.the..one. This.an.work.to.apply.contact.in.motion. state.to.multiplying.meter.will.squared.objects.to.valid.distance.moment.example..acted.pound-feet.losses.as.calculated.the.compensate.. Mechanical.most.motion.of.of.one.roll.to.moving.unit.a.of.a.rest.system.object.in.external.force.at..unit.that.motion.in.product.causes. Any..a..system.or.to.from.x.are.energy..a.remain. the.of.force.systems.often.the.object.of.force..to.has.Distance Work.another.foot-pounds.unless.speed.motion.still.we.current. work.it.English.the.stop.by.the.a..to.is.in.the.equals.commonly.is.if.an.can.be.a..the.overcome.For.the.pound.is. referred.remain.the.loss.object.is.surface.bring. Since.work.. Work.roll.the.In..direction.work.any.for.inertia.Force.foot.accomplished.by. paper.the.will.(ft-lb).motion.system.of..law..drain.subject..times.Inertia.is.the. system.must. added.takes.machine.try.Once.force.consider.the.tend.significant. Whenever. newton.the.property.=.law of inertia. distance.to.work..(lb-ft ).simply.The.acceleration/deceleration.force.expressed.of.inertia.force.of.roll.distance..a..one.unwinds.law..As..the..motion. 2 measurement. in.large.losses.when.of. in.across.English.

concept.motors.formula.When..is.horsepower. often.a.determine.per.equal.sold.was.of.an.that.foot-pounds.horses.of.This. asked.is. th.foot-pounds..James.of.foot-pounds.around..Therefore. power in HP = Torque in lb-ft x Speed in RPM 5252 0 .would.unit.wheel. amount. Another.(HP)..is.increases..horsepower.quantity.would.can.or.and..a.000.RPM.steam.work.be.is.or.by.steam.second.time.per.following.average.Watt.expressed.per. and.horse.horsepower. useful. found.horsepower.given..for.it.of.speed.period.would.. torque.power...one.550.lb-ft. had.lift.Power.Watt.of. foot-pounds.walk.torque.torque.the.about. When..horsepower.amount.be.often.used.second.work.the.He.both.in.to.but.expressed.a.applying. Power.per.rate.calculate.that.the.many.replace.weight.of.one.He.second.the. used.in.horses..Power.amount.in.increase. Horsepower.a.in.and.the.Note..defined.550.in.done.engines.to.speed. doing.can.is.33.is..the.engine.century.expressed.is. work.to.or.that.how.to.a.speed.in.of.horsepower.in.expressed.minute..was.

in.in. power.applied.to.horsepower.=.kilowatts.746.States.for. An. 5. If.motors.these.is.34.to. countries.___.in.pounds.power..its.object’s.0.is.United.external.applied.. If.x.force.or.the.traveled.expressed.many.following.units.opposite.force.motors.lb-ft.force. to.is.the..current. motor.an.will.in.remain.end.the.divided.a. 0.in.to.20.are.speed.rest.25.is.kW Kilowatts.speed.in.of.is.kW Review 1 .a.40. power..force.generally.unless.force.kW.distance.(kW).in.65.torque.time.is. 7 .to.law.of.applied.the.is..746.manufactured..=..other.direction. 2.upon..rated.feet.. acted.and.  .in.often.Fortunately.rotating.power. 6.kW.________.converted.________.in.convert.of. easy. ________.HP. 3.HP For.is. the.at..between.rated.or.a.in.an.that. formula. pounds.of. 4.by.object.increase.pounds..horsepower.5.in.elapsed.can.twisting. net.HP.Horsepower and Kilowatts.rated.object.of.in.an.generally.65.equal.=. rated.x. The.are.example.be.with.is.by.x.turning.states.direction.tend.the.in.a..long.of...motor. The.equivalent.the..is.a.called.it.___.pounds. ________.of.25. 2.HP.motor.manufactured.lever. AC.for.state. ________.the.motion.a.but.is.one.force.

the.rotor.laminations.the.work...would.the.result.is.energy.the.motor.and..stator. called.applications.AC Motor Construction Three-phase AC induction motors.parts.The.This.that.enclosure.rotor.metal.do..stator.used.and.used.type..has.of.used.stator. industrial.stator.The.main.reduce.of.part. Stator Lamination 2 .thin.of.sheets.is.stationary.... rotor.electromagnetic.if.three.core.to.and. Enclosure Stator Rotor Stator Core The..stator.made.many.up.a.were.protects.in.commonly.motor’s. circuit.the. and.are.are.core.Laminations. loses.solid.enclosure.

source.of.the.are..the.of.behind.is. coils..becomes. the. Stator Windings Partially Completed When.surrounds.into. are. cylinder..laminations.insulated.Coils.stator.Each.directly.the.in.are..hollow.when.stacked.connected.current.together.it.a.core..motor.principle.the. Stator..assembled.motor. stator.operation.to.forming..the. electromagnet.Electromagnetism.steel.core.slots.power.grouping.is.applied.wire.basic.inserted.with.together..Stator Windings. Stator Windings Completed 3 .operation.is.an.of.windings.

steel..some.discussed.is.spaced.The.is..cages.with.the..die cast copper rotor conductors.because.a.mechanically.These.Other. induction.rotor.in.is.the.end.bars.are..three-phase.a. Most.construction.a.motors.connected.cage.of..rotor.coils.is.most.slots.form.the.conductor.pressed.bars.then.NEMA Premium efficiency standards. Rotor A. onto..part.and.found..rotor.made. Rotor Lamination Rather.a.to.later. rotor.is.motor.shaft.assembly.with. circuit.as..than..the.is.made. are.Rotor Construction.the.aluminum.conductors.by..also.form. After. form.a. Steel Laminations Shaft Conductor Bar End Ring Cutaway View of Rotor 4 .by.wheels.motor.rotor. electrically.to.its.electromagnetic.motor’s.of.evenly.exceed.pet..course.wire.common.stacking.types.squirrel.of.squirrel cage rotor.The.die.rings.casting.squirrel.the. rotating.is.cylinder.the.rotors.steel.The.exercise.rotor.die..cast.cage.so.called.using.conductor bars. laminations.used.makes.cage.reminiscent.cylinder. The.rotating.around.conductor.into.to.rotor.of.rotor.of. construction.in.core.die.squirrel.type.casting.thin.in.Siemens.are.

a.rotor. The.use.bearing.the..rotor.environmental.stator. brackets.and. illustration.enclosure.when.frame.protects.the.mounted.turn.stator. water.the.the..the.elements.in.to.the.the.on.physical.the.the.also.is.type.depends.the.separating.two. the.other.with.on.enclosure.rotor.is.in..and.housings).motor.(or.this.mounted.and.between.and.direct.of..(or. Air Gap Rotor Frame Stator Partially Assembled Motor The. types.later.fits.one.enclosure.rotor.to.. the.from.following.a..rotating.yoke). connection.upon.course.Some...There.stator.are.inside.shaft. it.slight..parts.of.is.Enclosure.shaft.of.shaft. protection.consists.end.The.Enclosure. Bearings.shown.no.a...stator.frame..inside.it.motor.the..The. End Bracket (Bearing Housing) Stator Cooling Fan Bearing Rotor End Bracket (Bearing Housing) Bearing Frame (Yoke) Cutaway View of Motor 5 .the.from.The. gap.of.degree..allow.fan.cool.air.support.discussed..internal.the.motors.mounted.like.

rotating. The. The.the. electromagnetic. .the.of.stationary.in.circuit.rotor.AC. . Identify.motor..________.illustration: A.________ B. The.elements.________.an. The.protects.is. 6 . used.of.________ 2. 5.most.environmental.parts.other.motors.of.part.Review 2 . .rotor.is...the..an.and..motor’s. from.of.________. .following.three-phase.AC.components.part.________. motor.the.the.AC.electrical.from. 3..common.the.type.. 4.internal.________ C.the.is..water.

on.lines of flux...of.in.begin.exit.lines.that.through.fields..effects.they.the.an.and.magnets.Magnetism The.is.fact.are.Although.these.arrange...steel.understand..in.the.the.the..have.a.characteristics.when..that.magnets.and.way.visible.all.flux.order.you.the.magnetic.lines. motors.principles.the.other.along. pole..the.paper.made.two.iron.be..force.attract.an.is.or. sheet.by..illustrated.and.filings.invisible.magnet..placed.south.Therefore..of.field. magnetic.lines. magnet.with.paper.filings.steel.iron. itself.has.They.return..role.AC. magnetic.important.later.interact.the.must.a.motor.objects. iron. The.are.and.pole.understand. operation.with..attracts.north.can.field. This.Earth’s.magnets.run.with. the.of.of.aligns.to.over.play.needle.flux. To..a.of.continuous..example.loosely.of.compass.an.For.themselves.object.the. scattered.magnetism.invisible.called.through. Iron Filings on Paper Magnet Magnetic Lines of Flux 7 . S N Magnetic Lines of Flux.

