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Vocabulary Literary Terms
III. Literary Analysis IV. Grammar V. Editorials VI. Works of Literature VII. Critical Lens Vocabulary 1. Differentiate - To distinguish 2. Emaciated - Thin from lack of nourishment 3. Fervor - Intense and passionate feelings 4. Immaculate - Perfectly clean, neat or tidy 5. Incessant - Without stopping; never-ending 6. Inexorable - Unable to be stopped 7. Interim - The intervening time, temporary 8. Lamentably - unfortunate, regrettable 9. Myriad - Numerous beyond counting 10. Rampant - Happening without Restraint 11. Abbreviate - To make shorter 12. Articulation - The formation of clear and distinct sounds of speech
Smith 2 13. Caliber - The quality of someone’s character or the level of someone’s availability 14. Civil Disobedience - The refusal to comply with certain laws, as a peaceful form of political protest 15. Collegiate - Belong or relating to a college or its students 16. Courteous - Polite, respectful, considerate in a manner 17. Derivative - Imitative of the work of another person 18. Discourse - Written or spoken communication or debate 19. Dispensation - Exception from a rule or usual requirement 20. Dusky - Darkish in color; gloomy 21. Encompass - Surround and have or hold within 22. Hindsight - Understanding of a situation or event only after it has happened or developed 23. Icon - A person or thing regarded as a representative symbol of something 24. Ineligible - Not eligible; legally or officially unable to be considered for a position or benefit 25. Insurmountable - Too great to be overcome 26. Intricacies - The condition or quality of being intricate 27. Longevity - Long life 28. Matriculating - Be enrolled at a college or university 29. Perennial - Lasting or active through the year of through many years 30. Phenomenal - Very remarkable; extraordinary 31. Redundant - No longer needed or useful; able to omitted without loss of meaning 32. Relativity - The absence of standards of absolute and universal application 33. Spectacularly - Impressive or sensational
Smith 3 34. The Tao - A tradition of Chinese philosophy; that in virtue of which all things happen or exist. 35. Burrow - A hole or hideout animals use to take shelter; a hideout 36. Demerit - A mark against someone for misconduct 37. Errant - Straying fro the right course 38. Floundering - To at clumsily or in confusion 39. Inciting - To sir, encourage, or egg on 40. Inconspicuous - Not noticeable; invisible 41. Indoctrination - Teaching someone to accept an idea or principle 42. Pseudo - Pretend; fake; false 43. Sanctuary - A sacred place offering refuge or safety 44. Wan - Gloomy; pale in color; sickly; unhappy 45. Approbation - The expression of approval or favorable opinion 46. Assuage - To make easier or milder, relieve, to quiet, to calm; to put an end to 47. Coalition - A combination, union, or merger for someone specific purpose 48. Decadence - Decline, decay or deterioration a condition or period of decline or decay 49. Elicit - To draw forth, bring out from some source (Such as another person) 50. Expostulate - To attempt to dissuade someone from some course or decision by earnest reasoning 51. Hackneyed - Used so often as to lack freshness or originality 52. Hiatus - A gap, opening, a break 53. Innuendo - A hint, indirect suggestion, or reference (often in a derogatory sense)
Smith 4 54. Intercede - To plead on behalf of someone else, to serve as a go-between 55. Jaded - Wearied, worn out, dulled (in the sense of being satiated excessive indulgence) 56. Lurid - Casing shock, horror, or revulsion; sensational; pale or sallow in color; terrible or passionate in intensity 57. Meritorious - Worthy, deserving recognition and praise 58. Petulant - Peevish annoyed by trifles, easily irritated and upset 59. Prerogative - A special right or privilege; a special quality showing excellence 60. Provincial - Pertaining to an outlying area, local, narrow in mind or outlook; countrified in the sense of being limited and backward; of a simple and plain design that originated from countryside. 61. Stimulate - To make a pretense of; imitate to show the outer signs of 62. Transcend - To rise above or beyond, exceed 63. Umbrage - Shade cast by trees; foliage giving shade; an overshadowing influence or power 64. Unctuous - Excessively smooth or smug; trying too hard to give an impression of earnestness, sincerity, or piety 65. Ameliorate - To improve, make better, correct a flaw or shortcoming 66. Aplomb - Poise, assurance, great self-confidence, perpendicularity 67. Bombastic - Pompous or overblown in language, full of high-sounding words intended to conceal a lack of ideas 68. Callow - Without experience, immature, not fully developed; lacking sophistication 69. Drivel - Saliva or mucus flowing from the mouth or nose; foolish, aimless talk or thinking 70. Epitome - A summary, condensed account; an instance that represents a larger reality
