# ANSYS FLUENT 12.

0

Theory Guide

April 2009

Copyright c 2009 by ANSYS, Inc. All Rights Reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or otherwise used in any form without express written permission from ANSYS, Inc.

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Contents

Preface 1 Basic Fluid Flow 1.1 1.2 1.3

UTM-1 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-5 1-5 1-6 1-7 1-8 1-9 1-9

Overview of Physical Models in ANSYS FLUENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . Continuity and Momentum Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . User-Deﬁned Scalar (UDS) Transport Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 1.3.2 Single Phase Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multiphase Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.4

Periodic Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physics of Periodic Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.5

Swirling and Rotating Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11 1.5.1 1.5.2 Overview of Swirling and Rotating Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11 Physics of Swirling and Rotating Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14

1.6

Compressible Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16 1.6.1 1.6.2 When to Use the Compressible Flow Model . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17 Physics of Compressible Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-18

1.7

Inviscid Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-19 1.7.1 Euler Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-20

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2 Flows with Rotating Reference Frames 2.1 2.2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-1 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-6 2-8 2-8

Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 2.2.2 Equations for a Rotating Reference Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . Single Rotating Reference Frame (SRF) Modeling . . . . . . . .

2.3

Flow in Multiple Rotating Reference Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 2.3.2 The Multiple Reference Frame Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The Mixing Plane Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13 3-1 3-1 3-4

3 Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes 3.1 3.2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Sliding Mesh Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1

The Sliding Mesh Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10

3.3

Dynamic Mesh Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11 3.3.1 3.3.2 Dynamic Mesh Update Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11 Six DOF (6DOF) Solver Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-31 4-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 4-3 4-3 4-4 4-5 4-6 4-6 4-7 4-8 4-8

4 Turbulence 4.1 4.2 Introduction

Choosing a Turbulence Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 Reynolds-Averaged Approach vs. LES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reynolds (Ensemble) Averaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Boussinesq Approach vs. Reynolds Stress Transport Models . . .

4.3

Spalart-Allmaras Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.3.5 4.3.6 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transport Equation for the Spalart-Allmaras Model . . . . . . . Modeling the Turbulent Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modeling the Turbulent Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Modeling the Turbulent Destruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10 Model Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10

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4.3.7 4.3.8 4.4

Wall Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10 Convective Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11

Standard, RNG, and Realizable k- Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 4.4.4 4.4.5 4.4.6 4.4.7 Standard k- Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12 RNG k- Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14 Realizable k- Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-18 Modeling Turbulent Production in the k- Models . . . . . . . . 4-22 Eﬀects of Buoyancy on Turbulence in the k- Models . . . . . . . 4-23 Eﬀects of Compressibility on Turbulence in the k- Models . . . 4-24 Convective Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling in the k- Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24

4.5

Standard and SST k-ω Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-26 4.5.1 4.5.2 4.5.3 Standard k-ω Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-26 Shear-Stress Transport (SST) k-ω Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-31 Wall Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-35

4.6

k-kl-ω Transition Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-37 4.6.1 4.6.2 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-37 Transport Equations for the k-kl-ω Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-37

4.7

Transition SST Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-41 4.7.1 4.7.2 4.7.3 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-42 Transport Equations for the Transition SST Model . . . . . . . . 4-42 Specifying Inlet Turbulence Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-46

4.8 4.9

The v 2 -f Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-47 Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-48 4.9.1 4.9.2 4.9.3 4.9.4 4.9.5 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-48 Reynolds Stress Transport Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-49 Modeling Turbulent Diﬀusive Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-50 Modeling the Pressure-Strain Term . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-50 Eﬀects of Buoyancy on Turbulence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-55

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4.9.6 4.9.7 4.9.8 4.9.9 4.9.10

Modeling the Turbulence Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-55 Modeling the Dissipation Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-56 Modeling the Turbulent Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-57 Wall Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-57 Convective Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . 4-58

4.10 Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-58 4.10.1 4.10.2 4.10.3 Spalart-Allmaras Based DES Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-59 Realizable k- Based DES Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-60 SST k-ω Based DES Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-61

4.11 Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-61 4.11.1 4.11.2 4.11.3 4.11.4 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-62 Filtered Navier-Stokes Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-63 Subgrid-Scale Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-64 Inlet Boundary Conditions for the LES Model . . . . . . . . . . 4-68

4.12 Near-Wall Treatments for Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows . . . . . . . . 4-71 4.12.1 4.12.2 4.12.3 4.12.4 4.12.5 4.12.6 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-71 Standard Wall Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-74 Non-Equilibrium Wall Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-79 Enhanced Wall Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-82 User-Deﬁned Wall Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-87 LES Near-Wall Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-88 5-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 5-2 5-2 5-6

5 Heat Transfer 5.1 5.2 Introduction

Modeling Conductive and Convective Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 5.2.2 Heat Transfer Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural Convection and Buoyancy-Driven Flows Theory . . . . .

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5.3

Modeling Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.3.4 5.3.5 5.3.6 5.3.7 5.3.8 5.3.9 Overview and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5-7 5-8

Radiative Transfer Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12 P-1 Radiation Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13 Rosseland Radiation Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-17 Discrete Transfer Radiation Model (DTRM) Theory . . . . . . . 5-19 Discrete Ordinates (DO) Radiation Model Theory . . . . . . . . 5-22 Surface-to-Surface (S2S) Radiation Model Theory . . . . . . . . 5-43 Radiation in Combusting Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-46

Choosing a Radiation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-49 6-1 6-1 6-2 6-4

6 Heat Exchangers 6.1 The Macro Heat Exchanger Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 6.1.2 6.2 Overview and Restrictions of the Macro Heat Exchanger Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Macro Heat Exchanger Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The Dual Cell Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12 6.2.1 6.2.2 Overview and Restrictions of the Dual Cell Model . . . . . . . . 6-12 Dual Cell Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-13 7-1 7-1 7-2 7-4

7 Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry 7.1 Volumetric Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1.1 7.1.2 7.2 Species Transport Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Generalized Finite-Rate Formulation for Reaction Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Wall Surface Reactions and Chemical Vapor Deposition . . . . . . . . . 7-11 7.2.1 7.2.2 7.2.3 Surface Coverage Reaction Rate Modiﬁcation . . . . . . . . . . . 7-13 Reaction-Diﬀusion Balance for Surface Chemistry . . . . . . . . 7-14

Slip Boundary Formulation for Low-Pressure Gas Systems . . . . 7-15

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7.3

Particle Surface Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17 7.3.1 7.3.2 7.3.3 7.3.4 7.3.5 7.3.6 7.3.7 General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17 ANSYS FLUENT Model Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-18 Extension for Stoichiometries with Multiple Gas Phase Reactants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-20 Solid-Solid Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-20 Solid Decomposition Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-21 Solid Deposition Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-21 Gaseous Solid Catalyzed Reactions on the Particle Surface . . . . 7-21 8-1 8-2 8-2 8-2 8-8

8 Non-Premixed Combustion 8.1 8.2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Non-Premixed Combustion and Mixture Fraction Theory . . . . . . . . . 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.2.4 Mixture Fraction Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modeling of Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction . . . . . . . . . .

Non-Adiabatic Extensions of the Non-Premixed Model . . . . . . 8-12 Chemistry Tabulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-15

8.3

Restrictions and Special Cases for Using the Non-Premixed Model . . . . 8-19 8.3.1 8.3.2 8.3.3 8.3.4 Restrictions on the Mixture Fraction Approach . . . . . . . . . . 8-19 Using the Non-Premixed Model for Liquid Fuel or Coal Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-20 Using the Non-Premixed Model with Flue Gas Recycle . . . . . . 8-23 Using the Non-Premixed Model with the Inert Model . . . . . . 8-24

8.4

The Laminar Flamelet Models Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-26 8.4.1 8.4.2 8.4.3 8.4.4 Restrictions and Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-26 The Flamelet Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-26 Flamelet Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-30 Flamelet Import . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-31

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8.5

The Steady Laminar Flamelet Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-32 8.5.1 8.5.2 8.5.3 8.5.4 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-33 Multiple Steady Flamelet Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-34 Steady Laminar Flamelet Automated Grid Reﬁnement . . . . . . 8-34 Non-Adiabatic Steady Laminar Flamelets . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-35

8.6

The Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-36 8.6.1 8.6.2 The Eulerian Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model . . . . . . . . . 8-36 The Diesel Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model . . . . . . . . . . 8-39 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-2 9-3 9-3 9-4 9-9

9 Premixed Combustion 9.1 Overview and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.1 9.1.2 9.2 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Zimont Turbulent Flame Closure Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.1 9.2.2 Propagation of the Flame Front . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Turbulent Flame Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9.3

Extended Coherent Flamelet Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3.1 9.3.2

Closure for ECFM Source Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-11 Turbulent Flame Speed in ECFM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-13

9.4

Calculation of Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-13 9.4.1 9.4.2 Adiabatic Temperature Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-13 Non-Adiabatic Temperature Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-13

9.5

Calculation of Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-14 10-1

10 Partially Premixed Combustion

10.1 Overview and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1 10.1.1 10.1.2 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1

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10.2 Partially Premixed Combustion Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2 10.2.1 10.2.2 Calculation of Scalar Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2 Laminar Flame Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3 11-1

11 Composition PDF Transport

11.1 Overview and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1 11.2 Composition PDF Transport Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2 11.3 The Lagrangian Solution Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3 11.3.1 11.3.2 11.3.3 11.3.4 Particle Convection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4 Particle Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5 Particle Reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6 The ISAT Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8

11.4 The Eulerian Solution Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-9 12 Engine Ignition 12-1

12.1 Spark Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1 12.1.1 12.1.2 Overview and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1 Spark Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2

12.2 Autoignition Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-3 12.2.1 12.2.2 Overview and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-4 Ignition Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-5

12.3 Crevice Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-9 12.3.1 12.3.2 12.3.3 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-10 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-12 Crevice Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-13 13-1

13 Pollutant Formation

13.1 NOx Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1 13.1.1 13.1.2 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2 Governing Equations for NOx Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-3

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13.1.3 13.1.4 13.1.5 13.1.6 13.1.7 13.1.8 13.1.9

Thermal NOx Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-4 Prompt NOx Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-8 Fuel NOx Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-12 NOx Formation from Intermediate N2 O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-24 NOx Reduction by Reburning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-26 NOx Reduction by SNCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-30 NOx Formation in Turbulent Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-36

13.2 SOx Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-39 13.2.1 13.2.2 13.2.3 13.2.4 13.2.5 13.2.6 13.2.7 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-40 Governing Equations for SOx Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-41 Reaction Mechanisms for Sulfur Oxidation . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-42 SO2 and H 2 S Production in a Gaseous Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-44 SO2 and H 2 S Production in a Liquid Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-44 SO2 and H 2 S Production from Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-44 SOx Formation in Turbulent Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-45

13.3 Soot Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-47 13.3.1 13.3.2 Overview and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-47 Soot Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-48 14-1

14 Aerodynamically Generated Noise

14.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1 14.1.1 14.1.2 14.1.3 Direct Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2 Integral Method Based on Acoustic Analogy . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2 Broadband Noise Source Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-3

14.2 Acoustics Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-4 14.2.1 14.2.2 The Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings Model . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-5 Broadband Noise Source Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-7

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15 Discrete Phase 15.1 Introduction

15-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-1

15.2 Particle Motion Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-2 15.2.1 15.2.2 15.2.3 Equations of Motion for Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-2 Turbulent Dispersion of Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-6 Integration of Particle Equation of Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-12

15.3 Laws for Drag Coeﬃcients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-15 15.3.1 15.3.2 15.3.3 15.3.4 15.3.5 15.3.6 Spherical Drag Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-15 Non-spherical Drag Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-15 Stokes-Cunningham Drag Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-16 High-Mach-Number Drag Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-16 Dynamic Drag Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-16 Dense Discrete Phase Model Drag Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-17

15.4 Laws for Heat and Mass Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-18 15.4.1 15.4.2 15.4.3 15.4.4 15.4.5 15.4.6 Inert Heating or Cooling (Law 1/Law 6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-19 Droplet Vaporization (Law 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-21 Droplet Boiling (Law 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-24 Devolatilization (Law 4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-25 Surface Combustion (Law 5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-36 Multicomponent Particle Deﬁnition (Law 7) . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-42

15.5 Vapor Liquid Equilibrium Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-43 15.6 Wall-Jet Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-46

15.7 Wall-Film Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-47 15.7.1 15.7.2 15.7.3 15.7.4 15.7.5 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-47 Interaction During Impact with a Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-49 Splashing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-50 Separation Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-53

Conservation Equations for Wall-Film Particles . . . . . . . . . . 15-54

15.8 Particle Erosion and Accretion Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-59

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15.9 Atomizer Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-60 15.9.1 15.9.2 15.9.3 15.9.4 15.9.5 The Plain-Oriﬁce Atomizer Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-61 The Pressure-Swirl Atomizer Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-69 The Air-Blast/Air-Assist Atomizer Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-74 The Flat-Fan Atomizer Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-75 The Eﬀervescent Atomizer Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-76

15.10 Secondary Breakup Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-77 15.10.1 Taylor Analogy Breakup (TAB) Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-78 15.10.2 Wave Breakup Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-83 15.11 Droplet Collision and Coalescence Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-86 15.11.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-86 15.11.2 Use and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-87 15.11.3 Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-88 15.12 One-Way and Two-Way Coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-90 15.12.1 Coupling Between the Discrete and Continuous Phases . . . . . . 15-90 15.12.2 Momentum Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-91 15.12.3 Heat Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-91 15.12.4 Mass Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-92 15.12.5 Under-Relaxation of the Interphase Exchange Terms . . . . . . . 15-93 15.12.6 Interphase Exchange During Stochastic Tracking . . . . . . . . . 15-95 15.12.7 Interphase Exchange During Cloud Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . 15-95 16 Multiphase Flows 16.1 Introduction 16.1.1 16.1.2 16-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-2

Multiphase Flow Regimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-2 Examples of Multiphase Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-5

16.2 Choosing a General Multiphase Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-5 16.2.1 16.2.2 Approaches to Multiphase Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-6 Model Comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-7

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16.2.3 16.2.4

Time Schemes in Multiphase Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-11 Stability and Convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-12

16.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-13 16.3.1 16.3.2 16.3.3 16.3.4 16.3.5 16.3.6 16.3.7 16.3.8 16.3.9 Overview and Limitations of the VOF Model . . . . . . . . . . . 16-14 Volume Fraction Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-15 Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-20 Momentum Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-21 Energy Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-21 Additional Scalar Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-22 Time Dependence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-22 Surface Tension and Wall Adhesion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-22 Open Channel Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-25

16.3.10 Open Channel Wave Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-28 16.4 Mixture Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-30 16.4.1 16.4.2 16.4.3 16.4.4 16.4.5 16.4.6 16.4.7 16.4.8 16.4.9 Overview and Limitations of the Mixture Model . . . . . . . . . 16-30 Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-32 Momentum Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-32 Energy Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-33 Relative (Slip) Velocity and the Drift Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . 16-33 Volume Fraction Equation for the Secondary Phases . . . . . . . 16-35 Granular Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-36 Granular Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-37 Interfacial Area Concentration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-38

16.4.10 Solids Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-41 16.5 Eulerian Model Theory 16.5.1 16.5.2 16.5.3 16.5.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-41

Overview and Limitations of the Eulerian Model . . . . . . . . . 16-42 Volume Fraction Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-43 Conservation Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-44 Interphase Exchange Coeﬃcients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-49

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16.5.5 16.5.6 16.5.7 16.5.8 16.5.9

Solids Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-57 Maximum Packing Limit in Binary Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . 16-60 Solids Shear Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-61 Granular Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-64 Interfacial Area Concentration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-66

16.5.10 Description of Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-66 16.5.11 Turbulence Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-67 16.5.12 Solution Method in ANSYS FLUENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-77 16.5.13 Dense Discrete Phase Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-78 16.5.14 Immiscible Fluid Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-81 16.6 Wet Steam Model Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-82 16.6.1 16.6.2 16.6.3 16.6.4 Overview and Limitations of the Wet Steam Model . . . . . . . . 16-82 Wet Steam Flow Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-83 Phase Change Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-85 Built-in Thermodynamic Wet Steam Properties . . . . . . . . . . 16-87

16.7 Modeling Mass Transfer in Multiphase Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-89 16.7.1 16.7.2 16.7.3 16.7.4 16.7.5 Source Terms due to Mass Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-89 Unidirectional Constant Rate Mass Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-91 UDF-Prescribed Mass Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-91 Cavitation Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-92 Evaporation-Condensation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-104

16.8 Modeling Species Transport in Multiphase Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-107 16.8.1 16.8.2 16.8.3 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-108 Mass and Momentum Transfer with Multiphase Species Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-108 The Stiﬀ Chemistry Solver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-111

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17 Solidiﬁcation and Melting

17-1

17.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-1 17.2 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-2 17.3 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-3

17.4 Energy Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-3 17.5 Momentum Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-4 17.6 Turbulence Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-5 17.7 Species Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-5 17.8 Pull Velocity for Continuous Casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-7 17.9 Contact Resistance at Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-8 18 Solver Theory 18-1

18.1 Overview of Flow Solvers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-1 18.1.1 18.1.2 Pressure-Based Solver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-2 Density-Based Solver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-5

18.2 General Scalar Transport Equation: Discretization and Solution . . . . . 18-8 18.2.1 Solving the Linear System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-9

18.3 Discretization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-10 18.3.1 18.3.2 18.3.3 18.3.4 Spatial Discretization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-10 Temporal Discretization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-18 Evaluation of Gradients and Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-20 Gradient Limiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-23

18.4 Pressure-Based Solver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-25 18.4.1 18.4.2 18.4.3 18.4.4 18.4.5 Discretization of the Momentum Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-26 Discretization of the Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-28 Pressure-Velocity Coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-29 Steady-State Iterative Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-35 Time-Advancement Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-36

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1 19. . .1 18. . . . . . Inc. . . .5. . .6. 2009 TOC-15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. 19-11 19. . . . . . . . . .0 c ANSYS. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . 18-48 18. . . .5. . . . .6. . 18-51 Multigrid Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-2 19. . . . . . . .6. . . . . . .1 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 18. . . 18-46 Unsteady Flows Solution Methods .7 Full Multigrid (FMG) Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. .1 18. . .6 Multigrid Method . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Deﬁning a Region . . . . . . .5 Governing Equations in Vector Form . . .1 Static Adaption Process . . . . . . . 19-2 19. . . . . .3 18. . .2 Gradient Adaption Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Boundary Adaption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . January 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-64 18. . . . . . . . . . 19-13 Region Adaption Example . . 18-67 19-1 19 Adapting the Mesh 19. . . . . . .4 Approach . . . . 19-9 19. . . . . . . . . . 18-40 18. . . . .2 18. . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 18. . . .5. . . . . . . . . 19-5 Example of Steady Gradient Adaption . . . . . . . .5. . . . . .4 18. . 19-9 19. . . . . . . .5. . 18-54 Algebraic Multigrid (AMG) . . . . . . . 18-66 Limitations of FMG Initialization . . . . . . 18-40 Preconditioning . . . . . . . . . . .4 Dynamic Gradient Adaption . . . . . . . .5 Density-Based Solver . . . .2 Overview of FMG Initialization . . . . 19-13 Release 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 19-9 19. . . . . . . . 18-51 18. . . . . . . .6.2 18. . . . . . . . . . . .5 Isovalue Adaption . . . .7.6 Region Adaption . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-5 19. . . 18-41 Convective Fluxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-57 Full-Approximation Storage (FAS) Multigrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-44 Steady-State Flow Solution Methods . . . . . 19-5 19. . . . . . 18-66 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Gradient Adaption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hanging Node Adaption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .2 Forces on Boundaries .9 Anisotropic Adaption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Moments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-16 19. . . . .CONTENTS 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-16 19. . 19-19 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . 20-2 20. . . . .8. . . 19-19 19. . . . . . 19-19 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Yplus/Ystar Adaption . . . and the Center of Pressure . . . . .1 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Geometry-Based Adaption . .7 Volume Adaption . . 20-6 20. . . . . . . . .1 Computing Volume Integrals . . . . 2009 . . . . . .3 Surface Integration . . .1 Computing Surface Integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Geometry-Based Adaption Approach . . . . 20-3 20. . . . . . . .2 Volume Adaption Approach . .1 Computing Forces. . . . . . . . 20-11 20. . . . . . . 19-24 20 Reporting Alphanumeric Data 20-1 20. . . . . 19-15 19. . . . . . . 20-2 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-15 Volume Adaption Example . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . .0 c ANSYS. . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-16 19. .1 Yplus/Ystar Adaption Approach . . . 20-12 TOC-16 Release 12. .3. . . . . . . . . Inc. . . . . . . . . . . 20-7 20. . . . . . . . .1 Fluxes Through Boundaries . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Volume Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. January 29. . . . . . .11 Registers .

multiple moving reference frames. and inviscid ﬂows).S. • Chapter 4: Turbulence. • Chapter 9: Premixed Combustion. • Chapter 2: Flows with Rotating Reference Frames. • Chapter 6: Heat Exchangers. describes ANSYS FLUENT’s models for turbulent ﬂow. Inc. • Chapter 5: Heat Transfer. Release 12. describes the physical models used by ANSYS FLUENT to compute heat transfer (including convective and conductive heat transfer. describes the governing equations and physical models used by ANSYS FLUENT to compute ﬂuid ﬂow (including periodic ﬂow. • Chapter 8: Non-Premixed Combustion. Inc. This chapter also provides information about modeling species transport in non-reacting ﬂows. natural convection. Inc. radiative heat transfer. and mixing planes in ANSYS FLUENT. describes the ﬁnite-rate chemistry models in ANSYS FLUENT. is unable to distribute copies of the papers listed in the bibliography. Please use your library or a document delivery service to obtain copies of copyrighted papers. • Chapter 3: Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes. other than those published internally by ANSYS. describes sliding and deforming meshes in ANSYS FLUENT. • Chapter 7: Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry. compressible ﬂows. and periodic heat transfer). describes the premixed combustion model.0 c ANSYS. describes the physical models used by ANSYS FLUENT to simulate the performance of heat exchangers. i Under U. January 29. swirling and rotating ﬂows. ANSYS. A brief description of what is in each chapter follows: • Chapter 1: Basic Fluid Flow. 2009 UTM-1 . and international copyright law. describes single rotating reference frames.Using This Manual The Contents of This Manual The ANSYS FLUENT Theory Guide provides you with theoretical information about the models used in ANSYS FLUENT. describes the non-premixed combustion model.

• Chapter 19: Adapting the Mesh. describes the ANSYS FLUENT solvers. • Chapter 11: Composition PDF Transport. describes the solution-adaptive mesh reﬁnement feature in ANSYS FLUENT. • Chapter 12: Engine Ignition. UTM-2 Release 12. • Chapter 14: Aerodynamically Generated Noise. describes how to obtain reports of ﬂuxes. surface integrals. • Chapter 17: Solidiﬁcation and Melting. • Chapter 13: Pollutant Formation. forces. describes ANSYS FLUENT’s model for solidiﬁcation and melting. mixture. • Chapter 15: Discrete Phase. and soot. SOx . describes the engine ignition models available in ANSYS FLUENT. 2009 . describes the general multiphase models available in ANSYS FLUENT (VOF. and Eulerian). and other solution data. • Chapter 18: Solver Theory. describes the discrete phase models available in ANSYS FLUENT.0 c ANSYS. Inc. • Chapter 16: Multiphase Flows. January 29. describes the models for the formation of NOx . • Chapter 20: Reporting Alphanumeric Data.Using This Manual • Chapter 10: Partially Premixed Combustion. describes the partially premixed combustion model. describes the composition PDF transport model. describes the acoustics model.

• A mini ﬂow chart is used to guide you through the navigation pane. Inc.. indicates that Models is selected in the navigation pane. Iso-Surface dialog box. button opens the Multiphase dialog box. 2009 UTM-3 . • The Tutorial Guide contains a number of example problems with detailed instructions. • The text interface type style is also used when illustrating exactly what appears on the screen or exactly what you need to type into a ﬁeld in a dialog box. commentary. • The User’s Guide contains detailed instructions for using ANSYS FLUENT. • The Text Command List provides a brief description of each of the commands in ANSYS FLUENT’s text interface. Clicking the Edit. surface/iso-surface command). and presents helpful tips in order for you to create a successfull CFD simulation. Typographical Conventions Several typographical conventions are used in this manual’s text to facilitate your learning process. In the Models task page. • The UDF Manual contains information about writing and using user-deﬁned functions (UDFs).Using This Manual The Contents of the Other Manuals In addition to this Theory Guide. there are several other manuals available to help you use ANSYS FLUENT and its associated programs: • The Getting Started Guide describes the capabilities of ANSYS FLUENT. which then opens the corresponding task page.. For example. • Diﬀerent type styles are used to indicate graphical user interface menu items and text interface menu items (e.. The manual also includes information about accessing the ANSYS FLUENT manuals. Release 12. Models −→ Multiphase −→ Edit.. and postprocessing of results. • An informational icon ( i ) marks an important note.. which leads you to a speciﬁc task page or dialog box.g. and user inputs are often enclosed in smaller boxes. Multiphase is selected from the list. January 29. provides an overview of the problem setup steps.0 c ANSYS. The information displayed on the screen is enclosed in a large box to distinguish it from the narrative text.

January 29. tells you to choose the Materials.Using This Manual Also. referred to as grad. for example. represents the partial derivative of a quantity with respect to all directions in the chosen coordinate system. • The menu selections that will lead you to a particular dialog box or task page are also indicated (usually within a paragraph) using a “/”. indicates that the Injections. In Cartesian coordinates.0 c ANSYS. the identity matrix.. menu item from the Deﬁne pull-down menu. In this manual. (v) = ∂ ∂ ∂ ı+ + k ∂x ∂y ∂z vx ı + vy + vz k UTM-4 Release 12. 2009 ..g. a mini ﬂow chart is used to indicate the menu selections that lead you to a speciﬁc command or dialog box. and display −→mesh indicates that the mesh command is available in the display text menu. in Cartesian coordinates.. or del. Deﬁne/Materials. nabla. I). For example. Mathematical Conventions • Where possible. p= ∂p ∂p ∂p ı+ + k ∂x ∂y ∂z – The gradient of a vector quantity is a second-order tensor. • The operator .. A). They allow you to look up information about a command or dialog box and quickly determine how to access it without having to search the preceding material. menu item can be selected from the Deﬁne pull-down menu. Deﬁne −→Injections....g... for example.. a. Boldfaced characters are reserved for vectors and matrices as they apply to linear algebra (e. For example. is deﬁned to be ∂ ∂ ∂ ı+ + k ∂x ∂y ∂z appears in several ways: – The gradient of a scalar quantity is the vector whose components are the partial derivatives. vector quantities are displayed with a raised arrow (e. or a screen illustration showing how to use the dialog box or command. Inc. mini ﬂow charts usually precede a description of a dialog box or command.

which is deﬁned as ( T) = 2 ∂T ∂x 2 ∂T + ∂y 2 ∂T + ∂z 2 • An exception to the use of is found in the discussion of Reynolds stresses in Chapter 4: Turbulence. where convention dictates the use of Cartesian tensor notation. which is usually written as Laplacian. for example.0 c ANSYS. you will also ﬁnd that some velocity vector components are written as u. In this chapter. Release 12. for example. which is the inner product between and a vector. v. Inc.Using This Manual This tensor is usually written as ∂vx ∂x ∂vy ∂x ∂vz ∂x ∂vx ∂y ∂vy ∂y ∂vz ∂y ∂vx ∂z ∂vy ∂z ∂vz ∂z – The divergence of a vector quantity. 2009 UTM-5 . ·v = ∂vx ∂vy ∂vz + + ∂x ∂y ∂z 2 – The operator · . and w instead of the conventional v with directional subscripts. January 29. 2 and is known as the T = ∂2T ∂2T ∂2T + + 2 ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 T is diﬀerent from the expression ( T )2 .

Inc. This is the best source that we can use to reproduce the problem and thereby help to identify the cause.fluentusers. where the solutions can be searched by word or phrase. If you encounter an error. we invite you to log a technical support request (www. 2009 .com). Contacting Technical Support If none of the resources available on the User Services Center help in resolving the problem.link available from the main page on the User Services Center. there are a few things that we encourage you to do before logging a request: • Note what you are trying to accomplish with ANSYS FLUENT. UTM-6 Release 12. or from the User Services Center (www.com) to obtain further assistance.link available from the main page on the User Services Center. there is a link to the Search Solutions & Request Support page. January 29. The product documentation is available from the online help. The FAQs can be searched by word or phrase. please ﬁrst refer to the section(s) of the manual containing information on the commands you are trying to use or the type of problem you are trying to solve. • Save a journal or transcript ﬁle of the ANSYS FLUENT session in which the problem occurred.com): • Installation and System FAQs .Using This Manual Technical Support If you encounter diﬃculties while using ANSYS FLUENT. or you have complex modeling projects.0 c ANSYS. and are listed by categories. and are available for general installation questions as well as for products. From the Online Technical Support Portal page. please write down the exact error message that appeared and note as much information as you can about what you were doing in ANSYS FLUENT. Then refer to the following resources available on the User Services Center (www. The defects can be searched by word or phrase. • Note what you were doing when the problem or error occurred.fluentusers. However. • Online Technical Support . • Known defects for ANSYS FLUENT .fluentusers.link available from the product page.

general multiphase models are described in Chapter 16: Multiphase Flows. For information on modeling porous media. models for turbulence are described in Chapter 4: Turbulence.4: Periodic Flows • Section 1.7: Inviscid Flows Release 12. and models for heat transfer (including radiation) are presented in Chapter 5: Heat Transfer. and models for pollutant formation are presented in Chapter 13: Pollutant Formation. 2009 1-1 . and the melting and solidiﬁcation model is described in Chapter 17: Solidiﬁcation and Melting.6: Compressible Flows • Section 1. January 29.0 c ANSYS. Models for ﬂows in moving zones (including sliding and dynamic meshes) are explained in Chapter 2: Flows with Rotating Reference Frames and Chapter 3: Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes.1: Overview of Physical Models in ANSYS FLUENT • Section 1.5: Swirling and Rotating Flows • Section 1. Inc.Chapter 1. see Chapter 7: Cell Zone and Boundary Conditions in the separate User’s Guide. and lumped parameter fans and radiators. porous jumps. details about models for species transport and reacting ﬂows are described in Chapters 7–11. The information in this chapter is presented in the following sections: • Section 1.2: Continuity and Momentum Equations • Section 1. An overview of modeling species transport and reacting ﬂows is provided in Chapter 7: Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry. Basic Fluid Flow This chapter describes the theoretical background for some of the basic physical models that ANSYS FLUENT provides for ﬂuid ﬂow.3: User-Deﬁned Scalar (UDS) Transport Equations • Section 1. The discrete phase model is described in Chapter 15: Discrete Phase.

including eddy dissipation and probability density function models. The set of radiation models and related submodels for modeling participating media are general and can take into account the complications of combustion. and multiphase ﬂows in bubble columns and ﬂuidized beds. The turbulence models provided have a broad range of applicability. and fans. various useful features are provided. is also provided. Examples of multiphase ﬂows include channel ﬂows. such as buoyancy and compressibility. as well as the discrete phase model (DPM). pumps. Robust and accurate turbulence models are a vital component of the ANSYS FLUENT suite of models. lumped parameter (fan and heat exchanger). 2009 .1 Overview of Physical Models in ANSYS FLUENT ANSYS FLUENT provides comprehensive modeling capabilities for a wide range of incompressible and compressible. or bubbles). a broad range of mathematical models for transport phenomena (like heat transfer and chemical reactions) is combined with the ability to model complex geometries. and Eulerian models. surface reaction. droplets. January 29. for example. Examples of ANSYS FLUENT applications include laminar non-Newtonian ﬂows in process equipment. etc. laminar and turbulent ﬂuid ﬂow problems. including coupling with the continuous phase. and moving reference frame models. conjugate heat transfer in turbomachinery and automotive engine components. and gas-liquid-solid ﬂows. The moving reference frame family of models includes the ability to model single or multiple reference frames.Basic Fluid Flow 1. and pollutant formation models. Particular care has been devoted to addressing issues of near-wall accuracy via the use of extended wall functions and zonal models. forced. and cavitation. A time-accurate sliding mesh method. To permit modeling of ﬂuid ﬂow and related transport phenomena in industrial equipment and processes. porous media. along with the mixing plane model for computing time-averaged ﬂow ﬁelds. streamwise-periodic ﬂow and heat transfer. The DPM performs Lagrangian trajectory calculations for dispersed phases (particles. Another very useful group of models in ANSYS FLUENT is the set of free surface and multiphase ﬂow models. A host of other models that are very useful for reacting ﬂow applications are also available. including natural. These can be used for analysis of gas-liquid. ANSYS FLUENT provides the volume-of-ﬂuid (VOF). These include porous media. In ANSYS FLUENT. pulverized coal combustion in utility boilers. liquid-solid. Steady-state or transient analyses can be performed. sprays. Inc.0 c ANSYS. sedimentation. separation. useful for modeling multiple stages in turbomachinery applications. 1-2 Release 12. ﬂow through compressors. external aerodynamics. gas-solid. and they include the eﬀects of other physical phenomena. including coal and droplet combustion. For these types of problems. mixture. swirl. and mixed convection with or without conjugate heat transfer. A particular strength of ANSYS FLUENT is its ability to model combustion phenomena using a variety of models. Various modes of heat transfer can be modeled.

2-1 is the general form of the mass conservation equation and is valid for incompressible as well as compressible ﬂows. a species conservation equation is solved or. For ﬂows involving heat transfer or compressibility.0 c ANSYS.2 Continuity and Momentum Equations 1. Inc. the conservation equations for laminar ﬂow in an inertial (non-accelerating) reference frame are presented. or continuity equation. vx is the axial velocity. ANSYS FLUENT solves conservation equations for mass and momentum. Release 12.2-1) Equation 1.2-2) where x is the axial coordinate.1. The source Sm is the mass added to the continuous phase from the dispersed second phase (e. Additional transport equations are also solved when the ﬂow is turbulent. For 2D axisymmetric geometries. The Euler equations solved for inviscid ﬂow are presented in Section 1. can be written as follows: ∂ρ + ∂t · (ρv) = Sm (1. if the non-premixed combustion model is used. For ﬂows involving species mixing or reactions.2 Continuity and Momentum Equations For all ﬂows. the continuity equation is given by ∂ ∂ ρvr ∂ρ + (ρvx ) + (ρvr ) + = Sm ∂t ∂x ∂r r (1. The conservation equations relevant to heat transfer. conservation equations for the mixture fraction and its variance are solved. January 29. The equations that are applicable to rotating reference frames are presented in Chapter 2: Flows with Rotating Reference Frames. In this section. The Mass Conservation Equation The equation for conservation of mass. and species transport will be discussed in the chapters where those models are described. and vr is the radial velocity.g. due to vaporization of liquid droplets) and any user-deﬁned sources. an additional equation for energy conservation is solved.7: Inviscid Flows.. r is the radial coordinate. turbulence modeling. 2009 1-3 .

5: Swirling and Rotating Flows for information about modeling axisymmetric swirl. respectively. The stress tensor τ is given by τ =µ ( v+ v T) − 2 3 · vI (1. and ρg and F are the gravitational body force and external body forces (e.g. F also contains other model-dependent source terms such as porous-media and user-deﬁned sources.) 1-4 Release 12. For 2D axisymmetric geometries. 2009 . January 29. (See Section 1.2-7) 1 ∂ ∂vr 2 rµ 2 − ( r ∂r ∂r 3 · v) − 2µ vr 2 µ + ( r2 3 r · v) + ρ 2 vz + Fr r (1.0 c ANSYS.2-6) and vz is the swirl velocity. the axial and radial momentum conservation equations are given by ∂ 1 ∂ 1 ∂ ∂p 1 ∂ ∂vx 2 (ρvx ) + (rρvx vx ) + (rρvr vx ) = − + rµ 2 − ( · v) ∂t r ∂x r ∂r ∂x r ∂x ∂x 3 1 ∂ ∂vx ∂vr + rµ + + Fx r ∂r ∂r ∂x (1.2-3) where p is the static pressure. τ is the stress tensor (described below). and the second term on the right hand side is the eﬀect of volume dilation. I is the unit tensor.2-5) and ∂ 1 ∂ 1 ∂ ∂p 1 ∂ ∂vr ∂vx (ρvr ) + (rρvx vr ) + (rρvr vr ) = − + rµ + ∂t r ∂x r ∂r ∂r r ∂x ∂x ∂r + where ·v = ∂vx ∂vr vr + + ∂x ∂r r (1. that arise from interaction with the dispersed phase). Inc.Basic Fluid Flow Momentum Conservation Equations Conservation of momentum in an inertial (non-accelerating) reference frame is described by [17] ∂ (ρv) + ∂t · (ρvv) = − p + · (τ ) + ρg + F (1..2-4) where µ is the molecular viscosity.

. Extra scalar transport equations may be needed in certain types of combustion applications or for example in plasma-enhanced surface reaction modeling. Γk could be written as Γk I where I is the identity matrix.2: Multiphase Flow 1. . ANSYS FLUENT will solve one of the three following equations. January 29.3. see Section 9.3 User-Deﬁned Scalar (UDS) Transport Equations 1. The diﬀusion term is thus · (Γk · φk ) For isotropic diﬀusivity. depending on the method used to compute the convective ﬂux: • If convective ﬂux is not to be computed.3 User-Deﬁned Scalar (UDS) Transport Equations ANSYS FLUENT can solve the transport equation for an arbitrary. This section provides information on how you can specify user-deﬁned scalar (UDS) transport equations to enhance the standard features of ANSYS FLUENT.3.3-1) where Γk and Sφk are the diﬀusion coeﬃcient and source term supplied by you for each of the N scalar equations. 2009 1-5 ..0 c ANSYS. user-deﬁned scalar (UDS) in the same way that it solves the transport equation for a scalar such as species mass fraction.1 Single Phase Flow For an arbitrary scalar φk . Inc..1: Single Phase Flow • Section 1.1: User-Deﬁned Scalar (UDS) Transport Equations in the separate User’s Guide. ANSYS FLUENT will solve the equation − ∂ ∂φk (Γk ) = Sφk k = 1. ANSYS FLUENT allows you to deﬁne additional scalar transport equations in your model in the User-Deﬁned Scalars dialog box. ANSYS FLUENT solves the equation ∂ρφk ∂ ∂φk + (ρui φk − Γk ) = Sφk k = 1.. .3-2) where Γk and Sφk are the diﬀusion coeﬃcient and source term supplied by you for each of the N scalar equations. Information in this section is organized in the following subsections: • Section 1.. For the steady-state case. Note that Γk is deﬁned as a tensor in the case of anisotropic diﬀusivity. N ∂t ∂xi ∂xi (1..3. For more information about setting up user-deﬁned scalar transport equations in ANSYS FLUENT. N ∂xi ∂xi (1.1. Release 12.

physical density.3-4) where dS is the face vector area. For an arbitrary k scalar in phase-1..2 Multiphase Flow For multiphase ﬂows.3-3) • It is also possible to specify a user-deﬁned function to be used in the computation of convective ﬂux.. In this case. then you should consider this scalar as being associated with a mixture of phases. . the generic transport equation for the scalar is ∂ρm φk + ∂t · (ρm um φk − Γk φk ) = S km k = 1.. mixture velocity um . 1. Γk and Slk are the diﬀusion coeﬃcient and source term. January 29. Inc. and mixture diﬀusivity for the scalar k Γk are calculated according to m 1-6 Release 12.Basic Fluid Flow • If convective ﬂux is to be computed with mass ﬂow rate.3-6) S If the transport variable described by scalar φk represents the physical ﬁeld that is shared l between phases.0 c ANSYS. ρl . respectively..3-7) where mixture density ρm . which l you will need to specify. N m (1. ANSYS l FLUENT solves the transport equation inside the volume occupied by phase-l ∂αl ρl φk l + ∂t · (αl ρl ul φk − αl Γk φk ) = Slk k = 1. 2009 . φk . .3-5) where αl .. or is considered the same for each phase.. and velocity of phase-l.. The mass ﬂux for phase-l is deﬁned as Fl = αl ρl ul · dS (1.. ANSYS FLUENT will solve the equation ∂ ∂φk (ρui φk − Γk ) = Sφk k = 1. denoted by φk . . In this case. N ∂xi ∂xi (1. scalar φk is associated only with one phase (phase-l) l and is considered an individual ﬁeld variable of phase-l. respectively.3. ANSYS FLUENT solves transport equations for two types of scalars: per phase and mixture. N l l l (1. and ul are the volume fraction.. the user-deﬁned mass ﬂux is assumed to be of the form F = S ρu · dS (1. In this case.

2: Periodic Flows in the separate User’s Guide. no pressure drop occurs across the periodic planes. January 29.3-11) Slk (1. a pressure drop occurs across translationally periodic boundaries. In the ﬁrst type. Note that if the user-deﬁned mass ﬂux option is activated. 1.3-6 and Equation 1. Information about streamwise-periodic ﬂow is presented in the following sections: • Section 1. A description of no-pressure-drop periodic ﬂow is provided in Section 7.16: Periodic Boundary Conditions in the separate User’s Guide. then mass ﬂuxes shown in Equation 1.4 Periodic Flows Periodic ﬂow occurs when the physical geometry of interest and the expected pattern of the ﬂow/thermal solution have a periodically repeating nature.1.3-9) Fm = S rhom um · dS αl Γk l l (1. see Section 9. and a description of streamwise-periodic heat transfer is provided in Section 13.2: Limitations • Section 1. you will need to specify individual diﬀusivities for each material associated with individual phases.3-10 will need to be replaced in the corresponding scalar transport equations. For more information about setting up periodic ﬂows in ANSYS FLUENT.1: Overview • Section 1.3. resulting in “fully-developed” or “streamwise-periodic” ﬂow. This section discusses streamwise-periodic ﬂow. In the second type.3-12) To calculate mixture diﬀusivity. 2009 1-7 .4.4.4: Modeling Periodic Heat Transfer in the separate User’s Guide.0 c ANSYS.3: Physics of Periodic Flows Release 12.3-10) Γk = m k Sm = l (1.3-8) ρm u m = l αl ρl ul (1. Two types of periodic ﬂow can be modeled in ANSYS FLUENT.4.4 Periodic Flows ρm = l αl ρl (1. Inc.

33e-03 3. Figure 1.43e-03 1.0 c ANSYS. leading to a periodic fully-developed ﬂow regime in which the ﬂow pattern repeats in successive cycles. 2009 . These ﬂows are encountered in a variety of applications. with a constant pressure drop across each repeating module along the streamwise direction.62e-03 2.38e-03 2.19e-03 9.4.67e-03 1.1: Example of Periodic Flow in a 2D Heat Exchanger Geometry 1-8 Release 12. Other examples of streamwise-periodic ﬂows include fully-developed ﬂow in pipes and ducts. January 29.53e-04 7.09e-03 2.1 depicts one example of a periodically repeating ﬂow of this type which has been modeled by including a single representative module.4.Basic Fluid Flow 1. the geometry varies in a repeating manner along the direction of the ﬂow. These periodic conditions are achieved after a suﬃcient entrance length.1 Overview ANSYS FLUENT provides the ability to calculate streamwise-periodic—or “fully-developed”— ﬂuid ﬂow.57e-03 3.90e-03 1. Streamwise-periodic ﬂow conditions exist when the ﬂow pattern repeats over some length L. which depends on the ﬂow Reynolds number and geometric conﬁguration. 3.86e-03 2.01e-06 Velocity Vectors Colored By Velocity Magnitude (m/s) Figure 1. In such ﬂow conﬁgurations.77e-04 2. including ﬂows in compact heat exchanger channels and ﬂows across tube banks.4.15e-04 4.14e-03 1. Inc.39e-04 1.

Inc. January 29. Reacting ﬂows are not permitted.0 c ANSYS. ∆p is speciﬁed as a constant value. For the pressure-based solver. (1. • Discrete phase and multiphase modeling are not allowed. the pressure drop between modules is periodic: ∆p = p(r) − p(r + L) = p(r + L) − p(r + 2L) = · · · (1.4. Instead.2 Limitations The following limitations apply to modeling streamwise-periodic ﬂow: • The ﬂow must be incompressible. the local pressure gradient can be decomposed into two parts: Release 12.4-1) Deﬁnition of the Streamwise-Periodic Pressure For viscous ﬂows. 2009 1-9 .4.4 Periodic Flows 1. • No net mass addition through inlets/exits or extra source terms is allowed. the pressure is not periodic in the sense of Equation 1. 1. for the pressure-based solver.4-1. you can specify only the pressure jump. Note that transient simulations for fully-developed ﬂuid ﬂow are not valid with translational periodic ﬂow.4.3 Physics of Periodic Flows Deﬁnition of the Periodic Velocity The assumption of periodicity implies that the velocity components repeat themselves in space as follows: u(r) = u(r + L) = u(r + 2L) = · · · v(r) = v(r + L) = v(r + 2L) = · · · w(r) = w(r + L) = w(r + 2L) = · · · where r is the position vector and L is the periodic length vector of the domain considered (see Figure 1. • Species can be modeled only if inlets/exits (without net mass addition) are included in the problem.4-2) If one of the density-based solvers is used. • If one of the density-based solvers is used. • The geometry must be translationally periodic. you can specify either the pressure jump or the mass ﬂow rate.2).1.

0 c ANSYS. 1-10 Release 12. component. β |L : L| p(r).pA = pC .pB Figure 1. January 29. You have some control over the number of sub-iterations used to update β.4. it must be iterated on until the mass ﬂow rate that you have deﬁned is achieved in the computational model.2: Setting Parameters for the Calculation of β in the separate User’s Guide. Inc. For more information about setting up parameters for β in ANSYS FLUENT.2. This correction of β occurs in the pressure correction step of the SIMPLE. Because the value of β is not known a priori. 2009 .4-3) where p(r) is the periodic pressure and β|r| is the linearly-varying component of the ˜ pressure.Basic Fluid Flow → L → L A B C uA = uB = uC vA = vB = vC ∼ =∼ =∼ pA pB pC pB . The linearly-varying component of the pressure results in a force acting on the ﬂuid in the momentum equations. SIMPLEC. and the gradient of a linearly-varying ˜ p(r) = β L |L| + p(r) ˜ (1. see Section 9. or PISO algorithm where the value of β is updated based on the diﬀerence between the desired mass ﬂow rate and the actual one. The periodic pressure is the pressure left over after subtracting out the linearlyvarying pressure.2: Example of a Periodic Geometry the gradient of a periodic component.

When you begin the analysis of a rotating or swirling ﬂow.1. January 29.2.5.. which all involve “moving zones”.5. mixing tanks. you can solve a 2D axisymmetric problem that includes the prediction of the circumferential or swirl velocity.1: Overview of Swirling and Rotating Flows.5.5 Swirling and Rotating Flows Many important engineering ﬂows involve swirl or rotation and ANSYS FLUENT is wellequipped to model such ﬂows. and a variety of other applications.e. see Section 9. 1.3: Swirling and Rotating Flows in the separate User’s Guide. In this case. 2009 1-11 . The assumption of axisymmetry implies that there are no circumferential gradients in the ﬂow. The remaining three.5. solve Release 12.0 c ANSYS. you can model the ﬂow in 2D (i. but that there may be non-zero circumferential velocities. Swirling ﬂows are common in combustion.1 and 1. with swirl introduced in burners and combustors in order to increase residence time and stabilize the ﬂow pattern.1 Overview of Swirling and Rotating Flows Axisymmetric Flows with Swirl or Rotation As discussed in Section 1. Information about rotating and swirling ﬂows is provided in the following subsections: • Section 1. Examples of axisymmetric ﬂows involving swirl or rotation are depicted in Figures 1. Inc.2: Physics of Swirling and Rotating Flows For more information about setting up swirling and rotating ﬂows in ANSYS FLUENT.5. are discussed in Chapter 2: Flows with Rotating Reference Frames. Rotating ﬂows are also encountered in turbomachinery.5 Swirling and Rotating Flows 1.1: Overview of Swirling and Rotating Flows • Section 1.5. Your problem may be axisymmetric with respect to geometry and ﬂow conditions but still include swirl or rotation. it is essential that you classify your problem into one of the following ﬁve categories of ﬂow: • axisymmetric ﬂows with swirl or rotation • fully three-dimensional swirling or rotating ﬂows • ﬂows requiring a rotating reference frame • ﬂows requiring multiple rotating reference frames or mixing planes • ﬂows requiring sliding meshes Modeling and solution procedures for the ﬁrst two categories are presented in this section.

Basic Fluid Flow Rotating Cover Ω Region to be modeled x y Figure 1. 2009 .1: Rotating Flow in a Cavity Region to be modeled Ω Figure 1.5.0 c ANSYS. Inc.2: Swirling Flow in a Gas Burner 1-12 Release 12. January 29.5.