of.use. The.AC.between.affect.For.unlike poles attract.the..of.and.and..within.of.the.and.. magnets.summary.of.the...the.but.each..poles.fields.Unlike Poles Attract.of.when.combine..  .AC.are.the.push.repelling.other.brought.are. electromagnetism.action.pull.two. However.polarities.like poles repel.example.opposite. flux.brought.poles.interaction.is.when.like.fields.magnets..magnets.attracting.to.of.operation. apart.flux.of.In.magnets.. essential. range.other. The.of.their.lines.each.motors.motors.the.lines.together.magnetic.range.of. magnets.within. Like Poles Repel.the.magnetic.two.

conductor.conductor.of.current.thumb.the.by.the.direction.and.electrons.the relationship.Electromagnetism When.the.magnetic.conductor.of. direction.left.flow.the.field.lines.the. of.electron.produces.it.point.the.magnetic.the.fingers.current.left-hand rule for conductors.currentcarrying.of.in.The.direction.current. The.created. pointing.strength.flow.with.is..a.grasped.the.in.this. magnetic.field.a. 9 .to.flows...of.the.a.through.flux.field..the.. magnetic.between.proportional.amount.with.demonstrates.is.around.the.hand.of.the.of.If. Current produces a magnetic field An increased current produces a stronger magnetic field Left-Hand Rule for Conductors.

by.by. An.produced.the.an.reverses.level.coil.direction..more. current.for.illustration.the..same.the. number.of.of.flux.into. conductor.of.the.flux.wound.shows.from.has. a.larger.further.magnetic.viewer.turns.flow.core.the.The.sign).the.indicated.The.magnetic.air.can.of.for.the. magnetic.flow.flow.stronger.conductor. Iron Core DC Voltage Number of Turns.the.clockwise.This.the.conducts.applying.lines.the.and.conductor..the.the.as.produce.coil. Air Core DC Voltage Adding an Iron Core.the.of.indicated.voltage.a.through.plus.a.formed.magnetic.be.the.by. is. 20 .following.that..increasing.in.towards.The.greater.coil.a.electromagnet.same. lines.winding..DC.the.an.away.direction.the.by.by.than.to.electron. Electron Flow Away From You Causes Counterclockwise Magnetic Flux Electron Flow Towards You Causes Clockwise Magnetic Flux Electromagnet.field.around.in..the.lines.of.of.counterclockwise... The.flux. stronger.air.of.When.field.stronger.conductor.the.simple..the..by.current.(as. the.the.and.electromagnet. is.electron.. flow.turns. Iron.be.around.is.made.easily.is.flow.level.current. electromagnet..dot).magnetic.a. and.core.The.when.field.a.in.iron core.strength.an.flux.is.When.combine.of.current.known.created.increased.flow.can.field..(as.number.viewer. insulated.a.center.

there.an.no..the.AC.is..around.peak.Note.no.value.the. changes. produced.direction.of.the.changes.electromagnet.and.positive.a.through.is. source.time.This. collapse..is.AC. characteristics.time.connected. S S N 3 N 1 10 2 4 N 5 S N 6 7 N 8 N S S S At.when..a.and.is. the.of.frequency.in.current.the. and..and.as.on.at.field.. pole.a.changes.including.However.electromagnet.of. demonstrated.has.its.the.3...current. that.At.strength.At.the.DC Voltage DC Voltage 5 Turns 10 Turns Changing Polarity.direction.following.is..a.magnetic.the.at..north.flow.pole. The.south.an.the.flowing.2.an.field.magnetic.is.pole.time.field. bottom.on.the.the.and.flow..magnetic. the. The.also..of.the..positive.the.electromagnet.magnetic.source.top..field....up.At.same.flow.builds.decreases.electromagnetic..flow..to.and.the.polarity.the.natural.polarity.current.illustration.is.in.4.has.to.of.electromagnet.electromagnet.of. 2 .current.magnet.field..south.peaked.current.begins. time.north.

changing.directly..reached.Hz.magnetic.supply.electromagnet.is.At.be.shows.both.the.coil.zero.. a. produced.9.conductor.through.circuits.time.3.lines.a.circuit.current.and.this.flux.moving.in.field.magnetic.by.field.magnetic.during.field.up.and.flow.no.is.its. physical.2.connected.voltage. through.flow.continues.At.magnetic.is.source.placed.is.on.induction.of.bottom.time.second.time.circuit.to.current.is.. pole.process.builds.from.previous. Ammeter Ammeter Ammeter Time 1 Time 2 Time 3 This.at..AC..separate.top..in.its..encounters.collapses.on.connection..negative.in.time.field.can.illustration.60.across.to.peak.the.The.an.polarity..is..repeats.the.This. same.the.current..build.the.bottom.the. AC.south.60.magnetic.no.it.a.electromagnet.previous. polarity. conductor.each.and..As. 22 .is. AC.an.to.principle.illustration.half.At..both.5.in.the.and.coil.stationary.two. has...field.At..supply..increasing.cycle.another.in.electromagnet.However. each..there.For.the.from.the.a.critical.power.around..electromagnet.expands. the.through.time.top.voltage. ammeter.when.Note.a.across.field.electromagnetic..caused.it. increasing.is.the.. a.no. In.a.north.reverses.electrical.induce.magnetic. are.a.times..and. Induced Voltage.quarter. circuits.operation. In.and.up.field..connected.the.cycle.current.that.pole.circuits.the.examples.and. first.As.is.times.waveform.of.time.now.is.effect.a.of.voltage.to.merely.and. direction.current.6.the..example.flowing.of.bottom.causes.in..magnetic.motors..cycle.the.electromagnet.the.This.7.are.changed.The.of.negative.was.between.a.flux..zero.half.current..to..in..induced.and.AC.The.returning.Another.above.in.half.across.voltage.power.the.has.of...This..electromagnet.. the.is.one.to.following. the. second.the. cut.At.the.power.the.

illustration.opposite.each..it..the.for.a. Add...and.magnets.Electromagnetic Attraction. field..enter..electromagnet.other? .strength.will..of.enough. All.flux.the. Which. each. 2.current. 3.following.an..other.electromagnets. .be. 4.flowing.bottom.conductor.Because.following. Original Position New Position Review 3 . electromagnet.induced. magnet.the.strong.will.pole.an.magnetic.is.the.in.up.move.will.of.turns.electromagnet? .of.has.increase.the.coil .flow .pulled._______..attract.top.the.If._______.the.would.magnetic.each.leave. Note. attract.number.of.electromagnet.opposite.of..the.is.field. current.Increase.were.attract.electromagnet.whenever.polarity..other.that.produced.along.with. Magnetic. magnetic.around.it.the.the.the.the. 23 .when.possible. A..the.the.iron.and.lines.repel.field.to. the.which. .the.two.core.through.coil C. Increase._______. flux..in. In.of.in... .bottom. D.pole.a.built.magnetic.was..and.is. top.above .it.which. A..the.a.to.the.polarity.the.field.poles.. B.magnets.of.the.however.

.In..each..when.six..hollow.principles..is.the..windings.AC.of.such.three.wound.the.for. Iron Core A1 B2 Motor Windings N C2 C1 S A2 B1 24 ..reverse.an. way.the.words.configuration.reverses.when.Recall.AC.is.a.two.polarities.around.is.for.of.of.When..electromagnet.A.pole.phase.becomes.other.coils.other.of.current.two.material. Stator Coil Arrangement.are.the.a.magnet.The.the.pole.a.ends.winding.stator.windings.are.north.example.windings..of.explain.. each.the..in.shaft. In.of.current.as.is.a.are.an. the.Developing a Rotating Magnetic Field The. winding.rotation.for. stator. each.A2.wound.south.a..applied.insulated.in.is. and.electrical..electromagnetism.north.diagram.wire. an.one.the.core.direction.current.one.. pole.also.of.that.are.following.the.south.the.flowing.motor.of.when.. cylinder.stator..the.this.inserted..opposite.operating.each.coils.coils.motor. The.phases.and.soft.pole.used.of.the. iron.is.For.a.that.phase.is.example.with.windings.shows.which.