Smith 5 71. Exhort - To urge strongly, advice earnestly 72. Ex Officio - By virtue of holding a certain office 73. Infringe - To violate, trespass, go beyond recognized bounds 74. Ingratiate - To make oneself agreeable and thus gain favor or acceptance by others (sometimes used in a critical or derogatory sense) 75. Interloper - One who moves in where he or she is not wanted or has no right to be, an intruder 76. Intrinsic - Belonging to someone or something by its very nature, essential, inherent; originating in a bodily organ or part 77. Inveigh - To make a violent attack in words, express strong disapproval 78. Lassitude - Weariness of body or mind, lack of energy 79. Millennium - A period of one thousand years; a period of great joy 80. Occult - Mysterious, magical, supernatural; secret, hidden from view 81. Permeate - To spread through, penetrate, soak through 82. Precipitate - To fall as moisture, to cause or bring about suddenly; characterized by excessive haste 83. Stringent - Strict, severe; rigorously or urgently binding or compelling; sharp or bitter to the taste 84. Surmise - To think or believe without certain supporting evidence; to conjecture or guess 85. Abominate - To have an intense dislike or hatred for 86. Acculturation - The modification of the social patterns, traits, or structures of one group or society by contract with those of another; the resultant blend
Smith 6 87. Adventitious - Resulting from chance rather than from an inherent cause or character ; accidental 88. Ascribe - To assign or refer to (as a cause or source), to attribute 89. Circuitous - Roundabout, not direct 90. Commiserate - To sympathize with, have pity or sorrow for, share a feeling of distress 91. Enjoin - To direct or oder, to prescribe a course of action in an authoritative way 92. Expedite - To make easy, cause to progress faster 93. Expiate - To make amends, make up for; to avoid 94. Ferment - A state of great excitement, agitation, or turbulence; to be in or work into such a state to produce alcohol 95. Inadvertent - Resulting from or marked by lack of attention; unintentional, accidental 96. Nominal - Existing in name only, not real; too small to considered or taken seriously 97. Noncommittal - Not decisive or definite; unwilling to take a clear position to say yes or no 98. Peculate - To steal something that has been given into one’s trust; to take improperly for one’s own use 99. Proclivity - A natural or habitual inclination or tendency (especially of human behavior) 100. Sangfroid - Composure or coolness 101. Seditious - Resistant to lawful authority; having the purpose of overthrowing an established government 102. Tenuous - Thin, slender, not dense; lacking clarity or sharpness; of slight importance 103. Vitriolic - Bitter, sarcastic; highly caustic or biting (like a strong acid) 104. Wheedle - To use coaxing or flattery to gain some desired end
Smith 7 105. Affable - Courteous and pleasant, sociable, easy to speak to 106. Aggrandize - To increase in greatness, power, or wealth; to build up or intensify 107. Amorphous - Shapeless, without definite form; of no particular type or character 108. Aura - That which surrounds; a distinctive personal quality 109. Contraband - Illegal traffic, smuggled goods; illegal and prohibited 110. Erudite - Scholarly, learned, bookish, pedantic 111. Gossamer - Thin, light, delicate, insubstantial 112. Infer - To find out by reasoning; to arrive at a conclusion on the base of thought; to imply 113. Inscrutable - Incapable of being understood; impossible to see through physically 114. Insular - Relating to, characteristic of, or situated on an island; isolated in outlook 115. Irrevocable - Incapable of being changed or called back 116. Propensity - A natural inclination or predilection toward 117. Querulous - Peevish, complaining, fretful 118. Remonstrate - To argue or plead with someone against something, protest against, object to 119. Repudiate - To disown, reject, or deny the validity of 120. Resilient - Able to return to original form or shape; able to recover quickly 121. Reverberate - To re-echo, resound; to reflect or be reflected repeatedly 122. Scurrilous - Coarsely abusive, vulgar or low (especially in language) 123. Sedulous - Persistent, showing industry and determination 124. Sleazy - Thin or flimsy in texture; cheap; shoddy or inferior in quality or character; ethically low, mean or disreputable
Smith 8 Literary Elements Stock - Recognizable character you see repeatedly Plot - Sequence of events in a story -Exposition: An author’s introduction to the characters, setting, and situation at the beginning of a story -Inciting Incident: The point in a story at which the author catches the reader’s attention by presenting an interesting problem or situation -Rising Action: The part of the plot that adds complication to the plot’s problems and increases reader interest -Climax: The point of the greatest emotional intensity, interest, or suspense in a story. It is usually the point at which the protagonist either succeeds or fails -Falling Action: The action that follows the climax -Denouement: The part of the plot that concludes the falling action by revealing or suggesting the outcome of the conflict Conflict - The struggle between two opposing forces External: A character struggles against some outside force Internal: A struggle within the mind of a character who is torn between opposing feelings or goals. Setting - The time and place in which a story happens
Smith 9 Irony - A contrast between what is said and what is really meant, or between what happens and what we feel should happen. Verbal Irony: Is the use of words that say the opposite of what is really meant. Sarcasm is a form of verbal irony. Situational Irony: This occurs when an event in a story turns out the opposite of what would normally be expected. Dramatic Irony: This occurs when the reader knows something the characters do not. Point of View - The vantage point from which a story is told. First Person: When a story is told by a character in a story; uses the pronoun “I” Third Person Limited: When a story is told by a non-character whose knowledge of the people and events in the story is limited Third Person Omniscient: This story teller, unlike the other one above, knows everything of the people and events in the story Characterization - The author’s purposeful attempt at describing or painting a verbal picture of a character’s internal and external attributes Internal Characterization: The characterization of internal attributes, such as personality, values, beliefs, emotions, and mental state External Characterization: The characterization of physical attributes, such as appearance Static Character: A character whose attributes remain constant over the course of the story