4: Improving Solution Stability by Gradually Increasing the Rotational or Swirl Speed in the separate User’s Guide. i For 3D problems involving swirl or rotation. For more information. 2009 1-13 . Release 12.3. see Section 9. that you may want to use the cylindrical coordinate system for deﬁning velocity-inlet boundary condition inputs. your swirling ﬂow prediction requires a three-dimensional model. It is important to note that while the assumption of axisymmetry implies that there are no circumferential gradients in the ﬂow. in which you can quickly determine the eﬀects of various modeling and design choices. Inc. Note. you should be aware of the setup constraints (Section 9.3: Coordinate System Restrictions in the separate User’s Guide). and w is the swirl velocity. there are no special inputs required during the problem setup and no special solution procedures. you may wish to consider simpliﬁcations to the problem which might reduce it to an equivalent axisymmetric problem. r is the radial coordinate. u is the axial velocity. Also. as described in Section 7.3.1.5-1) r where x is the axial coordinate. however. can be very beneﬁcial. January 29. If you are planning a 3D ANSYS FLUENT model that includes swirl or rotation. v is the radial velocity.4: Deﬁning the Velocity in the separate User’s Guide. an initial 2D study. especially for your initial modeling eﬀort. Three-Dimensional Swirling Flows When there are geometric changes and/or ﬂow gradients in the circumferential direction. In addition. there may still be non-zero swirl velocities.5 Swirling and Rotating Flows the axisymmetric problem) and include the prediction of the circumferential (or swirl) velocity.0 c ANSYS. Momentum Conservation Equation for Swirl Velocity The tangential momentum equation for 2D swirling ﬂows may be written as 1 ∂ 1 ∂ 1 ∂ ∂w 1 ∂ ∂ ∂ (ρw)+ (rρuw)+ (rρvw) = rµ + 2 r3 µ ∂t r ∂x r ∂r r ∂x ∂x r ∂r ∂r w r −ρ vw (1.3. Because of the complexity of swirling ﬂows. you may ﬁnd the gradual increase of the rotational speed (set as a wall or inlet boundary condition) helpful during the solution process.

2: Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame. Inc.0 c ANSYS.3.. the centrifugal forces created by the circumferential motion are in equilibrium with the radial pressure gradient: ∂p ρw2 = ∂r r (1. several impellers in a row). you will need to use a rotating reference frame to model the problem.2 Physics of Swirling and Rotating Flows In swirling ﬂows.5.5. you can use multiple reference frames (described in Section 2.5. the form of this radial pressure gradient also changes. 2009 . Figure 1. r.3. increases sharply as the radius. Thus. in which the circumferential velocity.Basic Fluid Flow Flows Requiring a Rotating Reference Frame If your ﬂow involves a rotating boundary which moves through the ﬂuid (e.. you will also notice changes in the static pressure distribution and corresponding changes in the axial and radial ﬂow velocities. w. conservation of angular momentum (rw or r2 Ω = constant) tends to create a free vortex ﬂow.g. Such applications are described in detail in Section 2. driving radial and axial ﬂows in response to the highly non-uniform pressures that result. as you compute the distribution of swirl in your ANSYS FLUENT model. If you have more than one rotating boundary (e. 1-14 Release 12. 1.1: The Multiple Reference Frame Model) or mixing planes (described in Section 2.3: Typical Radial Distribution of w in a Free Vortex It can be shown that for an ideal free vortex ﬂow. It is this high degree of coupling between the swirl and the pressure ﬁeld that makes the modeling of swirling ﬂows complex. r axis Figure 1.3 depicts the radial distribution of w in a typical free vortex.2: The Mixing Plane Model). decreases (with w ﬁnally decaying to zero near r = 0 as viscous forces begin to dominate). January 29.5-2) As the distribution of angular momentum in a non-ideal vortex evolves.g. A tornado is one example of a free vortex. an impeller blade or a grooved or notched surface).

the motion of the wall tends to impart a forced vortex motion to the ﬂuid.1.4: Stream Function Contours for Rotating Flow in a Cavity (Geometry of Figure 1. This is often referred to as “radial pumping”. the ﬂow near the wall) to be ﬂung radially outward (Figure 1. since the rotating wall is pumping the ﬂuid radially outward.85e-03 3.0 c ANSYS.54e-03 7.5. An important characteristic of such ﬂows is the tendency of ﬂuid with high angular momentum (e.00e+00 axis of rotation Contours of Stream Function (kg/s) Figure 1. Inc.g.92e-03 6.1) Release 12. 2009 1-15 .62e-03 3. wherein w/r or Ω is constant.5.08e-03 2.69e-04 0.5 Swirling and Rotating Flows In ﬂows that are driven by wall rotation.69e-03 6.4).15e-03 5. 7.5.31e-03 1.38e-03 4.. January 29.

1.32e-01 1.82e-01 7.57e+00 1.43e+00 1.1 and 1.Basic Fluid Flow 1.6.70e-01 3.02e+00 8.6.07e-01 4.2 show examples of compressible ﬂows computed using ANSYS FLUENT.45e-01 6.16e+00 1. 2009 .29e+00 1. pressure. Inc. Figures 1. When the ﬂow velocity approaches or exceeds the speed of sound of the gas or when the pressure change in the system (∆p/p) is large. the variation of the gas density with pressure has a signiﬁcant impact on the ﬂow velocity.6 Compressible Flows Compressibility eﬀects are encountered in gas ﬂows at high velocity and/or in which there are large pressure variations.6.0 c ANSYS.1: Transonic Flow in a Converging-Diverging Nozzle 1-16 Release 12. January 29. and temperature. Compressible ﬂows create a unique set of ﬂow physics for which you must be aware of the special input requirements and solution techniques described in this section.95e-01 Contours of Mach Number Figure 1.

2: Physics of Compressible Flows 1.63e+04 -3.1 or so).0 c ANSYS.86e+04 -2.4: Compressible Flows in the separate User’s Guide.1 When to Use the Compressible Flow Model Compressible ﬂows can be characterized by the value of the Mach number: M ≡ u/c Here.41e+04 -4. 2009 1-17 .08e+04 -1.68e+03 -3. January 29. Inc.02e+04 1. Information about compressible ﬂows is provided in the following subsections: • Section 1.0. c is the speed of sound in the gas: c= and γ is the ratio of speciﬁc heats (cp /cv ).73e+04 Contours of Static Pressure (pascal) Figure 1. compressibility eﬀects are negligible and the γRT (1.95e+04 -5.2: Mach 0.6.1.1: When to Use the Compressible Flow Model • Section 1.6. see Section 9.6.6 Compressible Flows 2. the ﬂow is termed subsonic.24e+04 4.07e+03 -1.6-2) (1.6.6-1) Release 12.675 Flow Over a Bump in a 2D Channel For more information about setting up compressible ﬂows in ANSYS FLUENT.18e+04 -4. When the Mach number is less than 1. At Mach numbers much less than 1.0 (M < 0.

6-4 predicts a choked ﬂow (Mach number of 1. transonic. Inc. of 0. and may contain shocks and expansion fans which can impact the ﬂow pattern signiﬁcantly. and you do not need to activate any special physical models (other than the compressible treatment of density as detailed below).5283.Basic Fluid Flow variation of the gas density with pressure can safely be ignored in your ﬂow modeling.0) at an isentropic pressure ratio. For an ideal gas. For air. When the Mach number exceeds 1. This choked ﬂow condition will be established at the point of minimum ﬂow area (e. a shock will occur. 1. and supersonic ﬂows. decelerating with a pressure rise.2 Physics of Compressible Flows Compressible ﬂows are typically characterized by the total pressure p0 and total temperature T0 of the ﬂow. January 29. If a supersonic ﬂow is exposed to an imposed pressure increase. in the throat of a nozzle). and should be activated whenever you are solving 1-18 Release 12.0 c ANSYS.6-3) p0 = p 1+ γ−1 2 M 2 γ/(γ−1) (1. The energy equation solved by ANSYS FLUENT correctly incorporates the coupling between the ﬂow velocity and the static temperature. given a pressure ratio from inlet to exit (total to static). with a sudden pressure rise and deceleration accomplished across the shock. 2009 .g. the ﬂow is termed supersonic. Equation 1.6-3 reduces to T0 Cp T T dT R ) (1. p/p0 .6-5) T0 γ−1 2 = 1+ M T 2 These relationships describe the variation of the static pressure and temperature in the ﬂow as the velocity (Mach number) changes under isentropic conditions. or return to subsonic ﬂow conditions.0.6-4) (1. ANSYS FLUENT provides a wide range of compressible ﬂow modeling capabilities for subsonic. compressibility eﬀects become important. For example.6-4 can be used to estimate the exit Mach number which would exist in a one-dimensional isentropic ﬂow. Equation 1.. Equation 1.6. As the Mach number approaches 1. Basic Equations for Compressible Flows Compressible ﬂows are described by the standard continuity and momentum equations solved by ANSYS FLUENT.0 (which is referred to as the transonic ﬂow regime). these quantities can be related to the static pressure and temperature by the following: p0 = exp( p For constant Cp . In the subsequent area expansion the ﬂow may either accelerate to a supersonic ﬂow in which the pressure will continue to drop.

which become important in high-Mach-number ﬂows. you can turn on the viscous terms (by enabling laminar or turbulent ﬂow) and continue the solution to convergence. an inviscid analysis will give you a quick estimate of the primary forces acting on the body. Another area where inviscid ﬂow analyses are routinely used is to provide a good initial solution for problems involving complicated ﬂow physics and/or complicated ﬂow geometry. For more information about setting up inviscid ﬂows in ANSYS FLUENT.0 c ANSYS. Hence.7. this is the only way to get the calculation started.2-1.1. In a case like this.6-6) where pop is the operating pressure deﬁned in the Operating Conditions dialog box. R is the universal gas constant. and Mw is the molecular weight. the pressure forces on the body will dominate the viscous forces. Information about inviscid ﬂows is provided in the following subsections: • Section 1. T . Once the calculation has been started and the residuals are decreasing. the ideal gas law is written in the following form: ρ= pop + p R T Mw (1. will be computed from the energy equation. you can perform a viscous analysis to include the eﬀects of the ﬂuid viscosity and turbulent viscosity on the lift and drag forces. p is the local static pressure relative to the operating pressure. but in the early stages of the calculation the viscous terms in the momentum equations will be ignored. see Section 9. the viscous forces are important.1: Euler Equations Release 12. you should activate the viscous dissipation terms in Equation 5. One example for which an inviscid ﬂow calculation is appropriate is an aerodynamic analysis of some high-speed projectile. In a case like this. January 29. The Compressible Form of the Gas Law For compressible ﬂows.5: Inviscid Flows in the separate User’s Guide. After the body shape has been modiﬁed to maximize the lift forces and minimize the drag forces.7 Inviscid Flows a compressible ﬂow. In addition.7 Inviscid Flows Inviscid ﬂow analyses neglect the eﬀect of viscosity on the ﬂow and are appropriate for high-Reynolds-number applications where inertial forces tend to dominate viscous forces. 1. For some very complicated ﬂows. Inc. The temperature. 2009 1-19 . if you are using the pressure-based solver.

vx is the axial velocity. and vr is the radial velocity. 1-20 Release 12. Inc. The Mass Conservation Equation The equation for conservation of mass.7-3) where p is the static pressure and ρg and F are the gravitational body force and external body forces (e. the conservation equations for inviscid ﬂow in an inertial (non-rotating) reference frame are presented. but the momentum and energy conservation equations are reduced due to the absence of molecular diﬀusion.g. January 29.7-1 is the general form of the mass conservation equation and is valid for incompressible as well as compressible ﬂows. F also contains other model-dependent source terms such as porous-media and userdeﬁned sources. The mass conservation equation is the same as for a laminar ﬂow. In this section.. The equations that are applicable to non-inertial reference frames are described in Chapter 2: Flows with Rotating Reference Frames.. the continuity equation is given by ∂ρ ∂ ∂ ρvr + (ρvx ) + (ρvr ) + = Sm ∂t ∂x ∂r r (1. The source Sm is the mass added to the continuous phase from the dispersed second phase (e. respectively. The conservation equations relevant for species transport and other models will be discussed in the chapters where those models are described. 2009 .g.Basic Fluid Flow 1.7. For 2D axisymmetric geometries. ANSYS FLUENT solves the Euler equations.0 c ANSYS. Momentum Conservation Equations Conservation of momentum is described by ∂ (ρv) + ∂t · (ρvv) = − p + ρg + F (1.7-2) where x is the axial coordinate. r is the radial coordinate.1 Euler Equations For inviscid ﬂows. or continuity equation. can be written as follows: ∂ρ + ∂t · (ρv) = Sm (1. due to vaporization of liquid droplets) and any user-deﬁned sources.7-1) Equation 1. forces that arise from interaction with the dispersed phase).

2009 1-21 . January 29.1.7-5) (1.0 c ANSYS. the axial and radial momentum conservation equations are given by ∂ 1 ∂ 1 ∂ ∂p (ρvx ) + (rρvx vx ) + (rρvr vx ) = − + Fx ∂t r ∂x r ∂r ∂x and ∂ 1 ∂ 1 ∂ ∂p (ρvr ) + (rρvx vr ) + (rρvr vr ) = − + Fr ∂t r ∂x r ∂r ∂r where ·v = ∂vx ∂vr vr + + ∂x ∂r r (1.7-4) Energy Conservation Equation Conservation of energy is described by ∂ (ρE) + ∂t · (v(ρE + p)) = − · j hj Jj + Sh (1.7 Inviscid Flows For 2D axisymmetric geometries. Inc.7-7) Release 12.7-6) (1.

0 c ANSYS.Basic Fluid Flow 1-22 Release 12. 2009 . January 29. Inc.

it may not be possible to use a single reference frame.3: Flow in Multiple Rotating Reference Frames 2. however. in a stationary (or inertial) reference frame. The information in this chapter is presented in the following sections: • Section 2. However. the ﬂow around the moving parts can be modeled.1 Introduction ANSYS FLUENT solves the equations of ﬂuid ﬂow and heat transfer. These approaches Release 12. For more complex geometries. you must break up the problem into multiple cell zones. 2009 2-1 . by default.2: Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame • Section 2.Chapter 2. For many problems. With a moving reference frame. the moving parts render the problem unsteady when viewed from the stationary frame. By solving these equations in a steady-state manner. with well-deﬁned interfaces between the zones. and it is the ﬂow around these moving parts that is of interest.2: Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame). steady-state modeling methods for this class of problem: the multiple reference frame (or MRF) approach. In such cases. impellers. Flows with Rotating Reference Frames This chapter describes the theoretical background modeling ﬂows in rotating reference frames. the ﬂow around the moving part can (with certain restrictions) be modeled as a steady-state problem with respect to the moving frame. The use of the SRF approach is possible.0 c ANSYS. In most cases. provided the geometry meets certain requirements (as discussed in Section 2. it may be possible to refer the entire computational domain to a single moving reference frame. ANSYS FLUENT’s moving reference frame modeling capability allows you to model problems involving moving parts by allowing you to activate moving reference frames in selected cell zones. This is known as the single reference frame (or SRF) approach. The manner in which the interfaces are treated leads to two approximate.1: Introduction • Section 2. the equations of motion are modiﬁed to incorporate the additional acceleration terms which occur due to the transformation from the stationary to the moving reference frame. January 29. there are many problems where it is advantageous to solve the equations in a moving (or non-inertial) reference frame. and the mixing plane approach. Such problems typically involve moving parts (such as rotating blades. Inc. and similar types of moving surfaces). When a moving reference frame is activated.

vortex shedding from a rotating fan blade. The information in this section is presented in the following: • Section 2. It should also be noted that you can run an unsteady simulation in a moving reference frame with constant rotational speed. By default.Flows with Rotating Reference Frames will be discussed in Sections 2.2. the rotational speed is constant). If the rotational speed is not constant.0 c ANSYS.1. ANSYS FLUENT permits the activation of a moving reference frame with a steady rotational speed. 2009 .3.2: Single Rotating Reference Frame (SRF) Modeling 2-2 Release 12.2.2. you can employ the Sliding Mesh approach to capture the transient behavior of the ﬂow.1 and 2.1: Equations for a Rotating Reference Frame • Section 2.3. For a steadily rotating frame (i. Inc. outlet periodic boundaries inlet Figure 2.. it is possible to transform the equations of ﬂuid motion to the rotating frame such that steady-state solutions are possible. The sliding meshing model will be discussed in Chapter 3: Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes.1: Single Component (Blower Wheel Blade Passage) 2. This would be necessary if you wanted to simulate. If unsteady interaction between the stationary and moving parts is important. January 29.2 Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame The principal reason for employing a moving reference frame is to render a problem which is unsteady in the stationary (inertial) frame steady with respect to the moving frame. the transformed equations will contain additional terms which are not included in ANSYS FLUENT’s formulation (although they can be added as source terms using user-deﬁned functions).e. for example. The unsteadiness in this case is due to a natural ﬂuid instability (vortex generation) rather than induced from interaction with a stationary component.

1 Equations for a Rotating Reference Frame Consider a coordinate system which is rotating steadily with angular velocity ω relative to a stationary (inertial) reference frame. The ﬂuid velocities can be transformed from the stationary frame to the rotating frame using the following relation: v r = v − ur where ur = ω × r (2. as illustrated in Figure 2.2: Multiple Component (Blower Wheel and Casing) 2. The origin of the rotating system is located by a position vector r0 .2.2. January 29. Inc.2-3) (2.2-2) Release 12.0 c ANSYS.2 Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame stationary zone interface rotating zone Figure 2.2-1) The computational domain for the CFD problem is deﬁned with respect to the rotating frame such that an arbitrary point in the CFD domain is located by a position vector r from the origin of the rotating frame.1.1.2. 2009 2-3 . The axis of rotation is deﬁned by a unit direction vector a such that ˆ ω = ωˆ a (2.

2009 .Flows with Rotating Reference Frames Figure 2. vr is the relative velocity (the velocity viewed from the rotating frame). Moreover. Inc. It can be noted here that ANSYS FLUENT’s pressure-based solvers provide the option to use either of these two formulations. 2-4 Release 12. the equations can be formulated in two diﬀerent ways: • Expressing the momentum equations using the relative velocities as dependent variables (known as the relative velocity formulation). The exact forms of the governing equations for these two formulations will be provided in the sections below. see Section 10. and ur is the “whirl” velocity (the velocity due to the moving frame). whereas the density-based solvers always use the absolute velocity formulation. January 29.1: Choosing the Relative or Absolute Velocity Formulation (in the separate User’s Guide). When the equations of motion are solved in the rotating reference frame.0 c ANSYS. For more information about the advantages of each velocity formulation.2. • Expressing the momentum equations using the absolute velocities as dependent variables in the momentum equations (known as the absolute velocity formulation).7.1: Stationary and Rotating Reference Frames In the above. v is the absolute velocity (the velocity viewed from the stationary frame). the acceleration of the ﬂuid is augmented by additional terms that appear in the momentum equations [17].

2 Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame Relative Velocity Formulation For the relative velocity formulation.2-6) The momentum equation contains two additional acceleration terms: the Coriolis acceleration (2ω×vr ). January 29. the governing equations of ﬂuid ﬂow for a steadily rotating frame can be written as follows: Conservation of mass: ∂ρ + ∂t Conservation of momentum: ∂ ρv + ∂t · (ρvr v) + ρ(ω × v) = − p + ·τ +F (2. also known as the rothalpy.0 c ANSYS.2-5) · ρvr = 0 (2.2-10) · ρvr = 0 (2. 2009 2-5 .2-4 except that relative velocity derivatives are used. the governing equations of ﬂuid ﬂow for a steadily rotating frame can be written as follows: Conservation of mass: ∂ρ + ∂t Conservation of momentum: ∂ (ρvr ) + ∂t · (ρvr vr ) + ρ(2ω × vr + ω × ω × r) = − p + · τr + F (2. Inc.2-9) Release 12. In addition.2-7) Hr = Er + (2. These variables are deﬁned as: Er = h − p 1 2 + (vr − ur 2 ) ρ 2 p ρ (2.2-4) Conservation of energy: ∂ (ρEr ) + ∂t · (ρvr Hr ) = · (k T + τ r · vr ) + Sh (2.2-8) Absolute Velocity Formulation For the absolute velocity formulation. and the centripetal acceleration (ω×ω×r). the viscous stress (τ r ) is identical to Equation 1.2. The energy equation is written in terms of the relative internal energy (Er ) and the relative total enthalpy (Hr ).

For example. Flow boundary conditions in ANSYS FLUENT (inlets and outlets) can. The no slip condition is deﬁned in the relative frame such that the relative velocity is zero on the moving walls. be prescribed in either the stationary or rotating frames.2-11) In this formulation. Steady-state solutions are possible in SRF models provided suitable boundary conditions are prescribed.0 c ANSYS. but the surface must be periodic about the axis of rotation.Flows with Rotating Reference Frames Conservation of energy: ∂ ρE + ∂t · (ρvr H + pur ) = · (k T + τ · v) + Sh (2. Rotationally periodic boundaries may also be used. This permits good resolution of the ﬂow around the blade without the expense of modeling all blades in the blade row (see Figure 2.1: Equations for a Rotating Reference Frame are solved in all ﬂuid cell zones. it is very common to model ﬂow through a blade row on a turbomachine by assuming the ﬂow to be rotationally periodic and using a periodic domain about a single blade. 2. An example would be the blade surfaces associated with a pump impeller. In such cases. the equations given in Section 2. the Coriolis and centripetal accelerations can be collapsed into a single term (ω × v). Here the so slip condition is deﬁned such that the absolute velocity is zero on the walls.2 Single Rotating Reference Frame (SRF) Modeling Many problems permit the entire computational domain to be referred to a single rotating reference frame (hence the name SRF modeling). for a velocity inlet. wall boundaries must adhere to the following requirements: • Any walls which are moving with the reference frame can assume any shape. 2009 . Inc. see Section 10. in most cases. An example of this type of boundary would be a cylindrical wind tunnel wall which surrounds a rotating propeller. but these walls must be surfaces of revolution about the axis of rotation. • Walls can be deﬁned which are non-moving with respect to the stationary coordinate system. In particular.2. For additional information on these and other boundary conditions. one can specify either the relative velocity or absolute velocity. 2-6 Release 12. January 29. As an example.2.7: Setting Up a Single Rotating Reference Frame Problem and Chapter 7: Cell Zone and Boundary Conditions in the separate User’s Guide. depending on which is more convenient.2.2).

2 Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame Figure 2.2.0 c ANSYS.2. Inc. January 29.2: Single Blade Model with Rotationally Periodic Boundaries Release 12. 2009 2-7 .

inherently unsteady due to the motion of the mesh with time. the simplest of the two approaches for multiple zones. perhaps.1: The Multiple Reference Frame Model) – Mixing Plane Model (MPM) (see Section 2. The manner in which the equations are treated at the interface lead to two approaches which are supported in ANSYS FLUENT: • Multiple Rotating Reference Frames – Multiple Reference Frame model (MRF) (see Section 2. the mesh remains ﬁxed for the computation. This approach is discussed in Chapter 3: Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes.1: The MRF Interface Formulation. At the interfaces between cell zones.3.0 c ANSYS. Inc. a local reference frame transformation is performed to enable ﬂow variables in one zone to be used to calculate ﬂuxes at the boundary of the adjacent zone.1 The Multiple Reference Frame Model Overview The MRF model [209] is. If the zone is stationary (ω = 0). with interface boundaries separating the zones. you must break up the model into multiple ﬂuid/solid cell zones.3. on the other hand.2: The Mixing Plane Model) • Sliding Mesh Model (SMM) Both the MRF and mixing plane approaches are steady-state approximations. The sliding mesh model approach is.3 Flow in Multiple Rotating Reference Frames Many problems involve multiple moving parts or contain stationary surfaces which are not surfaces of revolution (and therefore cannot be used with the Single Reference Frame modeling approach). whereas stationary zones can be solved with the stationary frame equations. 2009 . Zones which contain the moving components can then be solved using the moving reference frame equations (Section 2. This is analogous to freezing the motion of the moving part in a speciﬁc position and observing the instantaneous ﬂowﬁeld with the rotor in that position. For these problems. It is a steady-state approximation in which individual cell zones can be assigned diﬀerent rotational and/or translational speeds. and diﬀer primarily in the manner in which conditions at the interfaces are treated.2: Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame).Flows with Rotating Reference Frames 2.3. It should be noted that the MRF approach does not account for the relative motion of a moving zone with respect to adjacent zones (which may be moving or stationary). The ﬂow in each moving cell zone is solved using the moving reference frame equations (see Section 2.” 2-8 Release 12. The MRF interface formulation will be discussed in more detail in Section 2. the MRF is often referred to as the “frozen rotor approach. These approaches will be discussed in the sections below.1: Equations for a Rotating Reference Frame). 2. January 29.2.3. Hence. the equations reduce to their stationary forms.

2: Sliding Mesh Theory). Release 12. since these vector quantities change with a change in reference frame.) Steadystate ﬂow conditions are assumed at the interface between the two reference frames. 2009 2-9 . Another potential use of the MRF model is to compute a ﬂow ﬁeld that can be used as an initial condition for a transient sliding mesh calculation. An example of this conﬁguration is illustrated in Figure 2. the velocity at the interface must be the same (in absolute terms) for each reference frame. You can also model a problem that includes more than one rotating reference frame. however. for example. pressure. This eliminates the need for a startup calculation. The multiple reference frame model should not be used. do not require any special treatment. you can deﬁne a rotating reference frame that encompasses the impeller and the ﬂow surrounding it. For example. (The dashes denote the interface between the two reference frames. the dashes denote the interfaces between reference frames. This problem would be modeled using three reference frames: the stationary frame outside both impeller regions and two separate rotating reference frames for the two impellers. large-scale transient eﬀects are not present and the MRF model can be used. The speciﬁc approaches will be discussed below for each case.0 c ANSYS. etc. the sliding mesh model alone should be used (see Section 3. density. January 29.) The MRF Interface Formulation The MRF formulation that is applied to the interfaces will depend on the velocity formulation being used. and thus are passed locally without any change.3. and the ﬂow is relatively uncomplicated at the interface between the moving and stationary zones. since the impeller-baﬄe interactions are relatively weak. That is.. It should be noted that the interface treatment applies to the velocity and velocity gradients. Inc.3. The mesh does not move.1. In mixing tanks. and use a stationary frame for the ﬂow outside the impeller region. Figure 2. it can provide a reasonable model of the ﬂow for many applications. if it is necessary to actually simulate the transients that may occur in strong rotor-stator interactions. (As noted above.3 Flow in Multiple Rotating Reference Frames While the MRF approach is clearly an approximation. Examples For a mixing tank with a single impeller. Scalar quantities. such as temperature. the MRF model can be used for turbomachinery applications in which rotor-stator interaction is relatively weak. turbulent kinetic energy.2.2 shows a geometry that contains two rotating impellers side by side.

3. 2009 .1: Geometry with One Rotating Impeller Figure 2.2: Geometry with Two Rotating Impellers 2-10 Release 12. Inc.Flows with Rotating Reference Frames Figure 2.0 c ANSYS.3. January 29.

while the ﬂow in rotating subdomains is governed by the equations presented in Section 2. etc. species mass fractions. static pressure. the ﬂow in stationary and translating subdomains is governed by the equations in Section 1. For a translational velocity vt . Thus. static temperature.3-1. January 29. each of which may be rotating and/or translating with respect to the laboratory (inertial) frame.3. Velocities and velocity gradients are converted from a moving reference frame to the absolute inertial frame using Equation 2.3-1. The governing equations in each subdomain are written with respect to that subdomain’s reference frame.. Inc. to provide the correct neighbor values of velocity for the subdomain under consideration. ANSYS FLUENT enforces the continuity of the absolute velocity. (This approach diﬀers from the mixing plane approach described in Section 2. Release 12. velocities in each subdomain are computed relative to the motion of the subdomain.3).2: The Mixing Plane Model. the gradient of the absolute velocity vector can be shown to be v= vr + (ω × r) (2.1: Equations for a Rotating Reference Frame.3-1) From Equation 2.2.2: Continuity and Momentum Equations. are simply obtained locally from adjacent cells. the diﬀusion and other terms in the governing equations in one subdomain require values for the velocities in the adjacent subdomain (see Figure 2. 2009 2-11 .0 c ANSYS.2. we have v = vr + (ω × r) + vt (2.) When the relative velocity formulation is used. v. where a circumferential averaging technique is used.3-2) Note that scalar quantities such as density.3. At the boundary between two subdomains.3 Flow in Multiple Rotating Reference Frames Interface Treatment: Relative Velocity Formulation In ANSYS FLUENT’s implementation of the MRF model. the calculation domain is divided into subdomains.

3: Interface Treatment for the MRF Model 2-12 Release 12. v interface vr . 2009 . rotating zone Figure 2. vr All velocities converted to absolute frame and applied to interface along with local scalars.3.Flows with Rotating Reference Frames stationary zone v. Inc. January 29.0 c ANSYS.

Therefore. but the velocities are stored in the absolute frame. The sliding mesh model (see Section 3. the MRF model may not provide a physically meaningful solution. the governing equations in each subdomain are written with respect to that subdomain’s reference frame. in a multistage turbomachine.2: Sliding Mesh Theory) may be appropriate for such cases. This mixing removes any unsteadiness that would arise due to circumferential variations in the passage-to-passage ﬂow ﬁeld (e. separated ﬂow). Overview As discussed in Section 2. shock waves. This section provides a brief overview of the model and a list of its limitations. no special transformation is required at the interface between two subdomains.3 Flow in Multiple Rotating Reference Frames Interface Treatment: Absolute Velocity Formulation When the absolute velocity formulation is used. but in many situations it is not practical to employ a sliding mesh. Flow-ﬁeld data from adjacent zones are passed as boundary conditions that are spatially averaged or “mixed” at the mixing plane interface. sliding mesh calculations are necessarily unsteady.2 The Mixing Plane Model The mixing plane model in ANSYS FLUENT provides an alternative to the multiple reference frame and sliding mesh models for simulating ﬂow through domains with one or more regions in relative motion.. Inc.3. For example. If the ﬂow at this interface is not uniform. each ﬂuid zone is treated as a steady-state problem.g. the mixing plane model can be a cost-eﬀective alternative. a large number of blade passages is required in order to maintain circumferential periodicity. January 29. Moreover. For situations where using the sliding mesh model is not feasible. In the mixing plane approach. and thus require signiﬁcantly more computation to achieve a ﬁnal. 2. time-periodic solution. scalar quantities are determined locally from adjacent cells. wakes.0 c ANSYS. thus yielding a steady-state result. Despite the simpliﬁcations inherent in the mixing plane model. 2009 2-13 .3.1: The Multiple Reference Frame Model. the resulting solutions can provide reasonable approximations of the time-averaged ﬂow ﬁeld. Release 12.2. the MRF model is applicable when the ﬂow at the interface between adjacent moving/stationary zones is nearly uniform (“mixed out”). Again. if the number of blades is diﬀerent for each blade row.

The ﬂow information between these domains will be coupled at the mixing plane interface (as shown in Figures 2. January 29.4 shows a constant radial plane within a single stage of an axial machine.3. You can think of this system as a set of SRF models for each blade passage coupled by boundary conditions supplied by the mixing plane model.4: Axial Rotor-Stator Interaction (Schematic Illustrating the Mixing Plane Concept) In a numerical simulation.Flows with Rotating Reference Frames Rotor and Stator Domains Consider the turbomachine stages shown schematically in Figures 2. which is stationary. 2009 .3.5) using the mixing plane model. each with their own inlet and outlet boundaries. followed by the stator domain. Figure 2. 2-14 Release 12.3.3.5 shows a constant θ plane within a mixed-ﬂow device.3. Inc. each blade passage contains periodic boundaries.5.4 and 2. which is rotating at a prescribed angular velocity. i Note that the stator and rotor passages are separate cell zones.3.4 and 2. a situation where the rotor is downstream of the stator is equally valid). while Figure 2. each domain will be represented by a separate mesh.3.0 c ANSYS. In each case. rotor rotor outlet: ps α r α t α z stator Rθ x stator inlet: p0 α r αt α z k ε mixing plane interface Figure 2. The order of the rotor and stator is arbitrary (that is. Note that you may couple any number of ﬂuid zones in this manner. for example. four blade passages can be coupled using three mixing planes. the stage consists of two ﬂow domains: the rotor domain.

3.2. January 29.5: Radial Rotor-Stator Interaction (Schematic Illustrating the Mixing Plane Concept) Release 12.3 Flow in Multiple Rotating Reference Frames stator stator inlet: p α α α k ε 0 r t z mixing plane r interface x rotor outlet: p α α α s r t z rotor Ω Figure 2.0 c ANSYS. Inc. 2009 2-15 .

total temperature (T0 ). αz ). turbulence kinetic energy (k). the boundary zones must be of the following types: Upstream pressure outlet pressure outlet pressure outlet Downstream pressure inlet velocity inlet mass ﬂow inlet For speciﬁc instructions about setting up mixing planes. αz ). “proﬁles” of boundary condition ﬂow variables can be deﬁned. tangential. are computed at the stator inlet and used as a boundary condition on the rotor exit. The coupling of an upstream outlet boundary zone with a downstream inlet boundary zone is called a “mixing plane pair”.5. and mixed-out averaging.2: Setting Up the Mixing Plane Model in the separate User’s Guide. 2009 .Flows with Rotating Reference Frames The Mixing Plane Concept The essential idea behind the mixing plane concept is that each ﬂuid zone is solved as a steady-state problem. depending on the orientation of the mixing plane—are then used to update boundary conditions along the two zones of the mixing plane interface. tangential. 2-16 Release 12. These proﬁles— which will be functions of either the axial or the radial coordinate. the ﬂow data at the mixing plane interface are averaged in the circumferential direction on both the stator outlet and the rotor inlet boundaries. Passing proﬁles in the manner described above assumes speciﬁc boundary condition types have been deﬁned at the mixing plane interface. αt . see Section 10. Inc. direction cosines of the local ﬂow angles in the radial. and axial directions (αr . proﬁles of averaged total pressure (p0 ). The ANSYS FLUENT implementation gives you the choice of three types of averaging methods: area-weighted averaging. January 29. In order to create mixing plane pairs in ANSYS FLUENT.3. In the examples shown in Figures 2.10.0 c ANSYS. αt . By performing circumferential averages at speciﬁed radial or axial stations.4 and 2.3. mass averaging. and turbulence dissipation rate ( ) are computed at the rotor exit and used to update boundary conditions at the stator inlet. Likewise. At some prescribed iteration interval. and axial directions (αr . a proﬁle of static pressure (ps ). direction cosines of the local ﬂow angles in the radial.

Therefore. January 29.3-4) ρV · ndA ˆ This method provides a better representation of the total quantities than the areaaveraging method. then switch to mass averaging after reverse ﬂow dies out. Release 12. for solution stability purposes. Convergence problems could arise if severe reverse ﬂow is present at the mixing plane.0 c ANSYS.3-3) i The pressure and temperature obtained by the area average may not be representative of the momentum and energy of the ﬂow. i Mass averaging averaging is not available with multiphase ﬂows. Mass Averaging Mass averaging is given by f= where m= ˙ A 1 m ˙ f ρV · ndA ˆ A (2.3 Flow in Multiple Rotating Reference Frames Choosing an Averaging Method Three proﬁle averaging methods are available in the mixing plane model: • area averaging • mass averaging • mixed-out averaging Area Averaging Area averaging is the default averaging method and is given by f= 1 A f dA A (2. it is best if you initiate the solution with area averaging. Inc.2. 2009 2-17 .

the mixed-out average is considered a better representation of the ﬂow since it reﬂects losses associated with non-uniformities in the ﬂow proﬁles. 2-18 Release 12. Therefore. momentum and energy: F = A ρ(V · n)dA ˆ ρ(V · n)udA + ˆ A A (2.Flows with Rotating Reference Frames Mixed-Out Averaging The mixed-out averaging method is derived from the conservation of mass. like the mass-averaging method. i Mixed-out averaging is not available with multiphase ﬂows.3-5) P (ex · n)dA ˆ ˆ P (ey · n)dA ˆ ˆ P (ez · n)dA ˆ ˆ 1 2 ρ(V · n)(u2 + v 2 + w2 )dA ˆ A M1 = M2 = M3 = E = ρ(V · n)vdA + ˆ A A ρ(V · n)wdA + ˆ A A γR (γ − 1) ρ(V · n)T dA + ˆ A Because it is based on the principals of conservation. Mixed-out averaging assumes that the ﬂuid is a compressible ideal-gas with constant speciﬁc heat. it is best if you initiate the solution with area averaging. 2009 . Inc.0 c ANSYS. January 29. However. convergence diﬃculties can arise when severe reverse ﬂow is present across the mixing plane. Cp . then switch to mixed-out averaging after reverse ﬂow dies out.

2009 2-19 .2. ANSYS FLUENT will force mass conservation across the mixing plane. Mass Conservation Note that the algorithm described above will not rigorously conserve mass ﬂow across the mixing plane if it is represented by a pressure outlet and pressure inlet mixing plane pair. i Note that it may be desirable to under-relax the changes in boundary condition values in order to prevent divergence of the solution (especially early in the computation). i Note that. 3. thus ensuring rigorous conservation of mass ﬂow throughout the course of the calculation. obtaining proﬁles for use in updating boundary conditions.0 c ANSYS. there will be a jump in total pressure across the mixing plane. If you use a pressure outlet and mass ﬂow outlet pair instead. January 29. Average the ﬂow properties at the stator exit and rotor inlet boundaries. Pass the proﬁles to the boundary condition inputs required for the stator exit and rotor inlet. 2. The magnitude of this jump is usually small compared with total pressure variations elsewhere in the ﬂow ﬁeld. since mass ﬂow is being ﬁxed in this case. This adjustment occurs at every iteration. ANSYS FLUENT allows you to control the under-relaxation of the mixing plane variables. The basic technique consists of computing the mass ﬂow rate across the upstream zone (pressure outlet) and adjusting the mass ﬂux proﬁle applied at the mass ﬂow inlet such that the downstream mass ﬂow matches the upstream mass ﬂow.3 Flow in Multiple Rotating Reference Frames ANSYS FLUENT’s Mixing Plane Algorithm ANSYS FLUENT’s basic mixing plane algorithm can be described as follows: 1. 4. Repeat steps 1–3 until convergence. Release 12. Update the ﬂow ﬁeld solutions in the stator and rotor domains. Inc.

Note that interpolating the tangential (and radial) velocity component proﬁles at the mixing plane does not aﬀect mass conservation because these velocity components are orthogonal to the face-normal velocity used in computing the mass ﬂux. vθ is the absolute tangential velocity. Now consider the mixing plane interface to have a ﬁnite streamwise thickness. T = S rvθ ρv · ndS ˆ (2. (The product rvθ is referred to as swirl.. the equation becomes rvθ ρv · ndS = ˆ rvθ ρv · ndS ˆ (2. Applying Equation 2. That is. For applications such as torque converters. in the limit as the thickness shrinks to zero. v is the total absolute velocity. ANSYS FLUENT does not conserve swirl across the mixing plane.3-7 to this zone and noting that. Equation 2.g. ANSYS FLUENT computes a proﬁle of tangential velocity and then uniformly adjusts the proﬁle such that the swirl integral is satisﬁed. enforcing swirl conservation across the mixing plane is essential. it can be shown that for steady ﬂow.3-8 provides a rational means of determining the tangential velocity component.3-6) where T is the torque of the ﬂuid acting on the component.0 c ANSYS.3-7) where inlet and outlet denote the inlet and outlet boundary surfaces. where the sum of the torques acting on the components should be zero. and S is the boundary surface. sources or sinks of tangential momentum will be present at the mixing plane interface. Note that Equation 2. Consider a control volume containing a stationary or rotating component (e.3-8 applies to the full area (360 degrees) at the mixing plane interface.) For a circumferentially periodic domain. otherwise. Inc. January 29.Flows with Rotating Reference Frames Swirl Conservation By default. Equation 2. 2009 . Ensuring conservation of swirl is important because. with well-deﬁned inlet and outlet boundaries. the torque should vanish. and is available in ANSYS FLUENT as a modeling option.3-6 becomes T = outlet rvθ ρv · ndS + ˆ inlet rvθ ρv · ndS ˆ (2. 2-20 Release 12. r is the radial distance from the axis of rotation. Using the moment of momentum equation from ﬂuid mechanics.3-8) downstream upstream where upstream and downstream denote the upstream and downstream sides of the mixing plane interface. a pump impeller or turbine vane).

However.0 c ANSYS. 2009 2-21 . The procedure for ensuring conservation of total enthalpy simply involves adjusting the downstream total temperature proﬁle such that the integrated total enthalpy matches the upstream integrated total enthalpy. because global parameters such as eﬃciency are directly related to the change in total enthalpy across a blade row or stage.3 Flow in Multiple Rotating Reference Frames Total Enthalpy Conservation By default. for the Eulerian multiphase model. This is available in ANSYS FLUENT as a modeling option. conservation of mass. and enthalpy are calculated for each phase. Inc. January 29. For multiphase ﬂows. total enthalpy conservation across the mixing plane is very desirable. ANSYS FLUENT does not conserve total enthalpy across the mixing plane. since mass ﬂow inlets are not permissible. conservation of the above quantities does not occur.2. For some applications. swirl. Release 12.

Inc.0 c ANSYS. January 29. 2009 .Flows with Rotating Reference Frames 2-22 Release 12.

convecting downstream. are models that are applied to steady-state cases. Inc. and generally classiﬁed as follows: • Potential interactions: ﬂow unsteadiness due to pressure waves which propagate both upstream and downstream. Theoretical information about sliding and deforming mesh models is presented in the following sections: • Section 3. discussed in Chapter 2: Flows with Rotating Reference Frames. see Section 11.3: Dynamic Mesh Theory 3.1: Introduction • Section 3. Where the multiple reference frame (MRF) and mixing plane (MP) models. • Shock interactions: for transonic/supersonic ﬂow unsteadiness due to shock waves striking the downstream blade row. Release 12.Chapter 3.1. thus neglecting unsteady interactions.0 c ANSYS.2: Sliding Mesh Theory • Section 3. Also.2: Using Sliding Meshes in the separate User’s Guide. The sliding mesh model accounts for the relative motion of stationary and rotating components. These interactions are illustrated in Figure 3.1 Introduction In sliding meshes.1. see Section 11. To learn more about using sliding meshes in ANSYS FLUENT. the relative motion of stationary and rotating components in a rotating machine will give rise to unsteady interactions. January 29. for more information about using dynamic meshes in ANSYS FLUENT. the sliding mesh model cannot neglect unsteady interactions.3: Using Dynamic Meshes in the separate User’s Guide. • Wake interactions: ﬂow unsteadiness due to wakes from upstream blade rows. Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes This chapter describes the theoretical background of the sliding and dynamic mesh models in ANSYS FLUENT. 2009 3-1 .

• A ﬂap moving with respect to an airplane wing. For example • A piston moving with respect to an engine cylinder. The dynamic mesh model is used when boundaries move rigidly (linear or rotating) with respect to each other.0 c ANSYS.1: Illustration of Unsteady Interactions The dynamic mesh model uses the ANSYS FLUENT solver to move boundaries and/or objects. For example • A balloon that is being inﬂated.1. 3-2 Release 12. January 29. 2009 .Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes Figure 3. • An artiﬁcial wall responding to the pressure pulse from the heart. The dynamic mesh model can also be used when boundaries deform or deﬂect. Inc. and to adjust the mesh accordingly.

j · Aj (3.0 c ANSYS.1-1 can be written.1-2) where n and n + 1 denote the respective quantity at the current and next time level. 2009 3-3 . The dot product ug.j · Aj on each control volume face is calculated from ug.1-1) ρ is the ﬂuid density u is the ﬂow velocity vector ug is the mesh velocity of the moving mesh Γ is the diﬀusion coeﬃcient Sφ is the source term of φ Here ∂V is used to represent the boundary of the control volume V .1 Introduction Conservation Equations With respect to dynamic meshes. The (n + 1)th time level volume V n+1 is computed from V n+1 = V n + dV ∆t dt (3. The time derivative term in Equation 3.j · Aj = δVj ∆t (3. In order to satisfy the mesh conservation law. as d dt (ρφV )n+1 − (ρφV )n ∆t ρφdV = V (3.1-5) where δVj is the volume swept out by the control volume face j over the time step ∆t. Inc. V . January 29. the integral form of the conservation equation for a general scalar. φ.1-4) where nf is the number of faces on the control volume and Aj is the j face area vector. Release 12. the volume time derivative of the control volume is computed from dV = dt nf ∂V ug · dA = j ug. whose boundary is moving can be written as d dt where ρφdV + V ∂V ρφ (u − ug ) · dA = Γ φ · dA + ∂V V Sφ dV (3. on an arbitrary control volume.3.1-3) where dV /dt is the volume time derivative of the control volume. using a ﬁrst-order backward diﬀerence formula.

1-2 can now be expressed as follows: d dt [(ρφ)n+1 − (ρφ)n ]V ∆t ρφdV = V (3.2. Inc. In the sliding mesh formulation. That is.1-3. two cars or trains passing in a tunnel. the sliding mesh model is the most accurate method for simulating ﬂows in multiple moving reference frames. As mentioned in Section 2. therefore from Equation 3. Therefore.Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes In the case of the sliding mesh. January 29. you can model other types of transients.1). as shown in Figure 3. Most often. including translating sliding mesh zones (e. you must use the sliding mesh model to compute the unsteady ﬂow ﬁeld.0 c ANSYS.2. Interface Figure 3. no moving reference frames are attached to the computational domain. However. simplifying the ﬂux transfers across the interfaces. the unsteady solution that is sought in a sliding mesh simulation is timeperiodic. but also the most computationally demanding.1-6) 3. dV = 0 dt and V n+1 = V n . the unsteady solution repeats with a period related to the speeds of the moving domains. the motion of moving zones is tracked relative to the stationary frame. Equation 3. the control volume remains constant..2 Sliding Mesh Theory When a time-accurate solution for rotor-stator interaction (rather than a time-averaged solution) is desired.1: Introduction. 2009 .1: Two Passing Trains in a Tunnel 3-4 Release 12.g.

2: Rotor-Stator Interaction (Stationary Guide Vanes with Rotating Blades) Release 12. you may use the multiple reference frame model or the mixing plane model.2.2 and 3. as described in Sections 2.. January 29.3. stationary vanes rotating blades ﬂow direction of motion Figure 3. when there is only a rotor).3.2.0 c ANSYS.2.e. Inc.3). it is more eﬃcient to use a rotating reference frame. 2009 3-5 .1 and 2. If you are interested in a steady approximation of the interaction.3. you must use sliding meshes. (See Section 2.2 Sliding Mesh Theory Note that for ﬂow situations where there is no interaction between stationary and moving parts (i.2.2: Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame for details.) When transient rotorstator interaction is desired (as in the examples in Figures 3.

Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes Interface Figure 3.5 show the initial position of two meshes and their positions after some translation has occurred.3: Blower The Sliding Mesh Technique In the sliding mesh technique two or more cell zones are used.3. 2009 .e.” The two cell zones will move relative to each other along the mesh interface. a time-dependent solution procedure is required.15: Reading Multiple Mesh/Case/Data Files in the separate User’s Guide.2. January 29.) Each cell zone is bounded by at least one “interface zone” where it meets the opposing cell zone. The interface zones of adjacent cell zones are associated with one another to form a “mesh interface. you will need to merge the mesh ﬁles prior to starting the calculation.2. (If you generate the mesh in each zone independently. as described in Section 6. Since the ﬂow is inherently unsteady. During the calculation. Figures 3. Inc.4 and 3.0 c ANSYS. 3-6 Release 12. rotate or translate) relative to one another along the mesh interface in discrete steps. As the rotation or translation takes place.2. the cell zones slide (i.. node alignment along the mesh interface is not required.

4: Initial Position of the Meshes Figure 3.2.0 c ANSYS.5: Rotor Mesh Slides with Respect to the Stator Release 12.3.2.2 Sliding Mesh Theory Figure 3. January 29. 2009 3-7 . Inc.

Figure 3.0 c ANSYS.2.8 shows an example that would use a conical mesh interface. the resulting interface would be a cylinder. (In both ﬁgures. the mesh interface is designated by a dashed line.2.7 shows a circular-arc mesh interface.7 was extruded to 3D. in which the rotating and stationary parts are 3-8 Release 12. Inc.2.2.) Figure 3.2. (The slanted. 2009 . Figure 3. January 29. if Figure 3.2.6: 2D Linear Mesh Interface If Figure 3.) For an axial rotor/stator conﬁguration. the resulting sliding interface would be a planar rectangle.6 was extruded to 3D. provided that the two interface boundaries are based on the same geometry. dashed lines represent the intersection of the conical interface with a 2D plane.Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes Mesh Interface Shapes The mesh interface and the associated interface zones can be any shape.6 shows an example with a linear mesh interface and Figure 3.

7: 2D Circular-Arc Mesh Interface Figure 3.0 c ANSYS. January 29. Inc.8: 3D Conical Mesh Interface Release 12.2.3. 2009 3-9 .2 Sliding Mesh Theory Figure 3.2.

January 29. For information about how ANSYS FLUENT handles non-conformal interfaces. In doing so.0 c ANSYS. 3-10 Release 12.2: Sliding Mesh Theory.Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes aligned axially instead of being concentric (see Figure 3.1 The Sliding Mesh Concept As discussed in Section 3. This planar sector is a cross-section of the domain perpendicular to the axis of rotation at a position along the axis between the rotor and the stator. the interface will be a planar sector.2. the mesh faces do not need to be aligned on the mesh interface.9: 3D Planar-Sector Mesh Interface 3.2.9). see Section 6. the sliding mesh model allows adjacent meshes to slide relative to one another. This situation requires a means of computing the ﬂux across the two non-conformal interface zones of each mesh interface. Inc. 2009 .4: NonConformal Meshes in the separate User’s Guide.2. portion of domain being modeled planar sector grid interface Figure 3.