A.illustration.supply.phase.phase.When.called.windings.connected. to.and. and.will.B.to.also. electrical.two-pole stator.are.of.be..has..shows.be..are.winding.A2.connected.B2.each.illustration.A..three-phase.is.Because.source.will.stator.C2..AC.B.and.each..between.coils.phase.is.corresponds.and.C.C.20°. To Phase A Phase A Phase B Phase C A1 B2 N C2 + 0 C1 S A2 B1 To Phase A As. completed. following.connections.connected.poles.This.two.to.that.. A1 B2 C2 C1 A2 B1 2-Pole Stator Winding 25 .connected.Note.a..the.shows.power.to.and..a. The.Stator Power Source..following.to..A2.are. apart.apart.A..phase.the.the.phase.C2.power..B.windings.B2. 20°.separation.The. this.20°.the..and.C.

in.phase.is.south. coils.how.Phase.following.and.flow.flow.pole.flow.no.time.A.illustration.its.chart..nearest.magnetic.direction.that.the.of.enter.direction.B.chart.has.or.as.the.each.poles.vector.This.and.C.south.are..C. Magnetic.field. indicated.field. in.a.advanced.Magnetic.phase.no.magnetic..B2.direction.has.following. nearest.and.you.field.depends.flow.stator.in.to.voltage.and.the.A.magnetic.as.pole.coils..current.also.of.the.no.the. leave.current.current.C2.the.the.the.of. negative. The.has. poles.in.in.been.set.flow.are.B.start.to.magnetic.north.shows.current.at.sum. explanation..current.read..leave..phase.associated.a.developed.no.flow.and.rotating.Phase.assumes. 26 .positive.A.B2..north.of.C.developed.on.the.time.C.Note.direction.The.B.current..has.lines.is.current.C2.selected.north...magnetic.B.results.following.positive.Refer.has. chart. A1 B2 N N A2 S C2 Resultant Magnetic Field C1 S B1 Magnetic Lines of Flux Current Flow in the Positive Direction C A Current Flow at Zero B Start Current Flow in the Negative Direction Time 1.the.applied.progress.magnetic. and.the.C.the..B.phase. Start. during.pole.arrow..When.field.by. direction.the.phase.that.chart.a.field.the..of.a.60°. developed.has.the.south.enter.current.the.has.in.pole. windings. of..in.of.a.and.north. In..previous. phase.which.Based.and.flow.is.positive..the.in.have.C2.is.and.the.pole.fields.negative. vector.lines.the..on.AC.the.and.has.flow.flux.flux.C.

are.windings.poles.has.A.magnetic.windings..flow.B2..vector.phase.current.A.is.B.and.field.flowing..negative.north.resultant.no. poles.The.another..direction.has.time.direction.no.phase.now.chart.field.flowing.. B2.2.vector.60°. magnetic.in.and.and.The.C.. the.shows.have.is.and.Current.clockwise. rotated.and.As. the.previous.are.but.B.south. At.phase.current. A1 B2 N N A2 S C2 S B1 C1 B2 N C1 A1 N S S A2 C2 B1 60o C Current Flow in the Positive Direction A 60o B Start 1 Current Flow in the Negative Direction Current Flow at Zero Time 2.A2.in.windings.direction.field.the.rotated.in.60°.B.positive.the.in.has.resultant.magnetic. A1 B2 N A2 B2 N C1 S C2 S B1 A1 N S S A2 B2 S A1 N N C2 B1 C1 C1 S A2 o C2 60 B1 C Current Flow in the Positive Direction A 60o B 120 Start 1 o Current Flow at Zero Current Flow in the Negative Direction 2 27 .

.of.will.at.by.such.of.RPM.a.the.end.magnetic.speed.or..rotated.speed..60.speed.one.frequency (F). 60.the.of.rotating.operated.synchronous.is.Hz.field.a.different.Synchronous.a.for..repeats.is.second.source.numbers.360°. Synchronous..several.as.six.This.power.number.divided.number of motor poles (P)..following.The.at. Synchronous Speed. At.speed.of. for.the.the.Hz.referred.poles.table.synchronous.20.revolution.time.decreases.is.the.Hz.to.as.process..the.for.shows.magnetic.the. increases.full.the.. synchronous speed (NS). times.60.3600.speed.intervals.pole..motor.60.360° Rotation. The. The.the. 2 .two-pole.times.motor.for.to. equal. have.example.field.

rotors.rotor.the. motors. The.synchronous..magnetic.south.cuts.electromagnet. windings.When..see.of.shaft.of.rotor.south.following. Magnetic Field of Coil A1 A1 Stator B2 C2 Rotor Rotor Conductor Bar C1 B1 A2 29 .the..of.. Instead.magnetic.a.Rotor Rotation Permanent Magnet. is.rotates..in.a.nearest..rotor.of.winding.own.illustration.the.squirrel.it.synchronous. Induced Voltage.when..rotor.field.induces.use.rotating.with.energized.term.pole.magnetic.rotating. the.magnetic.substituted.the.stator.As.The.on.cage..for.magnet.field..creating.magnet.field.field.AC.synchronized.shows. As.induction motor.its.the.with.is.a.magnet.the.the..a.are.speed. Electromagnet.pole.rotor.permanent.magnetic.synchronous.the.a.a.a.rotating.magnetic.created.permanent. the.attracts.magnetic.in.interacts.along.electromagnetic. To.of.magnet.mounted..across.the. the.that.current.rotation.field.are.same.as. be.field.permanent. for.magnet.the.of.a.that.the.rotor.stator.an.. the.magnet.squirrel.motors.a. north..the.motor’s.means.field.current.the.magnet.north.speed.attracts.the.pole.its.stator.pole.flowing.is..pulls..the.The.bars.can.and.that.as.referred.. and.rotor’s.the. a.is.has.magnet.to. rotating..how.cage.field.the.established.works.

its.the.bar.and.the.to.rotor.illustration.to.When.towards.rotate.following.and.not.windings.a. A1 B2 C2 C1 B1 A2 30 .bar.for.south.in..bars.causes.field.causes.becomes. windings.changes.voltage..an. the.an.produces.a.the..fields.motor.flows.voltage.against.point..an. field.is.ring.attraction.any.time.bar.an..rotor.around.stator..expanding. exactly.north.of..rotor.through.rotor.stator.to.various.as.a.synchronous. The.The.the.pole.winding.conductor.connected.south. rotor. This.each.a.cuts.magnetic.rotor. Because. the.given.field.but.electromagnet.current.in.This.current.rotate.and..motor’s.in.rotor.passes.(emf).with.induced.flow.causes.magnetic.bar.poles. resultant.the..the.is.conductor.. At.voltage.produces.forces.north.in.repulsion. and.continuously.the.flow. magnetic.at.the. a.are.instant.a.one. around.such..a.through.speed.shows.the.squirrel.pole.rotor..AC.a.end.current.current.rotor..field.the.exerting.The.source.conductor.the...induced.inducing. alternating. a.strength.the.and..in.In.bars..adjacent.cage.is.increasing.are.across.rotor. The.cage.A.squirrel.when.induced.the.winding.bars.and.A.

.consist.on.its.rotor..the.flow. A..is. instead.magnetic..current.the...to.dependent.the.at.a.to.bars.point.of.external.motor.wound.rotor.current.in.difference.the..The.motor.much.between.windings.rotor. necessary.difference.rings. amount.of.to.An.rotor.major..slip.been.rotating.then.the. For.Slip.load..and.a.less.motor.cage.the.rotating.to.a.rotor.also.the.speed.to. increase.the.765.load.current.the.rotate.RPM.following.conductors.running..slip..current. rotor.produce.Slip.variable.is.motor..more.be. resistance.the.windings.the.large.slow.wound.first.in.three-phase.to.can.has.the..through.faster. Wound Rotor Brush Slip Ring External Variable Resistors 3 .rotor.field.rotor.has.type.has..the.decreasing.to.a.example.slip. at.causes.Slip.four-pole.get.A.with...the.full.maximum.is.These.flow.. in.Hz.rotating.formula. % Slip = NS .of.smaller.this. stopped.coils.speed.rotor.coils.rotor.NR NS x 100 For.rotor.is.Increasing.rotor speed (NR).wound rotor motor. Wound Rotor Motor.up.resistors.are.rotor.to.the.slip..the.power.causes.in.been.three-phase.to.load.Another.speed.induce.must.of.and.load.causes.speed.the.motor.to.decreasing.magnetic.rotor.of.This.rotor.is. is.speed. and..the.motor.squirrel.the.in.speed.a.applied. speed.operated.expressed.60. induction..is.long.the. using..speed.increasing.cage.induction.Slip.centered.and.called.at.to..is.AC.RPM.synchronous.Decreasing. common.in.the.of.. field.is. slip. operating.load.of.connected.increasing. that.squirrel.than.percentage.magnetic.is.00. After.its.decrease.enough.If.in. resistance.down.difference.of. synchronous speed (NS).discussion..When.is.is.its..wound.windings..up.rotor.9%.the.rotor.torque.this.the.on.induced.a. between.calculated. field.causes. The.as.more..the.difference.and.the.full.induces.brushes.voltage.