Smith 10 Dynamic Character: A character whose attributes change over the course of a story. It is often said that this person grows, learns something or changes values and beliefs Symbol - An object, person, a place, or an event, which has meaning in itself but which also stands for something broader than itself, such as an idea or an emotion. Motif - A recurring object, concept or structure in a work of literature. Allegory - The representation of abstract ideas or principles by characters, figures, or events in narrative, dramatic, or pictorial form. Foreshadowing - A hint given by the writer about something that will happen later in the story; increases the readers suspense. Theme - A common idea that is incorporated throughout a literary work Crisis - The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from an earlier conflict in the plot. The crisis usually leads or overlaps with the climax Tone - The author’s attitude towards the characters or the story. Mood - The feeling or atmosphere that a writer creatures for the reader Personification - The attribution of human characteristics to something without life
Works of Literature Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka Part I 1. Why is this morning unusual for Gregor Samsa? -Gregor Samsa awakes as a dung beetle. 2. What does Gregor do for a living? -He is a traveling salesman. 3. What does Gregor dislike about his job?
Smith 11 -He dislikes that he is always on the road, there is constant travel, his boss, and he dislikes the loneliness that comes with the job. 4. Why must Gregor keep his job, even though he despises it? -BEcause he must pay for his parents’ debt, all 5 to 6 years worth. 5. What panics Gregor most about the situation? What does he fear his boss will do? -He panics about not going to work and missing the train., he fears that his boss will be furious. 6. Why does Gregor feel he must get out of bed? -He feels he must get out of bed to know what to do next. Also, his mother calls him. He feels the need to make an effort to go to work.
7. What does Gregor expect will happen when he gets out of bed? -He expects that it is just an illusion or he is only temporarily a bug. Also, he is afraid that he will fall unconscious if he makes a mistake. 8. Why is getting out of bed a difficult maneuver for him? -He strikes the lower part of the body, he tries not to hurt himself. 9. What idea makes Gregor smile? -The idea of people taking care of him instead of him taking care of people. 10. Who is the visitor? What does Gregor lament abut the firm? Why does he feel their response to his absence is unreasonable? What does he believe is happening to him? -The lawyer/chief clerk is the visitor, he laments that he was never sick, he feels their response is unreasonable because he never missed a day of work and when the first day comes, they sent someone over. Also, he believes he is going mad. 11. According to Gregor, why might his sister be sobbing? -His sister sobs because Gregor might lose his job. 12. Why does the chief clerk want to speak with Gregor? What does Gregor’s mother tell the chief in defense of Gregor? -He wants to speak with Gregor because he wants to see why he wasn’t in work. The chief clerk suspects him of stealing funds and the mother tells the chief that he is ill.
Smith 12 13. For what does the chief clerk criticize Gregor? -Because his quote is not being met. 14. What does the chief clerk hint might be the possible explanation for Gregor’s disappearance. -He suspects him of stealing money, hence the need for work is not necessary. 15. What, according to the clerk, does not exist in the business world? -No season of the year, there is no “off” day. 16. What does the clerk notice about Gregor’s voice? What begins to concern his mother? -His voice changed drastically, the mother is concerned about him being ill. 17. What is Gregor finally able to do? How? -Gregor finally opens the door with his mouth. 18. In contrast to how Gregor usually spends his mornings, how does Gregor’s father spend his mornings? -Gregor’s father reads the newspaper for 3 hours and eats the most important meal of the day: breakfast. 19. What is the clerk’s and family’s first reaction when Gregor opens the door? -They are struck with awe, the mother covers her mouth and walks backwards, the father forces him back into his room. 20. What does Gregor tell the clerk about his temporary “incapacity” and his loyalty? What kind of employee does he promise to be? What does he ask the clerk to understand about the life of a traveler? -He tells the clerk that he will be back. He tells the clerk that he is always away and exhausted, also that everyone has an “off” day. He promises that he will make his quota again. 21. Why, according to Gregor, must the chief not be allowed to leave? -Because he does not understand what is going on; the future of his family depends on the chief. 22. How does the chief clerk feel when he sees Gregor? How can you tell? -The chief feels shocked with awe, he is frightened deeply. 23. What does Gregor’s father wave? Why does he do this?