You can use the non-conformal or sliding interface capability in ANSYS FLUENT to connect the various zones in the ﬁnal model. The boundary between the various regions need not be conformal. you need to provide a starting volume mesh and the description of the motion of any moving zones in the model.3 Dynamic Mesh Theory The dynamic mesh model in ANSYS FLUENT can be used to model ﬂows where the shape of the domain is changing with time due to motion on the domain boundaries.3.3. see Section 19. which is what the six degree of freedom (6DOF) solver does (see Section 11. Furthermore.. you can specify the linear and angular velocities about the center of gravity of a solid body with time) or an unprescribed motion where the subsequent motion is determined based on the solution at the current time (e. The information in this section is presented in the following: • Section 3.2: Six DOF (6DOF) Solver Theory 3. The motion can be a prescribed motion (e. For more information on hanging node adaption. Inc. To use the dynamic mesh model. ANSYS FLUENT expects the description of the motion to be speciﬁed on either face or cell zones. ANSYS FLUENT allows you to describe the motion using either boundary proﬁles. If the model contains moving and non-moving regions.1: Dynamic Mesh Update Methods • Section 3. regions that are deforming due to motion on their adjacent regions must also be grouped into separate zones in the starting volume mesh.. The update of the volume mesh is handled automatically by ANSYS FLUENT at each time step based on the new positions of the boundaries. user-deﬁned functions (UDFs).1 Dynamic Mesh Update Methods Three groups of mesh motion methods are available in ANSYS FLUENT to update the volume mesh in the deforming regions subject to the motion deﬁned at the boundaries: • smoothing methods • dynamic layering • local remeshing methods Note that you can use ANSYS FLUENT’s dynamic mesh models in conjunction with hanging node adaption. or the Six Degree of Freedom solver (6DOF).g.3. Release 12. January 29. 2009 3-11 . the linear and angular velocities are calculated from the force balance on a solid body.0 c ANSYS.g. with the exception of dynamic layering and face remeshing.1. The dynamic mesh model can also be used for steady-state applications.1: Hanging Node Adaption.7: Using the Six DOF Solver in the separate User’s Guide). where it is beneﬁcial to move the mesh in the steady-state solver.3.3.3 Dynamic Mesh Theory 3. you need to identify these regions by grouping them into their respective face or cell zones in the starting volume mesh that you generate.

The spring-based smoothing is shown in Figures 3. 3-12 Release 12. Inc.2 for a cylindrical cell zone where one end of the cylinder is moving.3. At convergence. the edges between any two mesh nodes are idealized as a network of interconnected springs.3-2) At equilibrium. and kij is the spring constant (or stiﬀness) between node i and its neighbor j.0 c ANSYS.3-4) where n + 1 and n are used to denote the positions at the next time step and the current time step.3-3 is solved using a Jacobi sweep on all interior nodes. The spring constant for the edge connecting nodes i and j is deﬁned as kij = 1 | xi − xj | (3. respectively. January 29.3-3) Since displacements are known at the boundaries (after boundary node positions have been updated). This condition results in an iterative equation such that ∆xm+1 = i ni j kij ∆xm j ni kij j (3. Equation 3.Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes Spring-Based Smoothing Method In the spring-based smoothing method. the net force on a node due to all the springs connected to the node must be zero.converged i i i (3.3. Using Hook’s Law. the positions are updated such that xn+1 = xn + ∆xm. ni is the number of neighboring nodes connected to node i. The initial spacings of the edges before any boundary motion constitute the equilibrium state of the mesh.3-1) where ∆xi and ∆xj are the displacements of node i and its neighbor j. the force on a mesh node can be written as ni Fi = j kij (∆xj − ∆xi ) (3. 2009 .1 and 3. A displacement at a given boundary node will generate a force proportional to the displacement along all the springs connected to the node.

3.3.0 c ANSYS.2: Spring-Based Smoothing on Interior Nodes: End Release 12.1: Spring-Based Smoothing on Interior Nodes: Start Figure 3. Inc. 2009 3-13 .3. January 29.3 Dynamic Mesh Theory Figure 3.

2009 . the skewness has been improved). → This update only happens if the maximum skewness of all faces adjacent to − m+1 is xi m → − . For cases that have a Mesh Motion UDF (see Section 11. − m is the node position xi xj → − m at iteration m. the zone with triangular elements in 3D and zones with linear elements in 2D). This method adjusts the location of each mesh vertex to the geometric center of its neighboring vertices.5 and 3. both in time and space as seen by the deformation of the face zone and the respective boundary layer. of neighbor node of x i → The new node position − m+1 is then computed as follows: xi − m+1 = − m (1 − β) + − m β → → → xi xi xi where β is the boundary node relaxation factor. where a UDF of the form DEFINE_GRID_MOTION provides the moving-deforming mesh model with the locations of the nodes located on the compliant strip on an idealized airfoil. This method is computationally inexpensive but it does not guarantee an improvement on mesh quality. ANSYS FLUENT only relocates the vertex to the geometric center of its neighboring vertices if and only if there is an improvement in the mesh quality (i. January 29.3-6) Boundary Layer Smoothing Method The boundary layer smoothing method is used to deform the boundary layer during a moving-deforming mesh simulation. This smoothing method preserves the height of each boundary layer and can be applied to boundary layer zones of all mesh types (wedges and hexahedra in 3D.. the boundary layer will deform according to the UDF that is applied to the face zone. Consider the example below. such that the cells adjacent to the deforming wall will also be deformed.e.3.e. A deforming ﬂag is set on the adjacent cell zone. The computation of the node positions works as follows: → −m = xi ni j → −m xj ni (3. 3-14 Release 12. Inc.. in order to avoid skewness. To overcome this problem.3.6).Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes Laplacian Smoothing Method Laplacian smoothing is the most commonly used and the simplest mesh smoothing method. improved in comparison to x i (3.0 c ANSYS.3. and ni is the number nodes neighboring node i. The node motion varies sinusoidally (Figures 3.3-5) → → where − m is the averaged node position of node i at iteration m.9: User-Deﬁned Motion in the separate User’s Guide) applied to a face zone with adjacent boundary layers. since repositioning a vertex by Laplacian smoothing can result in poor quality elements. quadrilaterals in 2D). This improved Laplacian smoothing can be enabled on deforming boundaries only (i.

3. Inc.3.3. January 29.3.7) based on the height (h) of the cells in layer j.5). Release 12. Dynamic Layering Method In prismatic (hexahedral and/or wedge) mesh zones.3) prior to applying the Mesh Motion UDF to that mesh whose boundary layer has been deformed (Figure 3. Figure 3.3.3 Dynamic Mesh Theory Compare the original mesh (Figure 3. you can use dynamic layering to add or remove layers of cells adjacent to a moving boundary. The layer of cells adjacent to the moving boundary (layer j in Figure 3.3. see Section 11.7) is split or merged with the layer of cells next to it (layer i in Figure 3.0 c ANSYS.3.9: Specifying Boundary Layer Deformation Smoothing (in the separate User’s Guide). based on the height of the layer adjacent to the moving surface.3: The Mesh Prior to Applying Boundary Layer Smoothing To ﬁnd out how to set up a deforming boundary layer for smoothing. 2009 3-15 . The dynamic mesh model in ANSYS FLUENT allows you to specify an ideal layer height on each moving boundary.

4: Zooming into the Mesh of the Compliant Strip Prior to Applying Boundary Layer Smoothing 3-16 Release 12. 2009 . Inc.Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes Figure 3. January 29.0 c ANSYS.3.

January 29.3.5: The Mesh After Applying Boundary Layer Smoothing Release 12.0 c ANSYS. 2009 3-17 . Inc.3.3 Dynamic Mesh Theory Figure 3.

0 c ANSYS. 2009 .3.7: Dynamic Layering 3-18 Release 12.Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes Figure 3.3. Inc.6: Zooming into the Deformed Boundary Layer of the Compliant Strip Layer i Layer j Moving boundary h Figure 3. January 29.

When this condition is met.1: Spring-Based Smoothing Method) is normally used. the cells in layer j are merged with those in layer i. they can be compressed until hmin < αc hideal (3. the ratio of the new cell heights is exactly αs everywhere.8 and 3.3 Dynamic Mesh Theory If the cells in layer j are expanding. Figure 3. January 29. the cells are split to create a layer of cells with constant height hideal and a layer of cells of height h − hideal . Note that ANSYS FLUENT allows you to deﬁne hideal as either a constant value or a value that varies as a function of time or crank angle.. Remeshing Methods On zones with a triangular or tetrahedral mesh. When the condition in Equation 3.0 c ANSYS. hideal is the ideal cell height.9 show the result of splitting a layer of cells above a valve geometry using the height-based and ratio-based option. Figures 3.3-8) where αc is the layer collapse factor. With the ratio-based option.8: Results of Splitting Layer with the Height-Based Option If the cells in layer j are being compressed. the cells are split based on the speciﬁed layering option. With the height-based option. This option can be height based or ratio based.3. the cell heights are allowed to increase until hmin > (1 + αs )hideal (3.3. the cells are split such that locally. Inc.3-7) where hmin is the minimum cell height of cell layer j.3. the spring-based smoothing method (described in Section 3. and αs is the layer split factor. i. 2009 3-19 . When Release 12.3.3-7 is met.3. the compressed layer of cells is merged into the layer of cells above the compressed layer.e.

g. result in negative cell volumes) and consequently.9: Results of Splitting Layer with the Ratio-Based Option the boundary displacement is large compared to the local cell sizes. will lead to convergence problems when the solution is updated to the next time step.Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes Figure 3. If the new cells or faces satisfy the skewness criterion. Otherwise. 2009 .5D surface remeshing (for 3D ﬂows only). January 29. Inc. the mesh is locally updated with the new cells (with the solution interpolated from the old cells). and 2. This will invalidate the mesh (e. the new cells are discarded.5D model. The available remeshing methods in ANSYS FLUENT work for triangulartetrahedral zones and mixed zones where the non-triangular/tetrahedral elements are skipped. face region remeshing. ANSYS FLUENT includes several remeshing methods that include local remeshing. where the available remeshing method only work on wedges extruded from triangular surfaces or hex meshes. To circumvent this problem.3.. local face remeshing (for 3D ﬂows only). ANSYS FLUENT agglomerates cells that violate the skewness or size criteria and locally remeshes the agglomerated cells or faces.0 c ANSYS. The exception is the 2. the cell quality can deteriorate or the cells can become degenerate. 3-20 Release 12.

Release 12. • Its height does not meet the speciﬁed length scale (at moving face zones. ANSYS FLUENT marks the region of faces on the deforming boundaries at the moving boundary based on minimum and maximum length scales.3. • It is smaller than a speciﬁed minimum length scale. For more information. 2009 3-21 .. ANSYS FLUENT analyzes the height of the faces connected to the nodes on the loop and subsequently. Conversely. Face Region Remeshing Method In addition to remeshing the volume mesh. The face remeshing is illustrated in Figure 3. On the deforming boundary. ANSYS FLUENT is able to remesh across multiple face zones.. For face region remeshing. Using this method. Once marked. splits or merges the faces depending on the speciﬁed maximum or minimum length scale. a single loop is generated at the bottom end of the cylinder (where the nodes are moving). Figure 3. ANSYS FLUENT marks deforming boundary faces for remeshing based on moving and deforming loops of faces. If the faces in layer j are expanding.g. the compressed layer of faces is merged into the layer of faces above it.3.10). ANSYS FLUENT marks cells based on cell skewness and minimum and maximum length scales as well as an optional sizing function. When this condition is met. ANSYS FLUENT automatically extracts loops on the boundary of the face zone whose nodes are moving or deforming. and across multiple face zones which includes preserving features not only between the diﬀerent face zones. ANSYS FLUENT allows remeshing with symmetric boundary conditions. Consider a simple tetrahedral mesh of a cylinder whose bottom wall is moving (see Figure 3. • It is larger than a speciﬁed maximum length scale.3.3. e. For 3D simulations. but also within a face zone. if the layer is contracting. above a moving piston). ANSYS FLUENT remeshes the faces and the adjacent cells to produce a very regular mesh on the deforming boundary at the moving boundary (e.1: Feature Detection. Inc. see Section 3. they are allowed to contract until the minimum length scale is reached.0 c ANSYS. January 29.g. ANSYS FLUENT evaluates each cell and marks it for remeshing if it meets one or more of the following criteria: • It has a skewness that is greater than a speciﬁed maximum skewness.3.10).3 Dynamic Mesh Theory Local Remeshing Method Using the local remeshing method.12. ANSYS FLUENT also allows triangular and linear faces on a deforming boundary to be remeshed. they are allowed to expand until the maximum length scale is reached.

ANSYS FLUENT is able to remesh locally at deforming boundaries. Inc. January 29. Using this method.Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes Deforming boundary Layer i Layer j h Moving boundary Figure 3. ANSYS FLUENT marks the faces (and the adjacent cells) on the deforming boundaries based on the face skewness. 2009 . however.3.10: Remeshing at a Deforming Boundary Local Face Remeshing Method The local face remeshing method only applies to 3D geometries. 3-22 Release 12. Using this method. you are not able to remesh across multiple face zones.0 c ANSYS.

January 29.3.12: Expanding Cylinder After Region Face Remeshing Release 12.3.0 c ANSYS. Inc.3. 2009 3-23 .3 Dynamic Mesh Theory Figure 3.11: Expanding Cylinder Before Region Face Remeshing Figure 3.

Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes 2. Inc. January 29.13: Close-Up of 2. Stationary Wall Moving Walls Moving Walls Figure 3. Faces on a deforming boundary are marked for remeshing based on face skewness. 2009 . minimum and maximum length scale and an optional sizing function.5D Surface Remeshing Method The 2.3.5D Extruded Flow Meter Pump Geometry Before Remeshing and Laplacian Smoothing 3-24 Release 12.5D surface remeshing method only applies to extruded 3D geometries and is similar to local remeshing in two dimensions on a triangular surface mesh (not a mixed zone).0 c ANSYS.

3 Dynamic Mesh Theory Remeshed Areas Figure 3. Inc. 2009 3-25 .14: Close-Up of 2.3.0 c ANSYS. January 29.5D Extruded Flow Meter Pump Geometry After Remeshing and Laplacian Smoothing Release 12.3.

The shortest feature length is determined by shrinking a second box around the object. The intermediate value of the size function sizeb at the centroid is computed from 1 ΣSF I LI 1 Σ LI sizeb = (3. As seen in Figure 3.3.17. the local value of the size function SFI is deﬁned by 1 Σ DJ ∆sJ 1 Σ DJ SFI = (3. 2009 . You control the resolution of the background mesh and a background mesh is created for each ﬂuid zone.3-9) where DJ is the distance from vertex I on the background mesh to the centroid of boundary cell J and ∆sJ is the mesh size (length) of boundary cell J. The size function is then smoothed using Laplacian smoothing.16 demonstrates the advantages of using size functions for local remeshing: In determining the sizing function. Local remeshing using size functions can be used with the following remeshing methods: • local remeshing • 2. The size function is evaluated at the vertex of each individual background mesh. and locates the shortest feature length within each ﬂuid zone. ANSYS FLUENT draws a bounding box around the zone that is approximately twice the size of the zone.3-10) 3-26 Release 12.18).0 c ANSYS.5D surface remeshing Figure 3.Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes Local Remeshing Based on Size Functions Instead of marking cells based on minimum and maximum length scales. January 29.3. Inc. This allows ANSYS FLUENT to create a background mesh. and then selecting the shortest edge on that box.3. ANSYS FLUENT can also mark cells based on the size distribution generated by sizing functions. ANSYS FLUENT then subdivides the bounding box based on the shortest feature length and the Size Function Resolution that you specify. ANSYS FLUENT then interpolates the value of the size function by calculating the distance LI from a given cell centroid P to the background mesh vertices that surround the cell (see Figure 3.

Inc. 2009 3-27 .3.3.3.0 c ANSYS. January 29.16: Mesh at the End of a Dynamic Mesh Simulation With Size Functions Release 12.3 Dynamic Mesh Theory Figure 3.15: Mesh at the End of a Dynamic Mesh Simulation Without Size Functions Figure 3.

17: Size Function Determination at Background Mesh Vertex I Figure 3.Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes Figure 3.3.3.18: Interpolating the Value of the Size Function 3-28 Release 12. Inc. January 29. 2009 .0 c ANSYS.

3-11) Figure 3.3.19: Determining the Normalized Distance Using the parameters α and β (the Size Function Variation and the Size Function Rate. January 29.0 c ANSYS. Since the maximum value of db is one. Inc. α is really a measure of the maximum cell size. Note that α is the size function variation.19) that has the largest distance dmax to the nearest boundary to it.3. Positive values mean that the cell size increases as you move away from the boundary.3. respectively).3 Dynamic Mesh Theory Next. the maximum cell size becomes sizeP.max = sizeb × (1 + α) = sizeb × γmax thus.3-13) (3. a single point Q is located within the domain (see Figure 3. The normalized distance db for the given centroid P is given by dP min dmax db = (3. 2009 3-29 . you can write the ﬁnal value sizeP of the size function at point P as sizeP = sizeb × (1 + α × d1+2β ) = sizeb × γ b where sizeb is the intermediate value of the size function at the cell centroid.3-12) Release 12. (3.

3-15. Conversely. and 1 in 3D problems. α ranges from −1 to ∞.5 the size of the closest boundary cell. The sizing function is based on the sizes of the boundary cells.3-14) (3. Conversely. Inc.3-14 and Equation 3. A value of 0 indicates a constant size distribution away from the boundary. By default. Note that the size function is only used for marking cells before remeshing. ANSYS FLUENT will agglomerate a cell if size ∈ 5 4 γsizeb .5 indicates that the interior cell size can be. γsizeb 5 4 (3. 2009 . an α value of 0. the Size Function Resolution is 3 in 2D problems.0 c ANSYS.3-15) You can use Size Function Variation (or α) to control how large or small an interior cell can be with respect to its closest boundary cell. In summary. at most. 1. A set of default values (based on the current mesh) is automatically generated if you click Use Defaults. with the size computed from the cell volume by assuming a perfect (equilateral) triangle in 2D and a perfect tetrahedron in 3D. January 29.3-16) where γ is a factor deﬁned by Equation 3. The value of β should be speciﬁed such that −0. The resolution determines the size of the background bins used to evaluate the size distribution with respect to the shortest feature length of the current mesh. A value of 0 indicates a linear variation of cell size away from the boundary. a negative value indicates a faster transition from the boundary to the Size Function Variation value.5 indicates that the cell size interior of the boundary can be half of that at the closest boundary cell.99. If you have enabled the Sizing Function option.Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes The factor γ is computed from γ = 1 + αd1+2β b γ = 1 + αdb 1 1−β if α > 0 if α < 0 (3. 3-30 Release 12.99 < β < +0. You can also control the resolution of the sizing function with Size Function Resolution. the sizing function is a distance-weighted average of all mesh sizes on all boundary faces (both stationary and moving boundaries). The size function is not used to govern the size of the cell during remeshing. You can use Size Function Rate (or β) to control how rapidly the cell size varies from the boundary. an α value of −0. You can control the size distribution by specifying the Size Function Variation and the Size Function Rate. A positive value indicates a slower transition from the boundary to the speciﬁed Size Function Variation value.

. and −B is the rigid ω body angular velocity vector.0 c ANSYS. m is the mass. in generic terms. January 29.3-18). 3.3-19) where.e. is more easily computed using body coordinates ω˙ (Equation 3. In the Geometry Deﬁnition tab of the Dynamic Mesh Zones dialog box. then the feature is recognized (i. The moments are transformed from inertial to body coordinates using − → − → M B = RM G where R is the following transformation matrix: Cθ Cψ Sφ Sθ Cψ − Cφ Sψ Cφ Sθ Cψ + Sφ Sψ Cθ Sψ Sφ Sθ Sψ + Cφ Cψ Cφ Sθ Sψ − Sφ Cψ -Sθ Sφ Cθ Cφ Cθ (3.3 Dynamic Mesh Theory Feature Detection For 3D simulations. The angles φ. you can indicate whether you want to include features of a speciﬁc angle by selecting Include Features under Feature Detection and setting the Feature Angle (the zonal feature angle α) in degrees. MB is the moment vector of the body.3. ANSYS FLUENT allows you to preserve features on deforming zones not only between the diﬀerent face zones. − = 1 → ν˙G m → − fG (3.3. cos(β) < cos(α)). 2009 3-31 .3-18) − → → where L is the inertia tensor.3-17) → − → where − is the translational motion of the center of gravity. −B . and f G is ν˙G the force vector due to gravity. and ψ are Euler angles that represent the following sequence of rotations: Release 12.2 Six DOF (6DOF) Solver Theory The 6DOF solver in ANSYS FLUENT uses the object’s forces and moments in order to compute the translational and angular motion of the center of gravity of an object. → The angular motion of the object. Inc. −B = L−1 → ω˙ − → → → MB − −B × L−B ω ω (3.3-17). If the angle β between adjacent faces is bigger than the speciﬁed angle. The governing equation for the translational motion of the center of gravity is solved for in the inertial coordinate system (Equation 3. Cχ = cos(χ) and Sχ = sin(χ). for any geometry deﬁnition. θ. but also within a face zone.

3-17 and Equation 3.. The angular and translational velocities are used in the dynamic mesh calculations to update the rigid body position.g. 3-32 Release 12.. roll for airplanes) • rotation about the y-axis (e. pitch for airplanes) • rotation about the z-axis (e.0 c ANSYS. January 29. yaw for airplanes) Once the angular and the translational accelerations are computed from Equation 3.g. 2009 ..g. the rates are derived by numerical integration [328].Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes • rotation about the x-axis (e.3-18. Inc.

resulting in a modiﬁed set of equations that are computationally less expensive to solve.10: Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) • Section 4.1 Introduction Turbulent ﬂows are characterized by ﬂuctuating velocity ﬁelds.4: Standard. and species concentration. see Chapter 12: Modeling Turbulence in the separate User’s Guide.12: Near-Wall Treatments for Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows For more information about using these turbulence models in ANSYS FLUENT.1: Introduction • Section 4. and cause the transported quantities to ﬂuctuate as well.3: Spalart-Allmaras Model • Section 4. RNG. the instantaneous (exact) governing equations can be time-averaged. Since these ﬂuctuations can be of small scale and high frequency.0 c ANSYS. or otherwise manipulated to remove the resolution of small scales.2: Choosing a Turbulence Model • Section 4. energy. the modiﬁed equations contain additional unknown Release 12. they are too computationally expensive to simulate directly in practical engineering calculations.9: Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) • Section 4. These ﬂuctuations mix transported quantities such as momentum. Instead. 2009 4-1 . Inc. 4.Models • Section 4.7: Transition SST Model • Section 4. January 29. Turbulence This chapter provides theoretical background about the turbulence models available in ANSYS FLUENT. ensemble-averaged.Chapter 4.8: The v 2 -f Model • Section 4. However. and Realizable k.11: Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Model • Section 4.6: k-kl-ω Transition Model • Section 4. Information is presented in the following sections: • Section 4.5: Standard and SST k-ω Models • Section 4.

Turbulence variables. Inc.model – Realizable k. January 29.RANS model – SST k-ω RANS model • Large eddy simulation (LES) model.model • k-ω models – Standard k-ω model – Shear-stress transport (SST) k-ω model • Transition k-kl-ω model • Transition SST model • v 2 -f model (add-on) • Reynolds stress models (RSM) – Linear pressure-strain RSM model – Quadratic pressure-strain RSM model – Low-Re stress-omega RSM model • Detached eddy simulation (DES) model. which includes one of the following RANS models.0 c ANSYS. and turbulence models are needed to determine these variables in terms of known quantities. which includes one of the following sub-scale models.model – Renormalization-group (RNG) k. 2009 . – Spalart-Allmaras RANS model – Realizable k. ANSYS FLUENT provides the following choices of turbulence models: • Spalart-Allmaras model • k.models – Standard k. – Smagorinsky-Lilly subgrid-scale model – WALE subgrid-scale model – Dynamic Smagorinsky model – Kinetic-energy transport subgrid-scale model 4-2 Release 12.

g. LES • Section 4. The computational eﬀort and cost in terms of CPU time and memory of the individual models is discussed. with the whole range of the scales of turbulence being modeled. While it is impossible to state categorically which model is best for a speciﬁc application. the level of accuracy required. general guidelines are presented to help you choose the appropriate turbulence model for the ﬂow you want to model. To make the most appropriate choice of model for your application. The purpose of this section is to give an overview of issues related to the turbulence models provided in ANSYS FLUENT.g. An entire hierarchy of closure models are available in ANSYS FLUENT including SpalartAllmaras. 2009 4-3 . k. k-ω and its variants. the established practice for a speciﬁc class of problem.2. and is widely adopted for practical engineering applications. The RANS equations are often used to compute time-dependent ﬂows.1 Reynolds-Averaged Approach vs. Both methods introduce additional terms in the governing equations that need to be modeled in order to achieve a “closure” for the unknowns..2. Reynolds Stress Transport Models 4. The choice of turbulence model will depend on considerations such as the physics encompassed in the ﬂow. vortex-shedding.2: Reynolds (Ensemble) Averaging • Section 4.4. you need to understand the capabilities and limitations of the various options. LES Time-dependent solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for high Reynolds-number turbulent ﬂows in complex geometries which set out to resolve all the way down to the smallest scales of the motions are unlikely to be attainable for some time to come..0 c ANSYS.2 Choosing a Turbulence Model It is an unfortunate fact that no single turbulence model is universally accepted as being superior for all classes of problems. the available computational resources. The RANS-based modeling approach therefore greatly reduces the required computational eﬀort and resources.3: Boussinesq Approach vs.1: Reynolds-Averaged Approach vs. Release 12.2 Choosing a Turbulence Model 4.and its variants. Inc. and the amount of time available for the simulation. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations govern the transport of the averaged ﬂow quantities. time-dependent boundary conditions or sources) or self-sustained (e.2. whose unsteadiness may be externally imposed (e. Information is presented in the following sections: • Section 4. ﬂow instabilities). and the RSM. January 29.2. Two alternative methods can be employed to render the Navier-Stokes equations tractable so that the small-scale turbulent ﬂuctuations do not have to be directly simulated: Reynolds-averaging (or ensemble-averaging) and ﬁltering.

u) yields the ensemble-averaged momentum equations. 2009 . Like Reynoldsaveraging. 3). for pressure and other scalar quantities: ¯ φ=φ+φ where φ denotes a scalar such as pressure. which is usually taken as the mesh size when spatial ﬁltering is employed as in ANSYS FLUENT. energy.s. Wall functions in combination with a coarse near wall mesh can be employed. one needs to carefully consider the ramiﬁcation of using wall functions for the ﬂow in question. January 29. LES for high Reynolds number industrial ﬂows requires a signiﬁcant amount of computational resources. For the same reason (to accurately resolve the eddies).Turbulence LES provides an alternative approach in which large eddies are explicitly computed (resolved) in a time-dependent simulation using the “ﬁltered” Navier-Stokes equations. ¯ They can be written in Cartesian tensor form as: (4. This is mainly because of the need to accurately resolve the energycontaining turbulent eddies in both space and time domains. than the large eddies.0 c ANSYS. often with some success. since they tend to be more isotropic and less aﬀected by the macroscopic features like boundary conditions.2-2) (4.2 Reynolds (Ensemble) Averaging In Reynolds averaging. However. It is also believed to be easier to ﬁnd a “universal” model for the small scales. the error introduced by turbulence modeling can be reduced. or species concentration. which becomes most acute in near-wall regions where the scales to be resolved become much smaller.2. Inc. values of the solution variables. can be collected during the time-dependent simulation.m. 4. ¯ Likewise. Substituting expressions of this form for the ﬂow variables into the instantaneous continuity and momentum equations and taking a time (or ensemble) average (and dropping the overbar on the mean velocity. the solution variables in the instantaneous (exact) Navier-Stokes equations are decomposed into the mean (ensemble-averaged or time-averaged) and ﬂuctuating components.2-1) 4-4 Release 12. the ﬁltering process creates additional unknown terms that must be modeled to achieve closure. to reduce the cost of LES for wall-bounded ﬂows. For the velocity components: u i = u i + ui ¯ where ui and ui are the mean and ﬂuctuating velocity components (i = 1. Filtering is essentially a mathematical manipulation of the exact Navier-Stokes equations to remove the eddies that are smaller than the size of the ﬁlter. Statistics of the time-varying ﬂow-ﬁelds such as time-averages and r. LES also requires highly accurate spatial and temporal discretizations. 2. The rationale behind LES is that by modeling less of turbulence (and resolving more). which are generally of most engineering interest.

4. must be modeled in order to close Equation 4. Equations 4. The alternative approach. Additional terms now appear that represent the eﬀects of turbulence. and either the turbulence dissipation rate.2-3 and 4. For variable-density ﬂows.2-3) ∂ ∂ ∂p ∂ ∂ui ∂uj 2 ∂ul (ρui )+ (ρui uj ) = − + µ + − δij ∂t ∂xj ∂xi ∂xj ∂xj ∂xi 3 ∂xl + ∂ (−ρui uj ) (4. They have the same general form as the instantaneous Navier-Stokes equations. µt . The advantage of this approach is the relatively low computational cost associated with the computation of the turbulent viscosity. Release 12.and k-ω models.2-4 are appropriately modeled. with the velocities representing mass-averaged values. two additional transport equations (for the turbulence kinetic energy. Equations 4.2-3 and 4. A common method employs the Boussinesq hypothesis [130] to relate the Reynolds stresses to the mean velocity gradients: − ρui uj = µt ∂ui ∂uj + ∂xj ∂xi − 2 ∂uk ρk + µt δij 3 ∂xk (4.2-4. Reynolds Stress Transport Models The Reynolds-averaged approach to turbulence modeling requires that the Reynolds stresses in Equation 4.2 Choosing a Turbulence Model ∂ρ ∂ (ρui ) = 0 + ∂t ∂xi (4. .2-4 can be applied to density-varying ﬂows.models. 2009 4-5 . January 29. with the velocities and other solution variables now representing ensemble-averaged (or timeaveraged) values.0 c ANSYS. k. Inc.2. As such. or the speciﬁc dissipation rate. embodied in the RSM.2-4 are called Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations.2-3 and 4. In the case of the k. is to solve transport equations for each of the terms in the Reynolds stress tensor. In the case of the Spalart-Allmaras model. The disadvantage of the Boussinesq hypothesis as presented is that it assumes µt is an isotropic scalar quantity. and µt is computed as a function of k and or k and ω. 4. the k.2-4 can be interpreted as Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations [130]. An additional scale-determining equation (normally for ) is also required. This means that ﬁve additional transport equations are required in 2D ﬂows and seven additional transport equations must be solved in 3D. and the k-ω models. ω) are solved. These Reynolds stresses. only one additional transport equation (representing turbulent viscosity) is solved. −ρui uj .3 Boussinesq Approach vs.2-4) ∂xj Equations 4.2-5) The Boussinesq hypothesis is used in the Spalart-Allmaras model. which is not strictly true.

4. The Spalart-Allmaras model was designed speciﬁcally for aerospace applications involving wall-bounded ﬂows and has been shown to give good results for boundary layers subjected to adverse pressure gradients. 4. see Chapter 12: Modeling Turbulence and Section 12. models based on the Boussinesq hypothesis perform very well. Inc.Turbulence In many cases.3.5: Setting Up the Spalart-Allmaras Model in the separate User’s Guide.3. 2009 .1: Overview • Section 4.3.3 Spalart-Allmaras Model This section describes the theory behind the Spalart-Allmaras model.3.2: Transport Equation for the Spalart-Allmaras Model • Section 4.3.3.3. It is also gaining popularity in the turbomachinery applications.3.8: Convective Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling For details about using the model in ANSYS FLUENT.4: Modeling the Turbulent Production • Section 4.1 Overview The Spalart-Allmaras model is a relatively simple one-equation model that solves a modeled transport equation for the kinematic eddy (turbulent) viscosity. Such cases include highly swirling ﬂows and stress-driven secondary ﬂows. and the additional computational expense of the Reynolds stress model is not justiﬁed.0 c ANSYS.3. Information is presented in the following sections: • Section 4.6: Model Constants • Section 4.7: Wall Boundary Conditions • Section 4.3: Modeling the Turbulent Viscosity • Section 4. However. This embodies a relatively new class of one-equation models in which it is not necessary to calculate a length scale related to the local shear layer thickness. the RSM is clearly superior in situations where the anisotropy of turbulence has a dominant eﬀect on the mean ﬂow.5: Modeling the Turbulent Destruction • Section 4. 4-6 Release 12. January 29.

3-1) where Gν is the production of turbulent viscosity. the near-wall gradients of the transported variable in the model are much smaller than the gradients of the transported variables in the k. is not calculated in the Spalart-Allmaras model. January 29.3: Numerical Diﬀusion in the separate User’s Guide for a further discussion of the numerical errors. Sν is a userdeﬁned source term. one-equation models are often criticized for their inability to rapidly accommodate changes in length scale. 4. The transport equation for ν is ∂ ∂ 1 ∂ (ρν) + (ρνui ) = Gν + ∂t ∂xi σν ∂xj ∂ν (µ + ρν) ∂xj ∂ν + Cb2 ρ ∂xj 2 − Yν + S ν (4. it cannot be relied on to predict the decay of homogeneous.1.0 c ANSYS.or k-ω models. Release 12. 2009 4-7 .4. the Spalart-Allmaras model has been implemented to use wall functions when the mesh resolution is not suﬃciently ﬁne.2-5 is ignored when estimating the Reynolds stresses. Inc. In ANSYS FLUENT. See Section 6. σν and Cb2 are the constants and ν is the molecular kinematic viscosity. requiring the viscosity-aﬀected region of the boundary layer to be properly resolved. such as might be necessary when the ﬂow changes abruptly from a wall-bounded to a free shear ﬂow. and Yν is the destruction of turbulent viscosity that occurs in the near-wall region due to wall blocking and viscous damping.3 Spalart-Allmaras Model In its original form. Furthermore. the Spalart-Allmaras model is still relatively new. This might make it the best choice for relatively crude simulations on coarse meshes where accurate turbulent ﬂow computations are not critical. is identical to the turbulent kinematic viscosity except in the near-wall (viscosity-aﬀected) region. the central issue is how the eddy viscosity is computed. Note that since the turbulence kinetic energy. On a cautionary note. In turbulence models that employ the Boussinesq approach. isotropic turbulence. however. ν. The model proposed by Spalart and Allmaras [331] solves a transport equation for a quantity that is a modiﬁed form of the turbulent kinematic viscosity. Furthermore.3. k. This might make the model less sensitive to numerical errors when non-layered meshes are used near walls. while the last term in Equation 4.2 Transport Equation for the Spalart-Allmaras Model The transported variable in the Spalart-Allmaras model. For instance. and no claim is made regarding its suitability to all types of complex engineering ﬂows. however. the Spalart-Allmaras model is eﬀectively a low-Reynolds-number model.

Turbulence

4.3.3

Modeling the Turbulent Viscosity

The turbulent viscosity, µt , is computed from µt = ρνfv1 where the viscous damping function, fv1 , is given by fv1 = and χ≡ ν ν (4.3-4) χ3 3 χ3 + Cv1 (4.3-3) (4.3-2)

4.3.4

Modeling the Turbulent Production

The production term, Gν , is modeled as Gν = Cb1 ρS ν where S≡S+ and fv2 = 1 − χ 1 + χfv1 (4.3-7) ν fv2 κ2 d2 (4.3-6) (4.3-5)

Cb1 and κ are constants, d is the distance from the wall, and S is a scalar measure of the deformation tensor. By default in ANSYS FLUENT, as in the original model proposed by Spalart and Allmaras, S is based on the magnitude of the vorticity: S≡ 2Ωij Ωij (4.3-8)

where Ωij is the mean rate-of-rotation tensor and is deﬁned by Ωij = 1 2 ∂ui ∂uj − ∂xj ∂xi (4.3-9)

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4.3 Spalart-Allmaras Model

The justiﬁcation for the default expression for S is that, in the wall-bounded ﬂows that were of most interest when the model was formulated, the turbulence production found only where vorticity is generated near walls. However, it has since been acknowledged that one should also take into account the eﬀect of mean strain on the turbulence production, and a modiﬁcation to the model has been proposed [65] and incorporated into ANSYS FLUENT. This modiﬁcation combines the measures of both vorticity and the strain tensors in the deﬁnition of S: S ≡ |Ωij | + Cprod min (0, |Sij | − |Ωij |) where Cprod = 2.0, |Ωij | ≡ with the mean strain rate, Sij , deﬁned as Sij = 1 2 ∂uj ∂ui + ∂xi ∂xj (4.3-11) 2Ωij Ωij , |Sij | ≡ 2Sij Sij (4.3-10)

Including both the rotation and strain tensors reduces the production of eddy viscosity and consequently reduces the eddy viscosity itself in regions where the measure of vorticity exceeds that of strain rate. One such example can be found in vortical ﬂows, i.e., ﬂow near the core of a vortex subjected to a pure rotation where turbulence is known to be suppressed. Including both the rotation and strain tensors more correctly accounts for the eﬀects of rotation on turbulence. The default option (including the rotation tensor only) tends to overpredict the production of eddy viscosity and hence overpredicts the eddy viscosity itself in certain circumstances. You can select the modiﬁed form for calculating production in the Viscous Model dialog box.

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Turbulence

4.3.5

Modeling the Turbulent Destruction

**The destruction term is modeled as ν d
**

2

Yν = Cw1 ρfw where

(4.3-12)

6 1 + Cw3 fw = g 6 6 g + Cw3

1/6

(4.3-13)

g = r + Cw2 r6 − r ν Sκ2 d2

(4.3-14)

r≡

(4.3-15)

Cw1 , Cw2 , and Cw3 are constants, and S is given by Equation 4.3-6. Note that the modiﬁcation described above to include the eﬀects of mean strain on S will also aﬀect the value of S used to compute r.

4.3.6

Model Constants

The model constants Cb1 , Cb2 , σν , Cv1 , Cw1 , Cw2 , Cw3 , and κ have the following default values [331]: 2 Cb1 = 0.1355, Cb2 = 0.622, σν = , Cv1 = 7.1 3 Cw1 = Cb1 (1 + Cb2 ) + , Cw2 = 0.3, Cw3 = 2.0, κ = 0.4187 κ2 σν

4.3.7

Wall Boundary Conditions

At walls, the modiﬁed turbulent kinematic viscosity, ν, is set to zero. When the mesh is ﬁne enough to resolve the viscosity-dominated sublayer, the wall shear stress is obtained from the laminar stress-strain relationship: u ρuτ y = uτ µ (4.3-16)

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4.4 Standard, RNG, and Realizable k- Models

If the mesh is too coarse to resolve the viscous sublayer, then it is assumed that the centroid of the wall-adjacent cell falls within the logarithmic region of the boundary layer, and the law-of-the-wall is employed: u 1 ρuτ y = ln E uτ κ µ

(4.3-17)

where u is the velocity parallel to the wall, uτ is the shear velocity, y is the distance from the wall, κ is the von K´rm´n constant (0.4187), and E = 9.793. a a

4.3.8

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling

In ANSYS FLUENT, turbulent heat transport is modeled using the concept of the Reynolds’ analogy to turbulent momentum transfer. The “modeled” energy equation is as follows: ∂ ∂ ∂ (ρE) + [ui (ρE + p)] = ∂t ∂xi ∂xj c p µt Prt ∂T + ui (τij )eﬀ + Sh ∂xj

k+

(4.3-18)

where k, in this case, is the thermal conductivity, E is the total energy, and (τij )eﬀ is the deviatoric stress tensor, deﬁned as ∂uj ∂ui + ∂xi ∂xj 2 ∂uk − µeﬀ δij 3 ∂xk

(τij )eﬀ = µeﬀ

4.4

**Standard, RNG, and Realizable k- Models
**

This section describes the theory behind the Standard, RNG, and Realizable k- models. Information is presented in the following sections: • Section 4.4.1: Standard k- Model • Section 4.4.2: RNG k- Model • Section 4.4.3: Realizable k- Model • Section 4.4.4: Modeling Turbulent Production in the k- Models • Section 4.4.5: Eﬀects of Buoyancy on Turbulence in the k- Models • Section 4.4.6: Eﬀects of Compressibility on Turbulence in the k- Models • Section 4.4.7: Convective Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling in the k- Models

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For details about using the models in ANSYS FLUENT, see Chapter 12: Modeling Turbulence and Section 12.6: Setting Up the k- Model in the separate User’s Guide. This section presents the standard, RNG, and realizable k- models. All three models have similar forms, with transport equations for k and . The major diﬀerences in the models are as follows: • the method of calculating turbulent viscosity • the turbulent Prandtl numbers governing the turbulent diﬀusion of k and • the generation and destruction terms in the equation

The transport equations, the methods of calculating turbulent viscosity, and model constants are presented separately for each model. The features that are essentially common to all models follow, including turbulent generation due to shear buoyancy, accounting for the eﬀects of compressibility, and modeling heat and mass transfer.

4.4.1

Standard k- Model

Overview

The simplest “complete models” of turbulence are the two-equation models in which the solution of two separate transport equations allows the turbulent velocity and length scales to be independently determined. The standard k- model in ANSYS FLUENT falls within this class of models and has become the workhorse of practical engineering ﬂow calculations in the time since it was proposed by Launder and Spalding [180]. Robustness, economy, and reasonable accuracy for a wide range of turbulent ﬂows explain its popularity in industrial ﬂow and heat transfer simulations. It is a semi-empirical model, and the derivation of the model equations relies on phenomenological considerations and empiricism. As the strengths and weaknesses of the standard k- model have become known, improvements have been made to the model to improve its performance. Two of these variants are available in ANSYS FLUENT: the RNG k- model [384] and the realizable k- model [313]. The standard k- model [180] is a semi-empirical model based on model transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy (k) and its dissipation rate ( ). The model transport equation for k is derived from the exact equation, while the model transport equation for was obtained using physical reasoning and bears little resemblance to its mathematically exact counterpart. In the derivation of the k- model, the assumption is that the ﬂow is fully turbulent, and the eﬀects of molecular viscosity are negligible. The standard k- model is therefore valid only for fully turbulent ﬂows.

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4.4 Standard, RNG, and Realizable k- Models

**Transport Equations for the Standard k- Model
**

The turbulence kinetic energy, k, and its rate of dissipation, , are obtained from the following transport equations: ∂ ∂ ∂ (ρk) + (ρkui ) = ∂t ∂xi ∂xj and µt σk ∂k + G k + G b − ρ − YM + S k ∂xj

µ+

(4.4-1)

∂ ∂ ∂ (ρ ) + (ρ ui ) = ∂t ∂xi ∂xj

µ+

µt σ

2 ∂ + C1 (Gk + C3 Gb ) − C2 ρ + S (4.4-2) ∂xj k k

In these equations, Gk represents the generation of turbulence kinetic energy due to the mean velocity gradients, calculated as described in Section 4.4.4: Modeling Turbulent Production in the k- Models. Gb is the generation of turbulence kinetic energy due to buoyancy, calculated as described in Section 4.4.5: Eﬀects of Buoyancy on Turbulence in the k- Models. YM represents the contribution of the ﬂuctuating dilatation in compressible turbulence to the overall dissipation rate, calculated as described in Section 4.4.6: Eﬀects of Compressibility on Turbulence in the k- Models. C1 , C2 , and C3 are constants. σk and σ are the turbulent Prandtl numbers for k and , respectively. Sk and S are user-deﬁned source terms.

**Modeling the Turbulent Viscosity
**

The turbulent (or eddy) viscosity, µt , is computed by combining k and µt = ρCµ where Cµ is a constant. k2 as follows: (4.4-3)

Model Constants

The model constants C1 , C2 , Cµ , σk , and σ have the following default values [180]: C1 = 1.44, C2 = 1.92, Cµ = 0.09, σk = 1.0, σ = 1.3 These default values have been determined from experiments with air and water for fundamental turbulent shear ﬂows including homogeneous shear ﬂows and decaying isotropic grid turbulence. They have been found to work fairly well for a wide range of wallbounded and free shear ﬂows.

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Turbulence

Although the default values of the model constants are the standard ones most widely accepted, you can change them (if needed) in the Viscous Model dialog box.

4.4.2

RNG k- Model

Overview

The RNG k- model was derived using a rigorous statistical technique (called renormalization group theory). It is similar in form to the standard k- model, but includes the following reﬁnements: • The RNG model has an additional term in its equation that signiﬁcantly improves the accuracy for rapidly strained ﬂows. • The eﬀect of swirl on turbulence is included in the RNG model, enhancing accuracy for swirling ﬂows. • The RNG theory provides an analytical formula for turbulent Prandtl numbers, while the standard k- model uses user-speciﬁed, constant values. • While the standard k- model is a high-Reynolds-number model, the RNG theory provides an analytically-derived diﬀerential formula for eﬀective viscosity that accounts for low-Reynolds-number eﬀects. Eﬀective use of this feature does, however, depend on an appropriate treatment of the near-wall region. These features make the RNG k- model more accurate and reliable for a wider class of ﬂows than the standard k- model. The RNG-based k- turbulence model is derived from the instantaneous Navier-Stokes equations, using a mathematical technique called “renormalization group” (RNG) methods. The analytical derivation results in a model with constants diﬀerent from those in the standard k- model, and additional terms and functions in the transport equations for k and . A more comprehensive description of RNG theory and its application to turbulence can be found in [259].

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4.4 Standard, RNG, and Realizable k- Models

**Transport Equations for the RNG k- Model
**

The RNG k- model has a similar form to the standard k- model: ∂ ∂ ∂ (ρk) + (ρkui ) = ∂t ∂xi ∂xj and ∂k ∂xj + G k + G b − ρ − YM + S k

αk µeﬀ

(4.4-4)

∂ ∂ ∂ (ρ ) + (ρ ui ) = ∂t ∂xi ∂xj

α µeﬀ

∂ ∂xj

2

+ C1

k

(Gk + C3 Gb ) − C2 ρ

k

− R + S (4.4-5)

In these equations, Gk represents the generation of turbulence kinetic energy due to the mean velocity gradients, calculated as described in Section 4.4.4: Modeling Turbulent Production in the k- Models. Gb is the generation of turbulence kinetic energy due to buoyancy, calculated as described in Section 4.4.5: Eﬀects of Buoyancy on Turbulence in the k- Models. YM represents the contribution of the ﬂuctuating dilatation in compressible turbulence to the overall dissipation rate, calculated as described in Section 4.4.6: Eﬀects of Compressibility on Turbulence in the k- Models. The quantities αk and α are the inverse eﬀective Prandtl numbers for k and , respectively. Sk and S are user-deﬁned source terms.

**Modeling the Effective Viscosity
**

The scale elimination procedure in RNG theory results in a diﬀerential equation for turbulent viscosity: ρ2 k d √ µ where = 1.72 √ ν ˆ dˆ ν − 1 + Cν

ν3 ˆ

(4.4-6)

ν = µeﬀ /µ ˆ Cν ≈ 100 Equation 4.4-6 is integrated to obtain an accurate description of how the eﬀective turbulent transport varies with the eﬀective Reynolds number (or eddy scale), allowing the model to better handle low-Reynolds-number and near-wall ﬂows.

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Turbulence

In the high-Reynolds-number limit, Equation 4.4-6 gives µt = ρCµ k2 (4.4-7)

with Cµ = 0.0845, derived using RNG theory. It is interesting to note that this value of Cµ is very close to the empirically-determined value of 0.09 used in the standard kmodel. In ANSYS FLUENT, by default, the eﬀective viscosity is computed using the highReynolds-number form in Equation 4.4-7. However, there is an option available that allows you to use the diﬀerential relation given in Equation 4.4-6 when you need to include low-Reynolds-number eﬀects.

**RNG Swirl Modiﬁcation
**

Turbulence, in general, is aﬀected by rotation or swirl in the mean ﬂow. The RNG model in ANSYS FLUENT provides an option to account for the eﬀects of swirl or rotation by modifying the turbulent viscosity appropriately. The modiﬁcation takes the following functional form: k

µt = µt0 f αs , Ω,

(4.4-8)

where µt0 is the value of turbulent viscosity calculated without the swirl modiﬁcation using either Equation 4.4-6 or Equation 4.4-7. Ω is a characteristic swirl number evaluated within ANSYS FLUENT, and αs is a swirl constant that assumes diﬀerent values depending on whether the ﬂow is swirl-dominated or only mildly swirling. This swirl modiﬁcation always takes eﬀect for axisymmetric, swirling ﬂows and three-dimensional ﬂows when the RNG model is selected. For mildly swirling ﬂows (the default in ANSYS FLUENT), αs is set to 0.07. For strongly swirling ﬂows, however, a higher value of αs can be used.

**Calculating the Inverse Effective Prandtl Numbers
**

The inverse eﬀective Prandtl numbers, αk and α , are computed using the following formula derived analytically by the RNG theory: α − 1.3929 α0 − 1.3929

0.6321

α + 2.3929 α0 + 2.3929

0.3679

=

µmol µeﬀ

(4.4-9)

where α0 = 1.0. In the high-Reynolds-number limit (µmol /µeﬀ

1), αk = α ≈ 1.393.