DC. Another.the. in.to.an.like.a.is.coil..motor.rotor..bars.magnetize.synchronous motor..cage.One..the.three-phase.motor.rotating.not.synchronous.rotor.motor.does. When.which.is.is. accelerated.produces.power.AC.magnet.magnetic.the.to.motor.rotor.constant.squirrel.motor.is.motor.after..external.windings.are.source.stator.need.is. Rotor Bar Brush Coil External DC Power Supply Slip Ring As.the.the.synchronous.this.. also.This.The.constructed.an.speed.the.a.like.is.This.why. DC.rotor.slip.motors.rotor.The. magnetic.synchronous.synchronous.coil.to.rings.addition..by.has.previously.the.Synchronous Motor.windings.DC.not...is.is..to.AC.cage.synchronous.The.are..the.motor.the.a.. power.with.of.supply.strong.power.synchronous.a..mentioned. squirrel.use.somewhat.turns.of. and.induction.field.type.the.motor.rotor.therefore. which.of.step.and..a.power.field.applied.applied.rotor.at.motor.in.some.locks.In. permanent.type..to. 32 .started.connected.rotor.used.starts.coils.rotor.a.brushes. type.

is.magnetic. as.is.pole.in...pole. The.A.synchronous._______%.speed. The.motor. The.turning.RPM.called.a.is. .at.2-pole.A2._______. 4.south.motor.winding.motor’s. 2.rotating.a.operating.four-pole.a.is..rotor. The.on.synchronous. 33 .rotor.speed.illustration.AC..winding. and.60.the.speed.. A.of..between.power.Review 4 .speed.motor.to.is.a. _______.speed.the.of..Hz.to.When.is. pole..Slip._______.speed.a._______.60. The. 3.following..applies.field.RPM.3450._______. 5..is.Hz.supply.referred..difference.is. three-phase.

rated.output.the.which.provides.4-pole.in.P .a..V.is..60.is.the.following..standard.at.is. Because.shows.For..If.designed.the. Base Speed (R. necessary.00.rated.horsepower.full-load.nameplate.motor.at..less.how.is..information.the.motor develops.horsepower.at.by.example.amps.in.. information.other.shaft.base.460.indication. has.. supply.Hz.rated. three-phase.PH).full-load current.) and.this.0 50VC03JPP3 Made in Mexico by SIEMENS R US The. 60.RPM.of. 1LA02864SE41 RGZESD 30.0.equipment.0 1765 40oC AMB.be.the.motor.(H. Base.motor.at.AC.slip.speed.three-phase..be.speed.for.(3.are.the. motor.rated.a.of.765.operate.will.base.synchronous.nameplate.load.case.Motor Specifications Nameplate.powered.is.of.of.This.when.proper.operated.motors.frequency.the. Base speed..The.Hz.will.explain.full.an.of..15 460 60 93.speed..M.speed.to.than.greater.to.fast. CONT F B G 50BC03JPP3 HIGH EFFICIENT 286T 1.given.fully.RPM.Its.is.voltage.the.motor..operated. slightly.some.application.loaded.speed.for.9%.important.a..).a.00 35.designed.frequency. Voltage Source (VOLTS) and AC.voltages.the.this.is.the. turn.nameplate.output.a.than.following.the.35.connected. Frequency (HERTZ). 34 .at.This Full-load Current (AMPS).P .motor.of.30.at.of.RPM. motor.and.paragraphs.speed. illustration.a. The..

horsepower.motor.the...the.rating..nameplate.HP. The.expectancy.Service Factor.B.The.is. the.and.at.a.to. air.than.temperature.factor.be.insulation.the. of.the.continuously.5.times.a..have.their. allowed.combination.each.horsepower.operate.at.is.temperature.commonly.than.For.reduced..number.long.defines.been.its.to.temperature.is.F.C.service.will. the.HP .allowed.motor.compensate..started.factor.A.has.class.3300.for.the.also.maximum.that.in..higher.temperature...heat.life.nameplate. Some.of.The.four.at.most.spot.point.service..cut..rises.is.its.factor.higher.maximum. temperature.If.can.the.motor. Ambient temperature.margin..0°. motor.the.factor.has.5%.rated. Service factor.surrounding.of.winding.at..5.ft.H.5.to. enough.ambient..identify.40°.for.ambient.to.C.at.where.the...or.service.an.motors.the.the.insulation...than.allowable temperature rise.class. 35 .is.a.rated.insulation.temperature..service.center.the.operated.are.0.a. higher.for.half.they.for.motor’s.can.motor.All. 34. to.of.mind. above. to.temperature..a.higher.multiplied.motor.Temperature. so. example.a. (04°.factor.of.be..will.winding. horsepower.of.stopped.For.higher.this.determine.of.This.equals.can.Keep.by.the.exceed. classes.before.of.this.that.is.life.assuming.above.a.describe.0.allowed.windings.its..motor.as.windings.operated.used.can.motor. Insulation Class.B.and. NEMA.designed...motor.motor.shows.allowable.allowed.Classes.30.with. motors.handle.F).service.reduced. service..motor.rated.at.motor.horsepower.horsepower. temperature.a.operating.A.Therefore.the.that. temperature.0°.the.the.has.A.the.0.the.four.motors.temperature.are.windings.a.insulation.the.in.operated. which.insulation.be.motor.service...below..illustration.operated.in.the.a..motor. factor.no..motor’s..increase.motor insulation classes.5.add.rise.as.motor.Each.altitudes.operated.horsepower. starting.rise.of.the.life.are.rise.classes.F ..from.in.the.the.at.the.designed.any.soon.C.motor’s.is.following.be.hot.of.the.and.at.can....service. temperature.operating.Therefore.rated.has.a. ability.

the.and.exceed.used.class.for.the.energy.new.next.is.efficiency.subject.of.and.to.AC.motor designs. type.to.applied..EPAct.by. significant.NEMA.characteristics.standards.of.type.among.percentage..class.increasing.Premium. especially.requirements.percentage.Because.efficiency. course.converted.efficiency.nameplate.the.additional.operating.is.5.common.this.is.is.same..service.widely.motor.at.of.into. designs.motors.to.NEMA Premium Efficient motors.also.required. allowance.C.the.when.representative.can.The.letters.in.of.higher.process.200.insulation.energy.energy.discussed. motor.NEMA nominal efficiency.in. of.in.important.motor. Both..full.Siemens.of.the..with.technology.in.is.continuously.motor.AC.the.is.example.of.a.design.importance..the.same.our.meet.motor.for.the..Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct).The.the.0°..AC. allowed. specifies.also.has.on.for.a.is.standards.efficiencies.testing.the. example.on. efficiency.at.based.manufactured. efficiency.AC..High Efficient motors. factor.a.identify.motor’s.NEMA Premium.This.93.(A.after.temperature.design.motor.efficiency.motors.AC.efficiency.and.is.of. motors.motor.mechanical..motors.rise..motor.of.55°.Motor.of.are. design.B.D).for.997 . the.NEMA.specify.means.C.even.a.In.average.facilities.. 36 .motor.large.B..a.least.or.B.percentage.uses.for.industrial.NEMA.standards.rotor.C.and.torque.winding.has.are...characteristics. the.example.account.a.three-phase.spot.F.the..load.motors.nominal.supplied.NEMA.type.most.used.is.efficiency.this. Motor Efficiency.A.and. because..C.this. NEMA. shaft. that.designation.the.of.copper.motors. with.motor.that.number.of..efficiency.than.exceed. vary.voltage.for.this.to. Motor.the..hot.EPAct.the. the..and. EPAct.section.meet.an.D.its.The.the.our.in. Motor efficiency. with.that.the.large.same.The. NEMA Motor Design.established..a.0%.common.rated.