Smith 13 -To get Gregor into his room with a newspaper and cane. 24. Why is Gregor having trouble returning to his home? -Gregor is just learning how to walk on his new legs. 25. Do you think the chief clerk recognizes the creature he sees as Gregor? Explain. -No, because there is no logical explanation for this. 26. What finally helps Gregor through the door? How does it feel to Gregor to be back in his room? -Gregor finally goes through the door because he is sliding through the door and he is pushed into his room. He feels alone and away from his family, hiding from his father.
Part II 1. What details in the beginning of part II suggest that Gregor is becoming more insect-like as the time passes? -He has antennas, his tastes change and he no longer favors milk. He rests on the floor. 2. Why might the Samsa family’s peace and comfort soon come to an end? -Gregor is no longer the primary source of income, they must work now. 3. In what way is Gregor similar to the “beast” from Beauty and the Beast”? -The family is not looking at Gregor from the inside, they are judging his outside appearance. 4. What conflicting feelings cause Gregor’s sister to enter, leave, then quickly reenter his room? -The sister is filled with disgust for her brother, yet she loved him at one point. 5. Why do you think that Kaka tells us that Grete picks up the bowl with a rag, not her bare hands? -To show that Grete is disgusted with her brother. 6. Do you think Gregor may become less sensitive to human feelings? -No, he may be a bug on the outside, but he is human on the inside. 7. Why do the Samsas assume Gregor cannot understand them? How might this assumption affect Gregor?
Smith 14 -The Samsas assume that Gregor cannot understand them is because they cannot communicate with him. Gregor feels isolated and alone.
8. What might Kafka be hinting about Gregor’s fate in regard to his hunger? What does the hunger symbolize? -The hunger symbolizes his need for love, life, socialization and happiness. Kafka hints that this is vital, such as food. 9. Mr. Samsa’s discussion of the family’s social situation comes to Gregor as “pleasant news.” How do you interpret this? Has Mr. Samsa been open of fair with Gregor? -Because they are living on Gregor’s saved money. Mr. Samsa is consumed with greed, so he saved the money for his own use, and he has not. 10.Do you think Mr. Samsa’s anger suggest an Oedipal situation? -Yes, because Mr. Samsa is becoming angry out of jealousy. 11.Why does Gregor seem to resent having to support his family? -Because the family took him for granted and only wanted his money. They no longer respect him. 12. As Gregor’s metamorphosis proceeds, how does his vision change? What might the shortening of his field of vision symbolize? -The shortening of eyesight suggests his disconnection with the world and a different way of seeing life. 13. Based on her actions in Gregor’s room, what internal conflict does the sister have? -Grete is repulsed by him, but at the same time this is the brother she once loved. 14. How does Grete undergo a metamorphosis? -Grete is now supporting Gregor instead of the other way around. 15. Why does Mrs. samsa want to see Gregor so much? What type of reasonable arguments might Mr. samsa make to persuade his wife not to see Gregor? -Gregor is her only son, the argument is that he is a disgusting bug. 16. What do you think the removal of Gregor’s desk and chest of drawers might symbolize? -His loss of humanity.
Smith 15 17. What is the dramatic irony toward the end of part II? -We know that Gregor can understand everyone, however the family is under the assumption that Gregor can’t understand him. 18. At first Gregor goes along with the removal of the furniture. Then he opposes it. what internal conflict does this represent? -This desire to be human once more, he wants to remain human, but he doesn’t need the furniture because he is a bug. 27. Why do you think Kafka gave Gregor and Grete such similar-sounding names? Why might Grete want to make Gregor’s situation “more terrifying in order that she may do more for him”? -To show the unity of the family. She wants this so she can help Gregor more. 28. What does the picture of the woman dressed in furs represent? -His need and longing for the human necessity of love, which he was void of. 29. What does Kafka suggest with the image of Gregor as a “gigantic brown blotch on the flowered wallpaper?” -They equate Gregor to one of a stain. 30. Why do you think Mr. Samsa might be both “furious and glad” that his son has “broke out” of his room? -Mr. Samsa is glad now because he has a reason to hurt Gregor. 31. As a result of Gregor’s metamorphosis, Mr. Samsa has also undergone such a change that Gregor hardly recognizes him. Summarize these changes. -Mr. Samsa transformed from being a lazy man who just read the paper and ate breakfast all day, to a working figure of authority and “head of the household” 32. How does the image of Mr. Samsa’s gigantic soles develop the grotesque and terrifying mood? -They symbolize his authority and his desire to hurt him with them. 33. To escape his father, why doesn’t Gregor revert to insect-like behavior and climb the walls? -This may only infuriate his father more, resulting in more injuries. He also wants to remain human.