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4.4 Standard, RNG, and Realizable k- Models

**The R Term in the Equation
**

The main diﬀerence between the RNG and standard k- models lies in the additional term in the equation given by R = Cµ ρη 3 (1 − η/η0 ) 2 1 + βη 3 k (4.4-10)

where η ≡ Sk/ , η0 = 4.38, β = 0.012. The eﬀects of this term in the RNG equation can be seen more clearly by rearranging Equation 4.4-5. Using Equation 4.4-10, the third and fourth terms on the right-hand side of Equation 4.4-5 can be merged, and the resulting equation can be rewritten as ∂ ∂ ∂ (ρ ) + (ρ ui ) = ∂t ∂xi ∂xj

∗ where C2 is given by

α µeﬀ

∂ ∂xj

+ C1

k

∗ (Gk + C3 Gb ) − C2 ρ

2

k

(4.4-11)

∗ C2 ≡ C2 +

Cµ η 3 (1 − η/η0 ) 1 + βη 3

(4.4-12)

∗ In regions where η < η0 , the R term makes a positive contribution, and C2 becomes larger than C2 . In the logarithmic layer, for instance, it can be shown that η ≈ 3.0, ∗ giving C2 ≈ 2.0, which is close in magnitude to the value of C2 in the standard kmodel (1.92). As a result, for weakly to moderately strained ﬂows, the RNG model tends to give results largely comparable to the standard k- model.

In regions of large strain rate (η > η0 ), however, the R term makes a negative contribu∗ tion, making the value of C2 less than C2 . In comparison with the standard k- model, the smaller destruction of augments , reducing k and, eventually, the eﬀective viscosity. As a result, in rapidly strained ﬂows, the RNG model yields a lower turbulent viscosity than the standard k- model. Thus, the RNG model is more responsive to the eﬀects of rapid strain and streamline curvature than the standard k- model, which explains the superior performance of the RNG model for certain classes of ﬂows.

Model Constants

The model constants C1 and C2 in Equation 4.4-5 have values derived analytically by the RNG theory. These values, used by default in ANSYS FLUENT, are C1 = 1.42, C2 = 1.68

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4.4.3

Realizable k- Model

Overview

The realizable k- model [313] is a relatively recent development and diﬀers from the standard k- model in two important ways: • The realizable k- model contains a new formulation for the turbulent viscosity. • A new transport equation for the dissipation rate, , has been derived from an exact equation for the transport of the mean-square vorticity ﬂuctuation. The term “realizable” means that the model satisﬁes certain mathematical constraints on the Reynolds stresses, consistent with the physics of turbulent ﬂows. Neither the standard k- model nor the RNG k- model is realizable. An immediate beneﬁt of the realizable k- model is that it more accurately predicts the spreading rate of both planar and round jets. It is also likely to provide superior performance for ﬂows involving rotation, boundary layers under strong adverse pressure gradients, separation, and recirculation. To understand the mathematics behind the realizable k- model, consider combining the Boussinesq relationship (Equation 4.2-5) and the eddy viscosity deﬁnition (Equation 4.4-3) to obtain the following expression for the normal Reynolds stress in an incompressible strained mean ﬂow: 2 ∂U u2 = k − 2 νt 3 ∂x (4.4-13)

Using Equation 4.4-3 for νt ≡ µt /ρ, one obtains the result that the normal stress, u2 , which by deﬁnition is a positive quantity, becomes negative, i.e., “non-realizable”, when the strain is large enough to satisfy k ∂U 1 > ≈ 3.7 ∂x 3Cµ (4.4-14)

Similarly, it can also be shown that the Schwarz inequality for shear stresses (uα uβ 2 ≤ u2 u2 ; no summation over α and β) can be violated when the mean strain rate is large. α β The most straightforward way to ensure the realizability (positivity of normal stresses and Schwarz inequality for shear stresses) is to make Cµ variable by sensitizing it to the mean ﬂow (mean deformation) and the turbulence (k, ). The notion of variable Cµ is suggested by many modelers including Reynolds [291], and is well substantiated by experimental evidence. For example, Cµ is found to be around 0.09 in the inertial sublayer of equilibrium boundary layers, and 0.05 in a strong homogeneous shear ﬂow.

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4.4 Standard, RNG, and Realizable k- Models

Both the realizable and RNG k- models have shown substantial improvements over the standard k- model where the ﬂow features include strong streamline curvature, vortices, and rotation. Since the model is still relatively new, it is not clear in exactly which instances the realizable k- model consistently outperforms the RNG model. However, initial studies have shown that the realizable model provides the best performance of all the k- model versions for several validations of separated ﬂows and ﬂows with complex secondary ﬂow features. One of the weaknesses of the standard k- model or other traditional k- models lies with the modeled equation for the dissipation rate ( ). The well-known round-jet anomaly (named based on the ﬁnding that the spreading rate in planar jets is predicted reasonably well, but prediction of the spreading rate for axisymmetric jets is unexpectedly poor) is considered to be mainly due to the modeled dissipation equation. The realizable k- model proposed by Shih et al. [313] was intended to address these deﬁciencies of traditional k- models by adopting the following: • A new eddy-viscosity formula involving a variable Cµ originally proposed by Reynolds [291]. • A new model equation for dissipation ( ) based on the dynamic equation of the mean-square vorticity ﬂuctuation. One limitation of the realizable k- model is that it produces non-physical turbulent viscosities in situations when the computational domain contains both rotating and stationary ﬂuid zones (e.g., multiple reference frames, rotating sliding meshes). This is due to the fact that the realizable k- model includes the eﬀects of mean rotation in the deﬁnition of the turbulent viscosity (see Equations 4.4-17–4.4-19). This extra rotation eﬀect has been tested on single rotating reference frame systems and showed superior behavior over the standard k- model. However, due to the nature of this modiﬁcation, its application to multiple reference frame systems should be taken with some caution. See Section 4.4.3: Modeling the Turbulent Viscosity for information about how to include or exclude this term from the model.

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**Transport Equations for the Realizable k- Model
**

The modeled transport equations for k and in the realizable k- model are

∂ ∂ ∂ (ρk) + (ρkuj ) = ∂t ∂xj ∂xj and

µ+

µt σk

∂k + G k + G b − ρ − YM + S k ∂xj

(4.4-15)

∂ ∂ ∂ (ρ ) + (ρ uj ) = ∂t ∂xj ∂xj where

µ+

µt σ

2 ∂ √ + C1 C3 Gb + S + ρ C1 S − ρ C2 ∂xj k+ ν k (4.4-16)

C1 = max 0.43,

η , η+5

k η=S ,

S=

2Sij Sij

In these equations, Gk represents the generation of turbulence kinetic energy due to the mean velocity gradients, calculated as described in Section 4.4.4: Modeling Turbulent Production in the k- Models. Gb is the generation of turbulence kinetic energy due to buoyancy, calculated as described in Section 4.4.5: Eﬀects of Buoyancy on Turbulence in the k- Models. YM represents the contribution of the ﬂuctuating dilatation in compressible turbulence to the overall dissipation rate, calculated as described in Section 4.4.6: Eﬀects of Compressibility on Turbulence in the k- Models. C2 and C1 are constants. σk and σ are the turbulent Prandtl numbers for k and , respectively. Sk and S are user-deﬁned source terms. Note that the k equation (Equation 4.4-15) is the same as that in the standard kmodel (Equation 4.4-1) and the RNG k- model (Equation 4.4-4), except for the model constants. However, the form of the equation is quite diﬀerent from those in the standard and RNG-based k- models (Equations 4.4-2 and 4.4-5). One of the noteworthy features is that the production term in the equation (the second term on the right-hand side of Equation 4.4-16) does not involve the production of k; i.e., it does not contain the same Gk term as the other k- models. It is believed that the present form better represents the spectral energy transfer. Another desirable feature is that the destruction term (the next to last term on the right-hand side of Equation 4.4-16) does not have any singularity; i.e., its denominator never vanishes, even if k vanishes or becomes smaller than zero. This feature is contrasted with traditional k- models, which have a singularity due to k in the denominator.

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4.4 Standard, RNG, and Realizable k- Models

This model has been extensively validated for a wide range of ﬂows [167, 313], including rotating homogeneous shear ﬂows, free ﬂows including jets and mixing layers, channel and boundary layer ﬂows, and separated ﬂows. For all these cases, the performance of the model has been found to be substantially better than that of the standard k- model. Especially noteworthy is the fact that the realizable k- model resolves the round-jet anomaly; i.e., it predicts the spreading rate for axisymmetric jets as well as that for planar jets.

**Modeling the Turbulent Viscosity
**

As in other k- models, the eddy viscosity is computed from µt = ρCµ k2 (4.4-17)

The diﬀerence between the realizable k- model and the standard and RNG k- models is that Cµ is no longer constant. It is computed from Cµ = where U∗ ≡ and Sij Sij + Ωij Ωij (4.4-19) 1 ∗ A0 + As kU (4.4-18)

Ωij = Ωij − 2 ijk ωk Ωij = Ωij − ijk ωk where Ωij is the mean rate-of-rotation tensor viewed in a rotating reference frame with the angular velocity ωk . The model constants A0 and As are given by A0 = 4.04, As = where √ 1 Sij Sjk Ski cos−1 ( 6W ), W = , S= 3 S3 1 2 ∂uj ∂ui + ∂xi ∂xj √ 6 cos φ

φ=

Sij Sij , Sij =

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Turbulence

It can be seen that Cµ is a function of the mean strain and rotation rates, the angular velocity of the system rotation, and the turbulence ﬁelds (k and ). Cµ in Equation 4.4-17 can be shown to recover the standard value of 0.09 for an inertial sublayer in an equilibrium boundary layer.

i

In ANSYS FLUENT, the term −2 ijk ωk is, by default, not included in the calculation of Ωij . This is an extra rotation term that is not compatible with cases involving sliding meshes or multiple reference frames. If you want to include this term in the model, you can enable it by using the define/models/viscous/turbulence-expert/rke-cmu-rotation-term? text command and entering yes at the prompt.

Model Constants

The model constants C2 , σk , and σ have been established to ensure that the model performs well for certain canonical ﬂows. The model constants are C1 = 1.44, C2 = 1.9, σk = 1.0, σ = 1.2

4.4.4

Modeling Turbulent Production in the k- Models

The term Gk , representing the production of turbulence kinetic energy, is modeled identically for the standard, RNG, and realizable k- models. From the exact equation for the transport of k, this term may be deﬁned as Gk = −ρui uj ∂uj ∂xi (4.4-20)

To evaluate Gk in a manner consistent with the Boussinesq hypothesis, G k = µt S 2 where S is the modulus of the mean rate-of-strain tensor, deﬁned as S≡ 2Sij Sij (4.4-22) (4.4-21)

i

When using the high-Reynolds number k- versions, µeﬀ is used in lieu of µt in Equation 4.4-21.

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4.4 Standard, RNG, and Realizable k- Models

4.4.5

Effects of Buoyancy on Turbulence in the k- Models

When a non-zero gravity ﬁeld and temperature gradient are present simultaneously, the k- models in ANSYS FLUENT account for the generation of k due to buoyancy (Gb in Equations 4.4-1, 4.4-4, and 4.4-15), and the corresponding contribution to the production of in Equations 4.4-2, 4.4-5, and 4.4-16. The generation of turbulence due to buoyancy is given by Gb = βgi µt ∂T Prt ∂xi (4.4-23)

where Prt is the turbulent Prandtl number for energy and gi is the component of the gravitational vector in the ith direction. For the standard and realizable k- models, the default value of Prt is 0.85. In the case of the RNG k- model, Prt = 1/α, where α is given by Equation 4.4-9, but with α0 = 1/Pr = k/µcp . The coeﬃcient of thermal expansion, β, is deﬁned as β=− 1 ρ ∂ρ ∂T

(4.4-24)

p

For ideal gases, Equation 4.4-23 reduces to Gb = −gi µt ∂ρ ρPrt ∂xi (4.4-25)

It can be seen from the transport equations for k (Equations 4.4-1, 4.4-4, and 4.4-15) that turbulence kinetic energy tends to be augmented (Gb > 0) in unstable stratiﬁcation. For stable stratiﬁcation, buoyancy tends to suppress the turbulence (Gb < 0). In ANSYS FLUENT, the eﬀects of buoyancy on the generation of k are always included when you have both a non-zero gravity ﬁeld and a non-zero temperature (or density) gradient. While the buoyancy eﬀects on the generation of k are relatively well understood, the eﬀect on is less clear. In ANSYS FLUENT, by default, the buoyancy eﬀects on are neglected simply by setting Gb to zero in the transport equation for (Equation 4.4-2, 4.4-5, or 4.4-16). However, you can include the buoyancy eﬀects on in the Viscous Model dialog box. In this case, the value of Gb given by Equation 4.4-25 is used in the transport equation for (Equation 4.4-2, 4.4-5, or 4.4-16). The degree to which is aﬀected by the buoyancy is determined by the constant C3 . In ANSYS FLUENT, C3 is not speciﬁed, but is instead calculated according to the following relation [127]:

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4-23

January 29. To account for these eﬀects in the k.4.models in ANSYS FLUENT. deﬁned as k a2 (4. In this way.4-27) Mt = where a (≡ √ γRT ) is the speed of sound.4-29) where E is the total energy. keﬀ is the eﬀective thermal conductivity. 2009 . C3 will become 1 for buoyant shear layers for which the main ﬂow direction is aligned with the direction of gravity. the dilatation dissipation term.4-28) This compressibility modiﬁcation always takes eﬀect when the compressible form of the ideal gas law is used. Inc. 4.Models In ANSYS FLUENT. C3 will become zero. 4.7 Convective Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling in the k. compressibility aﬀects turbulence through so-called “dilatation dissipation”. This term is modeled according to a proposal by Sarkar [300]: YM = 2ρ M2 t where Mt is the turbulent Mach number. The “modeled” energy equation is thus given by the following: ∂ ∂ ∂ (ρE) + [ui (ρE + p)] = ∂t ∂xi ∂xj ∂T + ui (τij )eﬀ + Sh ∂xj keﬀ (4. is included in the k equation. and (τij )eﬀ is the deviatoric stress tensor. turbulent heat transport is modeled using the concept of Reynolds’ analogy to turbulent momentum transfer.Turbulence C3 = tanh v u (4. For buoyant shear layers that are perpendicular to the gravitational vector.4. (4. YM . which is normally neglected in the modeling of incompressible ﬂows [379]. Neglecting the dilatation dissipation fails to predict the observed decrease in spreading rate with increasing Mach number for compressible mixing and other free shear layers. deﬁned as 4-24 Release 12.0 c ANSYS.4-26) where v is the component of the ﬂow velocity parallel to the gravitational vector and u is the component of the ﬂow velocity perpendicular to the gravitational vector.Models For high-Mach-number ﬂows.6 Effects of Compressibility on Turbulence in the k.

RNG. The fact that α varies with µmol /µeﬀ . and is always computed in the density-based solvers. but with α0 = 1/Pr = k/µcp . the eﬀective turbulent diﬀusivity for mass transfer is calculated in a manner that is analogous to the method used for the heat transport.models.1: Heat Transfer Theory for more details. For the RNG k.Models (τij )eﬀ = µeﬀ ∂uj ∂ui + ∂xi ∂xj ∂uk 2 − µeﬀ δij 3 ∂xk The term involving (τij )eﬀ represents the viscous heating.7. Inc. For the standard and realizable k.4-9 works well across a very broad range of molecular Prandtl numbers. Turbulent mass transfer is treated similarly. Release 12.4-9. is an advantage of the RNG kmodel.393) in the fully turbulent regions of the ﬂow.2. You can change the value of the turbulent Prandtl number in the Viscous Model dialog box. which allows heat transfer to be calculated in low-Reynolds-number regions.4-9. the eﬀective thermal conductivity is keﬀ = αcp µeﬀ where α is calculated from Equation 4. Equation 4.0 c ANSYS. the eﬀective thermal conductivity is given by keﬀ = k + c p µt Prt where k.85. and Realizable k.4. For the standard and realizable k. the default turbulent Schmidt number is 0.4-9 is α0 = 1/Sc. from liquid metals (Pr ≈ 10−2 ) to paraﬃn oils (Pr ≈ 103 ). Additional terms may appear in the energy equation. but it can be enabled in the Viscous Model dialog box. Equation 4. January 29.4-9 smoothly predicts the variation of eﬀective Prandtl number from the molecular value (α = 1/Pr) in the viscosity-dominated region to the fully turbulent value (α = 1. This default value can be changed in the Viscous Model dialog box. The value of α0 in Equation 4.models. See Section 5. is the thermal conductivity. The default value of the turbulent Prandtl number is 0.4 Standard. as in Equation 4. For the RNG model. It is not computed by default in the pressure-based solver. 2009 4-25 . where Sc is the molecular Schmidt number. in this case.model. depending on the physical models you are using. It is consistent with experimental evidence indicating that the turbulent Prandtl number varies with the molecular Prandtl number and turbulence [159].

January 29. This section presents the standard [379] and shear-stress transport (SST) [224] k-ω models. 2009 . The major ways in which the SST model [225] diﬀers from the standard model are as follows: • gradual change from the standard k-ω model in the inner region of the boundary layer to a high-Reynolds-number version of the k. compressibility. 4. and plane.1 Standard k-ω Model Overview The standard k-ω model in ANSYS FLUENT is based on the Wilcox k-ω model [379].Turbulence 4. As the k-ω model has been modiﬁed over the years. and is described in Section 4.7: Setting Up the k-ω Model in the separate User’s Guide. and is thus applicable to wall-bounded ﬂows and free shear ﬂows.5 Standard and SST k-ω Models This section describes the theory behind the Standard and SST k-ω model.5.5. with transport equations for k and ω. 4-26 Release 12. which have improved the accuracy of the model for predicting free shear ﬂows. methods of calculating turbulent viscosity. and methods of calculating model constants and other terms are presented separately for each model. which can also be thought of as the ratio of to k [379].model in the outer part of the boundary layer • modiﬁed turbulent viscosity formulation to account for the transport eﬀects of the principal turbulent shear stress The transport equations.5.0 c ANSYS. Information is presented in the following sections: • Section 4.2: Shear-Stress Transport (SST) k-ω Model • Section 4. production terms have been added to both the k and ω equations.3: Wall Boundary Conditions For details about using the models in ANSYS FLUENT. and radial jets. A variation of the standard k-ω model called the SST k-ω model is also available in ANSYS FLUENT. and shear ﬂow spreading.5. The standard k-ω model is an empirical model based on model transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy (k) and the speciﬁc dissipation rate (ω).2: Shear-Stress Transport (SST) k-ω Model. Inc. which incorporates modiﬁcations for low-Reynolds-number eﬀects. Both models have similar forms. round. mixing layers.1: Standard k-ω Model • Section 4. see Chapter 12: Modeling Turbulence and Section 12.5. The Wilcox model predicts free shear ﬂow spreading rates that are in close agreement with measurements for far wakes.

are obtained from the following transport equations: ∂ ∂ ∂ (ρk) + (ρkui ) = ∂t ∂xi ∂xj and ∂ ∂ ∂ (ρω) + (ρωui ) = ∂t ∂xi ∂xj ∂ω ∂xj + G ω − Yω + S ω ∂k ∂xj + G k − Yk + S k Γk (4. Modeling the Effective Diffusivity The eﬀective diﬀusivities for the k-ω model are given by µt σk µt = µ+ σω Γk = µ + Γω (4.5-3) (4.5 Standard and SST k-ω Models Transport Equations for the Standard k-ω Model The turbulence kinetic energy. January 29.5-1) Γω (4.5-4) where σk and σω are the turbulent Prandtl numbers for k and ω.5-5) Release 12. Gω represents the generation of ω. Γk and Γω represent the eﬀective diﬀusivity of k and ω. Sk and Sω are user-deﬁned source terms.4. Inc. All of the above terms are calculated as described below.5-2) In these equations. Gk represents the generation of turbulence kinetic energy due to mean velocity gradients. 2009 4-27 . ω. k. Yk and Yω represent the dissipation of k and ω due to turbulence. The turbulent viscosity. respectively.0 c ANSYS. respectively. is computed by combining k and ω as follows: µt = α ∗ ρk ω (4. and the speciﬁc dissipation rate. µt .

5-12) where S is the modulus of the mean rate-of-strain tensor.5-6) where Ret = Rk ∗ α0 βi ρk µω = 6 βi = 3 = 0.5-7) (4. deﬁned in the same way as for the k.Turbulence Low-Reynolds-Number Correction The coeﬃcient α∗ damps the turbulent viscosity causing a low-Reynolds-number correction.072 (4. α∗ = α∞ = 1. 2009 . in the high-Reynolds-number form of the k-ω model. this term may be deﬁned as Gk = −ρui uj ∂uj ∂xi (4.5-8) (4. 4-28 Release 12. G k = µt S 2 (4.5-10) ∗ Note that. It is given by ∗ α∗ = α∞ ∗ α0 + Ret /Rk 1 + Ret /Rk (4. Inc.4-22). January 29. Modeling the Turbulence Production Production of k The term Gk represents the production of turbulence kinetic energy. From the exact equation for the transport of k.5-11) To evaluate Gk in a manner consistent with the Boussinesq hypothesis.model (see Equation 4.5-9) (4.0 c ANSYS.

5-11.5-7.5-15) fβ ∗ = where 1+680χ2 k 1+400χ2 k χk ≤ 0 χk > 0 (4.5-20) Release 12.5-17) β ∗ = βi∗ [1 + ζ ∗ F (Mt )] 4/15 + (Ret /Rβ )4 ∗ ∗ βi = β∞ 1 + (Ret /Rβ )4 ζ ∗ = 1. in the high-Reynolds-number form of the k-ω model. The coeﬃcient α is given by α∞ α∗ α0 + Ret /Rω 1 + Ret /Rω (4. Note that.5-16) χk ≡ and 1 ∂k ∂ω ω 3 ∂xj ∂xj (4. α∗ and Ret are given by Equations 4.95.0 c ANSYS. Modeling the Turbulence Dissipation Dissipation of k The dissipation of k is given by Yk = ρ β ∗ fβ ∗ k ω where 1 (4. January 29. α = α∞ = 1.5 Standard and SST k-ω Models Production of ω The production of ω is given by ω Gω = α Gk k where Gk is given by Equation 4. 2009 4-29 .4.5-13) α= (4.5-18) (4. Inc.5 (4.5-6 and 4.5-14) where Rω = 2. respectively.5-19) (4.

Sij is deﬁned in Equation 4.5-25) (4.5-30) (4.5-7.5-21) (4.5-28.5-27) βi∗ and F (Mt ) are deﬁned by Equations 4. Compressibility Correction The compressibility function. respectively.09 where Ret is given by Equation 4. Also. January 29.Turbulence Rβ = 8 ∗ β∞ = 0.5-22) (4. β = βi 1 − βi∗ ∗ ζ F (Mt ) βi (4. F (Mt ).5-29) (4.25 γRT (4.5-19 and 4.5-24) (4.5-23) fβ = χω Ωij 1 + 70χω 1 + 80χω Ωij Ωjk Ski = ∗ (β∞ ω)3 1 ∂ui ∂uj = − 2 ∂xj ∂xi (4.3-11. 2009 . Dissipation of ω The dissipation of ω is given by Yω = ρ β fβ ω 2 where (4.5-26) The strain rate tensor.5-31) 4-30 Release 12. Inc.0 c ANSYS.5-28) M2 ≡ t Mt0 a = 2k a2 = 0. is given by F (Mt ) = where 0 Mt ≤ Mt0 M2 − M2 Mt > Mt0 t t0 (4.

0. σω = 2.5. βi∗ = β∞ . and zero away from the surface. In the incompressible form.model. Release 12.09. 2009 4-31 . which activates the standard k-ω model. Inc. Model Constants 1 ∗ ∗ α∞ = 1. These features make the SST k-ω model more accurate and reliable for a wider class of ﬂows (e. The blending function is designed to be one in the near-wall region.072. β ∗ = βi∗ .95. To achieve this. The SST k-ω model is similar to the standard k-ω model. α∞ = 0. Mt0 = 0.. β∞ = 0. the kmodel is converted into a k-ω formulation. σk = 2. βi = 0. January 29. Other modiﬁcations include the addition of a cross-diﬀusion term in the ω equation and a blending function to ensure that the model equations behave appropriately in both the near-wall and far-ﬁeld zones.25. Rω = 2. which activates the transformed k.4. Rβ = 8 9 Rk = 6.0 4. in the high-Reynolds-number form of the k-ω model.0 c ANSYS. α0 = . transonic shock waves) than the standard k-ω model.5.5 Standard and SST k-ω Models ∗ Note that. • The modeling constants are diﬀerent. • The deﬁnition of the turbulent viscosity is modiﬁed to account for the transport of the turbulent shear stress. but includes the following reﬁnements: • The standard k-ω model and the transformed k.g.model are both multiplied by a blending function and both models are added together. ζ ∗ = 1. • The SST model incorporates a damped cross-diﬀusion derivative term in the ω equation.model in the far ﬁeld. airfoils. adverse pressure gradient ﬂows.52.2 Shear-Stress Transport (SST) k-ω Model Overview The shear-stress transport (SST) k-ω model was developed by Menter [224] to eﬀectively blend the robust and accurate formulation of the k-ω model in the near-wall region with the free-stream independence of the k.

2009 .5-36) where S is the strain rate magnitude and 1 F1 /σk.0 c ANSYS.1 + (1 − F1 )/σk.1: Modeling the Turbulence Production. Dω represents the cross-diﬀusion term. respectively. calculated as described in Section 4.2 σk = σω (4. SF2 α a1 ω (4.5-34) (4. January 29. Inc. is computed as follows: µt = ρk 1 ω max 1∗ . Sk and Sω are user-deﬁned source terms.1: Modeling the Turbulence Dissipation.Turbulence Transport Equations for the SST k-ω Model The SST k-ω model has a similar form to the standard k-ω model: ∂ ∂ ∂ (ρk) + (ρkui ) = ∂t ∂xi ∂xj and ∂ ∂ ∂ (ρω) + (ρωui ) = ∂t ∂xi ∂xj ∂ω ∂xj + G ω − Y ω + Dω + S ω ∂k ∂xj + G k − Yk + S k Γk (4. respectively. Yk and Yω represent the dissipation of k and ω due to turbulence. which are calculated as described below.5-33) In these equations.5-38) 4-32 Release 12.5-32) Γω (4.5.5.5-35) where σk and σω are the turbulent Prandtl numbers for k and ω. The turbulent viscosity. µt .2 1 = F1 /σω. Modeling the Effective Diffusivity The eﬀective diﬀusivities for the SST k-ω model are given by µt σk µt = µ+ σω Γk = µ + Γω (4. Γk and Γω represent the eﬀective diffusivity of k and ω. calculated as described in Section 4. calculated as described in Section 4. Gk represents the generation of turbulence kinetic energy due to mean velocity gradients. calculated as described below.1 + (1 − F1 )/σω.1: Modeling the Turbulence Production.5.5-37) (4. Gω represents the generation of ω.

09ωy ρy 2 ω √ (4.09ωy ρy ω σω.5 Standard and SST k-ω Models α∗ is deﬁned in Equation 4.2 (4. The blending functions. tion 4. For the SST k-ω model.5-52).2 Dω y 2 1 1 ∂k ∂ω = max 2ρ . 10−10 σω. α∞ is given by α∞ = F1 α∞. Inc.1: Modeling the Turbulence Production for details. 2 . 2009 4-33 . and is deﬁned as: Gk = min(Gk .1 + (1 − F1 )α∞. In the standard k-ω model.5-6.5-43) + where y is the distance to the next surface and Dω is the positive portion of the crossdiﬀusion term (see Equation 4.0 c ANSYS.5-46) Release 12.5. Modeling the Turbulence Production Production of k The term Gk represents the production of turbulence kinetic energy.5-39) (4.52). January 29.5-41) F2 = tanh Φ2 2 Φ2 = max 2 k 500µ . + 0.2 ω ∂xj ∂xj √ (4. F1 and F2 . The diﬀerence between the two models also exists in the way the term α∞ is evaluated. α∞ is deﬁned as a constant (0.4. 10ρβ ∗ kω) where Gk is deﬁned in the same manner as in the standard k-ω model.5-44) See Sec- Note that this formulation diﬀers from the standard k-ω model.5-45) (4. 0.5-40) (4. Production of ω The term Gω represents the production of ω and is given by Gω = α Gk νt (4. are given by F1 = tanh Φ4 1 Φ1 = min max + Dω k 500µ 4ρk .5-42) (4.

Thus.1: Modeling the Turbulence Dissipation).1 + (1 − F1 )βi. The diﬀerence is in the way the term fβ ∗ is evaluated.5-47) (4.5. January 29.5-48) where κ is 0. βi is deﬁned as a constant (0.0 c ANSYS.1 κ2 − ∗ ∗ β∞ σw. fβ ∗ is a constant equal to 1.1 β∞ βi.5-49) 4-34 Release 12. 2009 .5-50) (4. Yk = ρβ ∗ kω Dissipation of ω The term Yω represents the dissipation of ω.1: Modeling the Turbulence Dissipation).Turbulence where α∞. The diﬀerence is in the way the terms βi and fβ are evaluated. For the SST k-ω model. and is deﬁned in a similar manner as in the standard k-ω model (see Section 4. In the standard k-ω model.2 κ2 − ∗ ∗ β∞ σw. Yk = ρβω 2 Instead of having a constant value. fβ ∗ is deﬁned as a piecewise function. βi is given by βi = F1 βi.5-24.2 β∞ (4. (4. Modeling the Turbulence Dissipation Dissipation of k The term Yk represents the dissipation of turbulence kinetic energy. In the standard k-ω model.1 = α∞.072) and fβ is deﬁned in Equation 4. For the SST k-ω model.5-51) (4.2 = βi. fβ is a constant equal to 1. Inc.5-39.41. Thus.2 and F1 is obtained from Equation 4. and is deﬁned in a similar manner as in the standard k-ω model (see Section 4.5.

ζ ∗ .2 = 1. 4.5-52) For details about the various k. which leads to the introduction of a cross-diﬀusion term (Dω in Equation 4. In ANSYS FLUENT the value of ω at the wall is speciﬁed as ωw = ρ (u∗ )2 + ω µ (4.0.model.4: Standard. Rω .3 Wall Boundary Conditions The wall boundary conditions for the k equation in the k-ω models are treated in the same way as the k equation is treated when enhanced wall treatments are used with the k.model has been transformed into equations based on k and ω. βi.075 βi. and Mt0 ) have the same values as for the standard k-ω model (see Section 4.2 = 0.0 c ANSYS. σω. β∞ . Rβ . see Section 4. January 29.1 = 1.1 = 0. while for the ﬁne meshes.Models.5 Standard and SST k-ω Models Cross-Diffusion Modiﬁcation The SST k-ω model is based on both the standard k-ω model and the standard k.models. σω.1 = 2.5.5-33). σk. α0 . Rk .0.models.2 = 1. 2009 4-35 .176.5-53) Release 12. the standard k. RNG.1: Model Constants). Dω is deﬁned as Dω = 2 (1 − F1 ) ρσω.2 1 ∂k ∂ω ω ∂xj ∂xj (4.31.4.168 a1 = 0. α∞ . Model Constants σk.0828 ∗ ∗ All additional model constants (α∞ . Inc.5. To blend these two models together. and Realizable k. the appropriate low-Reynolds-number boundary conditions will be applied. This means that all boundary conditions for wall-function meshes will correspond to the wall function approach.

Turbulence The asymptotic value of ω + in the laminar sublayer is given by + ω + = min ωw .5-55) + ks ≥ 25 where + ks = max 1. In the logarithmic (or turbulent) region. ρks u∗ µ (4. January 29.0. the value of ω + is ω+ = 1 du+ turb ∗ dy + β∞ (4. ANSYS FLUENT will blend ω + between the logarithmic and laminar sublayer values.5-56) and ks is the roughness height. 2009 .5-54) where 50 + ks 100 + ks 2 + ks < 25 + ωw = (4.5-57) which leads to the value of ω in the wall cell as ω= u∗ ∗ β∞ κy (4. 6 βi (y + )2 (4. 4-36 Release 12.0 c ANSYS.5-58) Note that in the case of a wall cell being placed in the buﬀer region. Inc.

laminar kinetic energy (kL ). 4. For details about using the model in ANSYS FLUENT. and the inverse turbulent time scale (ω) DkT ∂ = PKT + R + RN AT − ωkT − DT + Dt ∂xj αT αk ∂kT ∂xj ν+ (4.6-2) ν+ αT ∂ω αω ∂xj (4.4. which includes transport equations for turbulent kinetic energy (kT ).6-5) λef f = M IN (Cλ d. 4.0 c ANSYS. Inc.6-1) DkL ∂ ∂kL = PKL − R − RN AT − DL + ν Dt ∂xj ∂xj √ Dω ω CωR ω kT ∂ 2 2 = Cω1 PkT + −1 (R+RN AT )−Cω2 ω +Cω3 fω αT fW 3 + Dt kT fW kT d ∂xj (4.1 Overview The k-kl-ω transition model [364] is used to predict boundary layer development and calculate transition onset.6. see Chapter 12: Modeling Turbulence and Section 12.6-3) The inclusion of the turbulent and laminar ﬂuctuations on the mean ﬂow and energy equations via the eddy viscosity and total thermal diﬀusivity is as follows: −ui uj = νT OT ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi ∂θ ∂xi 2 − kT OT δij 3 (4. 2009 4-37 .T OT The eﬀective length is deﬁned as (4. λT ) where λT is the turbulent length scale and is deﬁned by (4.6 k-kl-ω Transition Model 4.6 k-kl-ω Transition Model This section describes the theory behind the k-kl-ω Transition model.6-6) Release 12.6.8: Setting Up the Transition k-kl-ω Model in the separate User’s Guide.2 Transport Equations for the k-kl-ω Model The k-kl-ω model is considered to be a three-equation eddy-viscosity type. January 29. This model can be used to eﬀectively address the transition of the boundary layer from a laminar to a turbulent regime.6-4) −ui θ = αθ.

s λef f and Cµ = 1 A0 + As (S/ω) (4.s νT.6-7) kT.6-16) 4-38 Release 12. January 29.Turbulence √ λT = and the small scale energy is deﬁned by k ω (4. Inc.s Aν (4.6-12) (4.6-11 yields the turbulent kinetic energy kT .l = kT − kT.0 c ANSYS.1 CIN T kT OT (4.6-14) fν = 1 − exp − ReT. The turbulence production term generated by turbulent ﬂuctuations is given by PkT = νT.s S 2 where the small-scale turbulent viscosity is νT.6-15) A damping function deﬁning the turbulent production due to intermittency is given by fIN T = M IN kL .6-11) Note that the sum of Equations 4.6-8) fW = λef f λT 2 (4.6-13) (4.6-10) (4.6-8 and 4.6-9) Css νΩ fss = exp − kT The large scale energy is given by kT.s = fss fW kT (4. 2009 .s (4.s = fν fIN T Cµ kT.

1 is fτ.l S 2 The large-scale turbulent viscosity νT. such that PkL = νT.1 = fτ. January 29.6-20) The limit in Equation 4.1 2 λef f Ω2 (4.1 = M IN νT.6-20 is βT S = 1 − exp − M AX(φN AT − CT S.1 λef f + βT S C12 φN AT d2 Ω (4.6 k-kl-ω Transition Model ReT. The time-scale-based damping function fτ.6-18) 0. (4.0 c ANSYS.6-22) kT. Inc.s = 2 fW kT νω (4.1 .4.6-2. 0)2 AT S d2 Ω ν (4.1 = 1 − exp −Cτ. 2009 4-39 .6-21) φN AT = Near-wall dissipation is given by (4.1 is modeled as ∗ νT.1 ) S (4.1 C11 Ωλ2 f ef ν kT.crit .6-24) (4.1 where βT S from Equation 4.5(kL + kT.6-19 binds the realizability such that it is not violated in the two-dimensional developing boundary layer.6-17) In Equation 4.6-19) where ∗ νT.6-25) Release 12.6-23) √ √ ∂ k T ∂ kT DT = 2ν ∂xj ∂xj √ √ ∂ kL ∂ kL DL = 2ν ∂xj ∂xj (4. PkL is the production of laminar kinetic energy by large scale turbulent ﬂuctuations.

6-1 – 4.6-3 is deﬁned as 4-40 Release 12.6-3.6-31) The use of ω as the scale-determining variable can lead to a reduced intermittency eﬀect in the outer region of a turbulent boundary layer.6-26) φBP = M AX kT − CBP.6-30) (4.crit . given by RN AT = CR. 0 νΩ (4.6-3.s + νT.0 c ANSYS.6-33) αθ.6-1 – 4. and consequently an elimination of the wake region in the velocity proﬁle.6-32) The total eddy viscosity and eddy diﬀusivity included in Equations 4. From Equation 4.6-4 and 4. R represents the averaged eﬀect of the breakdown of streamwise ﬂuctuations into turbulence during bypass transition: R = CR βBP kL ω/fW βBP .θ kT λef f P rθ (4.6-5 are given by νT OT = νT.T OT = fW (4. which is the threshold function controls the bypass transition process: βBP = 1 − exp − φBP ABP (4.s + (1 − fW )Cα. January 29.N AT βN AT kL Ω (4.6-29) M AX(φN AT − CN AT. the following damping is deﬁned as λef f fω = 1 − exp −0.l kT kT OT νT.6-28) The breakdown to turbulence due to instabilities is considered to be a natural transition production term.crit .6-27) (4. 2009 .Turbulence In Equation 4. 0) AN AT √ fN AT.crit /fN AT.6-34) The turbulent scalar diﬀusivity in Equations 4. Inc.crit = 1 − exp CN C kL d ν βN AT = 1 − exp − (4.41 λT 4 (4.

6-35) kT OT = kT + kL (4.θ = 0.035 CSS = 1. CT S.0 × 10−10 . CIN T = 0.6 AN AT = 200. Cλ = 2. CN C = 0.2: Transport Equations for the Transition SST Model • Section 4. As = 2.1 = 4360.17 4.12.1 CN AT. Aν = 6.7 Transition SST Model This section describes the theory behind the Transition SST model.std = 0.04.02 C11 = 3.crit = 1. CR. Cω1 = 0.0 c ANSYS.3: Specifying Inlet Turbulence Levels For details about using the model in ANSYS FLUENT. January 29.std kT.75. Cτ.09 P rθ = 0. σk = 1.495. CωR = 1. AT S = 200.3.N AT = 0. ABP = 0. Information is presented in the following sections: • Section 4.crit = 1250.4 × 10−6 .5.75. see Chapter 12: Modeling Turbulence and Section 12. Cµ.1: Overview • Section 4. Release 12. Cω2 = 0.s λef f (4.4. 2009 4-41 .9: Setting Up the Transition SST Model in the separate User’s Guide. Cα. σω = 1.7.85.7.7.12.crit = 1000. Inc.6-36) Model Constants The model constants for the k-kl-ω transition model are listed below [364] A0 = 4.5.92 Cω3 = 0.44. C12 = 1. CBP.2.7 Transition SST Model αT = fν Cµ. CR = 0.

The destruction/relaminarization sources are deﬁned as follows: Pγ2 = (2cγ1 )ρΩγFturb Eγ2 = cγ2 Pγ2 γ (4.2 Transport Equations for the Transition SST Model The transport equation for the intermittency γ is deﬁned as: ∂(ργ) ∂(ρUj γ) ∂ + = Pγ1 − Eγ1 + Pγ2 − Eγ2 + ∂t ∂xj ∂xj The transition sources are deﬁned as follows: µt σγ ∂γ ∂xj µ+ (4. see Section 12. An ANSYS proprietary empirical correlation (Langtry and Menter) has been developed to cover standard bypass transition as well as ﬂows in low free-stream turbulence environments. January 29. one for the intermittency and one for the transition onset criteria.7-3) where Ω is the vorticity magnitude.1 Overview The transition SST model is based on the coupling of the SST k − ω transport equations with two other transport equations. a very powerful option has been included to allow you to enter your own user-deﬁned empirical correlation.7-1) Pγ1 = 2Flength ρS[γFonset ]cγ3 Eγ1 = Pγ1 γ (4.7. 4. 2009 . In addition. in terms of momentum-thickness Reynolds number.0 c ANSYS. To learn how to set up the transition SST model. which can then be used to control the transition onset momentum thickness Reynolds number equation.Turbulence 4.7-4) 4-42 Release 12. The transition onset is controlled by the following functions: ReV RT = ρy 2 S µ ρk = µω (4.7-2) where S is the strain rate magnitude.7. Flength is an empirical correlation that controls the length of the transition region.9: Setting Up the Transition SST Model (in the separate User’s Guide). Inc.

0) (4. Fonset1 ).7-7) The model constants in Equation 4. The transport equation for the transition momentum thickness Reynolds number Reθt is ∂(ρReθt ) ∂(ρUj Reθt ) ∂ ∂ Reθt + = Pθt + σθt (µ + µt ) ∂t ∂xj ∂xj ∂xj (4.4. while for an inlet.03. 2 Fθt 3.0 c ANSYS. The constants for the intermittency equation are: cγ1 = 0. 0) − RT 4 Fturb = e (4. γsep ) − RT 20 4 (4. This occurs upstream of the transition Reynolds number Reθt and the diﬀerence between the two must be obtained from an empirical correlation.5. γ is equal to 1. σγ = 1.5 [226]. cγ2 = 50. its value for a Blasius boundary layer.5 = max(Fonset2 − Fonset3 .7-7 have been adjusted from those of Menter et al.0 2.7 Transition SST Model Fonset1 = Fonset2 Rev 2. [226] in order to improve the predictions of separated ﬂow transition. January 29.0. 0 Freattch . Inc.235Reθc γsep = min 2max Freattch = e γef f = max(γ.7-6) Reθc is the critical Reynolds number where the intermittency ﬁrst starts to increase in the boundary layer.235. 2009 4-43 . Both the Flength and Reθc correlations are functions of Reθt . the value at a separation point where the shape factor is 3.193. The boundary condition for γ at a wall is zero normal ﬂux. The main diﬀerence is that the constant that controls the relation between Rev and Reθc was changed from 2. cγ3 = 0.0 Separation Induced Transition Correction The modiﬁcation for separation-induced transition is: Rev − 1.193Reθc 4 = min(max(Fonset1 . to 3.7-5) Fonset3 = max 1 − Fonset 4 RT 3 .7-8) Release 12. 2.

7-9. At present. and is used in Equation 4. January 29.0 − Fθt ) t 500µ t = ρU 2 (4. The boundary condition for Reθt at an inlet should be calculated from the empirical correlation based on the inlet turbulence intensity.7-11) Reω = Fwake (4. λ) Flength = f (ReΘt ) ReΘc = f (ReΘt ) (4. ReΘt is the transition onset as observed in experiments. 1. these empirical correlations are proprietary and are not given in this manual. 2009 . ReΘt = f (T u. The model contains three empirical correlations.0 (4.7-9) Fθt = min max Fwake e( 4 −y δ ) . ReΘc is the point where the model is activated in order to match both ReΘt and Flength .0 c ANSYS. This has been modiﬁed from Menter et al.7-2.0 − 1/50 2 .0 − γ − 1/50 1.0 The boundary condition for Reθt at a wall is zero ﬂux. 1.03 σθt = 2.Turbulence The source term is deﬁned as follows: ρ Pθt = cθt (Reθt − Reθt )(1.7-10) θBL = Reθt µ ρU 15 δBL = θBL 2 50Ωy δ = δBL U ρωy 2 µ Reω 2 = e−( 1E+5 ) (4.7-13) 4-44 Release 12.7-12) The model constants for the Reθt equation are: cθt = 0. Inc. Flength is the length of the transition zone and is substituted in Equation 4. [226] in order to improve the predictions for natural transition. It is used in Equation 4.7-5.

turbulence and transition equations. then the transition onset location moves upstream with increasing y + .e. 2009 4-45 .7-15) (4. Release 12. January 29. In order to capture the laminar and transitional boundary layers correctly. It is recommended to use the bounded second order upwind based discretization for the mean ﬂow.0 c ANSYS. [226].7-20) where Pk and Dk are the original production and destruction terms for the SST model and F1orig is the original SST blending function.7-14) Coupling the Transition Model and SST Transport Equations The transition model interacts with the SST turbulence model. > 5). and the Thwaites’ pressure gradient coeﬃcient λθ is deﬁned as λθ = (θ2 /v)dU/ds where dU/ds is the acceleration in the streamwise direction.7-17) (4. (4.0)Dk √ ρy k Ry = µ F3 = e− Ry 120 3 (4. F3 ) (4. T u. as follows: ∂ ∂ ∂ (ρk) + (ρuj k) = Pk − Dk + ∂t ∂xj ∂xj Pk = γef f Pk ∂k ∂xj (µ + σk µt ) (4.7 Transition SST Model The ﬁrst empirical correlation is a function of the local turbulence intensity. 0.4.7-16) Dk = min(max(γef f . 1. Inc.1). the mesh must have a y + of approximately one.7-19) Ft = max(F1orig . Note that the production term in the ω-equation is not modiﬁed. If the y + is too large (i. The rationale behind the above model formulation is given in detail in Menter et al.7-18) (4.

Typically. There is experimental evidence that suggests that this eﬀect occurs physically. 2009 .09. However.7-23) The decay of turbulent kinetic energy equation can be rewritten in terms of inlet turbulence intensity (Tuinlet ) and eddy viscosity ratio (µt /µ) as follows: 2 Tu = Tuinlet 2 3ρV xβTuinlet 1+ 2µ(µt /µ) −β ∗ β 0. the skin friction can deviate signiﬁcantly from the laminar value. the local turbulence intensity downstream of the inlet can be much smaller than the inlet value (see Figure 4. the smaller the turbulent decay rate.7-24) 4-46 Release 12.0 c ANSYS.. Inc. The eddy viscosity is deﬁned as: µt = ρk ω (4.7.Turbulence 4. January 29. For this reason. As a result. it is desirable to have a relatively low (i. >100). the larger the inlet viscosity ratio.1).7-22) where x is the streamwise distance downstream of the inlet and V is the mean convective velocity. if too large a viscosity ratio is speciﬁed (i.7. at this point it is not clear how accurately the transition model reproduces this behavior. The decay of turbulent kinetic energy can be calculated with the following analytical solution: k = kinlet (1 + ωinlet βt) −β ∗ β (4. however. if possible.5 (4. β ∗ = 0.7-21) For the SST turbulence model in the freestream the constants are: β = 0. the turbulence intensity has decayed to the desired value.3 Specifying Inlet Turbulence Levels It has been observed that the turbulence intensity speciﬁed at an inlet can decay quite rapidly depending on the inlet viscosity ratio (µt /µ) (and hence turbulence eddy frequency).0828 The time scale can be determined as follows: t= x V (4.e.e ≈1 – 10) inlet viscosity ratio and to estimate the inlet value of turbulence intensity such that at the leading edge of the blade/airfoil.

v 2 . it also accurately simulates ﬂows dominated by separation [24]. for evaluating the eddy viscosity. For more information about the theoretical background and usage of the v 2 -f model.8 The v 2 -f Model Figure 4. Although the model was originally developed for attached or mildly separated boundary layers [82]. and therefore does not need to make use of wall functions.fluentusers. Inc. but incorporates near-wall turbulence anisotropy and non-local pressure-strain eﬀects. k.0 c ANSYS. Release 12.1: Decay of Turbulence Intensity (Tu ) as a Function of Streamwise Distance (x) 4.model is typically used in such applications. whereas the k. The distinguishing feature of the v 2 -f model is its use of the velocity scale. January 29. instead of the turbulent kinetic energy.4. a feature that k does not provide.model. please visit the User Services Center (www. which can be thought of as the velocity ﬂuctuation normal to the streamlines. A limitation of the v 2 -f model is that it cannot be used to solve Eulerian multiphase problems.8 The v 2 -f Model The v 2 -f model is similar to the standard k. 2009 4-47 . has shown to provide the right scaling in representing the damping of turbulent transport close to the wall. v 2 .7. The v 2 -f model is a general low-Reynolds-number turbulence model that is valid all the way up to solid walls.com) .

in comparison to seven additional transport equations solved in 3D. and often considered to be responsible for compromising the accuracy of RSM predictions. the ﬁdelity of RSM predictions is still limited by the closure assumptions employed to model various terms in the exact transport equations for the Reynolds stresses.4: Modeling the Pressure-Strain Term • Section 4.9 Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) This section describes the theory behind the Reynolds Stress model (RSM).Turbulence 4.9.9. and rapid changes in strain rate in a more rigorous manner than one-equation and two-equation models.10: Setting Up the Reynolds Stress Model in the separate User’s Guide.9. Since the RSM accounts for the eﬀects of streamline curvature. together with an equation for the dissipation rate.3: Modeling Turbulent Diﬀusive Transport • Section 4. 178] is the most elaborate type of turbulence model that ANSYS FLUENT provides.1 Overview The Reynolds stress model (RSM) [108.8: Modeling the Turbulent Viscosity • Section 4. the RSM closes the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations by solving transport equations for the Reynolds stresses. The modeling of the pressure-strain and dissipation-rate terms is particularly challenging.9.5: Eﬀects of Buoyancy on Turbulence • Section 4.9. January 29. This means that ﬁve additional transport equations are required in 2D ﬂows.9. 4. Information is presented in the following sections: • Section 4. However.9. 4-48 Release 12. Inc. 2009 .9.10: Convective Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling For details about using the model in ANSYS FLUENT.9. see Chapter 12: Modeling Turbulence and Section 12. 177.9.2: Reynolds Stress Transport Equations • Section 4.7: Modeling the Dissipation Rate • Section 4. Abandoning the isotropic eddy-viscosity hypothesis. swirl.9: Wall Boundary Conditions • Section 4. it has greater potential to give accurate predictions for complex ﬂows. rotation.0 c ANSYS.9.6: Modeling the Turbulence Kinetic Energy • Section 4.1: Overview • Section 4.