NEMA Motor Characteristics

Standard Motor Designs.

Motors.are.designed.with.speed-torque.characteristics.to. match.the.requirements.of.common.applications..The.four. standard.NEMA.motor.designs,.A,.B,.C,.and.D,.have.different. characteristics..This.section.provides.descriptions.for.each.of. these.motor.designs.with.emphasis.on.NEMA.design.B,.the. most.common.three-phase.AC.induction.motor.design.. Because.motor.torque.varies.with.speed,.the.relationship between.speed.and.torque.is.often.shown.in.a.graph,.called.a. speed-torque.curve..This.curve.shows.the.motor’s.torque,.as. a.percentage.of.full-load.torque,.over.the.motor’s.full.speed. range,.shown.as.a.percentage.of.its.synchronous.speed.. The.following.speed-torque.curve.is.for.a.NEMA B motor.. NEMA.B.motors.are.general.purpose,.single.speed.motors. suited.for.applications.that.require.normal.starting.and.running. torque,.such.as.fans,.pumps,.lightly-loaded.conveyors,.and. machine.tools.

Speed-Torque Curve for. NEMA B Motor.

Using.the.sample.30.HP ,.765.RPM.NEMA.B.motor.discussed. previously,.full-load.torque.can.be.calculated.by.transposing.the. formula.for.horsepower.
HP = Torque (in lb-ft) x Speed (in RPM) 5252 HP x 5252 = 30 x 5252 = 89.3 lb-ft 1765 Speed (in RPM)

Torque (in lb-ft) =

37

Starting Torque.

Starting torque, also.referred.to.as.locked rotor torque,.is. the.torque.that.the.motor.develops.each.time.it.is.started.at. rated.voltage.and.frequency..When.voltage.is.initially.applied.to. the.motor’s.stator,.there.is.an.instant.before.the.rotor.turns..At. this.instant,.a.NEMA.B.motor.develops.a.torque.approximately. equal.to.50%.of.full-load.torque..For.the.30.HP ,.765.RPM. motor.used.in.this.example,.that’s.equal.to.34.0.lb-ft.of.torque..

134.0 lb-ft 89.3 lb-ft

Pull-up Torque.

As.the.motor.picks.up.speed,.torque.decreases.slightly.until point.B.on.the.graph.is.reached..The.torque.available.at.this. point.is.called.pull-up torque..For.a.NEMA.B.motor,.this.is. slightly.lower.than.starting.torque,.but.greater.than.full-load. torque.. As.speed.continues.to.increase.from.point.B.to.point.C,.torque. increases.up.to.a.maximum.value.at.approximately.200%.of. full-load.torque..This.maximum.value.of.torque.is.referred.to.as. breakdown torque..The.30.HP.motor.in.this.example.has.a. breakdown.torque.of.approximately.7.6.lb-ft..
Breakdown Torque

Breakdown Torque.

Starting Torque

178.6 lb-ft 134.0 lb-ft

Pull-up Torque Full-load Torque

89.3 lb-ft

3

Full-Load Torque.

Torque.decreases.rapidly.as.speed.increases.beyond. breakdown.torque.until.it.reaches.full-load torque.at.a. speed.slightly.less.than.00%.of.synchronous.speed..Fullload.torque.is.developed.with.the.motor.operating.at.rated. voltage,.frequency,.and.load..The.motor.in.this.example.has. a.synchronous.speed.of.00.RPM.and.a.full-load.speed.of. 765.RPM..Therefore,.its.slip.is..9%.
Breakdown Torque

Starting Torque

178.6 lb-ft 134.0 lb-ft

Pull-up Torque Full-load Torque

89.3 lb-ft

Slip 1.9%

Speed-torque.curves.are.useful.for.understanding.motor. performance.under.load..The.following.speed-torque.curve. shows.four.load.examples..This.motor.is.appropriately.sized. for.constant.torque.load..and.variable.torque.load...In.each. case,.the.motor.will.accelerate.to.its.rated.speed..With.constant. torque.load.2,.the.motor.does.not.have.sufficient.starting.torque. to.turn.the.rotor..With.variable.torque.load.2,.the.motor.cannot. reach.rated.speed..In.these.last.two.examples,.the.motor.will. most.likely.overheat.until.its.overload.relay.trips.

Constant Torque Load 2

Constant Torque Load 1
a Lo d 2

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39

current..critical.higher. motor.rotor.current.single. Knowledge. The..applied.starting.conveyors.NEMA.that.NEMA.range.and.current.at.Slip.for.the.is.and.speed.as..RPM.of. NEMA C motors.the.full-load.example.is.torque.full-load.with.full-load.NEMA.size.a. motors.have.typically.hard.are.applied.same.design.in.as.Full-load current.to.for.current.to.3.breakdown.supplied.a.A..lb-ft.of.devices.heavilyloaded.of..to.have.current.the.applications.as.the.the.torque.motor.motors.supplied.approximately..of..of.for.speed-torque. starting..are.of.is.typically.in.the..motor.full-load. and.relatively.For.motor.rated.motor.200..rest.protection.when.HP..5.of.these.B.current. overcurrent.B.common..torque. motors.voltage.240%.a.the. 9. current.current..starting. NEMA C Motor.mixers.NEMA.the.motor.frequency.to.the.voltage.with.motors...torque. a.used.C.In.to. Full-Load Current.least. the.high.to.rated..up.loads.to..must.start.torque.for.a.this.as.are.devices.designed.3.starting.handle.similar.C.torque.765.has.NEMA.is.motor.Despite.following.the.600-650%.from.are.a. increased.have.and.of. 40 .for.protection.also.lb-ft.requirements.a.which.speed.locked rotor current.be.typically..a.and.As. with.that.load.Starting Current and.motors. NEMA A Motor NEMA A motors.but.low.crushers.speed.for.application.B.NEMA.HP .about.to.sized.torque.lb-ft.starting. 74.30. same.and. NEMA. 24..the.overcurrent.motor.starting.of.referred.the.is.types.require.curve. Starting current.are.speed-torque..curve.rotor.such.NEMA.of..is the.motors. B.a.result. initially.the.typically.applications..a.full-load.the.A.high.proper..a.a.

D.approximately.NEMA.HP.fullload.a.lb-ft.starting. The.motors.develops. approximately.and.D. with.torque.of.torque..full-load.3.Slip. 266.speed.motor.oil.makes. it. starting.After.This.full.5.very. breakdown.applications.torque.motor’s.as. presses.torque.such.for.NEMA.the.reached.of..and.of..This.motor.from.of.a.torque.pumps.a.is.start.following.RPM.load.decreases.torque.motors.is.full-load..punch.no.until.Breakdown Torque 214.for.ranges.NEMA.torque.to.a..30.speed.656.curve.3 lb-ft NEMA D Motor The. to.starting..lb-ft.true.NEMA design D motor.appropriate.1 lb-ft Slip 8% 4 . 95.torque.3 lb-ft 174 lb-ft 89.for..of.have.D.3%.3 lb-ft 95.20%.well.is.hard.266.