Smith 16 34. What allusion appears in the last paragraph of section II? -An allusion to the Bible; the apple thrown at Gregor, the apple stuck in his back, and the banishment of Gregor symbolize the Creation Story of the Bible, where Adam and Eve took the sacred apple and were banished out of the garden and were left to die. The apple in his back is the relived shame of humanity.
Part III 1. In the first paragraph, what does the repetition of the world endure suggest about the Samsas’ feelings toward Gregor have changed? -The Samsa’s are now indifferent to Gregor and simply do not care. 2. How has Gregor’s wound affected him? -The wound injures his spine and has nearly paralyzed him. 3. Why do the Samsas open the door and let Gregor watch them at night? -They feel guilty about what happened to Gregor and they feel he is not a threat anymore. 4. What do you think the uniform that Mr. samsa refuses to remove might symbolize? -This symbolizes his newfound authority in the household. 5. Why do you think the sadness of his mother and sister causes the wound on Gregor’s back to “hurt anew”? -Because this sadness is out of Gregor’s control, making him feel upset and in pain that he caused his family to tear apart. 6. Why do you think that Gregor is glad when his memories fade away? -His memories were filled with angst, terror, depression and isolation. This is partial pain fading away. 7. How have Grete’s feelings for Gregor changed? Why did this happen? -She is no longer disgusted, she is apathetic and indifferent towards him. 8. How does the cleaning woman’s attitude toward Gregor differ from that of the family? -The cleaning woman is interested in Gregor, whereas the family doesn’t care for him.
9. Why does Gregor want to frighten the cleaning woman?
Smith 17 -The cleaning woman treats him like a pet and not a human. The treatment is indeed being used in a derogatory manner. 35. Why do you think Gregor has all but stopped eating? Remember what his appetite symbolizes -He has finally given up hope. 36. Contrast the treatment of the three boarders with that given Gregor. -The boarders are fed, housed and treated humanely, unlike Gregor who is locked in a room and dying of starvation. 37. Why do you think Gregor is so attracted by the violin music? How do the boarders react? -The violin music is soothing and draws Gregor out. The boarders are absolutely horrified by Gregor. 38. Gregor continually hungers for some “unknown nourishment” which he never funds. What might this nourishment be? -This nourishment is love, equality, harmony, and socialization. 39. What is Kafka suggesting about people who conform to his description of the three boarders? -Lifeless and emotionally shallow. 40. Do you agree that Grete and her parents have done everything humanly possible for Gregor? -No, once he became a grotesque insect, they wanted nothing to do with him anymore, despite him being apart of the family. 41. Notice how Grete uses it, not he when referring to Gregor. What might this symbolize? -This symbolizes their view of him as no longer a human. 42. How do Grete’s actions and feelings contrast with Beauty’s in Beauty and the Beast? -Instead of loving the beast for what is on the inside, she looks solely on the outside and makes her judgement on the basis of his looks. 43. Gregor thinks back on his family with deep emotional love. What does this tell you about him? -That he is forgiving and he is nostalgic for the love he once received from them. 44. What do you think Mrs. Samsa’s feeble attempt to stop the cleaning woman from sweeping away the body suggest about her feelings?
Smith 18 -She is disturbed and finally looks at the bug as her only son, now deceased. 45. What is symbolic about the time of the year Gregor dies? -He dies in March which is a time of new life and renewal. As Gregor dies, his family is renewed. 46. Why do you think that Mr. Samsa can now stand up to the boarders and force them to leave? -He is motivated by his son’s death and takes the position as “head of the household”. 47. What details does Kafka use to develop an optimistic mood? -Kafka uses the details that the family is renewed, they go outside as a family again, and they are renewed. 48. Gregor’s reaction to Grete’s violin playing leads to the climax of the novel. How is his entrance into the living room the “final straw”? -He reveals himself and is rejected. He goes to his room on his own and accepts the end. 49. What does the “monstrous vermin” symbolize? -That Gregor is an unacceptable human experience.