2 Reynolds Stress Transport Equations The exact transport equations for the transport of the Reynolds stresses. 4. and ij need to be modeled to close the equations. ρui uj . Pij . January 29. use of the RSM is a must when the ﬂow features of interest are the result of anisotropy in the Reynolds stresses. However. φij . Inc.0 c ANSYS. Cij . the product then being Reynoldsaveraged. rotating ﬂow passages.9.ij . The following sections describe the modeling assumptions required to close the equation set. Among the examples are cyclone ﬂows.ij ≡ Molecular Diﬀusion − ρ ui u k ∂ui ∂uj + uj u k ∂xk ∂xk − ρβ(gi uj θ + gj ui θ) Gij ≡ Buoyancy Production Pij ≡ Stress Production + p ∂ui ∂uj + ∂xj ∂xi − ij 2µ ∂ui ∂uj ∂xk ∂xk φij ≡ Pressure Strain −2ρΩk uj um ikm ≡ Dissipation Suser (4.ij ≡ Turbulent Diﬀusion + ∂ ∂ µ (u u ) ∂xk ∂xk i j DL. The exact form of the Reynolds stress transport equations may be derived by taking moments of the exact momentum equation.ij . Unfortunately.9 Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) The RSM might not always yield results that are clearly superior to the simpler models in all classes of ﬂows to warrant the additional computational expense. Release 12.9-1) + ui um jkm + Fij ≡ Production by System Rotation User-Deﬁned Source Term Of the various terms in these exact equations. may be written as follows: ∂ ∂ ∂ ρ ui uj uk + p δkj ui + δik uj (ρ ui uj ) + (ρuk ui uj ) = − ∂xk ∂t ∂xk Local Time Derivative Cij ≡ Convection DT. highly swirling ﬂows in combustors. DT. and the stress-induced secondary ﬂows in ducts. Gij . This is a process wherein the exact momentum equations are multiplied by a ﬂuctuating property. and Fij do not require any modeling. 2009 4-49 . However. several of the terms in the exact equation are unknown and modeling assumptions are required in order to close the equations.4. DL.

1 ≡ −C1 ρ with C1 = 1. so it has been simpliﬁed in ANSYS FLUENT to use a scalar turbulent diﬀusivity as follows [194]: ∂ ∂xk µt ∂ui uj σk ∂xk DT.Turbulence 4.ij = Cs (4.9-2. and φij.0. φij.82 by applying the generalized gradient-diﬀusion model. φij . is computed using Equation 4.9-3) The turbulent viscosity. The rapid pressure-strain term. The slow pressure-strain term.1 + φij. is modeled as 2 ui uj − δij k k 3 (4. to the case of a planar homogeneous shear ﬂow.w is the wall-reﬂection term. and Launder [176. Inc.9-2) However. φij. this equation can result in numerical instabilities.9-5) 4-50 Release 12.ij can be modeled by the generalized gradient-diﬀusion model of Daly and Harlow [67]: ∂ ku u ∂ui uj ρ k ∂xk ∂x DT. in Equation 4.0 c ANSYS. φij.9-1 is modeled according to the proposals by Gibson and Launder [108]. Lien and Leschziner [194] derived a value of σk = 0. is modeled as φij.2 is called the rapid pressure-strain term.4 Modeling the Pressure-Strain Term Linear Pressure-Strain Model By default in ANSYS FLUENT. The classical approach to modeling φij uses the following decomposition: φij = φij.1 is the slow pressure-strain term. [104].8.2 + φij.9-33.1 . the pressure-strain term. Equation 4.ij = (4. 4.9. Fu et al.2 . also known as the return-to-isotropy term. in which σk = 1. 177]. 2009 . Note that this value of σk is diﬀerent from that in the standard and realizable kmodels.9. January 29.w (4. µt .3 Modeling Turbulent Diffusive Transport DT.9-4) where φij.

2 kk where C2 = 0.60.4187).9-9) (4. nk is the xk component of the unit normal to the wall. 2009 4-51 . Fij .58AA2 0. C2 . Pij .3.9-6) 1 P .w . and C = 1 Ckk .9-8) (4. while enhancing the stresses parallel to the wall. according to the suggestion of Launder and Shima [179]: C1 = 1 + 2. d is 3/4 the normal distance to the wall. The ﬂatness parameter A and tensor invariants.25 1 − exp −(0.2 nj nk − φjk. Low-Re Modiﬁcations to the Linear Pressure-Strain Model When the RSM is applied to near-wall ﬂows using the enhanced wall treatment described in Section 4.2 ni nk 2 2 d (4. a a φij. Gij . P = G = 1 Gkk . C1 . Inc.4. and Cij are deﬁned as in Equation 4. where Cµ = 0.0 c ANSYS. A2 and A3 .9-10) (4. The modiﬁcation used in ANSYS FLUENT speciﬁes the values of C1 .w ≡ C1 3 3 C k 3/2 uk um nk nm δij − ui uk nj nk − uj uk ni nk k 2 2 d 3 3 C k 3/2 + C2 φkm. C2 = 0.2 ≡ −C2 (Pij + Fij + 5/6Gij − Cij ) − δij (P + 5/6G − C) 3 (4.9-1. This term is modeled as φij. January 29.w is included by default in the Reynolds stress model. the pressure-strain model needs to be modiﬁed.5. 2 2 The wall-reﬂection term. It tends to damp the normal stress perpendicular to the wall.67 3 2 C2 − 1 6 C2 = max 3 .2 nk nm δij − φik.09 and κ is the von K´rm´n constant (= 0.75 A 2 C1 = − C1 + 1. are deﬁned as Release 12. is responsible for the redistribution of normal stresses near the wall. φij.12.0067Ret )2 √ C2 = 0. and C2 as functions of the Reynolds stress invariants and the turbulent Reynolds number.4: Two-Layer Model for Enhanced Wall Treatment.9-11) with the turbulent Reynolds number deﬁned as Ret = (ρk 2 /µ ).9-7) where C1 = 0.9 Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) 2 φij. and C = Cµ /κ.0 C2 (4.

This model has been demonstrated to give superior performance in a range of basic shear ﬂows. deﬁned as aij = − −ρui uj + 2 ρkδij 3 ρk (4. including plane strain. January 29.9-15) The modiﬁcations detailed above are employed only when the enhanced wall treatment is selected in the Viscous Model dialog box.9-14) A2 ≡ aik aki A3 ≡ aik akj aji aij is the Reynolds-stress anisotropy tensor.0 c ANSYS. rotating plane shear. and Gatski [334] is provided in ANSYS FLUENT. Sarkar.9-17) (4.Turbulence A ≡ 1− 9 (A2 − A3 ) 8 (4. particularly those with streamline curvature. The quadratic pressure-strain model can be selected as an option in the Viscous Model dialog box.9-13) (4. 2009 . This model is written as follows: ∗ φij = − (C1 ρ + C1 P ) bij + C2 ρ 1 ∗ bik bkj − bmn bmn δij + C3 − C3 bij bij ρkSij 3 2 + C4 ρk bik Sjk + bjk Sik − bmn Smn δij + C5 ρk (bik Ωjk + bjk Ωik ) 3 where bij is the Reynolds-stress anisotropy tensor deﬁned as bij = − The mean strain rate.9-16) (4. Quadratic Pressure-Strain Model An optional pressure-strain model proposed by Speziale. Inc.9-18) 4-52 Release 12. is deﬁned as Sij = 1 2 ∂uj ∂ui + ∂xi ∂xj −ρui uj + 2 ρkδij 3 2ρk (4.9-12) (4. Sij . This improved accuracy should be beneﬁcial for a wider class of complex engineering ﬂows. and axisymmetric expansion/contraction.

8.2. This model is ideal for modeling ﬂows over curved surfaces and swirling ﬂows. Ωij . January 29.8.9-21) Release 12.4.9 Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) The mean rate-of-rotation tensor.9-20) ˆ − β0 [Dij − 1/3Pkk δij ] − k γ0 [Sij − 1/3Skk δij ] ˆ where Dij is deﬁned as (4.3. Low-Re Stress-Omega Model The low-Re stress-omega model is a stress-transport model that is based on the omega equations and LRR model [379]. low Reynolds number modiﬁcations and surface boundary conditions for rough surfaces are similar to the k-ω model.9-4 can be re-written for the low-Re stress-omega model such that wall reﬂections are excluded: φij = φij.4. The closure coeﬃcients are identical to the k-ω model (Section 4. C3 = 1. C1 and C2 .25. however. The low-Re stress-omega model can be selected in the Viscous Model dialog box and requires no treatments of wall reﬂections. C4 = 1. The low-Re stress-omega model resembles the k-ω model due to its excellent predictions for a wide range of turbulent ﬂows.9-19) The quadratic pressure-strain model does not require a correction to account for the wall-reﬂection eﬀect in order to obtain a satisfactory solution in the logarithmic region of a turbulent boundary layer.2 Therefore. It should be noted. there are additional closure coeﬃcients. 2009 4-53 . C1 = 1. Furthermore.1: Model Constants). Inc. Equation 4.5. ∗ φij = −C1 ρβRSM ω ui uj − 2/3δij k − α0 [Pij − 1/3Pkk δij ] ˆ (4. is deﬁned by Ωij = The constants are ∗ ∗ C1 = 3.1 + φij. C2 = 4. C5 = 0.4 1 2 ∂ui ∂uj − ∂xj ∂xi (4. noted below.0 c ANSYS. C3 = 0. however. that the quadratic pressurestrain model is not available when the enhanced wall treatment is selected in the Viscous Model dialog box.

8 where α. The constants are α0 = ˆ 8 + C2 ˆ 8C2 − 2 60C2 − 4 . inclusion of the viscous damping function [379] could improve model predictions for certain ﬂows.5-22.9-18 and βRSM is deﬁned by ∗ βRSM = β ∗ fβ ∗ (4. The constants are ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Rβ = 12.5-16.20 Inclusion of the low-Re viscous damping is controlled by enabling Low-Re Corrections under k-omega Options in the Viscous Model dialog box.0 c ANSYS.9-22) ∗ The mean strain rate Sij is deﬁned in Equation 4.5-16 and 4. Rω = 6.Turbulence Dij = −ρ ui um ∂um ∂um + u j um ∂xj ∂xi (4. β. respectively. Rk = 12. β0 = . 4-54 Release 12. 2009 . The only diﬀerence here is that the equation for fβ uses a value of 640 instead of 680. using Equa∗ tions 4. and γ0 in Equation 4.8. However.9-23) ∗ where β ∗ and fβ are deﬁned in the same way as for the standard k − ω. β0 . and γ would replace α0 . γ0 = ˆ 11 11 55 C1 = 1.007 + ReT /Rk 1 + ReT /Rk 5/3 + ReT /Rk 1 + ReT /Rk γ = γ0 ˆ ˆ C1 = 1. as in Equation 4.52 The above formulation does not require viscous damping functions to resolve the nearwall sublayer. This results in the following changes: α= ˆ 1 + α0 ReT /Rk ˆ 1 + ReT /Rk ˆ ˆ ReT /Rk β = β0 1 + ReT /Rk 0. January 29.9-21. C2 = 0. Inc.

9-27) As described in Section 4.9-25) where Prt is the turbulent Prandtl number for energy.9-28 is obtainable by contracting the modeled equation for the Reynolds stresses (Equation 4. β.9.85.9: Wall Boundary Conditions.4-24.4-1 used in the standard k. it is obtained by taking the trace of the Reynolds stress tensor: 1 k = u i ui 2 (4. with a default value of 0.9-24) Ui θ = (4. Using the deﬁnition of the coeﬃcient of thermal expansion. it is essentially identical to Equation 4. Equation 4. January 29. As one might expect.9.9-1). Inc.5 Effects of Buoyancy on Turbulence The production terms due to buoyancy are modeled as Gij = (Ji Uj + Jj Ui ) = −β(gi uj θ + gj Ui θ) µt ∂T ( ) Prt ∂Xi (4.82 and Sk is a user-deﬁned source term.9-26) i Note that the buoyancy eﬀects are not included if low-Re omega based RSM model is used. Release 12. In this case.9-28) t ∂xj 2 where σk = 0. the following expression is obtained for Gij for ideal gases: Gij = − µt ∂ρ ∂ρ gi + gj ρPrt ∂xj ∂xi (4. 2009 4-55 . 4. when the turbulence kinetic energy is needed for modeling a speciﬁc term.9. an option is available in ANSYS FLUENT to solve a transport equation for the turbulence kinetic energy in order to obtain boundary conditions for the Reynolds stresses. given by Equation 4.9 Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) 4.6 Modeling the Turbulence Kinetic Energy In general. the following model equation is used: ∂ ∂ ∂ (ρk) + (ρkui ) = ∂t ∂xi ∂xj µ+ µt σk ∂k 1 + (Pii + Gii ) − ρ (1 + 2M2 ) + Sk (4.model.0 c ANSYS.4.

This is a minor point.5: Eﬀects of Buoyancy on Turbulence in the k.9-28 is solved globally throughout the ﬂow domain. since the values of k obtained with either method should be very similar. is modeled as 2 = δij (ρ + YM ) 3 (4.92. January 29. k is obtained from Equation 4. In every other case. using Equation 4.44. 4.9-31) ∂xj 2 k k where σ = 1.Turbulence Although Equation 4. C 3 is evaluated as a function of the local ﬂow direction relative to the gravitational vector. is computed with a model transport equation similar to that used in the standard k.9.model: ∂ ∂ ∂ (ρ ) + (ρ ui ) = ∂t ∂xi ∂xj µ+ µt σ 2 ∂ 1 C 1 [Pii + C 3 Gii ] − C 2 ρ + S (4. C 1 = 1. and S is a user-deﬁned source term.4: Modeling the Pressure-Strain Term and the speciﬁc dissipation rate ω is computed in the same way as for the standard k − ω model. Inc.9. 4-56 Release 12. however.9-29) ij where YM = 2ρ M2 is an additional “dilatation dissipation” term according to the model t by Sarkar [300]. as described in Section 4.Models. The dissipation tensor.0. C 2 = 1.5-2. the dissipation tensor ij is modeled as ij ∗ = 2/3δij ρβRSM kω (4. This compressibility modiﬁcation always takes eﬀect when the compressible form of the ideal gas law is used.4. In the case when the Reynolds Stress model is coupled with the omega equation. The turbulent Mach number in this term is deﬁned as k a2 Mt = (4. The scalar dissipation rate.9-32) ∗ Where βRSM is deﬁned in Section 4.9-30) √ where a (≡ γRT ) is the speed of sound. . 2009 .7 Modeling the Dissipation Rate ij .0 c ANSYS. the values of k obtained are used only for boundary conditions.9-27.

− τ 2 η = 1.9-1). Section 4.098. ANSYS FLUENT applies explicit wall boundary conditions for the Reynolds stresses by using the log-law and the assumption of equilibrium. disregarding convection and diﬀusion in the transport equations for the stresses (Equation 4. in the far ﬁeld k is obtained directly from the normal Reynolds stresses using Equation 4. At walls. and for the turbulence dissipation rate.2: Standard Wall Functions. the Reynolds stresses can be explicitly speciﬁed in terms of wall-shear stress. (or ω if the low-Re stress-omega model is used). λ = 0.3: NonEquilibrium Wall Functions.4: Enhanced Wall Functions).9.247.12.655.1.9-1 are solved only in the bulk ﬂow region. and the transport equations in Equation 4. Alternatively. λ = 2.9-27. is computed similarly to the k. These quantities can be input directly or derived from the turbulence intensity and characteristic length (Section 12.9 Wall Boundary Conditions The RSM model in ANSYS FLUENT requires boundary conditions for individual Reynolds stresses.12. where τ is the tangential coordinate.9.9-35) Release 12. η = 1.9-28. instead of k: u2 u u uτ2 u2 = 5. ui uj . For reasons of computational convenience. Inc.3: Reynolds Stress Model in the separate User’s Guide).8 Modeling the Turbulent Viscosity The turbulent viscosity.12. ANSYS FLUENT computes the near-wall values of the Reynolds stresses and from wall functions (see Section 4.4.0 c ANSYS. η = 0.3.9 Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) 4. the Reynolds stresses at the wall-adjacent cells (assuming standard wall functions or non-equilibrium wall functions) are computed from u2 u u uτ2 u2 = 1. and Section 4. η is the normal coordinate. By default. even though the values of k thus computed are needed only near the wall.14. 2009 4-57 . k2 (4.models: µt = ρCµ where Cµ = 0. − τ η = 0.9-34) To obtain k. the equation is solved globally. the values of the Reynolds stresses near the wall are ﬁxed using the values computed from Equation 4. ANSYS FLUENT solves the transport equation of Equation 4. µt .255 k k k k (4. January 29.9-34. and λ is the binormal coordinate.09.9-33) 4. Using a local coordinate system.0.0 2 2 2 uτ uτ uτ uτ (4.

with a default turbulent Schmidt number of 0. deﬁned as (τij )eﬀ = µeﬀ ∂uj ∂ui + ∂xi ∂xj 2 ∂uk − µeﬀ δij 3 ∂xk The term involving (τij )eﬀ represents the viscous heating. Information is presented in the following sections: • Section 4.9. 4-58 Release 12. You can change the value of Prt in the Viscous Model dialog box.Turbulence where uτ is the friction velocity deﬁned by uτ ≡ τw /ρ. 4. The default value of the turbulent Prandtl number is 0. turbulent heat transport is modeled using the concept of Reynolds’ analogy to turbulent momentum transfer. where τw is the wall-shear stress.10. the k transport equation is not solved. The “modeled” energy equation is thus given by the following: ∂ ∂ ∂ (ρE) + [ui (ρE + p)] = ∂t ∂xi ∂xj c p µt Prt ∂T + ui (τij )eﬀ + Sh ∂xj k+ (4. Inc.85.10 Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) This section describes the theory behind the Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) model.10 Convective Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling With the Reynolds stress model in ANSYS FLUENT.2: Realizable k. 4. It is not computed by default in the pressure-based solver.Based DES Model • Section 4.7.10. and is always computed in the density-based solvers. see Chapter 12: Modeling Turbulence and Section 12. but it can be enabled in the Viscous Model dialog box. 2009 .0 c ANSYS.9-36) where E is the total energy and (τij )eﬀ is the deviatoric stress tensor. When using enhanced wall treatments as the near-wall treatment. ANSYS FLUENT applies zero ﬂux wall boundary conditions to the Reynolds stress equations.1: Spalart-Allmaras Based DES Model • Section 4.11: Setting Up the Detached Eddy Simulation Model in the separate User’s Guide.10. This default value can be changed in the Viscous Model dialog box. January 29.3: SST k-ω Based DES Model For details about using the model in ANSYS FLUENT. Turbulent mass transfer is treated similarly. When this option is chosen.

the unsteady RANS models are employed in the boundary layer. In ANSYS FLUENT. DES models have been speciﬁcally designed to address high Reynolds number wall bounded ﬂows. where ∆ << δ. The DES model. often referred to as the hybrid LES/RANS models combine RANS modeling with LES for applications such as high-Re external aerodynamics simulations. as a general guideline.3-12. Equation 4. and the SST k-ω model. may still require signiﬁcant CPU resources and therefore.3-6.3-15). 4. 4. in case of an ambiguous grid deﬁnition. it is recommended that the conventional turbulence models employing the Reynolds-averaged approach be used for practical calculations.10 Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) Overview ANSYS FLUENT oﬀers three diﬀerent models for the detached eddy simulation: the Spalart-Allmaras model. However. is based on the largest grid space in the x. and where the wall-parallel grid spacing usually exceeds δ. a new formulation [332] of DES Release 12. where the grid is not ﬁne enough to sustain resolved turbulence.65. as proposed by Shur et al. Inc. Therefore. and the SST k-ω model. ∆.4.model. The LES region is normally associated with the core turbulent region where large unsteady turbulence scales play a dominant role. In the DES approach. 2009 4-59 .model. The application of DES.0 c ANSYS. or z directions forming the computational cell. January 29. the respective RANS models are recovered.1 Spalart-Allmaras Based DES Model The standard Spalart-Allmaras model uses the distance to the closest wall as the deﬁnition for the length scale d. [314] replaces d everywhere with a new length scale d. is less than LES computational costs. Cdes ∆) (4.10. the DES model is based on the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras model. where δ is the size of the boundary layer. and 4. For a typical RANS grid with a high aspect ratio in the boundary layer. but greater than RANS.10-1) where the grid spacing. the DES limiter can activate the LES mode inside the boundary layer. The empirical constant Cdes has a value of 0. the DES models recover LES-like subgrid models. the realizable k. where the cost of a near-wall resolving Large Eddy Simulation would be prohibitive. The diﬀerence with the LES model is that it relies only on the required resolution in the boundary layers. In this region.10-1 will ensure that the DES model is in the RANS mode for the entire boundary layer. The DES models. which plays a major role in determining the level of production and destruction of turbulent viscosity (Equations 4. y. deﬁned as d = min(d. however. when using the DES models. The computational costs. In the near-wall region. while the LES treatment is applied to the separated regions. the realizable k.

Inc.10-6) (4. This is known as the delayed option or DDES for delayed DES.model (Section 4.4. you will obtain an expression for the dissipation of the k formulation for the Realizable k. January 29. For the case where ldes = lrke .10-8) 4-60 Release 12. The DES length ldes in Equation 4. lles ) lrke = k 3 2 3 (4.Based DES Model This DES model is similar to the Realizable k. the delayed concept can be applied as well to the Realizable DES model to preserve the RANS mode throughout the boundary layer. The DES length scale d is re-deﬁned according to: d = d − fd max(0.10-3) (4. d − Cdes ∆) where fd is given by: fd = 1 − tanh (8rd )3 This formulation is the default settings. 2009 . the Realizable k. lrke − Cdes ∆) (4. (4.0 c ANSYS.10.3: Realizable k.10-4) (4.Model): Yk = ρ Similarly to the Spalart-Allmaras model.10-8 is redeﬁned such that ldes = lrke − fd max(0.10-5) (4.RANS dissipation term is modiﬁed such that: ρk 2 Yk = ldes where ldes = min(lrke .3: Realizable k.model discussed in Section 4. In the DES model.Model. ∆y.10-7) lles = Cdes ∆ where Cdes is a calibration constant used in the DES model and has a value of 0.61 and ∆ is the maximum local grid spacing (∆x. with the exception of the dissipation term in the k equation.Turbulence is available in ANSYS FLUENT to preserve the RANS mode throughout the boundary layer. ∆z).10-2) 4.4.2 Realizable k.

11. FDES is modiﬁed according to FDES = max Lt Cdes ∆ (1 − FSST ).3 SST k-ω Based DES Model The dissipation term of the turbulent kinetic energy (see Section 4.11. Inc. ∆z).5. The turbulent length scale is the parameter that deﬁnes this RANS model: k β ∗ω √ Lt = (4. 4.1: Modeling the Turbulence Dissipation) is modiﬁed for the DES turbulence model as described in Menter’s work [225] such that Yk = ρβ ∗ kωFDES where FDES is expressed as FDES = max Lt Cdes ∆ . F1 . where F1 and F2 are the blending functions of the SST model.4: Inlet Boundary Conditions for the LES Model Release 12.10-12) with FSST = 0.4.1 (4. ∆ is the maximum local grid spacing (∆x. Information is presented in the following sections: • Section 4.1: Overview • Section 4.11.61.10-10) (4. The default settings use F2 .10-9) where Cdes is a calibration constant used in the DES model and has a value of 0.11 Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Model 4. ∆y.10-11) The DES-SST model also oﬀers the option to “protect” the boundary layer from the limiter (delayed option).11.10. F2 .11 Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Model This section describes the theory behind the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model. This is achieved with the help of the zonal formulation of the SST model.2: Filtered Navier-Stokes Equations • Section 4.3: Subgrid-Scale Models • Section 4.0 c ANSYS. 2009 4-61 . January 29. 1 (4.

energy. 4. The cost required for DNS to resolve the entire range of scales is proportional to Re3 . and are consequently more universal. LES still requires substantially ﬁner meshes than those typically used for RANS calculations.Turbulence For details about using the model in ANSYS FLUENT. for high t Reynolds numbers. Large eddy simulation (LES) thus falls between DNS and RANS in terms of the fraction of the resolved scales.g. The rationale behind LES can be summarized as follows: • Momentum. see Chapter 12: Modeling Turbulence and Section 12. • The chance of ﬁnding a universal turbulence model is much higher for small eddies. DNS is not feasible for practical engineering problems involving high Reynolds number ﬂows. the cost becomes prohibitive. and the boundary conditions.. However. while small eddies are modeled. January 29. The largest eddies are typically comparable in size to the characteristic length of the mean ﬂow. mass.11. to directly resolve the whole spectrum of turbulent scales using an approach known as direct numerical simulation (DNS). especially for industrial applications. 4-62 Release 12. Inc.12: Setting Up the Large Eddy Simulation Model in the separate User’s Guide. tend to be more isotropic. However. In LES. where Ret is the turbulent Reynolds number. 2009 . in theory. As a result. The following sections give details of the governing equations for LES.1 Overview Turbulent ﬂows are characterized by eddies with a wide range of length and time scales. Clearly. and other passive scalars are transported mostly by large eddies. high-performance computing (e. They are dictated by the geometries and boundary conditions of the ﬂow involved. It is possible. the computational cost involved with LES is normally orders of magnitudes higher than that for steady RANS calculations in terms of memory (RAM) and CPU time. the subgrid-scale turbulence models. In addition.0 c ANSYS. The smallest scales are responsible for the dissipation of turbulence kinetic energy. Resolving only the large eddies allows one to use much coarser mesh and larger timesstep sizes in LES than in DNS. • Large eddies are more problem-dependent. No modeling is required in DNS. large eddies are resolved directly. Therefore. LES has to be run for a suﬃciently long ﬂow-time to obtain stable statistics of the ﬂow being modeled. parallel computing) is a necessity for LES. • Small eddies are less dependent on the geometry.

11-3) The LES capability in ANSYS FLUENT is applicable to compressible ﬂows. 2009 4-63 .0 c ANSYS. the theory is presented here for incompressible ﬂows. A ﬁltered variable (denoted by an overbar) is deﬁned by φ(x) = D φ(x )G(x.11.11-1) where D is the ﬂuid domain. ν x ∈ν (4. January 29.11-4) Release 12. x ) = (4. x otherwise G(x.11-6) (4. G(x. one obtains ∂ρ ∂ + (ρui ) = 0 ∂t ∂xi and ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂p ∂τij (ρui ) + (ρui uj ) = (σij ) − − ∂t ∂xj ∂xj ∂xi ∂xj where σij is the stress tensor due to molecular viscosity deﬁned by σij ≡ µ ∂ui ∂uj + ∂xj ∂xi 2 ∂ul − µ δij 3 ∂xl (4.11-5) (4. and G is the ﬁlter function that determines the scale of the resolved eddies. implied here is then 1/V. however.11-2) where V is the volume of a computational cell. The ﬁltering process eﬀectively ﬁlters out the eddies whose scales are smaller than the ﬁlter width or grid spacing used in the computations. x ). the ﬁnite-volume discretization itself implicitly provides the ﬁltering operation: φ(x) = 1 V φ(x ) dx . Inc. In ANSYS FLUENT. The resulting equations thus govern the dynamics of large eddies. The ﬁlter function.11 Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Model 4. For the sake of concise notation. Filtering the Navier-Stokes equations. x ∈ ν 0. x )dx (4.2 Filtered Navier-Stokes Equations The governing equations employed for LES are obtained by ﬁltering the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations in either Fourier (wave-number) space or conﬁguration (physical) space.4.

11-7) 4.11-5.11-10) The Favre Filtered Navier-Stokes equation takes the same form as Equation 4. The isotropic part of the subgrid-scale stresses τkk is not modeled.11-11) The deviatoric part of the subgrid-scale stress tensor is modeled using the compressible form of the Smagorinsky model: 1 1 τij − τkk δij = 2µt (Sij − §kk δij ) 3 3 (4. but added to the ﬁltered static pressure term.11-12) (4.11-9) For compressible ﬂows.11-13) 4-64 Release 12. January 29.11-8) where µt is the subgrid-scale turbulent viscosity. S ij is the rate-of-strain tensor for the resolved scale deﬁned by S ij ≡ 1 2 ∂ui ∂uj + ∂xj ∂xi (4. Inc. computing subgrid-scale turbulent stresses from 1 τij − τkk δij = −2µt S ij 3 (4. The subgrid-scale turbulence models in ANSYS FLUENT employ the Boussinesq hypothesis [130] as in the RANS models.3 Subgrid-Scale Models The subgrid-scale stresses resulting from the ﬁltering operation are unknown.Turbulence and τij is the subgrid-scale stress deﬁned by τij ≡ ρui uj − ρui uj (4.0 c ANSYS. 2009 . and require modeling.11. it is convenient to introduce the density-weighted (or Favre) ﬁltering operator: ρφ ρ φ= (4. The compressible form of the subgrid stress tensor is deﬁned as: τij = ρui uj − ρui uj This term is split into its isotropic and deviatoric parts 1 1 τij = τij − τkk δij + τkk δij 3 3 isotropic deviatoric (4.

this term can be re-written as τkk = γM 2 sgs p where Msgs is the subgrid Mach number. which is the most serious shortcoming of this simple model.17 for Cs for homogeneous isotropic turbulence in the inertial subrange. ∆ is computed according to the volume of the computational cell using ∆ = V 1/3 (4. d is the distance to the closest wall. µt ∂φ σt ∂xj (4.11-16) where κ is the von K´rm´n constant.11-17) Lilly derived a value of 0. the WALE model. this value was found to cause excessive damping of large-scale ﬂuctuations in the presence of mean shear and in transitional ﬂows as near solid boundary. is modeled using s subgrid-scale turbulent Prandtl number by qj = − where qj is the subgrid-scale ﬂux. In short. the eddy-viscosity is modeled by µt = ρL2 S s where Ls is the mixing length for subgrid scales and S ≡ Ls is computed using Ls = min (κd. a Cs value of around Release 12. the term involving τkk can be added to the ﬁltered pressure or simply neglected [89]. (4. the subgrid-scale turbulent Prandtl number or Schmidt number is obtained by applying the dynamic procedure originally proposed by Germano [106] to the subgrid-scale ﬂux. ANSYS FLUENT oﬀers four models for µt : the Smagorinsky-Lilly model. The subgrid-scale turbulent ﬂux of a scalar. In the Smagorinsky-Lilly model. Cs is the a a Smagorinsky constant.4. This subgrid Mach number can be expected to be small when the turbulent Mach number of the ﬂow is small. and ∆ is the local grid scale. In the dynamic models. the dynamic Smagorinsky-Lilly model. Nonetheless. In ANSYS FLUENT.11-15) 2S ij S ij . Cs ∆) (4. 2009 4-65 .0 c ANSYS. January 29. In ANSYS FLUENT. and has to be reduced in such regions.11-14) Smagorinsky-Lilly Model This simple model was ﬁrst proposed by Smagorinsky [320]. and the dynamic kinetic energy subgridscale model. However. Indeed. Cs is not a universal constant. φ.11 Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Model As for incompressible ﬂows. Inc.

2009 . The grid ﬁltered SGS and the test-ﬁltered SGS are related by the Germano identity [106] such that: 1 Lij = Tij − τij = ρui uj − (ρui ρuj ) ρ (4. January 29. The information related to these scales is used to compute the model constant.Turbulence 0. Inc.11-19 and Equation 4.0 c ANSYS. is dynamically computed based on the information provided by the resolved scales of motion. Dynamic Smagorinsky-Lilly Model Germano et al. the coeﬃcient C is asumed to be the same 2 and independent of the ﬁltering process (note that per Equation 4.11-21.1 has been found to yield the best results for a wide range of ﬂows. [106] and subsequently Lilly [197] conceived a procedure in which the Smagorinsky model constant.11-21) Where Lij is computable from the resolved large eddy ﬁeld. and is the default value in ANSYS FLUENT. the following expressions can be derived to solve for C with the contraction obtained from the least square analysis of Lilly (1992).11-20) In Equation 4.11-25. The dynamic procedure thus obviates the need for users to specify the model constant Cs in advance.11-20 into Equation 4. In ANSYS FLUENT. Cs . the variable density formulation of the model is considered as explained below. Both ﬁlters produce a resolved ﬂow ﬁeld. The diﬀerence between the two resolved ﬁelds is the contribution of the small scales whose size is in between the grid ﬁlter and the test ﬁlter.11-18) Both Tij and τij are modeled in the same way with the Smagorinsky-Lilly model. assuming scale similarity: 1 τij = −2Cρ∆2 S|(Sij − Skk δij ) 3 1 Tij = −2C ρ∆2 |S|(S ij − S kk δij ) 3 (4. At the test ﬁltered ﬁeld level. 4-66 Release 12. The concept of the dynamic procedure is to apply a second ﬁlter (called the test ﬁlter) to ˆ the equations of motion. The new ﬁlter width ∆ is equal to twice the grid ﬁlter width ∆. Substituting the grid-ﬁlter Smagorinsky-Lilly model and Equation 4. C = Cs ).11-19) (4. the SGS stress tensor can be expressed as: Tij = ρui uj − (ρui ρuj /ρ) (4.11-20.

is 0.11-22 are locally averaged (or ﬁltered) using the test-ﬁlter.325 and has been found to yield satisfactory results for a wide range of ﬂow. Cs is also clipped at zero and 0.11-24) d where Ls and Sij in the WALE model are deﬁned.23 by default. the default value of the WALE constant.11-23) More details of the model implementation in ANSYS FLUENT and its validation can be found in [165]. discussed previously. In ANSYS FLUENT. To avoid numerical instability.0 c ANSYS. With this spatial operator. Cw .11-22) Mij = −2 ∆2 ρ |S|S ij − ∆2 ρ |S|Sij (4. are essentially algebraic models in which subgrid-scale stresses are parameterized using the resolved velocity scales. Wall-Adapting Local Eddy-Viscosity (WALE) Model In the WALE model [248]. The rest of the notation is the same as for the Smagorinsky-Lilly model.11-25) d Sij = (4.11 Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Model C= With (Lij − Lkk δij /3) Mij Mij (4. the eddy viscosity is modeled by ρL2 s d d (Sij Sij )3/2 d d (S ij S ij )5/2 + (Sij Sij )5/4 µt = (4. Inc. 2009 4-67 . as Ls = min κd. both the numerator and the denominator in Equation 4. Release 12. The subgrid-scale turbulence can be better modeled by accounting for the transport of the subgrid-scale turbulence kinetic energy.11-26) In ANSYS FLUENT. g ij = ji kk 2 3 ∂xj (4. January 29.4. The underlying assumption is the local equilibrium between the transferred energy through the grid-ﬁlter scale and the dissipation of kinetic energy at small subgrid scales. Cw V 1/3 1 2 1 ∂ui g ij + g 2 − δij g 2 . the WALE model is designed to return the correct wall asymptotic (y 3 ) behavior for wall bounded ﬂows. Dynamic Kinetic Energy Subgrid-Scale Model The original and dynamic Smagorinsky-Lilly models. respectively. √ The Cs = C obtained using the dynamic Smagorinsky-Lilly model varies in time and space over a fairly wide range.

In such cases.11-28) where ∆f is the ﬁlter-size computed from ∆f ≡ V 1/3 . This option is suitable only when the level of turbulence at the inﬂow boundaries is negligible or does not play a major role in the accuracy of the overall solution.11.Turbulence The dynamic subgrid-scale kinetic energy model in ANSYS FLUENT replicates the model proposed by Kim and Menon [168].4 Inlet Boundary Conditions for the LES Model This section describes the three algorithms available in ANSYS FLUENT to model the ﬂuctuating velocity at velocity inlet boundaries or pressure inlet boundaries. are determined dynamically [168]. 4.0. January 29. σk is hardwired to 1. The details of the implementation of this model in ANSYS FLUENT and its validation is given by Kim [165].11-7. Ck and Cε . 2009 . The subgrid-scale eddy viscosity. The subgrid-scale kinetic energy is deﬁned as ksgs = 1 2 u − u2 k 2 k (4.11-29) (4. Inc. 4-68 Release 12. the model constants.11-30) In the above equations. µt . No Perturbations The stochastic components of the ﬂow at the velocity-speciﬁed inlet boundaries are neglected if the No Perturbations option is used.11-27) which is obtained by contracting the subgrid-scale stress in Equation 4.0 c ANSYS. individual instantaneous velocity components are simply set equal to their mean velocity counterparts. is computed using ksgs as 1/2 µt = Ck ksgs ∆f (4. The subgrid-scale stress can then be written as 2 1/2 τij − ksgs δij = −2Ck ksgs ∆f S ij 3 ksgs is obtained by solving its transport equation k 3/2 ∂k sgs ∂uj k sgs ∂ui ∂ + = −τij − Cε sgs + ∂t ∂xj ∂xj ∆f ∂xj µt ∂ksgs σk ∂xj (4.

The sign of the circulation of each vortex is changed randomly each characteristic time scale τ . January 29. The resulting discretization for the velocity ﬁeld is given by 1 2π N u(x) = Γi i=1 ((xi − x) × z)(1 − e|x−x | |x − xi |2 2 /2σ 2 ) (4. In the general implementation of the vortex method. The vortex method considers only velocity ﬂuctuations in the plane normal to the streamwise direction. y) = 4 η(x) = πAk(x. Release 12.11-31) (4. σ is calculated from a known proﬁle of mean turbulence kinetic energy and mean dissipation rate at the inlet according to the following: ck 3/2 2 σ= (4. where n is ﬁxed equal to 100 from numerical testing.0 c ANSYS.11-34 is bounded by the local grid size. Originally [311]. The vortex method is based on the Lagrangian form of the 2D evolution equation of the vorticity and the Biot-Savart law. y) 3N [2 ln(3) − 3 ln(2)] (4. Inc. If N is the number of vortex points and A is the area of the inlet section.16. a local vortex size is speciﬁed through a turbulent mixing length hypothesis. a random 2D vortex method is considered. To ensure that the vortex will always belong to resolved scales. a perturbation is added on a speciﬁed mean velocity proﬁle via a ﬂuctuating vorticity ﬁeld (i.11 Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Model Vortex Method To generate a time-dependent inlet condition. 2009 4-69 .11-33) Where z is the unit vector in the streamwise direction. The parameter σ provides control over the size of a vortex particle. With this approach.e. These particles.4. this time scale represents the time necessary for a 2D vortex convected by the bulk velocity in the boundary normal direction to travel along n times its mean characteristic 2D size (σm ). two-dimensional in the plane normal to the streamwise direction). To make the vortex method generally applicable. the minimum value of σ in Equation 4. the size of the vortex was ﬁxed by an ad hoc value of σ.11-34) where c = 0. A particle discretization is used to solve this equation. the amount of vorticity carried by a given particle i is represented by the circulation Γi and an assumed spatial distribution η: Γi (x. or “vortex points” are convected randomly and carry information about the vorticity ﬁeld.11-32) 1 2 2 2 2 2e−|x| /2σ − 1 2e−|x| /2σ 2 2πσ where k is the turbulence kinetic energy.

11-36) 2/3k This also results in an improved representation of the turbulent ﬂow ﬁeld downstream of the inlet. With the rescaling procedure. the velocity ﬂuctuations are expressed according to: √ < u i ui > ∗ u i = ui (4. It is based on the random ﬂow generation technique originally proposed by Kraichnan [171] and modiﬁed by Smirnov et al. 4-70 Release 12. ﬂuctuating velocity components are computed by synthesizing a divergence-free velocity-vector ﬁeld from the summation of Fourier harmonics. It is derived from a linear model that mimics the inﬂuence of the two-dimensional vortex in the streamwise mean velocity ﬁeld.11-35) where g is the unit vector aligned with the mean velocity gradient U .0 c ANSYS. it is imperative that you create an inlet plane normal (or as close as possible) to the streamwise velocity direction. When this mean velocity gradient is equal to zero. In ANSYS FLUENT. Farther downstream. 2009 . a simpliﬁed linear kinematic model (LKM) for the streamwise velocity ﬂuctuations is used [219]. the correct ﬂuctuation distribution is recovered [219]. instead of the default option K or Turbulence Intensity. In this method. Spectral Synthesizer The spectral synthesizer provides an alternative method of generating ﬂuctuating velocity components. < vv >. the number of Fourier harmonics is ﬁxed to 100.Turbulence In ANSYS FLUENT however. only the prescribed kinetic energy proﬁle can be fulﬁlled at the inlet of the domain. i Since the vortex method theory is based on the modiﬁcation of the velocity ﬁeld normal to the streamwise direction. Since the ﬂuctuations are equally distributed among the velocity components. the ﬂuctuation u resulting from the transport of U by the planar ﬂuctuating velocity ﬁeld v is modeled by u = −v · g (4. However. if the distribution of the normal ﬂuctuations is known or can be prescribed at the inlet. Inc. a rescaling technique can be applied to the synthetic ﬂow ﬁeld in order to fulﬁll the normal statistic ﬂuctuations < uu >. [321]. This rescaling procedure is used only if the Reynolds-Stress Components is speciﬁed as the Reynolds-Stress Speciﬁcation Method. a random perturbation can be considered instead. If the mean streamwise velocity U is considered as a passive scalar. and < ww > as given at the inlet. January 29.

Toward the outer part of the nearwall region.12 Near-Wall Treatments for Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows Information about near-wall tratments for wall-bounded turbulent ﬂows is presented in the following sections: • Section 4.12. proﬁles) which can be obtained from separate RANS simulations. For the pressure inlet.12. while kinematic blocking reduces the normal ﬂuctuations. Release 12.3: Non-Equilibrium Wall Functions • Section 4.k. the turbulence is also changed by the presence of the wall in non-trivial ways. viscous damping reduces the tangential velocity ﬂuctuations.2: Standard Wall Functions • Section 4. Very close to the wall.4: Enhanced Wall Treatment • Section 4.12. the ﬂuctuations are added on the mean speciﬁed velocity. the mean velocity ﬁeld is aﬀected through the no-slip condition that has to be satisﬁed at the wall. 2009 4-71 . However. note that such unsteady boundary conditions are appropriate and eﬀective mainly for external aerodynamic ﬂows.6: LES Near-Wall Treatment 4. For the velocity inlet. the turbulence is rapidly augmented by the production of turbulence kinetic energy due to the large gradients in mean velocity. 4.0 c ANSYS. however.5: User-Deﬁned Wall Functions • Section 4. For internal ﬂows. Unrealistic (“ﬂat”) turbulent proﬁles at inlets will generate unrealistic turbulent eddies at inlets. Finally it should be noted that both methods require realistic inlet conditions (U. Obviously. These virtual body forces are considered only in the ﬁrst LES cells close to the inlet. virtual body forces are employed in the momentum equations to add the reconstructed turbulent ﬂuctuations to the velocity ﬁeld.12. However. Inc.12. January 29. Both methods are also available for the DES models.1 Overview Turbulent ﬂows are signiﬁcantly aﬀected by the presence of walls.4.1: Overview • Section 4.12.12 Near-Wall Treatments for Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows i Both the vortex method and the spectral synthesizer are available for velocity inlet and pressure inlet boundary conditions. if the inlet is inside a full RANS zone.12. the ﬂuctuations generated by both methods will be rapidly damped by the RANS turbulent eddy viscosity. Note also that whether the inlet will be fully or partly covered by a RANS zone will depend on the mesh and on the DES model.

and the LES model are primarily valid for turbulent core ﬂows (i. turbulence plays a major role. y + ≡ ρuτ y/µ. The k.1 illustrates these subdivisions of the near-wall region. Figure 4.e. provided that the near-wall mesh resolution is suﬃcient. and the momentum and other scalar transports occur most vigorously. After all. Consideration therefore needs to be given as to how to make these models suitable for wall-bounded ﬂows.Turbulence The near-wall modeling signiﬁcantly impacts the ﬁdelity of numerical solutions. the ﬂow in the regions somewhat far from walls). The Spalart-Allmaras and k-ω models were designed to be applied throughout the boundary layer.12. the ﬂow is almost laminar. deﬁned as τw . ρ 4-72 Release 12.12. Therefore. it is in the nearwall region that the solution variables have large gradients. plotted in semi-log coordinates. inasmuch as walls are the main source of mean vorticity and turbulence. accurate representation of the ﬂow in the near-wall region determines successful predictions of wall-bounded turbulent ﬂows. called the “viscous sublayer”.0 c ANSYS. the RSM. In the outer layer.12.1. where uτ is the friction velocity. In the innermost layer. and the (molecular) viscosity plays a dominant role in momentum and heat or mass transfer.1: Subdivisions of the Near-Wall Region In Figure 4.models. Figure 4. January 29.. Inc. 2009 . there is an interim region between the viscous sublayer and the fully turbulent layer where the eﬀects of molecular viscosity and turbulence are equally important. called the fully-turbulent layer. Numerous experiments have shown that the near-wall region can be largely subdivided into three layers. Finally.

the wall function approach substantially saves computational resources.12 Near-Wall Treatments for Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows Wall Functions vs. including the viscous sublayer. Instead.2: Near-Wall Treatments in ANSYS FLUENT In most high-Reynolds-number ﬂows. and can be reasonably accurate.12. The use of wall functions obviates the need to modify the turbulence models to account for the presence of the wall. robust. there are two approaches to modeling the near-wall region. The wall-function approach. Figure 4. For the purposes of discussion.4. in which the solution variables change most rapidly.12.0 c ANSYS. Release 12. however. the viscosity-aﬀected inner region (viscous sublayer and buﬀer layer) is not resolved. this will be termed the “near-wall modeling” approach. because the viscosity-aﬀected near-wall region. It is a practical option for the near-wall treatments for industrial ﬂow simulations. The wall-function approach is popular because it is economical. In one approach. semi-empirical formulas called “wall functions” are used to bridge the viscosity-aﬀected region between the wall and the fully-turbulent region. the turbulence models are modiﬁed to enable the viscosity-aﬀected region to be resolved with a mesh all the way to the wall. Near-Wall Model Traditionally. does not need to be resolved.2. January 29. These two approaches are depicted schematically in Figure 4. Such situations require near-wall models that are valid in the viscosity-aﬀected region and accordingly integrable all the way to the wall. 2009 4-73 . Inc. In another approach. is inadequate in situations where the low-Reynoldsnumber eﬀects are pervasive and the assumptions underlying the wall functions cease to be valid.

ANSYS FLUENT oﬀers three to four choices of wall-function approaches: • Standard Wall Functions • Non-Equilibrium Wall Functions • Enhanced Wall Functions (as a part of EWT) • User-Deﬁned Wall Functions 4. Momentum The law-of-the-wall for mean velocity yields U∗ = where 1/4 UP Cµ kP U ≡ τw /ρ ∗ 1/2 1 ln(Ey ∗ ) κ (4. They are provided as a default option in ANSYS FLUENT.0 c ANSYS.12-1) (4. Inc. 4-74 Release 12. 2009 . The wall functions comprise • laws-of-the-wall for the mean velocity and temperature (or other scalars) • formulae for the near-wall turbulent quantities Depending on the choice of turbulent model.12-2) is the dimensionless velocity. and have been most widely used in industrial ﬂows.Turbulence ANSYS FLUENT provides both the wall-function approach and the near-wall modeling approach.12. January 29. Wall Functions Wall functions are a set of semi-empirical formulas and functions that in eﬀect “bridge” or “link” the solution variables at the near-wall cells and the corresponding quantities on the wall.2 Standard Wall Functions The standard wall functions in ANSYS FLUENT are based on the work of Launder and Spalding [181].

225. For ﬂuids of low Prandtl numbers (e.12-3) and κ E UP kP yP µ = = = = = = von K´rm´n constant (= 0. where conduction is important • logarithmic law for the turbulent region where eﬀects of turbulence dominate conduction The thickness of the thermal conduction layer is.0 c ANSYS. it is much larger than the momentum sublayer thickness. ∗ 1/2 (4. diﬀerent from the thickness of the (momentum) viscous sublayer. the log-law is employed when y ∗ > 11. ANSYS FLUENT applies the laminar stress-strain relationship that can be written as U ∗ = y∗ (4. These quantities are approximately equal in equilibrium turbulent boundary layers. When the mesh is such that y ∗ < 11. and changes from ﬂuid to ﬂuid.4187) a a empirical constant (= 9.g.12-4) It should be noted that. oil) is much less than its momentum sublayer thickness. the laws-of-the-wall for mean velocity and temperature are based on the wall unit. For example. on the contrary.4. As in the law-of-the-wall for mean velocity. y ∗ .225 at the wall-adjacent cells. in general. liquid metal).12-5) Release 12. 2009 4-75 . √ δ ≈ Pr δT (4.. January 29. Inc. the law-of-thewall for temperature employed in ANSYS FLUENT comprises the following two diﬀerent laws: • linear law for the thermal conduction sublayer.. or thermal viscous sublayer. in ANSYS FLUENT.12 Near-Wall Treatments for Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows 1/4 ρCµ kP yP y ≡ µ is the dimensionless distance from the wall.g. the thickness of the thermal sublayer for a high-Prandtl-number ﬂuid (e. Energy Reynolds’ analogy between momentum and energy transport gives a similar logarithmic law for mean temperature.793) mean velocity of the ﬂuid at the near-wall node P turbulence kinetic energy at the near-wall node P distance from point P to the wall dynamic viscosity of the ﬂuid The logarithmic law for mean velocity is known to be valid for 30 < y ∗ < 300. In ANSYS FLUENT. rather than y + (≡ ρuτ y/µ).