_______ C.Class.service.insulation.NEMA.allowance. 42 .called.torque.speedtorque. A. 3.hot._______.F.of..factor.is.service.5. 4.0.motor..a.be.with..maximum..factor.. The.rise.torque.value.HP.of.a.full-load.a.starting.and.with.NEMA. The._______%.on.is.torque.plus. o has. o _______ C.Review 5.can.spot.of.a. .._______.temperature. A. operated.at.30.motor.HP .B. 2. approximately.curve.a.maximum.a.motor.motor.B.torque.

voltage. the.getting.following.the.when.Derating Factors Several.rated.rated.on.in..shows...motor’s.and. forward.In.hand.for.voltage. has.rise.supply.or.most.startup..its.This.AC.AC.speed.the.by. frequency.applying..previously.an.torque. Voltage Variation.. These.below.it.and..in.Some..starting.connections.currents.motor.factors.motor.20%..one.startup.voltage.the.may.may.voltage.voltage.reduced.small.started..considered. A..causes.starting.motors.for.more.performance.other.dramatic.similar.motor.motor..during.conveyor. 43 .that.on.less.for.increase..0%. rated.motors.A.the.A.the.discussed.torque.the.and.voltage.when.increased.torque.also.have.The.. rated.example.variation.must.starting.affect.for. motor.keeping. changes.voltage.NEMA.increases.running. damage.the. A.table. As.common.of.supply.a.the.at.following.lurch.motor.cause.can.can..ratings.This.performance.load.voltage.chart.0%.may.in.from.example.a...be. voltage.is.affect.variation.prevent.motors. temperature.have.full-load.20%.have.at. the.a.of.

typical.shows.dissipated. to.should. The. is..as.not.motor.a.A.considered.motor.primarily.designed.must.frequency.motor.would.motors. but.motor.insulation.the..example. with.derated.ambient.47..on.are.characteristics.is.6000.in.to.temperature.factor.derating.from.required.speed.in.in.example. The.feet.reduced.requirement.be. increase.each..still.operate..30°C.the.torque.the.frequency.may.variation..5%.also.ambient.be.causes.to. Altitude.require.factors.thinner.at. Most..operates..motors.speed.have.and. HP. changes.a.is.checked.a.feet. 44 .be.temperature.Frequency A.higher. 40°C.at.ambient.motors.Air.causes.may.below.to...in.chart.following.derated.in.feet.providing..may.0%.for.40°C.be.fullload.above.be.3300.torque..above.and.for.6600.3300..not.a.operated.derating.quickly.HP .many.feet.class.which. Ambient Temperature.50.However.and. Standard.rating.A.increase.5%.for.feet.decrease.in.these. conditions.altitudes.derating.heat.3300. The.for..at.horsepower..the.

7 .manufactured.provides.(typically.has.the.easiest.United.are.voltage.motor.is. motor.every.rating.operating.an.is.most.of.affect.AC.drive.will..a. to.the.voltage.current.V/Hz.example.constant.for. torque.than.applications.ratio.approximately.constant.constant.67 a.V/Hz.a.Not...applied.to. .of.a.the.is.of.of.with.constant.Actual.. in.an.motor.characteristics.V/Hz.AC.speed.motor. motor.of.the. to.as.torque..motor...dependent.have.ratio.AC.for.use.motors.460.and.Operating..have.motor’s.motors.This.voltage.230..AC. The.line.flux because..capable.industrial. frequency.AC Motors and AC Drives Many.other. voltage.and.of.7 .67 60 Hz 230 V = 3.use.for.and.frequency. 460 V = 7 V/HZ .operated.operate.produced.an.States..60.both.an. An.rated.60.constant. AC.67.load.VAC.torque...induction.drive.the.the. with.way.at.however. The. 60Hz.running.8 V/Hz 60 Hz Constant Torque Operation.have.frequency. 45 .volts per hertz (V/Hz) ratio.These.volts.constant.with.the.a. Volts per Hertz (V/Hz).a.to.motor.the.AC.said.ratio.speed.is.constant.Hz.ratio..frequency.are.This.vary.motor.constant torque range.Hz)..to.hertz.from.flux.to.Volt.frequency.a. As. motor..Motors.rating..per..common.is.has. 3.torque.ratio.is..AC.motor.A.the.nameplate.0.long.applied.the.is.maintained.require.vary.the.on.upon.vary.rated. flux.a.to.Hz..a.for.frequency.an.applied.

are.referred.hertz.operated.60.following.60. constant.the.voltage.change.reactance.the. speed.Hz..constant.torque.for. nameplate.flux.base.per.operated.Hz.volts.corresponding.the.order..60.motor. Some..range.a.above.decreases.that.applied.the.the.applied.Keep.hertz..60.in.460.as.Hz.in.ratio. torque.voltage.increase.increases.horsepower.This.compensated.torque.speed.as..must..per...to.exceed.In. is.illustrate.rated.Because.torque.decrease.the. speed... change.motor.and.by.the. of.motor.torque. 46 .in..230.volt.not.stator. frequency.ranges.is. hertz.current.if. Constant Horsepower.constant..volt.mind.graphs.Otherwise.. compensate.require.and.both.Hz.the.volts.up.. over.stator.increases.to.maintained.in.per.drive.to.the.opposite.decrease.is.The.volts.and.proportionally.be..increases.the.torque.this.applications.Above. torque.would.must.with.the.ratio.decreases.constant.motor.simultaneously.constant horsepower range.any.and.operated. power in HP = Torque in lb-ft x Speed in RPM 5252 If.because.a...in.constant.a.. voltage.to.

but.motor.speed.minimize..right.This..AC.higher.motor.it develops. A.for.starts.than.and.may. the.by.damage.drive.motor.following.50%.the. starting.drives.is.run..the.AC..and.The.an..starting. 47 ..NEMA. speed-torque..identical.undesirable. application.drives.the.may..combination. Some.sophisticated.start.spikes.full.approximately.brought.use.by. heating.for.often.selecting.current. Frequency Starting.drive.torque.a.times. Recall.curve.selfcooled.and.must..as.more.speeds.voltage.have.designed.the.that.it.increased.AC.the. are.50%.the.motor. starting.than.drives.sufficient.is.require.motor.may.For.and.dotted.capability.are.current..torque.speed.torque.AC.50%.and.air.portion.be.started.of.desired.rated.B. Harmonics.motor.to.an.have..not.drives.to..an..to.is.frequency.of.before.the.capability.full.frequency.approximately.shifting. can.This.the.not.at...at..when.motor.the.for.at.drive/motor. As.the.motors.at.an.voltage.applications.In.and.curve.the. be.suitable. example.to.selecting.has.voltage.other.when.to.voltage. increased.addition.with.accelerates.are.too.than. Selecting a Motor.conveyor.started.curve.starting. used.components.this.controlled.higher..voltage.drive.require.the.is.and...rise..The.motor..AC.example.is. AC. sized.appropriately.to.motor.the. the.drive.to.and.Each.When.motor.can.evaluated.effect.more.frequency.are.develop. filters.run.on.be.drive.gradually.must.its.flow.motor’s.of..up.load. for.torque.only.frequencies.if.speedtorque.200%.according.on.possible.the.lines.represent.and.Some.600%. smoothly.own.50%.insulation.and.voltage.low..reduced.of.Reduced Voltage and.Drives.for. considered..

(long.or.the.AC.by.(460.types. in.metal.the.the.caused.the.Some.in.have.service.with.longer. Service Factor on AC Drives.charging.higher.drive.shielded...used.is..motor.potentially.can.VAC)..is.cable. associated.motor.drives.line-to-line. life..and.of.motor..in.drive.current. Distance.heat.Voltage.cables.0.an..All..the.Due.greater.the.AC. A.to.cable.capacitance.because.the.an.must.drive.with.cables.from.taken.the.AC.long.reduced.and.lengths.also.to.drive.capacitance.result.factor.voltage.with.to.line-toground.when.cable.5..harmonics.shorten.have. Drive and the Motor.efficiency.the.of. capacitance.service.current. spikes.cables).be.and.the.cable.. 4 .AC.spikes.Spikes.high.the..a. on.output.greater....motor.5.. recommended.capacitance.of. factor.Distance Between the.higher.into consideration.of. cables. capacitance.conduit.occur.Higher..as.such.The.of.

NEMA.the.to.the.like.one.characteristics.one.table.of.with..publication.the.compare.the.. Load Characteristics Tables.Matching Motors to the Load One. typical.curve.torque. requirements.the. torque.of. A. motor. 49 .used.to.shown.capabilities.torque.find.below.is..requirements.to.of.torque.evaluate.load.motor’s.can.whether.is.load.load..way.a.be.characteristics.of.meet.speed-torque.speed-torque.the.MG.source. the.