Second Literary Work Whale Talk by Chris Cutcher Chapter 1 pp. 1-18 1. Explain why T.J. Jones had to be adopted? -Different colored; the mother cheated on the husband 2.What is T.J . Jones racial background? -Black, Japanese and Caucasian 3.Why doesn’t T.J want to play on the high school football or basketball teams? -He does not like the coaches or organized teams 4. Who is Chris Coughlin and what caused his brain damage? Why does Mike Barber say that Chris can’t wear the school jacket? -Chris Coughlin is a friend of T.J. and his brain damaged was caused by his step dad wrapping his head in saran wrap. Barber says this because it is his brother’s jacket. Chapter 2 pp. 19-32
Smith 19 5. Give three facts about Dan Hole. -Dan does not use syllables, he is obnoxious, and he is extremely intelligent. 6. Give three facts about Taiyo-Ray Quibble -He is kind, musical, and a body builder 7. Give three facts about Coach Benson. -Football coach, head of the Lettermen’s club, and follows a intolerant policy. Chapter 3 pp. 35-45 8. To what does “Wolverines Too” refer? -The alumni club of the male athletes 9. Who is Rich Marshall? Why is he still in school? -A jock from high school and he is currently a member of Wolverines Too 10. Explain the incident that made T.J. dislike Rich Marshall so much? -Rich shot a deer from under T.J. 11. Give three facts about Oliver Van Zandt -He works at Wendy’s and Burger King and is homeless; he sleeps at the fitness club. 12. In chapter 4, three more students join the swim team: Simon De Long, Jackie Craig and Andy Mott. Find one or two details that make them appear to be misfits. -Simon DeLong: A three-hundred pound young man who looks nothing like an athlete -Jackie Craig: A very shy young man who is non-descriptive. -Andy Mott: One of the swimmers who only has one leg. 13. When T.J. was two years old, his parents sent him to see Georgia Brown. Who is she? Why was T.J. sent to her? -She is a therapist and because T.J. of T.J.’s rage problems. 14. What kind of relationship do Georgia and T.J. have now? -They are now best friends. 15. Carly Hudson’s father physically abuses her. What happens in this chapter that shows this to be true? -The cheerleading accident; Carly flashed what was under her skirt during a cheer and her father took her home and scolded her in the middle of the cheer.
Smith 20 Chapter 5 pp. 57-74 16. When T.J.’s father was in his early twenties, he was unknowingly involved in a very tragic incident that has troubled him ever since. What was the incident? How has T.J..’s father managed to cope his pain? - He ran over a baby on accident, and his father wanted to help everyone and time helped in cope. 17. What plan does T.J. come up with that allows all guys on the swim team to practice even though the pool is too small for all of them? -For athletes to swim two people per lane. 18. Which member of the swim team has not shown up for practice yet? -Tay Roy In chapter 5, the reader learns firsthand the scars that racism can create. Who is Alicia Marshall? What has happened in her life that has caused this emotional scarring? -She is Rich’s wife and she dated an African American football player and conceived his child. 12. What is “Guardian ad Litem”? -A guardian appointed by law to protect a minor Chapter 6 pp. 75-83 13. Explain the origin of Icko? What did I.C.O originally represent? -Icko is Oliver who is the assistant coach of the swim team. 14. What does Icko do when he catches Mike Barbour bullying Chris Coughlin? -Icko tells Mike to back off and gives him an ultimatum Chapter 7 pp. 84-95 15. How does Andy Mott shock the swim team? -He is a good swimmer despite his missing leg. 16. What is the prosthesis? -It is fake Chapter 8 pp. 96-109 17. What plan do T.J. and Mr. Simet agre on for letter requirements? Whi is this plan clever?
Smith 21 -The swimmers must beat their original times.
Third Literary Work Speak by Laurie Halse Anderson First Marking Period Welcome to Merryweather High 1. What is Melinda’s mood as the book begins? As you read the ﬁrst section of Speak list reasons why you believe she might be feeling this way.
-Melinda describes herself as an outcast and describes her morning as awkward
on the bus. She is an inverted individual due to a past experience.
2. Melinda categorizes the Merryweather students into several groups: jocks, cheerleaders, human waste, suffering artists, Goths, etc. How would you categorize the students of St. John the Baptist High School? -In SJB, there are particularly no cliques 3. Melinda repeatedly alludes to an event that occurred in her recent past. What do you think may have happened to her?
-Melinda was sexually assaulted at a summer party. Spotlight 1. Why do you think Melinda has such difﬁcult speaking to Mr. Neck when he confronts her during lunch?
-Melinda has a difﬁcult time talking with adult ﬁgures and Mr. Neck is intimidating Sanctuary 1. What does the word sanctuary mean?
- A safe haven 2. Describe Melinda’s art class. What is the room like? What is her teacher, Mr. Freeman like?
-The art class is a sanctuary and Mr. Freeman is warm and welcoming and also down to Earth -His last name acts as symbolism because Melinda is “free” from everyone in his class.
3. How might Mr. Freeman’s last name work on a symbolic level in Speak?
Home. Work. 1.
Describe Melinda’s room. Why do you think it looks like this? What does Melinda’s room suggest about her character?
-Melinda’s room is from when she was in ﬁfth grade and is ﬁlled with color. This shows that she was at one point happy but something in her life transformed her
What does Melinda do with the mirror in her bedroom? Why do you think she does this? What might this action symbolize?
-Melinda takes down the mirror and puts it in the back of her closet. She does this because she does not want to see herself. She does not want to reﬂect on what has happened to her. She dislikes her own image.
What are the different meanings for the word burrow?
-To hide -Melinda uses the janitor’s closet as a safe haven to hide, she escapes reality and pain. How does Melinda use the neglected janitor’s closet? Why does she need this room?
Devil’s Destroy 1.
2. What new information is revealed about Melinda’s past?
-Melinda is the girl who called the plice at Kyle Rodger’s party and was made fun of for it.