4-76 Release 12.12-6 is computed as the y ∗ value at which the linear law and the logarithmic law intersect. 2009 . ∗ The non-dimensional thermal sublayer thickness. The law-of-the-wall implemented in ANSYS FLUENT has the following composite form: 1/4 1/2 Pr y ∗ + 1 ρPr Cµ kP U 2 P 2 q ˙ Pr 1 ln(Ey ∗ ) + P + κ 1/4 1/2 1 C µ kP ρ q˙ 2 t 2 2 {Prt UP + (Pr − Prt )Uc } ∗ (y ∗ < yT ) (Tw − TP ) ρcp kP T ≡ q ˙ ∗ 1/2 = ∗ (y ∗ > yT ) (4. the terms C 1/4 k 1 2 ρPr µ P UP 2 q ˙ and 1/4 1 Cµ kP ρ 2 q ˙ 1/2 2 2 Prt UP + (Pr − Prt )Uc 1/2 will be included in Equation 4. the temperature distribution in the near-wall region can be signiﬁcantly diﬀerent from that of low subsonic ﬂows.12-7) turbulent kinetic energy at the ﬁrst near-wall node P density of ﬂuid speciﬁc heat of ﬂuid wall heat ﬂux temperature at the ﬁrst near-wall node P temperature at the wall molecular Prandtl number (µcp /kf ) turbulent Prandtl number (0. for the pressure-based solver.28e−0.12-6) where P is computed by using the formula given by Jayatilleke [150]: Pr Prt 3/4 P = 9.Turbulence In highly compressible ﬂows. due to the heating by viscous dissipation. the temperature wall functions include the contribution from the viscous heating [357]. given the molecular Prandtl number of the ﬂuid being modeled.12-6 only for compressible ﬂow calculations. yT .24 and kP ρ cp q ˙ TP Tw Pr Prt A Uc = = = = = = = = = = −1 1 + 0.85 at the wall) Van Driest constant (= 26) ∗ mean velocity magnitude at y ∗ = yT Note that.007Pr/Prt (4. in Equation 4. Inc. January 29. In ANSYS FLUENT.0 c ANSYS.

Turbulence In the k.12-7 is relevant for the smooth walls.12-10) Release 12. is computed from the intersection of the linear and logarithmic proﬁles.models and in the RSM (if the option to obtain wall boundary conditions from the k equation is enabled).15Pr 1 1 − E E 0.0 c ANSYS.w − Yi ) ρCµ kP Y ≡ Ji. however. you may refer to Equation 7.12-6 is applied to compute the wall temperature Tw or heat ﬂux q (depending on the type of the thermal boundary conditions). The boundary condition for k imposed at the wall is ∂k =0 ∂n (4. Species When using wall functions for species transport. the law-ofthe-wall for species can be expressed for constant property ﬂow with no viscous dissipation as 1/4 (Yi.12 Near-Wall Treatments for Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows The procedure of applying the law-of-the-wall for temperature is as follows. To ﬁnd a description of the roughness function fr . ∗ yT . During the iteration. either the linear or the logarithmic proﬁle in Equation 4. its molecular Prandtl number is computed.12-8) where E is the wall function constant modiﬁed for the rough walls. For the rough walls. this function is modiﬁed as follows: 0. January 29.w is the diﬀusion ﬂux of species i at the wall. Once the physical properties of the ﬂuid being modeled are speciﬁed. given the molecular Prandtl number.w ∗ 1/2 = Sc y ∗ 1 Sct κ ln(Ey ∗ ) + Pc ∗ (y ∗ < yc ) ∗ (y ∗ > yc ) (4. Sc and Sct are molecular and turbulent Schmidt numbers.359 E + E 0. Similarly to Equation 4.6 P (4. Inc.3-42 in Section 7. ˙ The function for P given by Equation 4.3. with the diﬀerence being that the Prandtl numbers are always replaced by the corresponding Schmidt numbers.12-9) where Yi is the local species mass fraction. ANSYS FLUENT assumes that species transport behaves analogously to heat transfer. and Ji. and stored. Then.14: Wall Roughness Eﬀects in Turbulent Wall-Bounded Flows in the separate User’s Guide.695 Prough = 3. the k equation is solved in the whole domain including the wall-adjacent cells. 2009 4-77 . depending on the y ∗ value at the near-wall cell. the thermal sublayer thickness. Note that Pc and ∗ ∗ yc are calculated in a similar way as P and yT .12-6. deﬁned by E = E/fr .4.

12-12) The equation is not solved at the wall-adjacent cells. at the wall-adjacent cells. are all taken care of by the wall functions. the wall boundary conditions for the solution variables. species concentration.0 c ANSYS.9.Turbulence where n is the local coordinate normal to the wall. respectively. the production of k is based on the logarithmic law and is computed from G k ≈ τw and is computed from C 3/4 k = µ P κyP 3/2 ∂U τw = τw 1/2 ∂y κρkP yP (4. 2009 .12-12. and when the ﬂows are in strong non-equilibrium.9. However. as shown here. i Standard wall functions are available with the following viscous models: • k. they tend to become less reliable when the ﬂow situations depart from the ideal conditions that are assumed in their derivation.12-11) P (4.5. and .models • Reynolds Stress models 4-78 Release 12. including mean velocity. are computed on the basis of the local equilibrium hypothesis. k. Under this assumption. the constant-shear and local equilibrium assumptions are the ones that most restrict the universality of the standard wall functions. you do not need to be concerned about the boundary conditions at the walls. temperature. Accordingly. the quality of the predictions is likely to be compromised. and its dissipation rate. The non-equilibrium wall functions oﬀered as an additional option that can potentially improve the results in such situations. Therefore. Thus. Inc. but instead is computed using Equation 4. ω and Reynolds stress equations are solved as detailed in Sections 4. the production of k and its dissipation rate are assumed to be equal in the wall-adjacent control volume. January 29. The standard wall functions work reasonably well for a broad range of wallbounded ﬂows. when the near-wall ﬂows are subjected to severe pressure gradients. which are the source terms in the k equation. . Note that. The standard wall functions described so far are provided as a default option in ANSYS FLUENT.3 and 4. The production of kinetic energy. Among others. Gk .

225. y∗limit ) (4.e. 2009 4-79 .0 c ANSYS. The law-of-the-wall for mean temperature or species mass fraction remains the same as in the standard wall functions described above. Inc. The use of Equation 4.12-15) and yv is the physical viscous sublayer thickness.12. • The two-layer-based concept is adopted to compute the budget of turbulence kinetic energy (Gk .4. i. non-equilibrium wall function [166] is also available.3 Non-Equilibrium Wall Functions In addition to the standard wall function described above (which is the default near-wall treatment) a two-layer-based. This is achieved by introducing a limiter in the y* calculations such that y∗ = M AX(y∗.12-13 in the context of the scalable wall functions concept is straightforward. January 29. The key elements in the non-equilibrium wall functions are as follows: • Launder and Spalding’s log-law for mean velocity is sensitized to pressure-gradient eﬀects. The log-law for mean velocity sensitized to the pressure gradients is 1/4 1/4 U Cµ k 1/2 ρCµ k 1/2 y 1 = ln E τw /ρ κ µ (4. and is computed from Release 12. Scalable wall functions can be enabled only when the standard wall functions are used and only via the following text command: define/models/viscous/near-wall-treatment/scalable-wall-functions? 4.12 Near-Wall Treatments for Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows Scalable Wall Functions The purpose of scalable wall functions is to force the usage of the log law in conjunction with the standard wall functions approach.12-14) where U =U− 1 dp yv y √ ln 2 dx ρκ k yv 2 y − yv yv √ + µ ρκ k + (4. ) in the wall-neighboring cells.12-13) where y∗limit = 11. the y* formulation used for any standard wall function formula is replaced by y∗.

which is needed to solve the k equation at the wall-neighboring cells. which varies widely from cell to cell in highly non-equilibrium ﬂows. .12-18) 1 2ν kP yn dy = + ∗ ln kP yn yv C yv 1/2 (4. The following proﬁle assumptions for turbulence quantities are made: 0. in eﬀect. The nonequilibrium wall functions account for the eﬀect of pressure gradients on the distortion of the velocity proﬁles. Inc. y < yv k= τw . and yv is the dimensional thickness of the viscous sublayer. y < yv y > yv = 2νk .g.0 c ANSYS. when the production of the turbulent kinetic energy is equal to the rate of its distruction.. y > yv kP . January 29.225. Gk ≡ and 1 ≡ yn yn 0 1 yn yn 0 τt 2 ∂U 1 τw yn ln dy = 1/4 1/2 ∂y κyn ρCµ kP yv (4. 4-80 Release 12. and the cell-averaged dissipation rate. The wall-neighboring cells are assumed to consist of a viscous sublayer and a fully turbulent layer. the non-equilibrium wall functions. For cells with other shapes (e. deﬁned in Equation 4.Turbulence yv ≡ ∗ where yv = 11.12-17) −3/4 where C ∗ = κCµ . the appropriate volume averages are used. is no longer valid. the turbulence kinetic energy budget for the wallneighboring cells is eﬀectively depends on the proportions of the viscous sublayer and the fully turbulent layer. Gk . ∗ µyv ρCµ kP 1/4 1/2 (4. For quadrilateral and hexahedral cells for which the volume average can be approximated with a depth-average.12-19. y 2 yv τt = kP . In such cases the assumption of local equilibrium.12-19) where yn is the height of the cell (yn = 2yP ). can be computed from the volume average of Gk and of the wall-adjacent cells. y2 3/2 k . C ∗y y < yv y > yv (4.12-16. In Equations 4. the cell-averaged production of k. 2009 . partly account for the non-equilibrium eﬀects that are neglected in the standard wall functions.12-16) The non-equilibrium wall function employs the two-layer concept in computing the budget of turbulence kinetic energy at the wall-adjacent cells. Using these proﬁles. triangular and tetrahedral grids).12-18 and 4. Therefore.

Ekman spiral ﬂow. • Strong body forces (e. In such ﬂows.models • Reynolds Stress Transport models Limitations of the Wall Function Approach The standard wall functions give reasonable predictions for the majority of high-Reynoldsnumber wall-bounded ﬂows. ANSYS FLUENT provides the enhanced wall treatment for such situations. January 29. the above wall functions become less reliable when the ﬂow conditions depart too much from the ideal conditions underlying the wall functions.. low-velocity ﬂuid ﬂow).and the RSM models. ﬂow through a small gap or highly viscous. ﬂow near rotating disks.g. however. strongly skewed 3D boundary layers). • Severe pressure gradients leading to boundary layer separations. The non-equilibrium wall functions further extend the applicability of the wall function approach by including the eﬀects of pressure gradient.0 c ANSYS. i Non-equilibrium wall functions are available with the following turbulence closures: • k. buoyancy-driven ﬂows)..4. the nonequilibrium wall functions are recommended for use in complex ﬂows involving separation. 2009 4-81 . • High three-dimensionality in the near-wall region (e. Inc. and impingement where the mean ﬂow and turbulence are subjected to pressure gradients and rapid changes. If any of the above listed features prevail in the ﬂow you are modeling. improvements can be obtained.12 Near-Wall Treatments for Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows Standard Wall Functions vs. and if it is considered critically important for the success of your simulation. Non-Equilibrium Wall Functions Because of the capability to partly account for the eﬀects of pressure gradients. • Massive transpiration through the wall (blowing/suction). This approach can be used with the k. Release 12. Examples are as follows: • Pervasive low-Reynolds-number or near-wall eﬀects (e. you must employ the near-wall modeling approach combined with the adequate mesh resolution in the nearwall region.g. particularly in the prediction of wall shear (skin-friction coeﬃcient) and heat transfer (Nusselt or Stanton number)..g. reattachment.

Furthermore. deﬁned as √ ρy k Rey ≡ µ (4. as described in the following sections. excessive error should not be incurred for the intermediate meshes where the ﬁrst near-wall node is placed neither in the fully turbulent region. then the enhanced wall treatment will be identical to the traditional two-layer zonal model (see below for details). However. where the low-Reynold-number approach is adequate. In ANSYS FLUENT. will not signiﬁcantly reduce accuracy for wall-function meshes. If the near-wall mesh is ﬁne enough to be able to resolve the viscous sublayer (typically with the ﬁrst near-wall node placed at y + ≈ 1). To achieve the goal of having a near-wall modeling approach that will possess the accuracy of the standard two-layer approach for ﬁne near-wall meshes and that. 4-82 Release 12. the viscosity-aﬀected near-wall region is completely resolved all the way to the viscous sublayer. Rey . nor in the direct vicinity of the wall at y + ≈ 1.12-20) where y is the wall-normal distance calculated at the cell centers. the whole domain is subdivided into a viscosityaﬀected region and a fully-turbulent region. y is interpreted as the distance to the nearest wall: y ≡ min r − rw rw ∈Γw (4. In addition.12. at the same time. Two-Layer Model for Enhanced Wall Treatment In ANSYS FLUENT’s near-wall model.12-21) where r is the position vector at the ﬁeld point. Γw is the union of all the wall boundaries involved. 2009 . one would like to have a near-wall formulation that can be used with coarse meshes (usually referred to as wall-function meshes) as well as ﬁne meshes (low-Reynolds-number meshes). where the wall functions are suitable. ANSYS FLUENT can combine the two-layer model with enhanced wall functions. This interpretation allows y to be uniquely deﬁned in ﬂow domains of complex shape involving multiple walls. turbulent Reynolds number. The two-layer approach is an integral part of the enhanced wall treatment and is used to specify both and the turbulent viscosity in the near-wall cells.Turbulence 4.4 Enhanced Wall Treatment Enhanced wall treatment is a near-wall modeling method that combines a two-layer model with so-called enhanced wall functions. Ideally. The demarcation of the two regions is determined by a wall-distance-based. y deﬁned in this way is independent of the mesh topology. In this approach. Inc. January 29. the restriction that the near-wall mesh must be suﬃciently ﬁne everywhere might impose too large a computational requirement.0 c ANSYS. and rw is the position vector of the wall boundary.

9) are employed. the turbulent viscosity.0 c ANSYS.9.4: Standard. A blending function. The y main purpose of the blending function λ is to prevent solution convergence from being impeded when the value of µt obtained in the outer layer does not match with the value of µt returned by the Wolfstein model at the edge of the viscosity-aﬀected region. λ .12-22) where the length scale that appears in Equation 4. the result is A= |∆Rey | artanh(0. the momentum equations and the k equation are retained as described in Sections 4.12-22 is computed from [51] = yC ∗ µ 1 − e−Rey /Aµ (4.Models or 4. However. µt .12-26) Typically. 2009 4-83 .4.12-23) The two-layer formulation for turbulent viscosity described above is used as a part of the enhanced wall treatment.12-25) The constant A determines the width of the blending function. Release 12. By deﬁning a width such that the value of λ will be within 1% of its far-ﬁeld value given a variation of ∆Rey . and Realizable k. is computed from √ µt. is deﬁned in such a way that it is equal to unity away from walls and is zero in the vicinity of the walls.12-24) where µt is the high-Reynolds-number deﬁnition as described in Section 4. as proposed by Jongen [153]: µt. Re∗ = 200). ∆Rey would be assigned a value that is between 5% and 20% of Re∗ . RNG.2layer = ρ Cµ µ k (4. the k.98) (4.models or the RSM y y (described in Sections 4.4 and 4. The blending function has the following form: Rey − Re∗ 1 y λ = 1 + tanh 2 A (4.enh = λ µt + (1 − λ )µt. January 29.12 Near-Wall Treatments for Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows In the fully turbulent region (Rey > Re∗ . In the one-equation model.models or the RSM.9 for the k. the one-equation model of Wolfy stein [382] is employed.2layer (4. in which the two-layer deﬁnition is smoothly blended with the high-Reynolds-number µt deﬁnition from the outer region.4 and 4. In the viscosity-aﬀected near-wall region (Rey < Re∗ ). Inc.

ANSYS FLUENT achieves this by blending the linear (laminar) and logarithmic (turbulent) lawsof-the-wall using a function suggested by Kader [155]: u+ = eΓ u+ + e Γ u+ lam turb where the blending function is given by: Γ=− where a = 0. Similarly.12-32) 4-84 Release 12.e. ANSYS FLUENT uses a procedure for the blending of that is similar to the µt -blending in order to ensure a smooth transition between the algebraicallyspeciﬁed in the inner region and the obtained from solution of the transport equation in the outer region. are taken from [51] and are as follows: C ∗ −3/4 = κCµ . and fully-turbulent outer region) it is necessary to formulate the law-of-the wall as a single wall law for the entire wall region. buﬀer region. the general equation for the derivative du+ dy + 1 (4. viscous sublayer. A = 2C ∗ (4..12-31) is + 1 du du+ du+ = eΓ lam + e Γ turb dy + dy + dy + (4.0 c ANSYS.12-28) If the whole ﬂow domain is inside the viscosity-aﬀected region (Rey < 200). Inc.01 and b = 5. is not obtained by solving the transport equation.12-27. January 29.12-27 are computed from Chen and Patel [51]: = yC ∗ 1 − e−Rey /A (4.12-30) a(y + )4 1 + by + (4.12-29) Enhanced Wall Functions To have a method that can extend its applicability throughout the near-wall region (i.Turbulence The ﬁeld in the viscosity-aﬀected region is computed from k 3/2 = (4.12-23 and 4.12-27) The length scales that appear in Equation 4.12-28. Aµ = 70. The constants in Equations 4. it is instead obtained algebraically from Equation 4. 2009 .

4. The coeﬃcient α in Equation 4. ys = 60. Equation 4.0 c ANSYS. The laminar law-of-the-wall is determined from the following expression: du+ lam = 1 + αy + dy + (4. Inc.12-36) (4. an analytical solution would lead to the classical turbulent logarithmic law-of-the-wall.12-33 represents the inﬂuences of pressure gradients while the coeﬃcients β and γ represent the thermal eﬀects. β. If α.12-37) + + where ys is the location at which the log-law slope is ﬁxed. This formula also guarantees the correct asymptotic behavior for large and small values of y + and reasonable representation of velocity proﬁles in the cases where y + falls inside the wall buﬀer region (3 < y + < 10). [134]: du+ 1 turb = + S (1 − βu+ − γ(u+ )2 ) dy + κy where + 1 + αy + for y + < ys + + 1 + αys for y + ≥ ys 1/2 (4.12 Near-Wall Treatments for Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows This approach allows the fully turbulent law to be easily modiﬁed and extended to take into account other eﬀects such as pressure gradients or variable properties. The enhanced wall functions were developed by smoothly blending an enhanced turbulent wall law with the laminar wall law.12-33 is an ordinary diﬀerential equation and ANSYS FLUENT will provide an appropriate analytical solution. The enhanced turbulent law-of-the-wall for compressible ﬂow with heat transfer and pressure gradients has been derived by combining the approaches of White and Cristoph [378] and Huang et al. By default. 2009 4-85 . January 29.12-33) S = and (4.12-38) Release 12. and γ all equal 0.12-34) α ≡ νw dp µ dp = 2 ∗ 3 τw u∗ dx ρ (u ) dx ∗ σt qw u σt qw β ≡ = cp τw Tw ρcp u∗ Tw σt (u∗ )2 γ ≡ 2cp Tw (4.12-35) (4.

12-42) (4. the blending factor Γ is deﬁned as Γ = − a(Pr y + )4 1 + bPr3 y + (4. the enhanced thermal wall functions follow the same logic as for standard thermal wall functions (see Section 4.12-42 and 4.12-40) where the notation for TP and q is the same as for standard thermal wall functions (see ˙ Equation 4. Inc. resulting in the following deﬁnition for turbulent and laminar thermal wall functions: + Tlam = Pr u+ + lam ρu∗ 2 u 2q ˙ (4.12-41) where Pr is the molecular Prandtl number.12-43 are replaced by adequate Schmidt numbers.12-6).12-39) Enhanced thermal wall functions follow the same approach developed for the proﬁle of u+ . 4-86 Release 12. See Section 4. These eﬀects are neglected because they are thought to be of minor importance when they occur close to the wall.0 c ANSYS.12-38 results in u+ = y + 1 + lam α + y 2 (4. Furthermore. while the eﬀects of variable properties due to heat transfer and compressibility on the laminar wall law are neglected.12-43) + Tturb = Prt u+ + P + turb ρu∗ 2 Pr u − − 1 (u+ )2 (u∗ )2 c 2q ˙ Prt where the quantity u+ is the value of u+ at the ﬁctitious “crossover” between the laminar c and turbulent region.2: Energy).12.2: Species for details about the species wall functions. Integration of Equation 4. the Prandtl numbers in Equations 4. A similar procedure is also used for species wall functions when the enhanced wall treatment is used. In this case.Turbulence Note that the above expression only includes eﬀects of pressure gradients through α.12-40. The function P is deﬁned in the same way as for the standard wall functions.12-31. January 29. Apart from the formulation for T + in Equation 4. The uniﬁed wall thermal formulation blends the laminar and logarithmic proﬁles according to the method of Kader [155]: T+ ≡ (Tw − TP ) ρcp uT q ˙ + + = eΓ Tlam + e Γ Tturb 1 (4.12. and the coeﬃcients a and b are deﬁned as in Equation 4. 2009 .

model is enabled.3. However. Gk .models • Realizable k.12-10). i The enhanced wall treatment is available with the following turbulence closures: • k.12. 4. Selecting the UserDeﬁned Wall Functions under Near-wall Treatment allows you to hook a Law-of-the-Wall UDF.4. Inc.5 User-Deﬁned Wall Functions This option is only available when one of the k.0 c ANSYS. i User-deﬁned wall functions are available with the following turbulence closures: • k.based DES model • Reynolds Stress Transport models The enhanced wall functions are available with the following turbulence models: • Spalart-Allmaras model • k-ω models • k-ω based DES model • Large Eddy Simulation However. January 29.12-32).28: DEFINE WALL FUNCTIONS in the separate UDF Manual. the production of turbulence kinetic energy. 2009 4-87 . the enhanced wall functions are not available with SpalartAllmaras model. is computed using the velocity gradients that are consistent with the enhanced law-of-the-wall (Equations 4. For more information about user-deﬁned wall functions. see Section 2.12 Near-Wall Treatments for Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows The boundary conditions for the turbulence kinetic energy are similar to the ones used with the standard wall functions (Equation 4.models Release 12. ensuring a formulation that is valid throughout the near-wall region.12-30 and 4.

A = 8. 4-88 Release 12. The Werner-Wengle wall functions can be enabled using the define/models/viscous/ near-wall-treatment/werner-wengle-wall-fn? text command.12-46) where up is the wall-parallel velocity. and the law-of-the-wall is employed: u 1 ρuτ y = ln E uτ κ µ (4. who proposed an analytical integration of the power-law near-wall velocity distribution resulting in the following expressions for the wall shear stress: 2µ|up | ∆z 1+B 1−B 1−B A 2 for |up | ≤ 1+B µ ρ∆z |τw | = ρ + 1+B A B µ ρ∆z |up | 2 1+B 2 µ A 1−B 2ρ∆z 2 µ A 1−B 2ρ∆z for |up | > (4.12-30.12. there is an alternative near-wall approach based on the work of Werner and Wengle [375].6 LES Near-Wall Treatment When the mesh is ﬁne enough to resolve the laminar sublayer. 2009 .3.0 c ANSYS.12-44) If the mesh is too coarse to resolve the laminar sublayer. it is assumed that the centroid of the wall-adjacent cell falls within the logarithmic region of the boundary layer. Inc.12-45) where κ is the von K´rm´n constant and E = 9. If the mesh is such that the ﬁrst a a near-wall point is within the buﬀer region. For the LES simulations in ANSYS FLUENT. then two above laws are blended in accordance with the Equation 4.793. B = 1/7 are the constants. January 29. and ∆z is the near-wall control volume length scale. the wall shear stress is obtained from the laminar stress-strain relationship: u ρuτ y = uτ µ (4.Turbulence 4.

2: Modeling Conductive and Convective Heat Transfer).3: Modeling Radiation. ANSYS FLUENT will solve a variation of the energy equation that takes into account the heat transfer methods you have speciﬁed. see Chapter 13: Modeling Heat Transfer in the separate User’s Guide. Heat Transfer This chapter describes the theory behind heat transfer in ANSYS FLUENT.4: Modeling Periodic Heat Transfer in the separate User’s Guide). and Section 13. Release 12. convection. Inc.1 Introduction The ﬂow of thermal energy from matter occupying one region in space to matter occupying a diﬀerent region in space is known as heat transfer. Section 13. Heat transfer can occur by three main methods: conduction. Depending on your problem.0 c ANSYS. and radiation models (Section 5. January 29.Chapter 5. ANSYS FLUENT is also able to predict heat transfer in periodically repeating geometries (Section 13. see Section 13.3: Modeling Radiation For more information about using heat transfer in ANSYS FLUENT. For more information about using heat transfer models in ANSYS FLUENT. and radiation.3: Modeling Radiation) are more complex. 2009 5-1 . Physical models involving conduction and/or convection only are the simplest (Section 5.2: Natural Convection and Buoyancy-Driven Flows Theory).1: Introduction • Section 5.2: Modeling Conductive and Convective Heat Transfer.2.4: Modeling Periodic Heat Transfer in the separate User’s Guide. Information is provided in the following sections: • Section 5. while buoyancy-driven ﬂow or natural convection (Section 5.2: Modeling Conductive and Convective Heat Transfer • Section 5. 5. thus greatly reducing the required computational eﬀort in certain cases.

2: Natural Convection and Buoyancy-Driven Flows Theory 5. where kt is the turbulent thermal conductivity.2-3) and for incompressible ﬂows as 5-2 Release 12. and any other volumetric heat sources you have deﬁned. E =h− p v2 + ρ 2 (5. January 29. Information about heat transfer theory is presented in the following subsections. 2009 . The ﬁrst three terms on the right-hand side of Equation 5. deﬁned according to the turbulence model being used). respectively. see Chapter 13: Modeling Heat Transfer in the separate User’s Guide.2 Modeling Conductive and Convective Heat Transfer ANSYS FLUENT allows you to include heat transfer within the ﬂuid and/or solid regions in your model.2-1 represent energy transfer due to conduction.2-2) where sensible enthalpy h is deﬁned for ideal gases as h= j Yj hj (5. Problems ranging from thermal mixing within a ﬂuid to conduction in composite solids can thus be handled by ANSYS FLUENT. and Jj is the diﬀusion ﬂux of species j. supply thermal boundary conditions. and input material properties that govern heat transfer and/or vary with temperature as part of the setup.2. In Equation 5.1: Heat Transfer Theory • Section 5. Sh includes the heat of chemical reaction. Inc.Heat Transfer 5.2.1 Heat Transfer Theory The Energy Equation ANSYS FLUENT solves the energy equation in the following form: ∂ (ρE) + ∂t · (v(ρE + p)) = · keﬀ T − j hj Jj + (τ eﬀ · v) + Sh (5. When your ANSYS FLUENT model includes heat transfer you will need to activate the relevant physical models. and viscous dissipation.2-1. species diﬀusion. • Section 5.2.0 c ANSYS. For information about setting up and using heat transfer in your ANSYS FLUENT model.2-1) where keﬀ is the eﬀective conductivity (k + kt .

j dT + h0 (Tref. Yj is the mass fraction of species j and T hj = where Tref is 298.2-1 includes pressure work and kinetic energy terms which are often negligible in incompressible ﬂows.2-7) where Yj is the mass fraction of species j and T Hj = Tref.j . January 29.2-4.j ) j (5. respond by entering yes in the console window. Release 12. When asked to include pressure work in energy equation? and include kinetic energy in energy equation?. 2009 5-3 .j dT (5. the pressure-based solver by default does not include the pressure work or kinetic energy when you are solving incompressible ﬂow. Tref cp. Pressure work and kinetic energy are always accounted for when you are modeling compressible ﬂow or using the density-based solver.2-6) Under the assumption that the Lewis number (Le) = 1.2 Modeling Conductive and Convective Heat Transfer h= j Yj hj + p ρ (5. use the define/models/energy? text command.0 c ANSYS. For this reason. j Inclusion of Pressure Work and Kinetic Energy Terms Equation 5. The total enthalpy H is deﬁned as H= j Yj H j (5.2-5) The Energy Equation for the Non-Premixed Combustion Model When the non-adiabatic non-premixed combustion model is enabled. the conduction and species diﬀusion terms combine to give the ﬁrst term on the right-hand side of the above equation while the contribution from viscous dissipation appears in the non-conservative form as the second term.5.j cp.j ) is the formation enthalpy of species j at the reference temperature Tref.15 K. If you wish to include these terms.2-4) In Equations 5. Inc. ANSYS FLUENT solves the total enthalpy form of the energy equation: ∂ (ρH) + ∂t · (ρvH) = · kt H + Sh cp (5.2-8) h0 (Tref.2-3 and 5.

ANSYS FLUENT’s default form of the energy equation does not include them (because viscous heating is often negligible). When the density-based solver is used.2-1 by default. however. January 29. 5-4 Release 12.0 c ANSYS. you should activate the terms using the Viscous Heating option in the Viscous Model dialog box. the viscous dissipation terms are always included when the energy equation is solved. Inclusion of the Species Diffusion Term Equations 5.2-6 include viscous dissipation terms.2-6 both include the eﬀect of enthalpy transport due to species diﬀusion. When the pressure-based solver is used. When the non-adiabatic non-premixed combustion model is being used. When the density-based solver is used.2-6.2-1 and 5. where 2 µUe Br = k∆T (5. which describe the thermal energy created by viscous shear in the ﬂow. When the pressure-based solver is used. that when the pressure-based solver is used. you can disable the Diﬀusion Energy Source option in the Species Model dialog box.2-9) and ∆T represents the temperature diﬀerence in the system. Note. the term · j hj Jj is included in Equation 5. ANSYS FLUENT does not automatically activate the viscous dissipation if you have deﬁned a compressible ﬂow model. because it is included in the ﬁrst term on the right-hand side of Equation 5. Inc. 2009 . If you do not want to include it. this term is always included in the energy equation. Compressible ﬂows typically have Br ≥ 1. Br.Heat Transfer Inclusion of the Viscous Dissipation Terms Equations 5.2-1 and 5. Viscous heating will be important when the Brinkman number. When your problem requires inclusion of the viscous dissipation terms and you are using the pressure-based solver. approaches or exceeds unity. this term does not explicitly appear in the energy equation.

in Equation 5.rxn = − j h0 j Rj Mj (5. The velocity ﬁeld v is computed from the motion speciﬁed for the solid zone (see Section 7. Sh . Inc. Sh .2-11) = density T = sensible enthalpy. Energy Equation in Solid Regions In solid regions.2 Modeling Conductive and Convective Heat Transfer Energy Sources Due to Reaction Sources of energy. Release 12.2-11 represents convective energy transfer due to rotational or translational motion of the solids.2-11 are the heat ﬂux due to conduction and volumetric heat sources within the solid. the heat of formation is included in the deﬁnition of enthalpy (see Equation 5. also include heat transfer between the continuous and the discrete phase. so reaction sources of energy are not included in Sh .2-10) where h0 is the enthalpy of formation of species j and Rj is the volumetric rate of creation j of species j. Energy Sources Due To Radiation When one of the radiation models is being used.5. The terms on the right-hand side of Equation 5. This is discussed further in Section 15.12.2-1 include the source of energy due to chemical reaction: Sh. respectively.3: Modeling Radiation for details. Interphase Energy Sources It should be noted that the energy sources. January 29. Tref cp dT = conductivity = temperature = volumetric heat source The second term on the left-hand side of Equation 5.2: Solid Conditions in the separate User’s Guide).2-6).2. 2009 5-5 .1: Coupling Between the Discrete and Continuous Phases.2-1 or 5.2-7).2-6 also includes radiation source terms. the energy transport equation used by ANSYS FLUENT has the following form: ∂ (ρh) + ∂t where ρ h k T Sh · (vρh) = · (k T ) + Sh (5. In the energy equation used for non-adiabatic non-premixed combustion (Equation 5. Sh in Equation 5. See Section 5.0 c ANSYS.

Inc. a ﬂow can be induced due to the force of gravity acting on the density variations. In some cases. use the define/models/energy? text command and respond no when asked to Include diffusion at inlets? Inlet diﬀusion cannot be turned oﬀ if you are using the density-based solver.Heat Transfer Anisotropic Conductivity in Solids When you use the pressure-based solver.2-13) 5-6 Release 12. Diffusion at Inlets The net transport of energy at inlets consists of both the convection and diﬀusion components. however. The importance of buoyancy forces in a mixed convection ﬂow can be measured by the ratio of the Grashof and Reynolds numbers: gβ∆T L Gr 2 = v2 Re (5. Thus the diﬀusion component (and therefore the net inlet transport) is not speciﬁed a priori.5: Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity for Solids in the separate User’s Guide for details on specifying anisotropic conductivity for solid materials. ANSYS FLUENT includes the diﬀusion ﬂux of energy at inlets. The convection component is ﬁxed by the inlet temperature speciﬁed by you.2 Natural Convection and Buoyancy-Driven Flows Theory When heat is added to a ﬂuid and the ﬂuid density varies with temperature. To turn oﬀ inlet diﬀusion. depends on the gradient of the computed temperature ﬁeld.2. you may wish to specify the net inlet transport of energy rather than the inlet temperature. ANSYS FLUENT allows you to specify anisotropic conductivity for solid materials. 2009 . The diﬀusion component.2-12) where kij is the conductivity matrix. If you are using the pressure-based solver. See Section 8. 5. you can do this by disabling inlet energy diﬀusion. Such buoyancy-driven ﬂows are termed natural-convection (or mixed-convection) ﬂows and can be modeled by ANSYS FLUENT.5. January 29. By default. The conduction term for an anisotropic solid has the form · (kij T ) (5.0 c ANSYS.

Inc.3. if it is very small. Release 12. the strength of the buoyancy-induced ﬂow is measured by the Rayleigh number: Ra = gβ∆T L3 ρ µα (5.3.2-15) p Rayleigh numbers less than 108 indicate a buoyancy-induced laminar ﬂow. 5. buoyancy forces may be ignored in your simulation.3.2-14) where β is the thermal expansion coeﬃcient: β=− and α is the thermal diﬀusivity: α= k ρcp (5.6: Discrete Ordinates (DO) Radiation Model Theory • Section 5.5: Discrete Transfer Radiation Model (DTRM) Theory • Section 5.4: Rosseland Radiation Model Theory • Section 5.3: P-1 Radiation Model Theory • Section 5.8: Radiation in Combusting Flows • Section 5.2: Radiative Transfer Equation • Section 5.3: Modeling Radiation in the separate User’s Guide. you should expect strong buoyancy contributions to the ﬂow.5.3.3 Modeling Radiation Information about radiation modeling theory is presented in the following sections: • Section 5. Conversely. January 29.3.1: Overview and Limitations • Section 5.3 Modeling Radiation When this number approaches or exceeds unity.3.3.3. In pure natural convection.9: Choosing a Radiation Model For information about setting up and using radiation models in ANSYS FLUENT.3.7: Surface-to-Surface (S2S) Radiation Model Theory • Section 5. with transition to turbulence occurring over the range of 108 < Ra < 1010 .0 c ANSYS.2-16) 1 ρ ∂ρ ∂T (5. see Section 13. 2009 5-7 .

3. ANSYS FLUENT also provides a solar load model that allows you to include the eﬀects of solar radiation in your simulation. 315] • Rosseland Radiation Model [315] • Surface-to-Surface (S2S) Radiation Model [315] • Discrete Ordinates (DO) Radiation Model [56. with or without a participating medium. Heating or cooling of surfaces due to radiation and/or heat sources or sinks due to radiation within the ﬂuid phase can be included in your model using one of the following radiation models.Heat Transfer 5. and cabin heat transfer analysis in automotive applications • radiation in glass processing.0 c ANSYS. 2009 . is large compared to the heat transfer rate due to convection or conduction. January 29. Typical applications well suited for simulation using radiative heat transfer include the following: • radiative heat transfer from ﬂames • surface-to-surface radiant heating or cooling • coupled radiation. 312] • P-1 Radiation Model [52. 282] In addition to these radiation models. • Discrete Transfer Radiation Model (DTRM) [47. Typically this will occur at high temperatures where the fourth-order dependence of the radiative heat ﬂux on temperature implies that radiation will dominate. and ceramic processing You should include radiative heat transfer in your simulation when the radiant heat ﬂux. and/or conduction heat transfer • radiation through windows in HVAC applications.1 Overview and Limitations ANSYS FLUENT provides ﬁve radiation models which allow you to include radiation. 5-8 Release 12. in your heat transfer simulations. convection. Inc. 4 4 Qrad = σ(Tmax − Tmin ). glass ﬁber drawing.

depending on the complexity of the geometry. The model includes the eﬀect of scattering. • There may be a loss of accuracy. • P-1 model tends to over-predict radiative ﬂuxes from localized heat sources or sinks. Release 12. Inc. • The implementation assumes gray radiation. For the P-1 model.5. which is easy to solve with little CPU demand. You should be aware of the following limitations when using the DTRM in ANSYS FLUENT: • DTRM assumes that all surfaces are diﬀuse. • DTRM is not compatible with parallel processing. • The eﬀect of scattering is not included. • Solving a problem with a large number of rays is CPU-intensive. if the optical thickness is small. You should be aware of the following limitations when using the P-1 radiation model: • P-1 model assumes that all surfaces are diﬀuse.3 Modeling Radiation Advantages and Limitations of the DTRM The primary advantages of the DTRM are threefold: it is a relatively simple model. the P-1 model works reasonably well. the P-1 model can easily be applied to complicated geometries with curvilinear coordinates. This means that the reﬂection of incident radiation at the surface is isotropic with respect to the solid angle. • The implementation assumes gray radiation. the RTE (Equation 5. January 29. 2009 5-9 .3-1) is a diﬀusion equation. • DTRM is not compatible with non-conformal interface or sliding meshes.0 c ANSYS. For combustion applications where the optical thickness is large. Advantages and Limitations of the P-1 Model The P-1 model has several advantages over the DTRM. and it applies to a wide range of optical thicknesses. you can increase the accuracy by increasing the number of rays. In addition. This means that the reﬂection of incident radiation at the surface is isotropic with respect to the solid angle.

anisotropy. but varies smoothly within the band. It also allows the solution of radiation at semi-transparent walls. for example. it is available with the pressurebased solver. January 29. semi-transparent media. The current implementation does not model the behavior of gases such as carbon dioxide or water vapor. The weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model (WSGGM) cannot be used to specify the absorption coeﬃcient in each band. 2009 . The non-gray implementation in ANSYS FLUENT is intended for use with participating media with a spectral absorption coeﬃcient aλ that varies in a stepwise fashion across spectral bands. the non-gray implementation assumes a constant absorption coeﬃcient within each wavelength band. However. Advantages and Limitations of the DO Model The DO model spans the entire range of optical thicknesses. It is recommended for use when the optical thickness exceeds 3. Thus. Inc. and particulate eﬀects. The implementation in ANSYS FLUENT can be used in this fashion if desired. Note also that the Rosseland model is not available when the density-based solver is being used. it is possible to include scattering. The Rosseland model can be used only for optically thick media. which absorb and emit energy at distinct wave numbers [234]. Since it does not solve an extra transport equation for the incident radiation (as the P-1 model does). The emissivity is assumed to be constant within each band. However. 5-10 Release 12.Heat Transfer Advantages and Limitations of the Rosseland Model The Rosseland model has two advantages over the P-1 model. and allows you to solve problems ranging from surface-to-surface radiation to participating radiation in combustion problems. some researchers [98] have used gray-band models to model gas behavior by approximating the absorption coeﬃcients within each band as a constant.0 c ANSYS. The modeling of non-gray gas radiation is still an evolving ﬁeld. Solving a problem with a ﬁne angular discretization may be CPU-intensive. and memory requirements are modest. The non-gray implementation in ANSYS FLUENT is compatible with all the models with which the gray implementation of the DO model can be used. displays banded behavior of this type. the Rosseland model is faster than the P-1 model and requires less memory. The current implementation is restricted to either gray radiation or non-gray radiation using a gray-band model. only. Glass. Computational cost is moderate for typical angular discretizations. The implementation allows the speciﬁcation of spectral emissivity at walls.

3 Modeling Radiation Advantages and Limitations of the S2S Model The surface-to-surface (S2S) radiation model is good for modeling the enclosure radiative transfer without participating media (e. the S2S model has a much faster time per iteration. This increased time for view factor calculation will be especially pronounced when the emitting/absorbing surfaces are the polygonal faces of polyhedral cells. • S2S model cannot be used if your model contains periodic boundary conditions.0 c ANSYS. • S2S model does not support non-conformal interfaces. 2009 5-11 . • S2S model with hemicube/adaptive view factor methods cannot be used if your model contains symmetry boundary conditions. As compared to the DTRM and the DO radiation models. Release 12. January 29. the methods for participating radiation may not always be eﬃcient. Inc. or mesh adaption. In such cases. • The implementation assumes gray radiation. although the CPU time is independent of the number of clusters that are used.5.g. You should be aware of the following limitations when using the S2S radiation model: • S2S model assumes that all surfaces are diﬀuse. and automotive underhood cooling systems). • S2S model cannot be used to model participating radiation problems. although the view factor calculation itself is CPU-intensive. solar collector systems. This can be minimized by using a cluster of surface faces. • The storage and memory requirements increase very rapidly as the number of surface faces increases. spacecraft heat rejection systems.. radiative space heaters. hanging nodes.

3. which depends on position (r) and direction (s) local temperature phase function solid angle (a + σs )s is the optical thickness or opacity of the medium.3. Absorption and scattering loss: I (a+ σs) ds Outgoing radiation I + (dI/ds)ds Incoming radiation (I) Gas emission: (aσT 4 π) ds / Scattering addition ds Figure 5.0 c ANSYS. The refractive index n is important when considering radiation in semi-transparent media.669 × 10−8 W/m2 -K4 ) radiation intensity. 2009 . January 29.1 illustrates the process of radiative heat transfer. and scattering medium at position r in the direction s is dI(r. Figure 5.2 Radiative Transfer Equation The radiative transfer equation (RTE) for an absorbing. s) σT 4 σs + (a + σs )I(r. emitting.3. s ) Φ(s · s ) dΩ 0 (5.3-1) position vector direction vector scattering direction vector path length absorption coeﬃcient refractive index scattering coeﬃcient Stefan-Boltzmann constant (5.1: Radiative Heat Transfer 5-12 Release 12.Heat Transfer 5. Inc. s) = an2 + ds π 4π where r s s s a n σs σ I T Φ Ω = = = = = = = = = = = = 4π I(r.

January 29. This section provides details about the equations used in the P-1 model. The P-1 Model Equations As mentioned above. 315]. 2009 5-13 . a and the scattering coeﬃcient σs can be constants. path length.8: Radiation in Combusting Flows for details.3-2 simpliﬁes to qr = −Γ G The transport equation for G is · (Γ G) − aG + 4an2 σT 4 = SG (5. which is based on the expansion of the radiation intensity I into an orthogonal series of spherical harmonics [52.3-4) 1 (3(a + σs ) − Cσs ) (5.3.3-3) Release 12. Rosseland. If only four terms in the series are used. For information about setting up the model. G is the incident radiation.0 c ANSYS. The Rosseland model also requires you to enter a refractive index. and a can also be a function of local concentrations of H2 O and CO2 . The discrete ordinates implementation can model radiation in semitransparent media. the following equation is obtained for the radiation ﬂux qr : qr = − 1 G 3(a + σs ) − Cσs (5.3.3-5) (5. See Section 5. and C is the linear-anisotropic phase function coeﬃcient.3 Modeling Radiation The DTRM and the P-1.5. see Section 13. ANSYS FLUENT provides the weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model (WSGGM) for computation of a variable absorption coeﬃcient. or use the default value of 1.3.3-2) where a is the absorption coeﬃcient. After introducing the parameter Γ= Equation 5. described below. σs is the scattering coeﬃcient. The refractive index n of the medium must be provided as a part of the calculation for this type of problem. 5. Inc. the P-1 radiation model is the simplest case of the P-N model.3 P-1 Radiation Model Theory The P-1 radiation model is the simplest case of the more general P-N model.1: Steps in Using the Radiation Models in the separate User’s Guide. and total pressure. and DO radiation models require the absorption coeﬃcient a as input.

you can include the eﬀect of particles in the P-1 radiation model. Particulate Effects in the P-1 Model When your ANSYS FLUENT model includes a dispersed second phase of particles. C ranges from −1 to 1.0 c ANSYS.3-7) Here. January 29. ap is the equivalent absorption coeﬃcient.. σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant and SG is a user-deﬁned radiation source.Heat Transfer where n is the refractive index of the medium. which is a property of the ﬂuid.3-6) The expression for − ·qr can be directly substituted into the energy equation to account for heat sources (or sinks) due to radiation. C is the linear-anisotropic phase function coeﬃcient. emitting. A positive value indicates that more radiant energy is scattered forward than backward.e. emitting. and a negative value means that more radiant energy is scattered backward than forward. A zero value deﬁnes isotropic scattering (i. Anisotropic Scattering Included in the P-1 radiation model is the capability for modeling anisotropic scattering. scattering that is equally likely in all directions). Note that when particles are present. which is the default in ANSYS FLUENT. (That is.) For a gray. Inc. ANSYS FLUENT solves this equation to determine the local radiation intensity when the P-1 model is active.3-4 and 5. the transport equation for the incident radiation can be written as · (Γ G) + 4π an2 σT 4 + Ep − (a + ap )G = 0 π (5. absorbing. and n is the refractive index of the medium. 2009 . and scattering particles. s is the unit vector in the direction of scattering.3-8) where Ep is the equivalent emission of the particles.3-5 yields the following equation: − · qr = aG − 4an2 σT 4 (5. ANSYS FLUENT models anisotropic scattering by means of a linear-anisotropic scattering phase function: Φ(s · s) = 1 + Cs · s (5.3-8 assumes that all scattering is due to particles. and scattering medium containing absorbing. and s is the unit vector in the direction of the incident radiation. You should modify the default value only if you are certain of the anisotropic scattering behavior of the material in your problem. Combining Equations 5. These are deﬁned as follows: 5-14 Release 12. ANSYS FLUENT ignores scattering in the gas phase. Equation 5.

The projected area Apn of particle n is deﬁned as Apn = πd2 pn 4 (5. and temperature of particle n. 2009 5-15 . The summation is over N particles in volume V .3-12) where the equivalent particle scattering factor is deﬁned as N σp = lim V →0 (1 − fpn )(1 − n=1 pn ) Apn V (5. pn .3-13.3-13) and is computed during particle tracking. Apn .3-11) where dpn is the diameter of the nth particle. Heat sources (sinks) due to particle radiation are included in the energy equation as follows: − · qr = −4π an2 σT 4 + Ep + (a + ap )G π (5. projected area. Inc.3-10) In Equations 5. fpn is the scattering factor associated with the nth particle.3-9) N ap = lim V →0 pn n=1 Apn V (5.0 c ANSYS.3-10.3 Modeling Radiation N Ep = lim and V →0 n=1 4 σTpn pn Apn πV (5.3-9 and 5. January 29.5. and Tpn are the emissivity.3-14) Release 12. In Equation 5.3-8 is deﬁned as Γ= 1 3(a + ap + σp ) (5. These quantities are computed during particle tracking in ANSYS FLUENT. The quantity Γ in Equation 5.

w = −Γ ∂n (5. January 29.w = − w 4 4n2 σTw − Gw 2 (2 − w) (5. the dot product of the outward normal vector n and Equation 5.3-16) Thus the ﬂux of the incident radiation.3-20) and Equa- If it is assumed that the walls are diﬀuse gray surfaces.3-18 into Equation 5. Inc.3-4 is computed: qr · n = −Γ G · n ∂G qr.3-17 and 5. The Marshak boundary condition is then used to eliminate the angular dependence [262]: 2π 0 2π Iw (r. (5. s) 4 n2 σTw + ρw I(r. s) = fw (r. The wall radiative heat ﬂux is computed using the following boundary condition: Iw (r.3-20 becomes qr.w . at a wall is −qr. G.Heat Transfer Boundary Condition Treatment for the P-1 Model at Walls To get the boundary condition for the incident radiation equation.3-19) Substituting Equations 5.3-21) Equation 5.w = − − (1 − ρw )Gw 2(1 + ρw ) w. s) n · s dΩ = 0 fw (r.3-15) (5.0 c ANSYS. then ρw = 1 − tion 5.w for the energy equation and for the incident radiation equation boundary conditions.3-21 is used to compute qr.3-18) where ρw is the wall reﬂectivity. −s) fw (r. 2009 . s) n · s dΩ (5. 5-16 Release 12. s) = w π (5.3-17) (5.3-19 and performing the integrations yields 4π w 4 n2 σTw π qr.