equal.of.can.at. Motor 600 lb-ft Centrifugal Pump 120 lb-ft 50 .pump.measured.a..can.load...amount.the.given.the.motor.the.the.of.of.pulley.a.spring.the.of.by.example.the...following.dips.and.comes.fastened.and.full-load..how.the.shaft.cord. a.600.it.motor.a.note.illustrates.the.increases.load.the.of.a.only. torque.radius.starting. of..20%.condition..its.However.torque.shaft. torque.from. produced.turn.this.that..way. the.example.approximately.shows.just.vary.to.the..a.pulley.slightly..least.and.a.load.connected.required. torque.the.curve. the.lb-ft.characteristics.obtain.run.of.any.to. required.probably. radius.in.The.procedure.on.will.by.pulley.always.example.as. is.torque.speed-torque.is.The. The.then.sufficient.is.stall. determined.cannot..accelerate.the. to.This.end.load.if.Calculating Load Torque.on.the.on.be.turns.the.start.the.the.or.of.remove.the.the.torque.full-load.load. In..0..scale.with.that.0.by. At.is.is.load. overloaded.is. Force Scale Torque = Force x Radius us di Ra For. variable torque load.pulley.force..cause.is.following.scale.Then.the.from.required..to. the.centrifugal...force.needs.requires.the.the.speed.the.shaft.equipment.and. Centrifugal Pump. torque.illustration.If.fail.following.the.is.shaft.power.torque.the.the.from.in.the.requirement.to.speed..the.center.to.to.to.pump... one.to.scale. devices.torque.most.the. with.trip.source.around.pounds.required.the.lb-ft.begins.reading.to..torque.as..until.an.A.Pull..torque.to.load. the.accurate.wrapped.calculate.up..required.start.mind.Remember.value.point.radius.The.of.pump.a.This.must.to.will.of.amount. multiply.turn.protective.produce.foot.torque.shaft.an.Keep.to..torque.motor.turn.force.manufacturer.full-load.This.either. required..

not..a.sufficient. NEMA.a.torque.does.horsepower. Screw Down Actuator.example.of.the. that. horsepower.has.The.solution.less.be.A.NEMA.is.a.NEMA.the.motor.motor.starting.down.a.torque.motor. matched.use.rated..load.motor.that.to.for.Note.same.words.might.rating.chosen. NEMA. In.to.B.other.to.solution.accelerate.B..example.use.the.this.for.is.full-load.the.the.start.sufficient.this. 5 .to.B.in.selected.higher.problem.is.to. provide.. with.a.load.this..load.torque.the. to.following..example.expensive.which.200%.equal.is.torque.the.load.higher.motor.screw.In.motor.to.D.to.actuator. One.starting.has.speed.torque.

 .a...drive.is.is.Review 6 .force.to...volts.3 . . _______.radius.attached.ratio..speed.in.HP .Load.required.volts-per-hertz.turn. An.lb-ft. and.pulley.AC..derated.matched.2.be. _______.is.the.to.Load. Which.of.Load.table.the.the.4 Motor Load 4 Load 3 ad Lo 2 d1 Loa 52 . 3.start. HP..motor.motor.of..200..60. If..460. B.required.mode. _______..in.the.above.is. base.illustration.hertz.is.the. C.when..shaft.amount.the.the.range.it.2 .a. properly.constant.in.the.is.V/Hz.Load.would.to.the.derating.feet. 4.is.per.of.Hz.of..at. A. 2.motor’s.a. the. _______.provided.motor.Volt.5500.earlier.operating. D.loads.load.to.torque. According. The.to. 5.to.a.operated.following.pounds.shaft.the.load.feet..20.

in.falling.the.as.air..depends.to.motor.type..when.motor.enclosure.and.5°.totally.enclosure.be.of.internal. blades.on.enclosure.may.needed.the.the..a.used.enclosures:.cooling.motor.type.mounted.up.environments.The.through.enclosure.should.cover.a.mounted. ODP.type. a.holds.of.In..flow. enter...the.and.that.motor.of.also.vertical.. contaminates.is.components.that.Fan.be. open.a.two.are.is. on.from.vents. moisture.enclosed.is.enclosures.so.motor.only.are.categories.addition.enclosure. together.liquids..vertical.wall.horizontal.the.air.when.protection.When.rotor.not.panel.on. Open.rotor.cooling.of.from..motor’s.special.above.through.turning.has.and.containments.such.vents.the.free. the.the.motors.interior.the.flow..the.motor’s.The.air. Vent 53 .angles.the.surface.from.. solids.move.is.of.cannot.. Enclosure. the.protects.at.This.enclosures.allow.to.it.open drip proof (ODP) enclosure.positioned.Motor Enclosures A. Open Drip Proof (ODP).components.There..for.the.from.open.affects. One.permit.or.degree. surface.to.the.attached.

a.motors.which. prevent. airtight.environments. dirty.is.ventilating.fan. motor.are. matter. A.have.totally enclosed fan-cooled (TEFC) motor. In.is.is.Totally Enclosed . through..the.motors. by.TENV. exterior...surrounding.limits. Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled.an.larger.However.enclosure.used.motor.the.or.are.dissipate.that.the.motors.is.covered.passes.elements.into.from.. enclosure.an.contains corrosive.can.the.to.motor.can.damage.the.indoors.from.fan.motor.over....blows.external. TENV.point..fan.the.along.These.TENV.used.heat..conduction.can.The.but.the. quickly.the.absence.a.has..air.totally enclosed non-ventilated (TENV).outdoors.fractional.corrosive..harmful.of..shaft.ribbed.heavily.not.motor.TEFC.openings.a (TEFC) Enclosure. Non-Ventilated (TENV).it.mounted.touching.or.heat...the.motor.water.enclosure.A.and.horsepower.in..to.air.at.applications.shaft.be.for..seal.motor.cooling.entering.opposite.be.dissipate.all.through.the.the.the.to.applications.but.TENV..dust. drive.flow.. from. The.of. Most.the.of..the.some.TENV.similar.must.inside.mildly.However.or.horsepower.moist.by.the.motor’s.integral. horsepower.anyone.motors.The.where.used.motor.housing..of.more.for.motors.foreign.internal parts. Enclosure. Cooling Fan 54 .that.air.the.means.end.prevents.other.additional.shroud.help.a.special.

and..Refer.group..standards.cast.foundry.it.similar....are. This.is.groups.TEFC.iron..dust. chemical.have..for. most.to.the.such.hazardous. Classes I Groups A-D Gas or Vapor Examples: Gasoline Acetone Hydrogen Class II Groups E-G Flammable Dust Examples: Coke Dust Grain Dust Class III Flammable Lint or Fibers Examples: Textiles Saw Dust Division I and II Locations.regulatory.have.further.and.present.the.fibers.information.conditions.to.In.these.defined. Locations.For.life.machines.all.define.use. in.is.hazardous.motors.are. have.abnormal. An.dust....industries.and.have.normally.States.. National Electrical Code®..with.for.or.example.motors.and.duty.to.XP.additional.protection.hazardous.to.should.lints.into.the user’s responsibility.involves.often.in.codes.to.a.locations. Hazardous (Classified).locations.as.contact.however.gases.appearance..motor..found.commonly..flammable.by.and.to.standards.various.hazardous.agencies.Explosion Proof (XP) Hazardous.class.Division II locations. environment.management.This.Underwriters..in.the. Groups A through D. waste.of.as. and G.comply.to. Division I locations.set.United.and. agencies.class.have.explosion proof (XP) motors. 55 ..not.with.or.XP.are.the. applications.of. Laboratories.present.enclosures.pulp.atmosphere.is.requires.by.grain.National Electrical Code®Article.local. Groups E.vapors. Locations.motor.defined.under. safety.applications.processing.hazardous.applicable.. divided.is.the.and.in.never specify or suggest the type of hazardous location classification. comply.atmosphere.coke.Class I.500.mining..the.the. material.of. F. application.of.petrochemical.ignitable.hazard.subject.strictest...in.Class III.present. You.the.In.. Classes and Groups.the..regulatory.materials.Class II.may.and.paper.

motors. the.data.letter.and.mounting.in.the.to. designation.motor.the.NEMA.categories.E.the.to.that. because.bolt.horsepower.In.current.standard.range..size.Mounting NEMA Dimensions..in.most..dimensions.above.are.dimensions.motor.between.desired.the.the. mounting.divides.referring.center.to.known...size. common.Use.length.43.size.standards.addition.the.shaft.distance.standards.motor.a.are..the.include.and.an. NEMA.the.the. Standardized.Motors.length..dimension.the.to. arrangement.are.of.and.horsepower.height.without.letters.from.of..motor.For.design.for.existing.example. NEMA.letter. center..integral.built.for. by. by.indicate..diameter. shaft..U.in.are.964.is.to.frame.relationship.are. 56 . fractional.found..find.allows. that.be.fractional horsepower motors.integral.in.and.to...place..of.table.frame.into.in..their.the.The.easier. 42..the.dimensions.shaft.the.the. frame.installations.base.Integral horsepower motors.reworking.to.mounting.standardized motor dimensions.a.the.designation.to.motor..referencing.A.indicates.dimensions.feet.that.overall. C.sizes.include.Standardized.4.sizes.motor.frame.standardized..Dimensions. NEMA.the.sizes. dimension’s.the.a.dimensions.replaced.horsepower.hole.952.frame.sheet.frame.are.56.shaft.designated.built. represents. the..and.and.have.of.letter.to.of..new.and.T.two.were.motor.indicates.holes.frame.sizes.for.has.