Based on this revelation, what do you think may have happened to Melinda?
-She may have been sexually assaulted.
The Marthas 1.
Who are the Marthas? What are they know for?
-The Marthas are known for their preppy outﬁts and fashions and they are known for helping others
Second Marking Period Closet Space 1. How does Melinda fix up her closet? Why do you think she does this? -She places a poster of Maya Angelou over it. Maya Angelou was known for speaking and was also sexually assaulted; she is a role model for her. Melinda can no longer look into her own reflection and does not want to face the past. With the introduction of IT, more is revealed about Melinda’s past. What do you think really happened over the summer?
-She was raped and sexually assaulted.
Why do you think Melinda is having difficulty talking? -Every instance where Melinda spoke out against an injustice or spoke out in general, she was made fun of for it and labeled. Psychologically, this equated negativity with speaking, so Melinda never spoke
All Together Now 1. What might be significant about the words Melinda decided to conjugate for her Spanish homework? Why do you think she chose these particular words?
Smith 24 -She translates: Traducir, Fracasar, Exconder, Olividar. These words mean “To translate, to fail, to hide, to forget.” She failed at translating her thoughts into words and was labeled for it, so she then proceeded to hide and suppress the memory of that night.
Giving Thanks 1. What is Melinda’s home life like? What is her mother like? Her father? -Her home life is quiet. She did not celebrate a traditional Thanksgiving meal, rather she celebrated it as an average day. Her mother is a manager, is rushed, and has no time for Melinda. The family communicates in notes (Without speaking) and the father is indifferent to her. For example, on page 58, Melinda says “It’s Thanksgiving” In response, the dad suggests doughnuts. Wishbone 1. Describe Melinda’s turkey bone art project? -The bones are together like a heap of firewood, and is composed of random objects. 2. What mood does Melinda’s art project evoke in Mr. Freeman? In Ivy? -A feeling of a girl caught up in the holiday with a broken dream or stranded on an island. Ivy is afraid. 3. How do you think Melinda’s art project symbolically reflects her inner feelings? Explain your answer. -Melinda’s life feels like it is all thrown together and she is on her own deserted island, isolated from everyone. Peeled and Cored 1. What memory does the apple evoke for Melinda?
Smith 25 -The memory of apple picking. 2. How does this memory contrast with her present situation? -She was in a safe haven then and now she is cold and isolated Dead Frogs 1. Why do you think Melinda passes out while dissecting the frog? -She never cut open a living organism before; her response is fainting
Third Marking Period Cold Weather and Buses 1. Why do you think Melinda compares herself to a bunny rabbit when she encounters Andy Evans on the street? -Rabbits scamper and hop when frightened. She scampered and fled when confronted with Andy 2. In what ways is her behavior rabbit like? -Rabbits hide when afraid, like Melinda 3. Why do you think Melinda responds in this fashion to Andy’s appearance? -She does not want to confront her fear Lunch Doom 1. What does Heather tell Melinda at lunch? Why? -Heather does not want to be associated with Melinda 2. Do you think Heather did the right thing? Defend your answer. -No, this deeply hurt Melinda Our Lady of the Waiting Room 1. Why do you think Melinda was drawn to the hospital? -Hospitals help people and she sought help
Smith 26 2. How is Melinda’s behavior a cry for help? List at least four examples of things Melinda does that are signs she needs someone to help her. Why do you think she is getting any help? -She skips school. This symbolizes her hiding from what’s really happening. She She would rather hide and seek shelter. She ran away, she does not speak, she abuses her lips, she does not express herself
Picasso 1. How does Melinda’s tree art reflect her inner emotions? -It is slowly developing and made of broken pieces (Composed of shapes) 2. How does Melinda’s tree art progress throughout the novel? -It slowly develops and matures 3. What artistic techniques does Melinda employ to capture the essence of a tree? -Cubism (Made of hundreds of skinny rectangles for branches) Hall of Mirrors 1. What is Melinda’s emotional state like when she is trying on clothes? -Melinda becomes self conscious and she stares into her face until she is unrecognizable 2. What does Melinda see when she looks into the mirror? -She sees a Picasso sketch, her bdy slicing into dissecting cubes. And desires a new skin, like the one of a woman who gets burned and requires skin gafting. A Night to Remember 1. What do we learn really happened to Melinda at the night of the summer party? -
Fourth Marking Period