5. The Rosseland radiation model diﬀers from the P-1 model in that the Rosseland model assumes that the intensity is the black-body intensity at the gas temperature. where n is the refractive index. The Rosseland Model Equations As with the P-1 model.3-22 yields qr = −16σΓn2 T 3 T (5.1: Steps in Using the Radiation Models in the separate User’s Guide.4 Rosseland Radiation Model Theory The Rosseland or diﬀusion approximation for radiation is valid when the medium is optically thick ((a + σs )L 1).) Thus G = 4σn2 T 4 . and is recommended for use in problems where the optical thickness is greater than 3.3-4: qr = −Γ G where Γ is given by Equation 5. see Section 13. It can be derived from the P-1 model equations.3 Modeling Radiation Boundary Condition Treatment for the P-1 Model at Flow Inlets and Exits The net radiative heat ﬂux at ﬂow inlets and outlets is computed in the same manner as at walls.5. This can be useful when the temperature outside the inlet or outlet diﬀers considerably from the temperature in the enclosure. Inc.0 c ANSYS. 2009 5-17 . For information about setting up the model.6: Deﬁning Boundary Conditions for Radiation in the separate User’s Guide for details. ANSYS FLUENT includes an option that allows you to use diﬀerent temperatures for radiation and convection at inlets and outlets. as described above. ANSYS FLUENT assumes that the emissivity of all ﬂow inlets and outlets is 1.3. Substituting this value for G into Equation 5. with some approximations. the radiative heat ﬂux vector in a gray medium can be approximated by Equation 5.3-3. This section provides details about the equations used in the Rosseland model.0 (black body absorption) unless you choose to redeﬁne this boundary treatment.3-22) Release 12. (The P-1 model actually calculates a transport equation for G. See Section 13.3.3-23) (5. January 29.3.

using the same phase function (Equation 5. and the slip coeﬃcient ψ is approximated by a curve ﬁt to the plot given in [315]: 1/2 3 ψ= 2x +3x2 −12x+7 54 0 Nw < 0.3: Anisotropic Scattering. January 29. Inc. it is possible to write q = qc + qr = −(k + kr ) T kr = 16σΓn2 T 3 (5.3-27) where Tw is the wall temperature. Anisotropic Scattering The Rosseland model allows for anisotropic scattering.0 c ANSYS. The radiative heat ﬂux at the wall boundary. Equation 5. qr.3-25) (5. k(a + σs ) 3 4σTw (5. Tg is the temperature of the gas at the wall.w . is deﬁned using the slip coeﬃcient ψ: 4 4 σ Tw − Tg qr.3-7) described for the P-1 model in Section 5.3-28) where Nw is the conduction to radiation parameter at the wall: Nw = and x = log10 Nw . 2009 .01 0. Boundary Condition Treatment for the Rosseland Model at Walls Since the diﬀusion approximation is not valid near walls.3.w = − ψ (5.01 ≤ Nw ≤ 10 Nw > 10 (5.3-26) where k is the thermal conductivity and kr is the radiative conductivity.3-29) 5-18 Release 12.Heat Transfer Since the radiative heat ﬂux has the same form as the Fourier conduction law.3-24) (5.3-24 is used in the energy equation to compute the temperature ﬁeld. it is necessary to use a temperature slip boundary condition.

then I(s) can be estimated as I(s) = σT 4 (1 − e−as ) + I0 e−as π (5. This section provides details about the equations used in the DTRM. can be written as dI aσT 4 + aI = ds π where a I T σ = = = = gas absorption coeﬃcient intensity gas local temperature Stefan-Boltzmann constant (5. 2009 5-19 . The DTRM Equations The equation for the change of radiant intensity.0 c ANSYS.3. The DTRM integrates Equation 5. January 29.3.3-30) Here.2: Setting Up the DTRM in the separate User’s Guide. dI. which is determined by the appropriate boundary condition (see the description of boundary conditions. The “ray tracing” technique used in the DTRM can provide a prediction of radiative heat transfer between surfaces without explicit view factor calculations. If a is constant along the ray. along a path.5.3-31) where I0 is the radiant intensity at the start of the incremental path. Inc. below). The energy source in the ﬂuid due to radiation is then computed by summing the change in intensity along the path of each ray that is traced through the ﬂuid control volume.3-30 along a series of rays emanating from boundary faces. The radiative heat ﬂux at these boundaries can be determined using Equation 5.669 × 10−8 W/m2 -K4 ) (5. The accuracy of the model is limited mainly by the number of rays traced and the computational mesh.3 Modeling Radiation Boundary Condition Treatment for the Rosseland Model at Flow Inlets and Exits No special treatment is required at ﬂow inlets and outlets for the Rosseland model. the refractive index is assumed to be unity. 5. Release 12.3-24. see Section 13.5 Discrete Transfer Radiation Model (DTRM) Theory The main assumption of the DTRM is that the radiation leaving the surface element in a certain range of solid angles can be approximated by a single ray. For information about setting up the model. ds.

2: Angles θ and φ Deﬁning the Hemispherical Solid Angle About a Point P Clustering DTRM is computationally very expensive when there are too many surfaces to trace rays from and too many volumes crossed by the rays. Inc. θ is varied from 0 to π and φ from 0 2 to 2π. 5-20 Release 12. n θ φ P t Figure 5. Similarly. The incident radiation ﬂux. January 29. This information is then stored in the radiation ﬁle. To cover the radiating hemisphere. qin . rays are ﬁred at discrete values of the polar and azimuthal angles (see Figure 5.0 c ANSYS.3. 2009 .Heat Transfer Ray Tracing The ray paths are calculated and stored prior to the ﬂuid ﬂow calculation. the number of radiating surfaces and absorbing cells is reduced by clustering surfaces and cells into surface and volume “clusters”. and the volume sources are calculated for the surface and volume clusters respectively. Each ray is then traced to determine the control volumes it intercepts as well as its length within each control volume. At each radiating face. These values are then distributed to the faces and cells in the clusters to calculate the wall and cell temperatures. To reduce the computational time. care must be taken to calculate the average temperatures of surface and volume clusters and distribute the ﬂux and source terms appropriately among the faces and cells forming the clusters.3. Since the radiation source terms are highly non-linear (proportional to the fourth power of temperature).2). surface clusters are made by starting from a face and adding its neighbors and their neighbors until a speciﬁed number of faces per surface cluster is collected. The volume clusters are formed by starting from a cell and simply adding its neighbors and their neighbors until a speciﬁed number of cells per volume cluster is collected. which must be read in before the ﬂuid ﬂow calculations begin.

s is the ray direction vector.3-33) where Tsc and Tvc are the temperatures of the surface and volume clusters respectively.3-34) s·n>0 where Ω is the hemispherical solid angle. Inc.5. and n is the normal pointing out of the domain. is then computed as a sum of the reﬂected portion of qin and the emissive power of the surface: qout = (1 − w )qin + 4 w σTw (5. 2009 5-21 . The summations are carried over all faces of a surface cluster and all cells of a volume cluster. as I0 = qout π (5. as qin = Iin s · ndΩ (5.0 c ANSYS. January 29. ANSYS FLUENT incorporates the radiative heat ﬂux (Equation 5.3-35) where Tw is the surface temperature of the point P on the surface and w is the wall emissivity which you input as a boundary condition.3-35) in the prediction of the wall surface temperature.3-35 also provides the surface boundary condition for the radiation intensity I0 of a ray emanating from the point P . qin . Boundary Condition Treatment for the DTRM at Walls The radiation intensity approaching a point on a wall surface is integrated to yield the incident radiative heat ﬂux. and Vc and Tc are the volume and temperature of cell c. The net radiative heat ﬂux from the surface. qout .3-32) 1/4 Tvc = c Vc Tc4 Vc (5. Af and Tf are the area and temperature of face f . Iin is the intensity of the incoming ray. Equation 5.3 Modeling Radiation The surface and volume cluster temperatures are obtained by area and volume averaging as shown in the following equations: f 4 Af Tf Af 1/4 Tsc = (5.3-36) Release 12.

assuming that spatial neighbors are known.0 c ANSYS.6: Deﬁning Boundary Conditions for Radiation in the separate User’s Guide for details. the equations for the energy and radiation intensities are solved one by one.3-1 into a transport equation for radiation intensity in the spatial coordinates (x. See Section 13. In the uncoupled case. The DO model solves for as many transport equations as there are directions s. January 29. in the coupled ordinates method (or COMET) [220]. y.6 Discrete Ordinates (DO) Radiation Model Theory The discrete ordinates (DO) radiation model solves the radiative transfer equation (RTE) for a ﬁnite number of discrete solid angles.Heat Transfer Boundary Condition Treatment for the DTRM at Flow Inlets and Exits The net radiative heat ﬂux at ﬂow inlets and outlets is computed in the same manner as at walls. z). Such applications slow down convergence drastically when the sequential approach is used. each associated with a vector direction s ﬁxed in the global Cartesian system (x. ANSYS FLUENT includes an option that allows you to use diﬀerent temperatures for radiation and convection at inlets and outlets. y. The uncoupled implementation is sequential in nature and uses a conservative variant of the DO model called the ﬁnite-volume scheme [56. analogous to choosing the number of rays for the DTRM. Instead. the DO model does not perform ray tracing. 5. the discrete energy and intensity equations at each cell are solved simultaneously.3. assuming prevailing values for other variables. ANSYS FLUENT assumes that the emissivity of all ﬂow inlets and outlets is 1. This can be useful when the temperature outside the inlet or outlet diﬀers considerably from the temperature in the enclosure. the DO model transforms Equation 5.4: Setting Up the DO Model in the separate User’s Guide. Alternatively. 5-22 Release 12. Inc. however. as described above.3. 282]. and its extension to unstructured meshes [242]. see Section 13. The ﬁneness of the angular discretization is controlled by you. The advantages of using the coupled approach is that it speeds up applications involving high optical thicknesses and/or high scattering coeﬃcients. For information about setting up the model.3.0 (black body absorption) unless you choose to redeﬁne this boundary treatment. The solution method is identical to that used for the ﬂuid ﬂow and energy equations. 2009 . z). Unlike the DTRM. Two implementations of the DO model are available in ANSYS FLUENT: uncoupled and (energy) coupled.

Inc. which need not be contiguous or equal in extent. the radiant energy contained in the wavelength band ∆λ. The behavior in each band is assumed gray. s)s) + (a + σs )I(r. The black body emission in the wavelength band per unit solid angle is written as [F (0 → nλ2 T ) − F (0 → nλ1 T )]n2 σT 4 π (5.3-40) where the summation is over the wavelength bands. s)s) + (aλ + σs )Iλ (r. s) = aλ n2 Ibλ + σs 4π 4π 0 Iλ (r. 2009 5-23 .3-1 is written as · (I(r. and Ibλ is the black body intensity given by the Planck function. s) in each direction s at position r is computed using I(r. s)∆λk (5. s) = an2 σT 4 σs + π 4π 4π I(r. s) = k Iλk (r.5. Boundary conditions for the non-gray DO model are applied on a band basis. the scattering phase function.3 Modeling Radiation The DO Model Equations The DO model considers the radiative transfer equation (RTE) in the direction s as a ﬁeld equation. January 29. Release 12. λ2 and λ1 are the wavelength boundaries of the band. Thus. The wavelength intervals are supplied by you. and correspond to values in vacuum (n = 1). The non-gray DO implementation divides the radiation spectrum into N wavelength bands. s ) Φ(s · s ) dΩ (5. aλ is the spectral absorption coeﬃcient.0 c ANSYS. s) can be written as · (Iλ (r. The RTE for the spectral intensity Iλ (r. and the refractive index n are assumed independent of wavelength.3-38) Here λ is the wavelength.3-37) ANSYS FLUENT also allows the modeling of non-gray radiation using a gray-band model. The scattering coeﬃcient. The total intensity I(r. Equation 5.3-39) where F (0 → nλT ) is the fraction of radiant energy emitted by a black body [234] in the wavelength interval from 0 to λ at temperature T in a medium of refractive index n. s ) Φ(s · s ) dΩ 0 (5. The RTE is integrated over each wavelength interval. The treatment within a band is the same as that for the gray DO model. resulting in transport equations for the quantity Iλ ∆λ.

resulting in strong coupling between directional radiation intensities.3-42) 5-24 Release 12.0 c ANSYS. yields the discrete energy equation: N T µT Tj − βiT Ti − αi ij j=1 k=1 L Iik ωk − SiT Sih (5. The discrete energy equations for the coupled method are presented below. Equation 5.3-41) where T αi T βi SiT κ ∆V = κ∆Vi = 16κσTi∗3 ∆Vi = 12κσTi∗4 ∆Vi = absorption coeﬃcient = control volume The coeﬃcient µT and the source term Sih are due to the discretization of the convection ij and diﬀusion terms as well as the non-radiative source terms. This DO model implementation is utilized in ANSYS FLUENT by enabling the DO/Energy Coupling option for the DO model in the Radiation Model dialog box. Inc. yields [220]: Pi q i + r i = 0 (5.3-41. Combining the discretized form of Equation 5. January 29.3-37 and the discretized energy equation. This method results in signiﬁcant improvement in the convergence for applications involving optical thicknesses greater than 10. This is typically encountered in glass-melting applications. This feature is advantageous when scattering is signiﬁcant. 2009 .Heat Transfer Energy Coupling and the DO Model The coupling between energy and radiation intensities at a cell (which is also known as COMET) [220] accelerates the convergence of the ﬁnite volume scheme for radiative heat transfer. The energy equation when integrated over a control volume i.

i=j ij N j=1. Release 12. This may result in slower convergence of the coupled approach compared to the sequential approach.βi1 21 2 22 ηi + γi2 ω1 Mii + ηi + γi2 ω2 .Mii (5... Typical cases would involve combustion modeling.3-43) Pi = 1 11 12 Mii + ηi + γi1 ω1 ηi + γi1 ω2 .3-44) ri = l µl Ij − Si1 − SiB ij : : N µT Tj + SiT + Sih j=1. refer to Section 13.i=j (5.4: Setting Up the DO Model in the separate User’s Guide. To ﬁnd out how to apply DO/Energy coupling. Inc. • DO/Energy coupling is not available when solving enthalpy equations instead of temperature equations. 2009 5-25 . • DO/Energy coupling is not compatible with the shell conduction model.. January 29.βi2 : : T T T −αi ω1 −αi ω2 .0 c ANSYS...3.3-45) Limitations of DO/Energy Coupling There are some instances when using DO/Energy coupling is not recommended or is incompatible with certain models: • DO/Energy coupling is not recommended for cases with weak coupling between energy and directional radiation intensities.5..3 Modeling Radiation where qi = Ii1 Ii2 : : IiL Ti (5.

so that they are partially incoming and partially outgoing to the face. as shown in Figure 5.3. leading to the problem of control angle overhang [242]. are constant.7. The control volume face cuts the sphere representing the angular space at an arbitrary angle. Essentially. z θ φ s y x Figure 5. and are measured with respect to the global Cartesian system (x. In two-dimensional calculations.3. The θ and φ extents of the control angle. y. It is important in these cases to correctly account for the overhanging fraction.0 c ANSYS. Figure 5. z) as shown in Figure 5. control angles can straddle the control volume faces. January 29. For generalized unstructured meshes. making a total of 4Nθ Nφ directions in all.5. In the case of the non-gray model.Heat Transfer Angular Discretization and Pixelation Each octant of the angular space 4π at any spatial location is discretized into Nθ × Nφ solid angles of extent ωi . Inc. as shown in Figure 5. called control angles. 2009 .3. only four octants are solved due to symmetry.3.3: Angular Coordinate System When Cartesian meshes are used. This is done through the use of pixelation [242]. it is possible to align the global angular discretization with the control volume face. control volume faces do not in general align with the global angular discretization. Each overhanging control angle is divided into Nθp × Nφp pixels. 5-26 Release 12. as shown in Figure 5.3.3. Control angle overhang may also occur as a result of reﬂection and refraction. 4Nθ Nφ or 8Nθ Nφ equations are solved for each band. The line of intersection is a great circle. In three-dimensional calculations. a total of 8Nθ Nφ directions are solved.3. The angles θ and φ are the polar and azimuthal angles respectively.4. however.6 shows a 3D example of a face with control angle overhang. ∆θ and ∆φ.

5: Face with Control Angle Overhang n Release 12. 2009 5-27 .3.3. Inc.4: Face with No Control Angle Overhang overhanging control angle incoming directions C0 q q C1 outgoing directions face f Figure 5.0 c ANSYS.5. January 29.3 Modeling Radiation incoming directions C0 q n q C1 outgoing directions face f Figure 5.

2009 .6: Face with Control Angle Overhang (3D) control angle ω i si control volume face pixel Figure 5. Inc.Heat Transfer outgoing directions z overhanging control angle y x incoming directions control volume face Figure 5.0 c ANSYS.3.3. January 29.7: Pixelation of Control Angle 5-28 Release 12.

When the Delta-Eddington phase function is used. a pixelation of 3 × 3 is recommended.3 Modeling Radiation The energy contained in each pixel is then treated as incoming or outgoing to the face. the scattered energy is restricted to stay within the band. for f = 1. specular. The contribution of the particulate phase appears in the RTE as: σT 4 σp + Ep + π 4π · (Is) + (a + ap + σp )I(r. f is the forward-scattering factor and δ(s · s ) is the Dirac delta function. ANSYS FLUENT will neglect all other sources of scattering in the gas phase. a linear anisotropic phase function. or a user-deﬁned phase function. Anisotropic Scattering The DO implementation in ANSYS FLUENT admits a variety of scattering phase functions. However. You should be aware. The Delta-Eddington function takes the following form: Φ(s · s ) = 2f δ(s · s ) + (1 − f )(1 + Cs · s ) (5. In this case. C is the asymmetry factor. January 29. The linear anisotropic phase function is described in Equation 5. that increasing the pixelation adds to the cost of computation. The scattering phase functions available for gray radiation can also be used for non-gray radiation. You can choose an isotropic phase function. The inﬂuence of overhang can thus be accounted for within the pixel resolution. the DeltaEddington phase function will cause the intensity to behave as if there is no scattering at all.0 c ANSYS. When a user-deﬁned function is used to specify the scattering phase function. s ) Φ(s · s ) dΩ (5. 2009 5-29 .3-48) 0 Release 12. a Delta-Eddington phase function.3-46) Here. ANSYS FLUENT allows you to choose the pixel resolution. ANSYS FLUENT assumes the phase function to be of the form Φ(s · s ) = 2f δ(s · s ) + (1 − f )Φ∗ (s · s ) The user-deﬁned function will specify Φ∗ and the forward-scattering factor f . The f term essentially cancels a fraction f of the out-scattering. s) = an2 4π I(r. periodic.5. Inc. you will specify values for f and C. or semi-transparent boundaries.3-47) Particulate Effects in the DO Model The DO model allows you to include the eﬀect of a discrete second phase of particulates on radiation. For problems involving symmetry. thus.3-7. For problems involving gray-diﬀuse radiation. the default pixelation of 1 × 1 is usually suﬃcient. (5. however.

Figure 5.3.8 shows a schematic of radiation on an opaque wall in ANSYS FLUENT.a on side a of an opaque wall. deﬁned in Equation 5. Particulate emission and absorption terms are also included in the energy equation. 2009 . or external to the domain (with an adjacent ﬂuid or solid zone on one side. January 29. Some of the radiant energy is reﬂected diﬀusely and specularly.Heat Transfer where ap is the equivalent absorption coeﬃcient due to the presence of particulates.0 c ANSYS. a Figure 5. a reflected.8 shows incident radiation qin.3-13.8: DO Radiation on Opaque Wall The diagram in Figure 5. depending on the diﬀuse fraction fd for side a of the wall that you specify as a boundary condition. Opaque walls are treated as gray if gray radiation is being computed. only). 5-30 Release 12. Boundary and Cell Zone Condition Treatment at Opaque Walls The discrete ordinates radiation model allows the speciﬁcation of opaque walls that are interior to a domain (with adjacent ﬂuid or solid zones on both sides of the wall). The equivalent emission Ep is given by Equation 5. or non-gray if the non-gray DO model is being used.3-10. emission. Inc.3-9. is used in the scattering terms. and is given by Equation 5. a reflected.3. For non-gray radiation. and scattering due to the particulate phase are included in each wavelength band for the radiation calculation.3. absorption. diffuse q in. Medium a Adjacent Fluid or Solid q in. The equivalent particle scattering factor σp . specular q emission q absorbed n q in.

2009 5-31 . depending on the diﬀuse fraction fd . fd is equal to 0 and there is no diﬀusely reﬂected energy. The amount of incident radiation absorbed at the wall surface and the amount emitted back depends on the emissivity of that surface and the diﬀuse fraction. Inc. qin .3. you must specify internal emissivity for each wavelength band. The radiation that is reﬂected can be diﬀusely reﬂected and/or specularly reﬂected.3 Modeling Radiation Some of the incident radiation is absorbed at the surface of the wall and some radiation is emitted from the wall surface as shown in Figure 5. σ is Boltzmann’s Constant. w is Note that although ANSYS FLUENT uses emissivity in its computation of radiation quantities. fd is equal to 1 and there is no specularly reﬂected energy. Gray Diffuse Walls For gray diﬀuse radiation. and Tw is the wall temperature. Absorption at the wall surface assumes that the absorptivity is equal to the emissivity. Similarly.3-50) where n is the refractive index of the medium next to the wall. For non-gray DO models.5. then the following general quantities are computed by ANSYS FLUENT for opaque walls: • emission from the wall surface = n2 • diﬀusely reﬂected energy = fd (1 − 4 w σTw w )qin w )qin • specularly reﬂected energy = (1 − fd )(1 − • absorption at the wall surface = w qin where fd is the diﬀuse fraction.0 c ANSYS. If qin is the amount of radiative energy incident on the opaque wall. January 29. for a purely specular wall. Radiation is not transmitted through an opaque wall. and Tw is the wall temperature.8. at the wall is qin = Iin s · ndΩ (5. it is not available for postprocessing. w is the wall emissivity. A diﬀuse fraction between 0 and 1 will result in partially diﬀuse and partially reﬂected energy. n is the refractive index of the adjacent medium.3-49) s·n>0 The net radiative ﬂux leaving the surface is given by qout = (1 − w )qin + n2 4 w σTw (5. For a purely diﬀused wall. This equation is also valid for specular radiation with emissivity = 0. the wall emissivity. σ is Boltzmann’s Constant. Radiant incident energy that impacts an opaque wall can be reﬂected back to the surrounding medium and absorbed by the wall. the incident radiative heat ﬂux. Release 12.

the incident radiative heat ﬂux qin.λ π∆λ (5. reﬂection.3-54) Cell Zone and Boundary Condition Treatment at Semi-Transparent Walls ANSYS FLUENT allows the speciﬁcation of interior and exterior semi-transparent walls for the DO model. For non-gray diﬀuse radiation. F (n. These equations assume that the absorptivity is equal to the emissivity for the wall surface.Heat Transfer The boundary intensity for all outgoing directions s at the wall is given by I0 = Non-Gray Diffuse Walls There is a special set of equations that apply uniquely to non-gray diﬀuse opaque walls. reﬂected. and absorbed through the wall thickness.0 c ANSYS.λ s · ndΩ (5. T ) provides the Planck distribution function.λ + wλ [F (0 4 → nλ2 Tw ) − F (0 → nλ1 Tw )]n2 σTw (5.3-51) s·n>0 The net radiative ﬂux leaving the surface in the band ∆λ is given by qout. January 29. In the case of interior semi-transparent walls. 2009 . there are two possible sources of radiation on the boundary wall: an irradiation beam from outside the computational domain and incident radiation from cells in adjacent ﬂuid or solid zones. The radiant energy within a band is transmitted. the rest is treated specularly. Transmission and reﬂection can be diﬀuse and/or specular. or refraction of radiant energy from one band to another.λ = (1 − wλ )qin. it can be reﬂected back into the surrounding medium.λ in the band ∆λ at the wall is qin. and refracted as in the gray case.3-52) qout π (5. For exterior semi-transparent walls. This deﬁnes the emittance for each radiation band as a function of the temperature of the source surface. λ. You specify the diﬀuse fraction for all transmitted and reﬂected radiation. incident radiation can pass through the wall and be transmitted to the adjacent medium (and possibly refracted). there is no transmission. For non-gray radiation.3-53) where wλ is the wall emissivity in the band. semi-transparent wall boundary conditions are applied on a perband basis.λ = ∆λ Iin. The boundary intensity for all outgoing directions s in the band ∆λ at the wall is given by I0λ = qout. 5-32 Release 12. Inc.

9: DO Radiation on Interior Semi-Transparent Wall Release 12.3 Modeling Radiation By default the DO equations are solved in all ﬂuid zones. a q in. specular q in. radiation is not coupled and you will need to explicitly specify radiation coupling on the interior wall by changing the boundary condition type to semi-transparent in the Wall dialog box (under the Radiation tab). Radiation coupling is set when a wall is speciﬁed as semi-transparent. diffuse (fd used is for side a) q in.3. Note that by default.5. then you will need to model a semi-transparent wall as a solid zone with adjacent ﬂuid zone(s). Incident radiant energy depicted by qin. a reflected. i If you are interested in the detailed temperature distribution inside your semi-transparent media. January 29.3.0 c ANSYS.a can pass through the semi-transparent wall if and only if the contiguous ﬂuid or solid cell zones participate in radiation. thereby allowing the radiation to be coupled. Therefore. diffuse (f used is for side a) d na nb Figure 5.9 shows a schematic of an interior (two-sided) wall that is treated as semitransparent in ANSYS FLUENT and has zero thickness. a transmitted. a reflected. and treat the solid as a semi-transparent medium. Semi-Transparent Interior Walls Figure 5. if you have an adjacent solid zone for your thin wall. specular. refracted n q in. you will need to specify the solid zone as participating in radiation in the Solid dialog box as part of the boundary condition setup. Medium a Adjacent Fluid or Solid f (for side a) d f d (for side b) Medium b Adjacent Fluid or Solid q in. 2009 5-33 . This is discussed in a subsequent section. but not in any solid zones. a transmitted. Inc.

The special cases of purely diﬀuse and purely specular transmission and reﬂection on semi-transparent walls is presented in the following sections. The fraction of diﬀuse versus specular radiation that is transmitted and reﬂected depends on the diﬀuse fraction for the wall. due to deﬁned internal emissivity) except for the case when a speciﬁed temperature boundary condition is deﬁned. If either the wall thickness or absorption coeﬃcient is set to 0.0 c ANSYS. Figure 5.3-55) 5-34 Release 12. Reﬂected radiation can be reﬂected specularly and diﬀusely. Although incident radiation can be absorbed in a semi-transparent wall that has thickness.10 shows a ray traveling from a semi-transparent medium a with refractive index na to a semi-transparent medium b with a refractive index nb in the direction s. note that by default the absorbed radiation ﬂux does not aﬀect the energy equation except where shell conduction is used. ANSYS FLUENT does not include emission from the surface of semi-transparent walls (i. then the thickness and the absorption coeﬃcient determine the absorptivity of the ‘thin’ wall. then the wall has no absorptivity. and the corresponding quantity on the side b. this can result in an energy imbalance and possibly an unexpected temperature ﬁeld. Inc. Specular Semi-Transparent Walls Consider the special case for a semi-transparent wall. If the semi-transparent wall has thickness. similarly. We distinguish between the intensity Ia (s).Heat Transfer Incident radiant energy that is transmitted through a semi-transparent wall can be transmitted specularly and diﬀusely.3.e. A part of the energy incident on the interface is reﬂected. surface b faces medium b. The reﬂection is specular. January 29. Surface a of the interface is the side that faces medium a. Radiation can also be reﬂected at the interior wall back to the surrounding medium if the refractive index na for the ﬂuid zone that represents medium a is diﬀerent than the refractive index nb for medium b. Ib (s). when the diﬀuse fraction fd is equal to 0 and all of the transmitted and reﬂected radiant energy at the semi-transparent wall is purely specular. and the rest is transmitted. so that the direction of reﬂected radiation is given by sr = s − 2 (s · n) n (5. the intensity in the direction s on side a of the interface. If the wall is expected to have signiﬁcant absorption/emission then it may be better to model the thickness explicitly with solid cells where practical. The interface normal n is assumed to point into side a. The exception to this is when shell conduction is used (available in 3D only) in which case there is full correspondence between energy and radiation. 2009 .

Inc.3 Modeling Radiation s’ medium b st θb medium a s θa n sr n b > na Figure 5. January 29. 2009 5-35 .10: Reﬂection and Refraction of Radiation at the Interface Between Two Semi-Transparent Media Release 12.5.0 c ANSYS.3.

3. is given by Snell’s law: sin θb = na sin θa nb (5.b (st ). is given by Iw.10. the outgoing intensity in the direction st on side b of the interface.3-58) represents the fraction of incident energy transferred from s to sr .b (st ) = rb (s )Iw.a (sr ) = ra (s)Iw. Iw.3-61) 5-36 Release 12. Similarly. as shown in Figure 5.a (sr ) in the outgoing direction sr on side a of the interface is determined from the reﬂected component of the incoming radiation and the transmission from side b. st .3. The direction of the transmitted energy.3-59) where τb (s ) is the transmissivity of side b in direction s .b (s ) + τa (s)Iw. Inc. We also deﬁne the direction s = st − 2 (st · n) n shown in Figure 5. the energy transmitted from medium a to medium b in the incoming solid angle 2π must be refracted into a cone of apex angle θc (see Figure 5. The boundary intensity Iw.b (s ) (5. January 29.3-60) For the case na < nb . Thus Iw.a (s) (5.Heat Transfer The radiation transmitted from medium a to medium b undergoes refraction. 2009 .3.0 c ANSYS.3-57) 1 + 2 na cos θa − nb cos θb na cos θa + nb cos θb 2 (5.10.a (s) + τb (s )Iw. The interface reﬂectivity on side a [234] 1 ra (s) = 2 na cos θb − nb cos θa na cos θb + nb cos θa 2 (5.3-56) where θa is the angle of incidence and θb is the angle of transmission.11) where θc = sin−1 na nb (5.

Release 12. When medium b is external to the domain as in the case of an external semi-transparent wall (Figure 5. and the solid angle over which the radiative ﬂux is to be applied. Iw. total internal reﬂection occurs and all the incoming energy is reﬂected specularly back into medium b.3.5. beam direction. Inc. the transmitted component of the radiant energy going from medium b to medium a in the cone of apex angle θc is refracted into the outgoing solid angle 2π.12). You supply this incoming irradiation ﬂux in terms of its magnitude.3.11: Critical Angle θc Similarly.3 Modeling Radiation medium b θc θb medium a θa n n b > na Figure 5. 2009 5-37 . Note that the refractive index of the external medium is assumed to be 1.3-59 as a part of the boundary condition inputs.3.b (s ) is given in Equation 5. The equations presented above can be applied to the general case of interior semi-transparent walls that is shown in Figure 5. January 29. For incident angles greater than θc .9.0 c ANSYS.

the semi-transparent interface may be a diﬀuse reﬂector. You supply this incoming irradiation ﬂux in terms of its magnitude.a = 1 − rd.b (1 − rd.b = where rd. beam direction.a = − qin.b is given as a part of the boundary condition inputs. For such a case. In many engineering problems.3.b qin. Iw.0 c ANSYS. 2009 .a qin.a = Similarly for side b.b π (5.b s · ndΩ.3-66) (5. For n = na /nb > 1.a s · ndΩ.Heat Transfer Diffuse Semi-Transparent Walls Consider the special case for a semi-transparent wall.b qin. Inc. Note that the refractive index of the external medium is assumed to be 1.3-65) rd. s·n≥0 When medium b is external to the domain as in the case of an external semi-transparent wall (Figure 5. and equal to the hemispherically averaged value rd . rd.3-64) qin.a + τd.3-62) (5. s·n<0 (5.3-63) The boundary intensity for all outgoing directions on side a of the interface is given by Iw. January 29. and the solid angle over which the radiative ﬂux is to be applied.3-67) Iw.a π (5.12).b = 4π 4π Iw. when the diﬀuse fraction fd is equal to 1 and all of the transmitted and reﬂected radiant energy at the semi-transparent wall is purely diﬀuse. the interfacial reﬂectivity r(s) is assumed independent of s.a qin.b + τd.a and rd. 5-38 Release 12.b are given by [316] rd. qin.b ) n2 n−1 1 (3n + 1)(n − 1) n2 (n2 − 1)2 + + ln − = 2 2 + 1)3 2 6(n + 1) (n n+1 2n3 (n2 + 2n − 1) 8n4 (n4 + 1) + 2 ln(n) (n2 + 1)(n4 − 1) (n + 1)(n4 − 1)2 (5.

Outside computational domain Medium A Adjacent Fluid or Solid Zone q irrad reflected. 2009 5-39 . specular & refracted q irrad reflected. ANSYS FLUENT includes the reﬂective and transmitted radiative ﬂux contributions from both diﬀuse and specular components to the deﬁning equations.3. Refer to the previous section for the radiation eﬀects of wall thickness on semi-transparent walls. Semi-Transparent Exterior Walls Figure 5. Inc.12 shows the general case of an irradiation beam qirrad applied to an exterior semi-transparent wall with zero thickness and a non-zero absorption coeﬃcient for the material property.5. the wall is partially diﬀuse and partially specular.3. diffuse irrad n b n a n a not equal to nb Figure 5. January 29. specular q q irrad normal q irrad transmitted.0 c ANSYS.12: DO Irradiation on External Semi-Transparent Wall Release 12.3 Modeling Radiation Partially Diffuse Semi-Transparent Walls When the diﬀuse fraction fd that you enter for a semi-transparent wall is between 0 and 1. diffuse q θ irrad transmitted. In this case.

then you must supply the surface normal ﬂux qirrad.3-68) The fraction of the above energy that will enter into the domain depends on the transmissivity of the semi-transparent wall under consideration. beam direction. Note that this energy is distributed across the solid angles (i. Figure 5. If you select the feature Apply Direct Irradiation Parallel to the Beam in the Wall boundary condition dialog box. The irradiation beam is deﬁned by the magnitude. There is an additional ﬂux beyond qirrad that is applied when the Mixed or Radiation wall boundary conditions are selected in the Thermal tab.normal in its radiation calculation. depending on the refractive index and the diﬀuse fraction that you provide as a boundary condition input. the beam θ and φ extents). 5-40 Release 12. Beam width is speciﬁed as the solid angle over which the irradiation is distributed (i. If this feature is not checked. This external ﬂux at the semi-transparent wall is computed by ANSYS FLUENT as Qext = 4 external σTrad (5. You provide these inputs (in addition to irradiation magnitude) as part of the boundary conditions for a semi-transparent wall. The irradiation beam can be refracted in medium a depending on the refractive index that is speciﬁed for the particular ﬂuid or solid zone material. 2009 ..e. Note that there is a reﬂected component of qirrad when the refractive index of the wall (nb ) is not equal to 1. and beam width that you supply. The default beam width in ANSYS FLUENT is 1e − 6 degrees which is suitable for collimated beam radiation.13 shows a schematic of the beam direction and beam width for the irradiation beam.3. The irradiation magnitude is speciﬁed in terms of an incident radiant heat ﬂux (W/m2 ). The transmitted radiation can be refracted (bent) and dispersed specularly and diﬀusely.Heat Transfer An irradiation ﬂux passes through the semi-transparent wall from outside the computational domain (Figure 5. Inc. then you supply qirrad for irradiation (Figure 5.e. January 29.12) into the adjacent ﬂuid or solid medium a.) Incident radiation can also occur on external semi-transparent walls.3. Beam direction is deﬁned by the vector of the centroid of the solid angle. as shown.3.. since the radiation eﬀects are the same. Refer to the previous discussion on interior walls for details.normal for irradiation.12) and ANSYS FLUENT computes and uses the surface normal ﬂux qirrad. similar treatment as diﬀuse component.0 c ANSYS.

Y. Z) Beam Width ( θ ) z y ∆ θ /2 −∆ θ /2 Beam Direction (X. Y.3.5.13: Beam Width and Direction for External Irradiation Beam Release 12.3 Modeling Radiation z External Beam Irradiation θ y ϕ x Beam Width ( ϕ ) y x ∆ ϕ /2 −∆ ϕ /2 Beam Direction (X. Inc. Z) Figure 5. 2009 5-41 . January 29.0 c ANSYS.

Boundary Condition Treatment at Specular Walls and Symmetry Boundaries At specular walls and symmetry boundaries. In a 3-dimensional model this can be overcome by activating the shell conduction option for the respective thin wall. Therefore.3-69) Boundary Condition Treatment at Periodic Boundaries When rotationally periodic boundaries are used. Boundary Condition Treatment at Flow Inlets and Exits The treatment at ﬂow inlets and exits is described in Section 5. January 29. Otherwise.3. the DO equations are solved in ﬂuid zones. such as the absorption of long wavelength radiation in a glass window. A pixelation between 3 × 3 and 10 × 10 is recommended. the direction of the reﬂected ray sr corresponding to the incoming direction s is given by Equation 5. Modeling a solid zone as a semi-transparent medium allows you to obtain a detailed temperature distribution inside the semi-transparent zone since ANSYS FLUENT solves the energy equation on a per-cell basis for the solid and provides you with the thermal results.Heat Transfer Limitations Where shell conduction is not active. where possible.3-55. By default however. you will need to specify the solid zone as participating in radiation in the Solid dialog box as part of the boundary condition setup. it is advisable to represent the solid wall thickness explicitly with one or more layers of cells across the wall thickness. Iw (sr ) = Iw (s) (5. 2009 . This is done by designating the solid zone to participate in radiation as part of the boundary condition setup. there is only limited support for absorbing and emitting semi-transparent thin walls. In cases with signiﬁcant emission or absorption of radiation in a participating solid material. Inc. the use of semi-transparent thin walls can result in the prediction of unphysical temperatures in the numerical solution. 5-42 Release 12. Furthermore.0 c ANSYS. Solid Semi-Transparent Media The discrete ordinates radiation model allows you to model a solid zone that has adjacent ﬂuid or solid zones on either side as a “semi-transparent” medium.5: Boundary Condition Treatment for the DTRM at Flow Inlets and Exits. but not in any solid zones. it is important to use pixelation in order to ensure that radiant energy is correctly transferred between the periodic and shadow faces.

The reﬂected energy ﬂux is dependent on the incident energy ﬂux from the surroundings. Emissivity and absorptivity of a gray surface are independent of the wavelength. a fraction (αE) is absorbed. that α + ρ = 1. Release 12. January 29. k is the emissivity. which then can be expressed in terms of the energy ﬂux leaving all other surfaces. since α = (emissivity). for applications of interest. Thus. Since for most applications the surfaces in question are opaque to thermal radiation (in the infrared spectrum).3.3: Setting Up the S2S Model in the separate User’s Guide. The gray-diﬀuse model is what is used in ANSYS FLUENT.0 c ANSYS. For information about setting up the model. only “surface-to-surface” radiation need be considered for analysis. from the conservation of energy. The transmissivity. the reﬂectivity is independent of the outgoing (or incoming) directions. as stated earlier. the exchange of radiative energy between surfaces is virtually unaﬀected by the medium that separates them. and a fraction (τ E) is transmitted. σ is Boltzmann’s constant. by Kirchoﬀ’s law [234]. or scattering of radiation can be ignored. Also. The energy reﬂected from surface k is qout. The S2S Model Equations The energy ﬂux leaving a given surface is composed of directly emitted and reﬂected energy. and ρ = 1 − . 2009 5-43 .k = 4 k σTk + ρk qin. and orientation. Gray-Diffuse Radiation ANSYS FLUENT’s S2S radiation model assumes the surfaces to be gray and diﬀuse. separation distance. Also.k (5. therefore.k is the energy ﬂux leaving the surface. the surfaces can be considered opaque. emission. the emissivity equals the absorptivity ( = α). and qin. For a diﬀuse surface.5. a fraction (ρE) is reﬂected. according to the gray-body model. see Section 13. can be neglected. The energy exchange between two surfaces depends in part on their size. These parameters are accounted for by a geometric function called a “view factor”.3-70) where qout. if a certain amount of radiant energy (E) is incident on a surface. Inc.3 Modeling Radiation 5. It follows. The main assumption of the S2S model is that any absorption.7 Surface-to-Surface (S2S) Radiation Model Theory The surface-to-surface radiation model can be used to account for the radiation exchange in an enclosure of gray-diﬀuse surfaces.3.k is the energy ﬂux incident on the surface from the surroundings. therefore.

j (5.3-76) where K is an N × N matrix.k can be expressed in terms of the energy ﬂux leaving all other surfaces as N Ak qin. The view factor Fjk is the fraction of energy leaving surface k that is incident on surface j. The incident energy ﬂux qin. For N surfaces. Inc. and Ek represents the emissive power of surface k. . 2. and E is the emissive power vector. using the view factor reciprocity relationship gives Aj Fjk = Ak Fkj for j = 1.k = which can be written as Fkj qout. 3.Heat Transfer The amount of incident energy upon a surface from another surface is a direct function of the surface-to-surface “view factor. .j (5.3-73) Therefore.3-72) qin.k = j=1 Fkj qout. J is the radiosity vector.3-71) where Ak is the area of surface k and Fjk is the view factor between surface k and surface j. N so that N (5.0 c ANSYS. 5-44 Release 12.k = j=1 Aj qout. January 29. . which can be recast into matrix form as KJ = E (5.3-74) N Jk = Ek + ρk j=1 Fkj Jj (5. N 4 k σTk + ρk j=1 qout.” Fjk . 2009 .3-75) where Jk represents the energy that is given oﬀ (or radiosity) of surface k.j Fjk (5. This represents N equations.

care must be taken to calculate the average temperature of the surface clusters and distribute the ﬂux and source terms appropriately among the faces forming the clusters. This algorithm is now the default. The summation is carried over all faces of a surface cluster. Release 12. J. Clustering The S2S radiation model is computationally very expensive when there is a large number of radiating surfaces. If you wish to use the old algorithm.5. The radiosity. Inc. you may use the TUI command but adaption and non-conformal interfaces will not be supported. To reduce the computational time as well as the storage requirement.3 Modeling Radiation Equation 5. Since the radiation source terms are highly non-linear (proportional to the fourth power of temperature).3-78) where Tsc is the temperature of the surface cluster.3-77) Ai Aj where δij is determined by the visibility of dAj to dAi . January 29. δij = 1 if dAj is visible to dAi and 0 otherwise.0 c ANSYS. The surface clusters are made by starting from a face and adding its neighbors and their neighbors until a speciﬁed number of faces per surface cluster is collected. These values are then distributed to the faces in the clusters to calculate the wall temperatures. is calculated for the surface clusters. hanging nodes. The view factor between two ﬁnite surfaces i and j is given by Fij = 1 Ai cos θi cos θj δij dAi dAj πr2 (5. the number of radiating surfaces is reduced by creating surface “clusters”. An algorithm has been implemented for the creation of surface clusters which is faster and supports non-conformal interfaces. The surface cluster temperature is obtained by area averaging as shown in the following equation: f 4 Af Tf Af 1/4 Tsc = (5.3-76 is referred to as the radiosity matrix equation. and Af and Tf are the area and temperature of face f . or mesh adaption. 2009 5-45 .

and s is the path length. Once the reciprocity relationship has been enforced. For a .8 Radiation in Combusting Flows The Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases Model The weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model (WSGGM) is a reasonable compromise between the oversimpliﬁed gray gas model and a complete model which takes into account particular absorption bands. Inc.3-82) 5-46 Release 12.0 = 1 − i=1 a .i (5.0 c ANSYS. The absorption coeﬃcient for i = 0 is assigned a value of zero to account for windows in the spectrum between spectral regions of high absorption ( I a .Heat Transfer Smoothing Smoothing can be performed on the view factor matrix to enforce the reciprocity relationship and conservation.3-87). These values depend on gas composition.. Fij is the view factor between surfaces i and j. January 29.i (T )(1 − e−κi ps ) (5. The basic assumption of the WSGGM is that the total emissivity over the distance s can be presented as I = i=0 a .i and κi ANSYS FLUENT uses values obtained from [60] and [326]. i. p is the sum of the partial pressures of all absorbing gases. and a .3-79) where Ai is the area of surface i.i is the emissivity weighting factor for the ith ﬁctitious gray gas.i also depend on temperature. the bracketed quantity is the ith ﬁctitious gray gas emissivity. a least-squares smoothing method [175] can be used to ensure that conservation is satisﬁed. Fij = 1.0 (5.i < 1) and the weighti=1 ing factor for i = 0 is evaluated from [326]: I a . The reciprocity relationship is represented by Ai Fij = Aj Fji (5. 2009 .e. κi is the absorption coeﬃcient of the ith gray gas.3. and Fji is the view factor between surfaces j and i.3-80) 5.3-81) where a . When the total pressure is not equal to 1 atm. scaling rules for κi are used (see Equation 5.

3-85) which does not depend on s.i.3-86) where the emissivity for the WSGGM is computed using Equation 5. but. Release 12. a is estimated as a=− ln(1 − ) s (5.j T j−1 (5.3-81 simpliﬁes to I = i=0 a . If κi ps 1 for all i.3-86 are practically identical (since Equation 5. to simplify the problem. January 29.0 atm-m and 600 ≤ T ≤ 2400 K. Equation 5.3-86 depends on s. The values of the coeﬃcients shown in [326] are valid for 0.3-83) where b . the values of a predicted by Equations 5. 326].3-85 in the limit of small s).001 ≤ ps ≤ 10. In the general case.i = j=1 b . This assumption is justiﬁed unless the medium is optically thin and the wall temperature diﬀers considerably from the gas temperature.j and κi are estimated by ﬁtting Equation 5. it is assumed that = α [233]. but the most common approximation is J a .i κi p (5.3-86 reduces to Equation 5. Equation 5. For T > 2400 K.3-84 with the gray gas model with absorption coeﬃcient a.3-85 and 5.3 Modeling Radiation The temperature dependence of a .3-86 is used for s > 10−4 m. 70. they can be assumed constant for a wide range of these parameters. a as deﬁned by Equation 5.3-85 is used when s ≤ 10−4 m and Equation 5.j and κi are slowly varying functions of ps and T . 2009 5-47 . In [326] these constant coeﬃcients are presented for diﬀerent relative pressures of the CO2 and H2 O vapor.3-81. assuming that the total pressure pT is 1 atm. reﬂecting the non-gray nature of the absorption of thermal radiation in molecular gases.j are the emissivity gas temperature polynomial coeﬃcients.3-81 to the table of total emissivities. The absorptivity α of the radiation from the wall can be approximated in a similar way [326]. Note that for s ≈ 10−4 m. The coeﬃcients b . it can be seen that the change of the radiation intensity over the distance s in the WSGGM is exactly the same as in the gray gas model with the absorption coeﬃcient I a= i=0 a .i. In ANSYS FLUENT. Since the coeﬃcients b . coeﬃcient values suggested by [60] are used.5.i.3-84) Comparing Equation 5.i κi ps (5.i.i can be approximated by any function. Inc.0 c ANSYS. obtained experimentally [60.

the values for κi in Equations 5. If you do decide to use the WSGGM based on the characteristic cell size. If the WSGGM is used with the non-gray DO model.3-87) where m is a non-dimensional value obtained from [84]. Inc. 2009 .1 atm.3-89) 5-48 Release 12.Heat Transfer ANSYS FLUENT allows you to specify s as the mean beam length or the characteristic cell size. scaling rules suggested in [84] are used to introduce corrections. When ptot = 1 atm The WSGGM. especially when you have a nearly homogeneous medium and you are interested in the radiation exchange between the walls of the enclosure.8. The Effect of Soot on the Absorption Coefﬁcient When soot formation is computed.9 atm or ptot > 1. the absorption coeﬃcient will be the same in all bands. assumes that ptot —the total (static) gas pressure—is equal to 1 atm.. note that the predicted values of a will be mesh dependent (this is a known limitation of the model). as well as on ptot . The model based on the mean beam length is the recommended approach.g.1: Inputs for a CompositionDependent Absorption Coeﬃcient in the separate User’s Guide for details about setting properties for the WSGGM.3-81 and 5. The generalized soot model estimates the eﬀect of the soot on radiative heat transfer by determining an eﬀective absorption coeﬃcient for soot. January 29. The absorption coeﬃcient of a mixture of soot and an absorbing (radiating) gas is then calculated as the sum of the absorption coeﬃcients of pure gas and pure soot: as+g = ag + as (5. ANSYS FLUENT can include the eﬀect of the soot concentration on the radiation absorption coeﬃcient. i The WSGGM cannot be used to specify the absorption coeﬃcient in each band when using the non-gray DO model. which depends on the partial pressures and temperature T of the absorbing gases. See Section 8. combustion at high temperatures). When ptot < 0. You can specify the mean beam length or have ANSYS FLUENT compute it.0 c ANSYS.3-85 are rescaled: κi → κi pm tot (5. In cases where ptot is not unity (e. as described above.3-88) where ag is the absorption coeﬃcient of gas without soot (obtained from the WSGGM) and as = b1 ρm [1 + bT (T − 2000)] (5.

