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Feudalism was the major political institution in which one lord would rule over several other lords and use their armies and agricultural items. Serfs or peasants took up a large portion of the population, in which they would own their own land under a lord and then have dues to the lord. Christianity was a large defining point because it spread throughout Europe and throught thee middle ages. B. How did manorialism affect the legal, social, and economic position of the serfs? Manorialism started to create legal code that would give more rights to the people and prevent lords from talking advantage of the people, Magna Carta. Socially this split the class apart between the higher noble class and the lower serf class. Economically this system was able to flourish because the peasants were always making crops in order to sustain the economy. C. What economic and demographic developments changed Western society? One of the biggest developments was the spread of Christianity because it allowed the church to gain much more leverage and power allowing them to almost be the most powerful sect during this time period. Also during this time trade between other civilizations were very high allowing the merchants to become a high class and allowing to Europe to grow much faster. Other developments were usually taken from other civilizations like the paper machine and silk. D. How did feudal monarchies organize power? How was their power limited? Feudal monarchies usually gave land to the successful military leaders and in turn they would protect the kingdom from outside invasions. This organization strengthened the central state and allowed the kingship to have more control. Their power was limited because the people started to fight back and as a result created rights that the kingship had to abide by. Also the church stated that anything they said had to be done by the king so the church limited the government’s power as well. E. Why did Europeans support the Crusades and how did they impact Europe? Europeans supported the crusades for many reasons which include winning back the holy land that they thought were rightfully theirs. Also they knew that the area was very wealthy and as a result wanted to raid the area and take all of their riches. In later crusades it became about destroying their commerce in order to increase European commerce. Europe brought back many new technologies from the crusades. F. What problems did the medieval church face and how did it solve them? Medieval churches found that the kingships would not listen to the churches and what they had to say. As a result they created laws with the people in order to increase their strength. Eventually the church became extremely powerful. G. How did the rise of universities affect religion, society, and learning?
What roles did upper class women play in the feudal and religious institutions? Upper class women sometimes lead different guilds in different crafts and often lead religious institutions. black death and wars. K. and economic status of women? Christianity really increased the role of Women in Europe because they gave them a larger role in leading the religion and services. which. F. Agriculturally the manorial system was put in place which made serfs a dominant class in agriculture. broadly defined. What changes occurred in agriculture. (Holy Roman) emperors – This is a term used by historians to denote a medieval ruler who. I. Middle Ages. and commerce after 1000 C. religious and political changes ended this era? The major changes that ended this era is the increase in war technology. E. Manorialism. as German King. Feudal monarch. All of these things caused the end of the middle ages for the continent could no longer keep the population sustained and unified. B. The patriarchal structure seemed to be taking a deeper root. economic. Serfs. Although it was still a male dominated society. chivalrous ceremonies. the decrease in church influence. 3-Field System. severe famines. C. How did Christianity affect the social. . Socially they were more powerful than Islamic women and were actually free to do what they wanted. VOCABULARY A. Medieval. legal. Feudalism. Women gained a lot of powerful roles during this time period. Legally they were not on the insurance so they were not owned by the men which automatically made them stronger. Towns did not become too big but the amount of towns did grow to enormous amounts.H. D. III. towns. J.This was a political system in which the high lord would rule over the other lords and vassals were military elite who got land. Commerce increased a lot with the crusades and the different trades they had. was a system for ordering society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labor. G. had also received the title of "Emperor of the Romans" from the Pope.This was a set of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. population growth.These were the peasants that lived on the lord’s land. What social.E. women did have a say.System of economic and social relationships between the landlords and the peasants. vassals.This was the time period between the fall of Roman Empire to 15th century.One field would not be worked in order for the nutrients in the soil to grow.? Everything increased after the year 1000 because trade in the area became much more popular.
Q.These were a set of conquests to the Middle East in order to take back the holy land.This is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. Hundred year’s war. Vikings. Parliaments (Three estates) . J. L. nobles and urban leaders. W. Investiture. the dominant explanation for the Black Death is the plague theory. Three estates.This was the three social groups considered most powerful. Charlemagne. Charles Martel.Heavy plow created to permit deeper cultivation of heavy soils. Carolingians. Black Death.This is a Christian saint. which attributes the outbreak to the bacterium Yersinia pestis. peaking in Europe between 1348 and 1350.This was an early Frankish king who converted the franks to Christianity. Benedict of Nursia. church. Moldboard.He invaded England from Normandy and extended the feudal system to England and established an administrative system based on sheriffs.Sworn associations of people in the same business or craft and helped to regulate the felid so no one person would do way better than another.An organization of cities in Germany and Scandinavia for the purpose of establishing a commercial alliance.This was a Frankish military and political leader. Gothic.Charles the great. Crusades.This is the royal house of the franks after the 8th century. Papacy. this was a huge technological advancement. V. William the Conqueror. .H. T.Seagoing Scandinavians raiders who disrupted coastal areas of Europe between the 8th to 11th centuries. honored by the Roman Catholic Church as the patron saint of Europe and students. Clovis. U.This is a dominant medieval philosophy from the universities that used logic for theology. I. Guilds.This is used to describe the installation of individuals in institutions that usually have been extant from feudal times. N.This was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history. who served as the ender of the Muslim threat to Europe. Y. Hanseatic League. P. Of several competing theories.The system of government of the Roman Catholic Church of which the pope is the supreme head K.These were conflicts between England and France about land and feudal rights versus national states. Z. S. X.These were bodies that represented privileged groups and started the idea that leaders should listen to the people. A1. R. M. Scholasticism. he established a substantial empire in France and Germany.
and an immensely influential philosopher and theologian in the tradition of scholasticism and also wrote summas.B1.He called the first crusade in 1095 and convinced people to free the holy land. M1. O1. Peter Abelard. E1. P1. Pope Gregory VII. Bernard of Clairvaux.He is the author of Yes and No. N1.He is one of the great reforming popes. J1. Pope Urban II. Cluny. F1. his dispute with Henry IV. originally issued in the year 1215 and reissued later in the 13th century in modified versions. K1. H1. D1. which included the most direct challenges to the monarch's authority to date. he applied logic to problems in theology and demonstrated logical contradictions. L1. he is perhaps best known for the part he played in the Investiture Controversy.This is an English charter. Magna Carta.This is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in the region of Bourgogne in eastern France. Investitures.This is used to describe the installation of individuals in institutions that usually have been extant from feudal times.He was an Italian Dominican priest of the Catholic Church. G1.He emphasized the role of faith in logic and stressed mystical union with God and drove Abelard for the universities. I1. Thomas Aquinas. C1. . Holy Roman Emperor affirming the primacy of the papal authority and the new canon law governing the election of the pope by the College of Cardinals.
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