Smith 27 My Life As A Spy 1. Why is Melinda spying on Rachel? -She wants to see how her life has changed and how her life is with Andy in it Thin Atmosphere 1. How does Melinda warn Rachel about Andy? -Through an anonymous note Advice From A Smart Mouth 1. What advice does David Petrakis give Melinda about speaking up? Why? -Melinda must speak up when her rights are taken away. Speaking is the only way she will be heard Real Spring 1. What does Melinda’s yard work symbolize metaphorically about her inner life? -She needs to cut away the dead part of her for life to flourish 2. How does Melinda’s raking help the tree? -She gets rid of the dead leaves and she sees the life hidden underneath it. 3. How might a tree work symbolically to represent life? -Trees are young, they hibernate, and they mature and develop, like Melinda 4. How might a tree work symbolically to represent Melinda’s life specifically? -Just how a tree has periods of dormancy, Melinda remained silent and lifeless. Now she is starting to be filled with life and is blossoming Little Writing on the Wall 1. What does Melinda write on the bathroom stall? Why? “Guys to Stay Away From : Andy Evans” Communication 101 1. Why does Melinda finally reveal the truth to Rachel? -She feels Rachel needs to know the truth
Smith 28 2. How does Rachel react to Melinda’s revelation? -Rachel is in denial Chat Room 1. What does Ivy show Melinda in the bathroom? -The response to Melinda’s writing 2. How does this make Melinda feel? -Welcomed and understood
Pruning / Prowling 1. How is Melinda’s mood changing? -She wants to take action to cut away the dead part of her 2. How is her behavior changing? -She wants to change 3. Why are these changes taking place? -She now has a desire to ax away at her memories and fears Postprom 1. What happened at the prom? -Rachel rejects Andy Evans Prey 1. Why doesn’t Melinda need her secret closet anymore? -She is know confident about speaking 2. What happens when Melinda gets attacked? -She defends herself and holds a broken mirror to his throat 3. How does Melinda react differently this time? -She know speaks and stands up for herself Final Cut
Smith 29 1. How does Melinda’s final tree art reflect her own life? -It is fully developed and matures 2. What symbol of hope does Melinda add to her final piece of tree art? -Melinda draws birds 3. How does Melinda’s reputation change once the truth is revealed? -She is now popular and known for finally speaking out against the injustice CHECKLIST FOR WRITING A CRITICAL LENS ESSAY Introductory Paragraph _____1. An opening sentence to catch the reader’s attention regarding the quote _____2. Copy the quote from the Critical Lens _____3. Write your interpretation/thesis statement for the quote (one or two sentences) _____4. A sentence about whether or not the quote is true _____5. A sentence about the TWO BOOKS/PLAYS you will be writing about. INCLUDE THE TITLES AND AUTHORS’ NAME FOR BOTH BOOKS/PLAYS (remember to underline long works of literature when writing by hand and italicize when typing) _____6. One or two sentences about the TWO literary elements the authors relied on to illustrate your interpretation of the quote FOR BOTH BOOKS (2 literary elements for each book) Body Paragraph # ONE - FIRST BOOK/PLAY: _____1. Explain how your interpretation of the quote is evident in the FIRST Book/play. (TITLE goes here again) _____2. Explain how the book/play demonstrates the quote/interpretation with specific examples from the story - do not summarize the plot REMEMBER HOW AND WHY! -BE SPECIFIC WITH YOUR EXAMPLES - GIVE DETAILS
Smith 30 _____3. Explain how the author uses the two literary elements you listed in the introductory paragraph to illustrate your interpretation of the quote. Talk about each element separately REMEMBER THE HOW AND WHY!
Body Paragraph # TWO - SECOND BOOK/PLAY: _____1. Explain how your interpretation of the quote is evident in the SECOND Book/play. (TITLE goes here again) _____2. Explain how the book/play demonstrates the quote with specific examples from the story - REMEMBER THE HOW AND WHY! _____3. Explain how the author uses the two literary elements you listed in the introductory paragraph to illustrate your interpretation of the quote. Talk about each element separately -REMEMBER THE HOW AND WHY! Conclusion _____1. A transition statement such as Therefore, Furthermore, (a comma always goes after) _____2. One or two sentences about the quote and your interpretation - DO NOT REPEAT THE QUOTE _____3. A sentence about how BOTH (titles) by (authors) demonstrate the interpretation _____4. One or two sentences about how the authors relied on the literary elements of ___________ and ___________ to illustrate the interpretation (2 per book/play) * Use concrete moments * Never summarize or use the plot * Never use personal pronoun or first person. To earn a 6:
Smith 31 -Provide an interpretation of the critical lens that is faithful to the complexity of the statement and clearly establishes the criteria for analysis. Use the criteria to make insightful analysis of the chosen text. -Develop ideas clearly and fully, making effective use of a wide range of relevant and specific evidence and appropriate literary elements from both texts
-Maintain the focus established by the critical lens and exhibit a logical and coherent structure through skillful use of appropriate devices and transitions
-Use sophistication and language that is precise and engaging, with a notable sense of voice and awareness of audience and purpose. Vary structure and length of sentences to enhance meaning
-Demonstrate control of the conventions with essentially no errors, even with sophisticated language.
Works you can use: 1. Speak by Laurie Halse Anderson 2. Whale Talk by Chris Crutcher 3. Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka
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