height.the.43T.is.the.of.distance.frame. mounting. divide.shaft.lines.with.between.for. 43T.mounting.digits.the.of.a.the.example.of.The.designation.to. matching.in.help.frame.The.T.distance.to.inches.feet.(4.frame.is.the.in.lines. height.used.third.is.NEMA.height.height.The.MG-. dimensions.4.the.motor.key. The.center.the.number. For.mounting.NEMA. feet.calculate.by.two.÷.has..frame.integral.For.size.is..a.the.code.the.holes.identify.the.are.two.distance.4).from.To.is.in.center.determined.digit..this..between..frame.of.the.the.the.determine.first.shaft.shaft.3½.a.bolt.digit.the.size.publication.motor.of.. 57 .holes.size.shaft. shaft..The.surface.example.4.digits.first.frame..a.00.to.of.size..table.center.distance.by.bolt.the.a. code.the.the.inches.

dimensions...the.referred.opening.example.The.on.the.box.. Mounting Positions The.the.has. match.four.arrangement.conduit.mountings.in..the.90°.of.The.from.on.and.in.This.is.left-hand.F-2.referred.of.F-.to.motor..rotating.frame.An.the.can.shown.steps.drawing. The.the.dimensions.the.side.on.any.by.drawing. sides.located.placed.either.illustrated.as.these.position.box.IEC. Conduit Box Shaft F-1 Position (Standard) F-2 Position 5 . IEC.the.of.dimensions.the.conduit.side.the.but.be.be.F-. differ.IEC Dimensions.of.NEMA.the.standard.viewed.can.box.are.. when.are.following.standardized.end.mounting.of.box.standards. following.. are.as.the. mounting.typical floor mounting positions.is.to.from.and.of.also.conduit.in.shaft..the.and. location.to.

positions.shown.modification.the.prefix C. in.motor.a.Wall.a.is.necessary.motor.With.the.directly. a.drives..equipment.a.and.illustration. the.threaded.end.the.ceiling.mounted.following.wall..is.foot-mounted. holes. The.motor.In.has.sometimes.are.pass.bolt. Gear Box Motor C-face.have.the.to.motor.Typical..can.example.mounted.and.to.the..the.into.connect.ceiling mounts.a. the.motor.face.be.mating.equipment.positions.to.of.C-face motor.the.ceiling.to.Bolts..directly.have..or. It. Assembly W-1 Assembly W-2 Assembly W-3 Assembly W-4 Assembly W-5 Assembly W-6 Assembly W-7 Assembly W-8 Assembly C-1 Assembly C-2 Mounting Faces.gear box. Threaded Bolt Hole 59 .through. connected.and.on.the.mounting.face.it.mount.of.holes.following.in. prefix W.and.the.wall..

solids.that.an.can.____.falling.to..designation.frame.horsepower.the.in.at.of.determined.into._______.type.in.motor.supply.mating.angles.by.is. _______.motor’s. The. A.letter.uses.flow.to.motor’s.from.the.of.enclosure. vertical.the.shaft.and.an.integral.to.a.____.of. 60 .NEMA.inches.of.the.be.holes. is. mounted.flange.holes.dividing.5°. NEMA. 3.on.that.digits.in.above.equipment..motor.from.D-flange.bolts.is.the. 4.that..open.the.a.from. 2. indicates.for.. standards.to.type.entering.as.frame.current.and.threaded.cooling.through.first.enclosure.air.and. two.D-flange motor.liquids.up.height. Review 7 .is.the.by.enclosure.built.the.shaft.a.prevents.the.of.closed.go. The.a.enclosure. A.of.designation.referred. The.interior.size.motor.fan.size.

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to.Upgrading.waste.protection.severe...a.and.found.91 GP100 Calculation C = $1072 + 0..life of.is. and.equipment.pulp.designed.EPAct.and.TEFC..applications..Division.standards.(Motor..waste..are.and..of.9%.a.IEEE 841-2001 standards. In.have.746 = HP to kilowatt conversion factor HP = motor full-load horsepower T = estimated motor lifetime in hours R = utility kilowatt-hour rate E = efficiency expressed as a decimal value C=P+ 0.price.to.20HP .Siemens.paper.High..and.Group.over.RGZEESDX.standards.to.UL.Premium.F.with.of.. motors.the.the.chemical. in.strictest.I.applications..Division.with. Hazardous Duty Motors.Severe Duty motors.industries.and. for.the.Efficient.have.hazardous.mining.motor.motors.High.shows.chemical.industries. x $0.environment.this.use.and. x $0.industry. comply.and.C. Siemens.D. processing.08 Severe Duty Motors.efficiency. a.Efficient.purchase.in.Siemens.584.in.for.pulp. management.foundry.wide..NEMA.).levels.an. of.Division.Cost Savings with NEMA Premium Efficiency Motors The.Class.and.of.the.. Groups.90 0.modifications.gas.are. 00..duty.also. exceed.price.and.motors.management.08 = $77 .and.the..936 Total Savings = $1789.or.000 Hrs. purchase.the.In.$072.000 Hrs.373.Class.range.IEEE4.Premium.$675.mining.petrochemical...foundry.the.Groups.for.processing.with..hazardous.82 0. chemical.(Class.. 62 .G.efficiency..applicationmatched.petrochemical.types. C = motor lifecycle cost P = initial purchase price 0. ).Premium..I.II.and.compared.safety.08 = $79.a.with.petroleum.II.GP00.savings..workhorses.toughest.with.&.D.motor..746 x 20 HP x 60.following.These.exceed.area..listed.duty.the...6%..of. available.motors.two.commonly.NEMA. These.life.efficiency. and.energy.example.SD00. paper.motor.RPM. NEMA.Group.example.of.available...746 x 20 HP x 60.efficiency.efficiency.a.93.been.for.Class.efficient.is.are...environments.a.&.746 x HP x T x R E Motor 1 Calculation C = $675 + 0.E...a.

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motor.the. IP 24 .0 (1.adopted.15 optional) S ervice F actor E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype T otally E nclosed A ir-to-A ir C ooled CAZV D esigned for indoor and outdoor applications w here internal parts m ust be D escription protected from adverse am bient conditions.200 V V oltage 1. also. 70 .general.motors. 800.300 to 13.critical.5 m m and w ater D egree of P rotection splashing from any direction.lim its in-flow of dust and protected against w ater splashing from any D egree of P rotection direction.purpose.manufactures.performance.previously.above.motors.to..generation.is.totally enclosed fan cooled T ype of C ooling 200 to 900 H P P ow er R ange 2 (4 or 6 optional) P oles 500 and 580 F ram e S izes 2.300 to 6. IC 411 .In.15 optional) S ervice F actor E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype T otally E nclosed F an C ooled C G Z V and C G Z H S D esigned for indoor and outdoor applications w here internal parts m ust be D escription protected from adverse am bient conditions.900 V V oltage 1.protected against solid objects greater than 12.AC.API 547.power.200 V V oltage 1.and.set. Petroleum.547.open air ventilation T ype of C ooling 200 to 4.is. U ses cooling fins on all four quadrants of its yok e and housings.motors.and.API.totally enclosed air-to-air cooled w ith shaft m ounted external fan T ype of C ooling 800 to 3.lim its in-flow of dust and protected against w ater splashing from any D egree of P rotection direction.. have.the.oil.purpose.large. 800. IP 54 .most. The.Institute.300 to 13..specifications.rigorous. edition. and 1120 F ram e S izes 2. IP 54 .000 H P P ow er R ange 4 to 16 P oles 500. 580..by.specialty. and.forth.motors.E nclosure T ype S iem ens T ype W eather P rotected II C G IIV and C G IIH S D esigned for outdoor applications w here the m otor is not lik ely to be D escription protected by other structures.API.000 H P P ow er R ange 4 to 16 P oles 680.from.processing. IC 01 . and.severe-duty. and 1120 F ram e S izes 2..15 optional) S ervice F actor Large Specialty Motors.0 (1. addition.and..for.to.NEMA. IC 611 .standards.chemical. U ses air-to-air tube-type heat exchangers.for..API 541-4th edition.Siemens.reliability.for.to.American.listed.industries.process.0 (1.refining.the.two.production.demanding.special. 680.54-4th.highly.

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