See Section 8. For optically thin problems (aL < 1). provided that you are using either the P-1 or the DO model.1: Using the Soot Models in the separate User’s Guide for information about including the soot-radiation interaction effects.4 m2 /kg and bT ≈ 4. the Rosseland model is cheaper and more eﬃcient. For ﬂow in a combustor.0 c ANSYS. you should use the “thick-limit” models. are appropriate. P-1 and Rosseland. For high optical thickness cases. Here. When the P-1 or DO model is active. • Scattering and emissivity: The P-1. For optical thickness > 3. radiation absorption by particles can be enabled. The particle emissivity. only. Rosseland. approximation [326]. The coeﬃcients b1 and bT were obtained [302] by ﬁtting Equation 5. Release 12. Inc. The DTRM and the DO model work across the full range of optical thicknesses. your best alternatives are the P-1 and Rosseland models. it is insensitive to wall emissivity.3. but are substantially more expensive to use. The P-1 model should typically be used for optical thicknesses > 1. When deciding which radiation model to use. L is an appropriate length scale for your domain. If aL 1. 5.9 Choosing a Radiation Model For certain problems one radiation model may be more appropriate than the others. for example. 2009 5-49 . if the problem allows it. consider the following: • Optical thickness: The optical thickness aL is a good indicator of which model to use in your problem.3-89 to data based on the Taylor-Foster approximation [348] and data based on the Smith et al. the DTRM and the DO model.5: Setting Material Properties for the Discrete Phase in the separate User’s Guide for more details on the input of radiation properties for the discrete phase. and DO models account for scattering. and scattering eﬀects are then included in the calculation of the radiative heat transfer. reﬂectivity. a second-order discretization scheme for the DO model is recommended. Since the Rosseland model uses a temperature slip condition at walls. Consequently.3.3 Modeling Radiation with b1 = 1232. L is the diameter of the combustion chamber.8: Radiation Properties and Section 21.8 × 10−4 K−1 ρm is the soot density in kg/m3 . The Effect of Particles on the Absorption Coefﬁcient ANSYS FLUENT can also include the eﬀect of discrete phase particles on the radiation absorption coeﬃcient.5. See Section 23. January 29. while the DTRM neglects it.

this boundary condition can be used without activating one of the radiation models.g... January 29.0 c ANSYS. If you are not concerned with radiation within the domain.Heat Transfer • Particulate eﬀects: Only the P-1 and DO models account for exchange of radiation between gas and particulates (see Equation 5. although the DTRM. dusty mirror).g. be used to compute the surface-to-surface radiation. with a suﬃciently large number of rays. you can include an external radiation boundary condition in your model (for details. • Partially-specular walls: Only the DO model allows specular reﬂection (e.3. • Localized heat sources: In problems with localized sources of heat.3-8). • Non-gray radiation: Only the DO model allows you to compute non-gray radiation using a gray band model.g. glass). see Section 7. • Specular walls: Only the DO model allows specular reﬂection (e. in principle. 5-50 Release 12.14: Thermal Boundary Conditions at Walls in the separate User’s Guide). 2009 .. but they are not always eﬃcient. the P-1 model may over-predict the radiative ﬂuxes. • Semi-transparent walls (interior and exterior): Only the DO model allows you to model semi-transparent walls of various types (e. Inc. External Radiation If you need to include radiative heat transfer from the exterior of your physical model. The DO model is probably the best suited for computing radiation for this case. is also acceptable. for dust-free mirror). The radiation models used with participating media may. • Enclosure radiative transfer with non-participating media: The surface-to-surface (S2S) model is suitable for this type of problem.

unlike the macro model. a coolant.2: The Dual Cell Model 6. the auxiliary ﬂuid may be single-phase or two-phase. climate control. namely the simple-eﬀectivenessmodel and the number-of-transfer-units (NTU) model.0 c ANSYS. 2009 6-1 . For more information about using the heat exchanger models. The models can be used to compute auxiliary ﬂuid inlet temperature for a ﬁxed heat rejection or total heat rejection for a ﬁxed auxiliary ﬂuid inlet temperature. The macro model allows you to choose between two heat transfer models. referred to here as the auxiliary ﬂuid. However. see Section 14: Modeling Heat Exchangers in the separate User’s Guide. lumped-parameter models are used to account for the pressure loss and auxiliary ﬂuid heat rejection.1. including power plants. and overcomes some of the major limitations present in the macro model. This model allows the solution of auxiliary ﬂow on a separate mesh (other than the primary ﬂuid mesh). Inc.2: Macro Heat Exchanger Model Theory Release 12.1: The Macro Heat Exchanger Models • Section 6.1 The Macro Heat Exchanger Models The following sections contain information about the theory behind the macro heat exchanger models: • Section 6. In principle. January 29. In ANSYS FLUENT. where the auxiliary ﬂow is modeled as 1-D ﬂow. and engine cooling systems typically contain tubular heat exchangers. Heat Exchangers Many engineering systems. ANSYS FLUENT provides two heat exchanger models: the macro (ungrouped and grouped) models and the dual cell model.1: Overview and Restrictions of the Macro Heat Exchanger Models • Section 6. The dual cell model uses the NTU method for heat transfer calculations.1. For the simple-eﬀectiveness-model. The dual cell model also oﬀers more ﬂexibility as far as the shape of the heat exchanger is concerned. heat exchanger cores introduce a pressure drop to the primary ﬂuid stream and transfer heat to a second ﬂuid.Chapter 6. for most engineering problems. The following sections contain information about the theory behind the heat exchanger models: • Section 6. it is impractical to model individual ﬁns and tubes of a heat exchanger core.

which can optionally double back in a serpentine pattern to create a number of “passes”. see Section 14. 2009 . This approach provides a realistic heat rejection distribution over the heat exchanger core.1 Overview and Restrictions of the Macro Heat Exchanger Models Overview In a typical heat exchanger core. each pass having four rows and three columns of macros. Instead. As part of the setup procedure. heat rejection is not constant over the entire core. as in Figure 6. In this ﬁgure. You can also combine several ﬂuid zones as a single heat exchanger group.Heat Exchangers 6. you will deﬁne the auxiliary ﬂuid path. and the physical properties and operating conditions of the core (pressure drop parameters. i It is highly recommended that the free-form Tet mesh is not used in the macro heat exchanger model. The heat exchanger models were designed for “compact” heat exchangers. The auxiliary ﬂuid is assumed to ﬂow through a large number of parallel tubes. 6-2 Release 12. a heat exchanger group can have an auxiliary ﬂuid pressure drop (e. In ANSYS FLUENT. To use the heat exchanger models.0 c ANSYS. the core is discretized into 3×4×2 macros. January 29. You can independently choose the principal auxiliary ﬂuid ﬂow direction. As a result. the ﬂuid zone representing the heat exchanger core is subdivided into macroscopic cells or macros along the auxiliary ﬂuid path. implying that the primary ﬂuid side ﬂow is unidirectional. The auxiliary ﬂuid inlet temperature to each macro is computed and then subsequently used to compute the heat rejection from each macro. you must deﬁne one or more ﬂuid zone(s) to represent the heat exchanger core. the number of macros. For more information on heat exchanger groups. In addition.1. the auxiliary ﬂuid temperature is stratiﬁed in the direction of the auxiliary ﬂuid ﬂow. In this situation each ﬂuid zone acts as a separate heat exchanger core.4: Using the Grouped Macro Heat Exchanger Model. heat exchanger eﬀectiveness..g. Inc. evenly distributed Hex/Wedge cells should be used for improved accuracy and a more robust solution process. heat exchanger groups can also be connected in series. etc. the ﬂuid zone is sized to the dimension of the core itself.1.1. the pass-to-pass direction and the external primary ﬂuid ﬂow direction. for pressure dependent properties) and a supplementary auxiliary ﬂuid stream entering or leaving it. For the purpose of auxiliary ﬂuid ﬂow. and the auxiliary ﬂuid mass ﬂow rate of the heat exchanger group is divided among the zones in the ratio of the respective volumes. This conﬁguration consists of 2 passes. Typically. auxiliary ﬂuid ﬂow rate.).

6. January 29.1: Core Discretized Into 3 × 4×2 Macros Release 12. Inc.1. 2009 6-3 .0 c ANSYS.1 The Macro Heat Exchanger Models Coolant Passage Macro 0 Macro 1 Macro 2 Macro 21 Macro 2 2 Macro 23 Macro 3 Macro 4 Macro 5 Macro 18 Macro 19 Macro 20 Macro 6 Macro 7 Macro 8 Macro 15 Macro 16 Macro 17 Macro 9 Macro 10 Macro 11 Macro 12 Macro 13 Macro 14 Figure 6.

and heat transfer is modeled as a heat source in the energy equation. from the NTU value that is calculated by ANSYS FLUENT from the heat transfer data provided by the user in tabular format. • Accuracy is not guaranteed when the mesh is not structured or layered.Heat Exchangers Restrictions The following restrictions exist for the macro heat exchanger models: • The core must be approximately rectangular in shape. An extra layer has to be created to avoid it. Inc. • The pass width has to be uniform. For the ntu-model. Pressure loss is modeled as a momentum sink in the momentum equation. • Flow acceleration eﬀects are neglected in calculating the pressure loss coeﬃcient. January 29. • Auxiliary ﬂuid phase change cannot be modeled using the ntu-model. • For the simple-eﬀectiveness-model. 6-4 Release 12. • Auxiliary ﬂuid ﬂow is assumed to be 1-D. ANSYS FLUENT provides two heat transfer models: the default ntu-model and the simpleeﬀectiveness-model. • Accuracy is not guaranteed when there is upstream diﬀusion of temperature at the inlet/outlet of the core. the heat exchanger core is treated as a ﬂuid zone with momentum and heat transfer.1-1) must be aligned with one of the three orthogonal axes deﬁned by the rectangular core. • The macro-based method requires that an equal number of cells reside in each macro of equal size and shape. ANSYS FLUENT will automatically convert this heat transfer data to a primary ﬂuid mass ﬂow rate vs NTU curve (this curve will be piecewise linear).1. • Non-conformal meshes cannot be attached to the inlet/outlet of the core. . The simple-eﬀectiveness-model interpolates the eﬀectiveness from the velocity vs eﬀectiveness curve that you provide. • The primary ﬂuid streamwise direction (see Equation 6. ANSYS FLUENT calculates the eﬀectiveness. 6. the primary ﬂuid capacity rate must be less than the auxiliary ﬂuid capacity rate.0 c ANSYS.2 Macro Heat Exchanger Model Theory In ANSYS FLUENT. 2009 . This curve will be used by ANSYS FLUENT to calculate the NTU for macros based on their size and primary ﬂuid ﬂow rate.

January 29. • Transient proﬁles can be used for the auxiliary ﬂuid inlet temperature and for total heat rejection.0 c ANSYS. The simple-eﬀectiveness-model provides the following features: • The model can be used to model heat transfer from the auxiliary ﬂuid to the primary ﬂuid. • The model can be used by serial as well as parallel solvers. • Transient proﬁles can be used for auxiliary mass ﬂow rates. and takes the lesser of the two for the calculation of heat transfer. Inc. Release 12. • The model can be used to make a network of heat exchangers using a heat exchanger group (Section 14. • The model can be used to model primary ﬂuid-side reverse ﬂow. thus allowing phase change of the auxiliary ﬂuid. • The auxiliary ﬂuid properties can be a function of pressure and temperature. • Transient proﬁles can be used for the auxiliary ﬂuid inlet temperature and for total heat rejection. • Transient proﬁles can be used for auxiliary mass ﬂow rates. • The model can be used with variable density of the primary ﬂuid. • The model can be used in either the serial or parallel ANSYS FLUENT solvers. • The model can be used to model heat transfer to the primary ﬂuid from the auxiliary ﬂuid and vice versa.1 The Macro Heat Exchanger Models The ntu-model provides the following features: • The model can be used to check the heat capacity for both the primary and the auxiliary ﬂuid.6. 2009 6-5 .4: Using the Grouped Macro Heat Exchanger Model).

the theory of which is deﬁned below: 1 2 ∆p = f ρm UAmin 2 where ∆p f ρm UAmin = streamwise pressure drop = streamwise pressure loss coeﬃcient = mean primary ﬂuid density = primary ﬂuid velocity at the minimum ﬂow area (6. Inc.0 c ANSYS. it is used only for the primary side. For the dual cell model (Section 6. which you will specify for the cell zone conditions.1-1) The pressure loss coeﬃcient is computed from f = (Kc + 1 − σ 2 ) − (1 − σ 2 − Ke ) where σ Kc Ke A Ac fc νe νi νm = = = = = = = = = minimum ﬂow to face area ratio entrance loss coeﬃcient exit loss coeﬃcient primary ﬂuid-side surface area minimum cross-sectional ﬂow area core friction factor speciﬁc volume at the exit speciﬁc volume at the inlet mean speciﬁc volume ≡ 1 (νe + νi ) 2 νe νe A νm +2 − 1 + fc νi νi Ac νi (6. 2009 . The loss coeﬃcients of the porous media model are computed using curve ﬁtting of the pressure-versus-ﬂow rate data outside of ANSYS FLUENT. while for the macro model.2: The Dual Cell Model). the data for curve-ﬁtting is not available. January 29. The coeﬃcients can also be automatically computed (and updated) using a known pressure loss coeﬃcient as a function of some geometric parameters. The macro model provides an additional means of getting the coeﬃcients if the data is not available.1-2) 6-6 Release 12. in some cases.Heat Exchangers Streamwise Pressure Drop In both heat transfer models. pressure loss is modeled using the porous media model in ANSYS FLUENT. However. pressure loss is used for both streams.

1-4) For a heat exchanger core. the core friction factor is deﬁned as fc = aReb min where a b Remin = core friction coeﬃcient = core friction exponent = Reynolds number for velocity at the minimum ﬂow area (6. You will need to specify the core friction coeﬃcient and exponent based on graphs that are closest to the heat exchanger models that you set up [160]. [158]. January 29. In Equation 6.1 The Macro Heat Exchanger Models Kc and Ke are empirical quantities obtained from experimental data.1-3) a and b are empirical quantities obtained from experimental data.1-6) where U is the primary ﬂuid velocity and σ is the minimum ﬂow to face area ratio.1-2. Note that UAmin can be calculated from UAmin = U σ (6. eﬀectively forcing the primary ﬂuid ﬂow through the core to be unidirectional.1-3 is deﬁned as Remin = where ρm µm Dh UAmin = mean primary ﬂuid density = mean primary ﬂuid viscosity = hydraulic diameter = primary ﬂuid velocity at the minimum ﬂow area ρm UAmin Dh µm (6. You will need to specify these parameters based on graphs that are closest to the heat exchanger conﬁguration that you are setting up [160]. If the tubes are normal to the primary ﬂuid ﬂow. The Reynolds number in Equation 6. Inc.6.1-5) where L is the ﬂow length of the heat exchanger.0 c ANSYS. the hydraulic diameter can be deﬁned as Dh = 4L Ac A (6. 2009 6-7 . These parameters are used to set up large resistances in the two non-streamwise directions. [158]. Release 12. then L is the length in the primary ﬂuid ﬂow direction.

Heat Exchangers Heat Transfer Effectiveness For the simple-eﬀectiveness-model. For a core with a strong primary ﬂow variation. 1 0.22 0. For the ntu-model. q. is scaled for each macro using the ratio of their volumes and minimum heat capacities. January 29.hot − Tin.78 Ntu (1 − e−Cr Ntu ) Cr (6. . the heat-exchanger eﬀectiveness.cold ) where Tin. Even though the eﬀectiveness of the primary ﬂuid is computed using uniform conditions on the entire heat exchanger core.). For each macro. given the heat exchanger performance data (total heat rejection versus primary ﬂow rate) based on uniform test conditions.cold are the inlet temperatures of the hot and cold ﬂuids and Cmin = min[(mcp )hot . the primary ﬂuid inlet temperature is calculated using the mass average of the incoming primary ﬂuid temperatures at the boundaries. it is being applied to a small portion of the core represented by a computational cell.1-8) (6. which is based on the full heat exchanger and uniform conditions. 2009 .cold ) (6. This can make it less accurate for some heat exchanger cores. is deﬁned as the ratio of actual rate of heat transfer from the hot to cold ﬂuid to the maximum possible rate of heat transfer. cross ﬂow. etc. The maximum possible heat transfer is given by qmax = Cmin (Tin. The heat exchanger performance data should be speciﬁed for a number of auxiliary ﬂow rates so that ANSYS FLUENT can compute the number of transfer units versus the primary ﬂuid ﬂow rate for a number of auxiliary ﬂuid ﬂow rates. counter ﬂow. This automatically takes into account any reverse ﬂow of the primary ﬂuid at the boundaries.hot − Tin.1-10) 6-8 Release 12. (mcp )cold ] ˙ ˙ Thus. is deﬁned as q = Cmin (Tin. This NTU. the actual rate of heat transfer.hot and Tin. where there is a strong variation in the primary ﬂow. Inc.0 c ANSYS. the NTU model must be used.1-7) The value of depends on the heat exchanger geometry and ﬂow pattern (parallel ﬂow.1-9) (6. ANSYS FLUENT calculates the eﬀectiveness of the entire heat exchanger from the ratio of heat capacity and the number of transfer units using the relation = 1 − exp − where Cr is the ratio of Cmin to Cmax .

auxiliary Tcell = = = = heat exchanger eﬀectiveness primary ﬂuid capacity rate (ﬂow rate × speciﬁc heat) auxiliary ﬂuid inlet temperature of macro containing the cell cell temperature (6.auxiliary − Tin.1-14) Release 12.0 c ANSYS.1-11) For the simple-eﬀectiveness-model. For the simple-eﬀectiveness-model. the heat rejection from a macro is calculated by summing the heat transfer of all the cells contained within the macro qmacro = all cells in macro qcell (6. January 29. the heat transfer for a macro is calculated from qmacro = Cmin (Tin.1-13) For the ntu-model. Note that heat rejection from the auxiliary ﬂuid to primary ﬂuid can be either positive or negative.1 The Macro Heat Exchanger Models Heat Rejection Heat rejection is computed for each cell within a macro and added as a source term to the energy equation for the primary ﬂuid ﬂow.primary = macro eﬀectiveness = macro auxiliary ﬂuid inlet temperature = macro primary ﬂuid inlet temperature (6. Inc. the heat transfer for a given cell is computed from qcell = qmacro Vcell Vmacro (6.auxiliary − Tcell ) ˙ where (mcp )g ˙ Tin.1-12) For the ntu-model.primary ) where Tin.auxiliary Tin. 2009 6-9 . the heat transfer for a given cell is computed from qcell = (mcp )g (Tin.6.

which becomes the inlet condition for the next row macros. 2009 .0 c ANSYS. Inc.auxiliary constant speciﬁc heat method (6.1. 6-10 Release 12. and 2 in Figure 6. qmacro = (m)auxiliary (hout − hin ) ˙ (6. 1.Heat Exchangers For both heat exchanger models.auxiliary in Equations 6. the inlet temperature to the ﬁrst row of macros is iteratively computed. At the end of each pass. When the ﬁxed total heat rejection from the heat exchanger core is speciﬁed. the outlet enthalpy of each macro (in the last row) is mass averaged to obtain the inlet condition for the next pass macros. p) UDF method where f p = user-deﬁned function = auxiliary ﬂuid pressure The values of hout and Tout then become the inlet conditions to the next macro.1-16) where hin and hout are the inlet and outlet enthalpies of the auxiliary ﬂuid in the macro. The auxiliary ﬂuid outlet temperature from the macro is calculated as hout cp. the heat transfer for the ﬁrst row of macros are used to calculate their exit enthalpy.1-17) Tout = f (hout . January 29. When a ﬁxed auxiliary ﬂuid inlet temperature is speciﬁed.1) are assumed to be where the auxiliary ﬂuid enters the heat exchanger core. For a given macro.1-11 and 6. so that all of the equations are satisﬁed simultaneously.1-15) The auxiliary ﬂuid inlet temperature to each macro (Tin. the total heat rejection from the heat exchanger core is computed as the sum of the heat rejection from all the macros: qtotal = all macros qmacro (6. The ﬁrst row of macros (Macros 0.1-13) is computed based on the energy balance of the auxiliary ﬂuid at a previous macro computation.

p.1-20) where p is the absolute pressure and x is the quality (mass fraction of vapor) of a twophase vapor-liquid mixture. and the outlet auxiliary ﬂuid enthalpy is calculated on a massaveraged basis: ¯ h= i mi hi ˙ ˙ i mi (6. 2009 6-11 . When pressure-dependent auxiliary ﬂuid properties are used.1-18) where mi is the total auxiliary mass ﬂow rate for the heat exchanger group. Thus. the mean pressure within each macro is calculated and passed to the user-deﬁned function as pj = pin + j + ¯ where j pin ∆p N = = = = macro row index inlet auxiliary ﬂuid pressure overall pressure drop across a heat exchanger group number of rows per pass × number of passes. Release 12.0 c ANSYS.1-19) With user-deﬁned functions. after taking into account any auxiliary stream eﬀects. In this case. the auxiliary ﬂuid inlet mass ﬂow rate is automatically apportioned to each zone in the group as follows: k i mi = ˙ Vi. Vi. a single heat exchanger may be consist of multiple ﬂuid zones.k m ˙ k Vi. the auxiliary ﬂuid ﬂows through each macro in series as usual.k refers ˙ to the volume of the kth ﬁnite volume cell within the ith ﬂuid zone.4: Using the Grouped Macro Heat Exchanger Model in the separate User’s Guide. Inc. the parallel auxiliary ﬂuid streams through the individual zones are recombined. 1 ∆p 2 N (6. the simple-eﬀectiveness-model allows you to simulate twophase auxiliary ﬂuid ﬂows and other complex auxiliary ﬂuid enthalpy relationships of the form h = h(T.1-21) To learn how to use the macro heat exchanger models. x) (6.1 The Macro Heat Exchanger Models Macro Heat Exchanger Group Connectivity If the optional macro heat exchanger group is used. At the outlet end of the group. refer to Section 14. the auxiliary ﬂuid is assumed to ﬂow through these zones in parallel. Within each zone.k (6.3: Using the Ungrouped Macro Heat Exchanger Model and Section 14. January 29.6.

2. the mesh should be uniform and structured. Moreover. • In the case of a heat exchanger core with non-matching meshes.2 The Dual Cell Model The following sections contain information about the theory behind the dual cell heat exchanger model: • Section 6. many practical heat exchangers have a non-rectangular core and the auxiliary ﬂuid. may pass through arbitrary shaped inlet tanks.2. where the pass-to-pass is perpendicular to the primary ﬂow direction and the auxiliary ﬂow is uniform. This will require hooking a UDF. 6-12 Release 12.0 c ANSYS. • Multipass heat exchangers cannot be modeled. which make them highly nonuniform.1 Overview and Restrictions of the Dual Cell Model Overview The Macro Model is quite suitable for thin rectangular heat exchanger cores.2. However. the total cell count for the primary and auxiliary core should approximately be the same. This model allows the solution of both the primary and auxiliary ﬂow on separate co-located meshes and couples the two ﬂows only through heat transfer at the heat exchanger core.Heat Exchangers 6. January 29. Inc. 2009 .1: Overview and Restrictions of the Dual Cell Model • Section 6. These shortcomings of the macro model can be easily overcome by using the dual cell heat exchanger model.2: Dual Cell Model Theory 6. It is quite possible that due to the complex shape of the core and or ease of meshing. before reaching the core. Restrictions The following restrictions exist for the dual cell heat exchanger models: • Heat transfer calculations are based on the NTU method only. the structured mesh may not be the obvious choice.

2-1) and for counter ﬂow. (1 − ) 1 ln (Cr − 1) (1 − Cr ) is the eﬀectiveness. the following equation is used: N T UCr =1 = Otherwise. auxiliary zone cell and vice versa. where heat transfer takes place.6. a primary zone cell exchanges heat with one. The common region in each zone.1. represents the heat exchanger core. (6. namely a primary zone and an auxiliary zone. In other words.1-10. as shown in Figure 6. the NTU values are calculated as in Equation 6. The cores for both primary and auxiliary zones occupy the same physical space. The equation is solved iteratively using the Newton-Raphson.2-2) 1− NTU = (6. Inc. January 29. Therefore. Heat transfer calculations in the dual cell model are based on the NTU method.2 Dual Cell Model Theory The dual cell heat exchanger consists of two porous ﬂuid zones. NTU Relations In a cross-ﬂow pattern. if one of the core (say primary) mesh is too coarse or ﬁne relative to the other core (say auxiliary) conservation of heat transfer is not ensured. For parallel ﬂow.2. the NTU value is calculated as follows: NTU = −ln(1 − − Cr ) (Cr + 1) (6.0 c ANSYS.2. Heat transfer occurs between cells in close proximity based on the cell centroid. and only one. The two zones are solved simultaneously and are coupled only through heat transfer. 2009 6-13 . The cells in the two cores should overlap completely in the physical space to ensure conservative heat transfer.2-3) where Cr is the heat capacity ratio and Release 12.2 The Dual Cell Model 6.

2009 . Inc.0 c ANSYS.1: Core with Matching Quad Meshes for Primary and Auxiliary Zones in a Cross-Flow Pattern 6-14 Release 12. January 29.2.Heat Exchangers Figure 6.

P Ainlet. 2009 6-15 .2-5) Cmin.2-4) mscaled.2 The Dual Cell Model Heat Rejection Heat rejection is computed for each cell in the two cores (primary and auxiliary) and added as a source term to the energy equation for the respective ﬂows.A = ρcell.2.P = ρcell. Inc.2 and the following equations: Figure 6.P ˙ (6.2. This is illustrated in Figure 6.0 c ANSYS.cell mscale )|P . January 29.A Ainlet.6.A ˙ (6.2-6) Release 12. (Cp.2: Core with Primary and Auxiliary Zones with Possible Overlap of Cells mscaled.A Vcell.P Vcell.scaled = min[(Cp.cell mscale )|A ] ˙ ˙ (6.

P . or it can be calculated using the supplied raw data and the eﬀectiveness-NTU relation that you specify.A )]bilinearinterpolation ˙ ˙ (6.scaled = = = = = (6.2-7) (U A)scaled = N T Uscaled Cmin. Inc. mscaled.P ) V olumecell (6.5: Using the Dual Cell Heat Exchanger Model in the separate User’s Guide. refer to Section 14.0 c ANSYS.scaled (U A)scaled (Tcell.A − Tcell. January 29.2-9) auxiliary cell temperature primary cell temperature overall heat transfer coeﬃcient total heat transfer area scaled minimum heat capacity rate You can supply the NTU values. To learn how to use the dual cell heat exchanges model. 6-16 Release 12.P U A Cmin. 2009 .2-8) dq = qcell = where Tcell.A Tcell.Heat Exchangers N T Uscaled = [N T Uf ull (mscaled.

with reactions occurring in the bulk phase (volumetric reactions) and/or on wall or particle surfaces. Note that you may also want to consider modeling your turbulent reacting ﬂame using the mixture fraction approach (for non-premixed systems. see Chapter 15: Modeling Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry in the separate User’s Guide. diﬀusion. both with and without reactions. the partially premixed approach (described in Chapter 10: Partially Premixed Combustion). the reaction progress variable approach (for premixed systems.2: Wall Surface Reactions and Chemical Vapor Deposition • Section 7. Additional information can be found in the following sections: • Section 7.1 Volumetric Reactions Theoretical information about species transport and ﬁnite-rate chemistry as related to volumetric reactions is presented in this section. described in Chapter 8: NonPremixed Combustion). Information is divided into the following sections: • Section 7.2: The Generalized Finite-Rate Formulation for Reaction Modeling For more information about using species transport and ﬁnite-rate chemistry as related to volumetric reactions. described in Chapter 9: Premixed Combustion). Modeling multiphase species transport and ﬁnite-rate chemistry can be found in Chapter 16: Multiphase Flows. or the composition PDF Transport approach (described in Chapter 11: Composition PDF Transport). Release 12.0 c ANSYS. 7.1. are described in this chapter. and in the porous region.1: Volumetric Reactions in the separate User’s Guide. Multiple simultaneous chemical reactions can be modeled. Species transport modeling capabilities.1: Species Transport Equations • Section 7.1: Volumetric Reactions • Section 7.1. 2009 7-1 . Inc. January 29. Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry ANSYS FLUENT can model the mixing and transport of chemical species by solving conservation equations describing convection.3: Particle Surface Reactions For more information about using these models in ANSYS FLUENT. see Section 15. and reaction sources for each component species.Chapter 7.

Since the mass fraction of the species must sum to unity.1.Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry 7. ANSYS FLUENT uses the dilute approximation (also called Fick’s law) to model mass diﬀusion due to concentration gradients. the Maxwell-Stefan equations can be solved. under which the diﬀusion ﬂux can be written as Ji = −ρDi. Yi . To minimize numerical error. By default. and full multicomponent diﬀusion is required. Mass Diffusion in Laminar Flows In Equation 7. Ji is the diﬀusion ﬂux of species i.1 Species Transport Equations When you choose to solve conservation equations for chemical species. Inc.0 c ANSYS. the N th species should be selected as that species with the overall largest mass fraction.i T T (7. and DT.1-1) where Ri is the net rate of production of species i by chemical reaction (described later in this section) and Si is the rate of creation by addition from the dispersed phase plus any user-deﬁned sources. In such cases. such as N2 when the oxidizer is air.9.m Yi − DT. For certain laminar ﬂows. through the solution of a convectiondiﬀusion equation for the ith species. 2009 .m is the mass diﬀusion coeﬃcient for species i in the mixture. which arises due to gradients of concentration and temperature. 7-2 Release 12. the dilute approximation may not be acceptable.i is the thermal (Soret) diﬀusion coeﬃcient. the N th mass fraction is determined as one minus the sum of the N − 1 solved mass fractions.1-1. ANSYS FLUENT predicts the local mass fraction of each species.1-2) Here Di. January 29. An equation of this form will be solved for N − 1 species where N is the total number of ﬂuid phase chemical species present in the system. This conservation equation takes the following general form: ∂ (ρYi ) + ∂t · (ρvYi ) = − · Ji + R i + Si (7. see Section 8.2: Full Multicomponent Diﬀusion in the separate User’s Guide for details.

In particular.) The convection component is ﬁxed by the inlet species mass fraction speciﬁed by you.m + µt Sct Yi − DT. The diﬀusion component.0 c ANSYS. k is the thermal conductivity.1-4. For information about specifying the net inlet transport of species. Release 12.7. The default Sct is 0. Treatment of Species Transport in the Energy Equation For many multicomponent mixing ﬂows.m (7. and the speciﬁcation of detailed laminar diﬀusion properties in turbulent ﬂows is generally not necessary.5: Deﬁning Cell Zone and Boundary Conditions for Species in the separate User’s Guide.1-4) for any species is far from unity.1 Volumetric Reactions Mass Diffusion in Turbulent Flows In turbulent ﬂows.7. Note that turbulent diﬀusion generally overwhelms laminar diﬀusion. January 29. Thus the diﬀusion component (and therefore the net inlet transport) is not speciﬁed a priori. depends on the gradient of the computed species ﬁeld at the inlet. 2009 7-3 . see Section 15.1. ANSYS FLUENT will include this term by default.1-3) µt where Sct is the turbulent Schmidt number ( ρDt where µt is the turbulent viscosity and Dt is the turbulent diﬀusivity). (For the density-based solvers. Inc. In Equation 7. however. only the convection component is included. Diffusion at Inlets For the pressure-based solver in ANSYS FLUENT. neglecting this term can lead to signiﬁcant errors.i T T (7. the transport of enthalpy due to species diﬀusion n · i=1 hi Ji can have a signiﬁcant eﬀect on the enthalpy ﬁeld and should not be neglected. ANSYS FLUENT computes the mass diﬀusion in the following form: Ji = − ρDi. when the Lewis number Lei = k ρcp Di. the net transport of species at inlets consists of both convection and diﬀusion components.

The model is exact for laminar ﬂames. The Laminar Finite-Rate Model The laminar ﬁnite-rate model computes the chemical source terms using Arrhenius expressions. The generalized ﬁnite-rate formulation is suitable for a wide range of applications including laminar or turbulent reaction systems. • Eddy-dissipation-concept (EDC) model: Detailed Arrhenius chemical kinetics can be incorporated in turbulent ﬂames. and ignores the eﬀects of turbulent ﬂuctuations.r Mi i=1 νi.0 c ANSYS. for realistic results. or partially-premixed ﬂames. such as supersonic ﬂames. The net source of chemical species i due to reaction is computed as the sum of the Arrhenius reaction sources over the NR reactions that the species participate in: NR Ri = Mw. by one of three models: • Laminar ﬁnite-rate model: The eﬀect of turbulent ﬂuctuations are ignored.1.r Mi (7.1-6) 7-4 Release 12. The model is computationally cheap. however. • Eddy-dissipation model: Reaction rates are assumed to be controlled by the turbulence. and combustion systems with premixed.i r=1 ˆ Ri.r N kb.1-1 are computed in ANSYS FLUENT. Consider the rth reaction written in general form as follows: N kf. only one or two step heat-release mechanisms should be used.i is the molecular weight of species i and Ri. non-premixed. 2009 .r (7. January 29.Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry 7.r i=1 νi. Note that detailed chemical kinetic calculations are computationally expensive.r is the Arrhenius molar rate of creation/destruction of species i in reaction r. Reaction may occur in the continuous phase at wall surfaces. and reaction rates are determined by Arrhenius kinetic expressions. The laminar model may. Inc.2 The Generalized Finite-Rate Formulation for Reaction Modeling The reaction rates that appear as source terms in Equation 7. for turbulent ﬂows. so expensive Arrhenius chemical kinetic calculations can be avoided.1-5) ˆ where Mw. be acceptable for combustion with relatively slow chemistry and small turbulence-chemistry interaction. but. but is generally inaccurate for turbulent ﬂames due to highly non-linear Arrhenius chemical kinetics.

r kb.r j=1 [Cj.r = molar concentration of species j in reaction r (kgmol/m3 ) = rate exponent for reactant species j in reaction r = rate exponent for product species j in reaction r For a reversible reaction.r j=1 [Cj. For a non-reversible reaction (that is.r in Equation 7.r = Γ νi. Inc.1-5) is given by N ˆ Ri.1-8) Note that the rate exponent for the reverse reaction part in Equation 7. but only species that appear as reactants or products will have non-zero stoichiometric coeﬃcients.r ]νj.1-9) Release 12.r ) (7.r j=1 [Cj.1-6 is valid for both reversible and non-reversible reactions. January 29.1.r (7.r ] (ηj. the Include Backward Reaction button is disabled).r − kb.r kf. This term is given by N Γ= j γj.1-6 are for all chemical species in the system. Hence. The summations in Equation 7. (Reactions in ANSYS FLUENT are non-reversible by default. see Section 15. the backward rate constant.1-8 is always the product species stoichiometric coeﬃcient (νj.r = Γ νi. For information about inputting the stoichiometric coeﬃcients and rate exponents for both global forward (non-reversible) reactions and elementary (reversible) reactions.0 c ANSYS.r Mi kf.r = = = = = = number of chemical species in the system stoichiometric coeﬃcient for reactant i in reaction r stoichiometric coeﬃcient for product i in reaction r symbol denoting species i forward rate constant for reaction r backward rate constant for reaction r Equation 7. the molar rate of creation/destruction of species i in reaction r is given by N N ˆ Ri. 2009 7-5 . Γ represents the net eﬀect of third bodies on the reaction rate.r ηj. species that are not involved will drop out of the equation.1-7) where Cj. kb.r − νi.r ηj.) For non-reversible reactions.3: Inputs for Reaction Deﬁnition in the separate User’s Guide. ˆ the molar rate of creation/destruction of species i in reaction r (Ri.r − νi.r +ηj.r .1 Volumetric Reactions where N νi.r ]ηj.r νi.r kf.r ).r Cj (7.7. is simply omitted.

ANSYS FLUENT does not include third-body eﬀects in the reaction rate calculation. 2009 .r .r is the third-body eﬃciency of the jth species in the rth reaction. By default. You can. ηj. and its components are computed as follows: 0 ∆Sr = R N νi. If the reaction is reversible.r Kr (7.r − νi.1-10) You (or the database) will provide values for νi. however. the backward rate constant for reaction r.r during the problem deﬁnition in ANSYS FLUENT. kb.r − νi. The forward rate constant for reaction r. Er .r . νi. 7-6 Release 12.r . January 29. γj.Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry where γj.r i=1 N Si0 R h0 i RT (7.r .0 c ANSYS.1-14) where Si0 and h0 are the standard-state entropy and standard-state enthalpy (heat of i formation). computed from N 0 0 ∆Sr ∆Hr Kr = exp − R RT patm RT (νi.1-11) where Kr is the equilibrium constant for the rth reaction. Inc.1-13) 0 ∆Hr = RT νi.r i=1 (7.r = kf.r .r . Ar .r ) i=1 (7.1-12) where patm denotes atmospheric pressure (101325 Pa). is computed from the forward rate constant using the following relation: kb. kf.r = Ar T βr e−Er /RT where Ar βr Er R = = = = pre-exponential factor (consistent units) temperature exponent (dimensionless) activation energy for the reaction (J/kgmol) universal gas constant (J/kgmol-K) (7.r − νi. βr . These values are speciﬁed in ANSYS FLUENT as properties of the mixture material. is computed using the Arrhenius expression kf. ηj. The term within the exponential function represents the change in Gibbs free energy. and. opt to include the eﬀect of third-body eﬃciencies if you have data for them. optionally.

If the function F in Equation 7.1-15) (7. In the Troe method. the Troe method [111] and the SRI method [339]. F is given by 2 −1 log pr + c log Fcent log F = 1 + n − d(log pr + c) (7. then this is the Lindemann form.7. There are three methods of representing the rate expressions in this fall-oﬀ region. A “fall-oﬀ” reaction is one in which the temperature and pressure are such that the reaction occurs between Arrhenius high-pressure and low-pressure limits. The simplest one is the Lindemann [198] form. which can include third-body eﬃciencies.1 Volumetric Reactions Pressure-Dependent Reactions ANSYS FLUENT can use one of three methods to represent the rate expression in pressuredependent (or pressure fall-oﬀ) reactions. Inc. ANSYS FLUENT provides two other forms to describe F .1-18) and [M ] is the concentration of the bath gas. Arrhenius rate parameters are required for both the high. The rate coeﬃcients for these two limits are then blended to produce a smooth pressuredependent rate expression. January 29. 2009 7-7 .0 c ANSYS. the parameters for the high-pressure limit (k) and the low-pressure limit (klow ) are as follows: k = AT β e−E/RT klow = Alow T βlow e−Elow /RT The net rate constant at any pressure is then taken to be pr F 1 + pr (7. There are also two other related methods. and thus is no longer solely dependent on temperature.1-16) knet = k where pr is deﬁned as pr = (7.1-19) Release 12. In Arrhenius form.and low-pressure limits.1-17) klow [M ] k (7.1-17 is unity. namely the Troe method and the SRI method. that provide a more accurate description of the fall-oﬀ region.

d.75 − 1. you must also supply the parameters a.1.1-22) (7. the turbulence slowly convects/mixes cold reactants and hot products into the reaction zones. T2 . i Chemical kinetic mechanisms usually contain a wide range of time scales and form a set of highly non-linear. For solution procedure guidelines. stiﬀ coupled equations. In non-premixed ﬂames. 2009 . and e in the F expression.Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry where c = −0. January 29. Inc. In the SRI method. and the overall rate of reaction is controlled by turbulent mixing. the blending function F is approximated as −b −T F = d a exp + exp T c where X= 1 1 + log2 pr X (7.27 log Fcent d = 0.0 c ANSYS. Also. if you have a chemical mechanism in CHEMKIN [161] format. c.67 log Fcent n = 0.7: Solution Procedures for Chemical Mixing and Finite-Rate Chemistry in the separate User’s Guide.1-24) (7.1.14 and Fcent = (1 − α)e−T /T1 + αe−T /T2 + e−T3 /T The parameters α.1-21) (7. where reaction 7-8 Release 12.4 − 0. and T1 are speciﬁed as inputs. turbulence slowly convects/mixes fuel and oxidizer into the reaction zones where they burn quickly. you can import this mechanism into ANSYS FLUENT (see Section 15. see Section 15.1-20) (7. In premixed ﬂames. The Eddy-Dissipation Model Most fuels are fast burning. b.1-23) Te (7.1-25) In addition to the three Arrhenius parameters for the low-pressure limit (klow ) expression. T3 .9: Importing a Volumetric Kinetic Mechanism in CHEMKIN Format in the separate User’s Guide).

and reactions are mixing-limited. 2009 7-9 . In such cases. upstream of the ﬂame stabilizer.1 Volumetric Reactions occurs rapidly. as in the eddy-breakup model of Spalding [333]. the chemical reaction rate is governed by the large-eddy mixing time scale.7.1-26 and 7. In the eddy-dissipation model.R Ri.1-8). is given by the smaller (i.j P (7.1-27. Inc. the eddy-dissipation rate is generally smaller than the Arrhenius rate. ANSYS FLUENT provides the ﬁnite-rate/eddy-dissipation model. Ri.r Mw. k/ .1-26) k N j (7.0 an empirical constant equal to 0. which differ for each reaction. To remedy this. The reason is that multi-step chemical mechanisms are based on Arrhenius rates. and the complex. ANSYS FLUENT provides a turbulence-chemistry interaction model. or two-step (reactant → intermediate.1-27) reaction rates are calculated. chemical kinetic rates can be safely neglected. where both the Arrhenius (Equation 7. intermediate → product) global reactions. limiting value) of the two expressions below: YR Ri.r Mw. these will likely produce incorrect solutions.0 c ANSYS. and often unknown. January 29. Once the ﬂame is ignited.r .r Mw.e. To incorporate multi-step chemical kinetic mechanisms in turbulent ﬂows. In practice. and an ignition source is not required to initiate combustion.5 In Equations 7. called the eddy-dissipation model. This is usually acceptable for non-premixed ﬂames. The net reaction rate is taken as the minimum of these two rates. Release 12. use the EDC model (described below). based on the work of Magnussen and Hjertager [216].r = νi.1-26 and 7.r Mw. and eddy-dissipation (Equations 7. and therefore the model should be used only for one-step (reactant → product). the Arrhenius rate acts as a kinetic “switch”. i Although ANSYS FLUENT allows multi-step reaction mechanisms (number of reactions > 2) with the eddy-dissipation and ﬁnite-rate/eddy-dissipation models.i Aρ min R k νR.i ABρ where YP YR A B is is is is YP νj. preventing reaction before the ﬂame holder.r = νi. the combustion is said to be mixing-limited. The model cannot predict kinetically controlled species such as radicals. R an empirical constant equal to 4. Combustion proceeds whenever turbulence is present (k/ > 0). the reactants will burn as soon as they enter the computational domain.1-27) the mass fraction of any product species. every reaction has the same. P the mass fraction of a particular reactant. but in premixed ﬂames. turbulent rate. The net rate of production of species i due to reaction r..

However. where all product mass fractions are zero. /k in Equations 7. The Eddy-Dissipation Model for LES When the LES turbulence model is used.01.1-27).1-28) where −1 τsgs Sij = subgrid-scale mixing rate (s−1 ) 1 ∂ui = 2 ∂xj + ∂uj = strain rate tensor (s−1 ) ∂xi The Eddy-Dissipation-Concept (EDC) Model The eddy-dissipation-concept (EDC) model is an extension of the eddy-dissipation model to include detailed chemical mechanisms in turbulent ﬂows [215].0 c ANSYS.4082.1377 kinematic viscosity The volume fraction of the ﬁne scales is calculated as ξ ∗ 3 . This is usually suﬃcient to start the reaction. is replaced by the subgrid-scale mixing rate. called the ﬁne scales. you may then have to patch products into the reaction zone to ignite the ﬂame. if you converge a mixing solution ﬁrst. the turbulent mixing rate. see Section 15.7: Ignition in Combustion Simulations in the separate User’s Guide. When you initialize the solution for steady ﬂows. Species are assumed to react in the ﬁne structures over a time scale τ ∗ = Cτ ν 1/2 (7. For details.Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry i The eddy-dissipation model requires products to initiate reaction (see Equation 7.1-29) denotes ﬁne-scale quantities and = = volume fraction constant = 2. January 29. 2009 .1-30) where Cτ is a time scale constant equal to 0. It assumes that reaction occurs in small turbulent structures.1-26 and 7. The length fraction of the ﬁne scales is modeled as [115] ξ ∗ = Cξ where Cξ ν ∗ ν k2 1/4 (7. This is calculated as −1 τsgs = 2Sij Sij (7. 7-10 Release 12. Inc. ANSYS FLUENT sets all species mass fractions to a maximum of the user speciﬁed initial value and 0.1-27.1.

1. the model should be used only when the assumption of fast chemistry is invalid. Wall surface reactions thus create sources and sinks of chemical species in the gas phase. ISAT is very powerful. oﬀering substantial reductions in run-times. such as modeling the slow CO burnout in rapidly quenched ﬂames.3 and 11. the rate of adsorption and desorption is governed by both chemical kinetics and diﬀusion to and from the surface.2. governed by the Arrhenius rates of Equation 7. see Section 15. with initial conditions taken as the current species and temperature in the cell.2 Wall Surface Reactions and Chemical Vapor Deposition In ANSYS FLUENT. Details about the ISAT algorithm may be found in Sections 11. Equation 7. The EDC model can incorporate detailed chemical mechanisms into turbulent reacting ﬂows.3.2 Wall Surface Reactions and Chemical Vapor Deposition For gas-phase reactions. typical mechanisms are invariably stiﬀ and their numerical integration is computationally costly. or the NO conversion in selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR). as well as on the reacting surface.7.2. See Section 19. For guidelines on obtaining a solution using the EDC model.2: Using ISAT Eﬃciently in the separate User’s Guide for details on using ISAT eﬃciently.3.1-1. However. is modeled as ρ(ξ ∗ )2 Ri = ∗ (Yi∗ − Yi ) τ [1 − (ξ ∗ )3 ] where Yi∗ is the ﬁne-scale species mass fraction after reacting over the time τ ∗ . Theoretical information about wall surface reactions and chemical vapor deposition is presented in this section.1: Surface Coverage Reaction Rate Modiﬁcation • Section 7.7: Solution of Stiﬀ Laminar Chemistry Systems in the separate User’s Guide. (7. The source term in the conservation equation for the mean species i. but requires some care. ISAT can accelerate the chemistry calculations by two to three orders of magnitude.1-8.2. January 29.0 c ANSYS. For surface reactions. Information can be found in the following sections: • Section 7. combustion at the ﬁne scales is assumed to occur as a constant pressure reactor. 2009 7-11 .4. Hence.1-31) 7. the reaction rate is deﬁned on a volumetric basis and the rate of creation and destruction of chemical species becomes a source term in the species conservation equations. and are integrated numerically using the ISAT algorithm [277].2: Reaction-Diﬀusion Balance for Surface Chemistry • Section 7. Reactions proceed over the time scale τ ∗ .6.3: Slip Boundary Formulation for Low-Pressure Gas Systems Release 12. Inc.

r .r )Rr r=1 Nrxn i = 1.site = Nrxn (gi. .r .r Bi + i=1 si. Hence.2-5) (bi.2-2) where [ ]wall represents molar concentrations of surface-adsorbed species on the wall. Nb i = 1.r are the stoichiometric coeﬃcients for each product species i. . 2. 7-12 Release 12.r − bi. 2. and si.g. 2009 . respectively. . . 3.r Gi + i=1 i=1 bi.2-4) (7. and Si represent the gas phase species. gi.r Gi + i=1 i=1 bi. but only species involved as reactants or products will have non-zero stoichiometric coeﬃcients. .Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry For more information about using wall surface reactions and chemical vapor deposition.r Si (7. Nb .bulk = ˆ Ri.r . Kr is the overall forward reaction rate constant.r is the rate exponent for the j th site species as reactant in the reaction.r )Rr r=1 Nrxn (si.r [Ci ]wall [Sj ]wall j=1 i=1 Ng Rr = (7. and the surface-adsorbed (or site) species.r ηj. species that are not involved will drop out of the equation. ηi.r − gi.2: Wall Surface Reactions and Chemical Vapor Deposition in the separate User’s Guide. Ng i = 1. and gi. .g.r . .0 c ANSYS.r )Rr r=1 The forward rate constant for reaction r (kf.r Bi + i=1 si.2-1) where Gi .r is the rate exponent for the ith gaseous species as reactant in the reaction and ηj. bi. bi.2-3) (7. 3. Note that ANSYS FLUENT cannot model reversible surface reactions. and Ns are the total numbers of these species.r ) is computed using the Arrhenius expression. From this. . Ns (7.r − si.s. The summations in Equation 7. .s.2-1 are for all chemical species in the system. the bulk (or solid) species. and si. Inc. January 29.r Si gi. . The rate of the rth reaction is Ns ηi. see Section 15.r are the stoichiometric coeﬃcients for each reactant species i.r kf. It is assumed that the reaction rate does not depend on concentrations of the bulk (solid) species. 2. 3. . the net molar rate of production or consumption of each species i is given by ˆ Ri. . Ng . Consider the rth wall surface reaction written in general form as follows: Ng Nb Ns Kr Ng Nb Ns gi.gas = ˆ Ri. Bi .

7. and Er . bi.r and k.r . and Section 15.r .2-7) In Equation 7.1 Surface Coverage Reaction Rate Modiﬁcation ANSYS FLUENT has the option to modify the surface reaction rate as a function of species site coverages. bi. These parameters default to zero for reaction species that are not surface rate modifying.r = Ar T βr e−Er /RT ksite 10Zk ηk.r . In such cases.r Zk /RT (7. si.2. the three surface coverage rate modiﬁcation parameters for specie k in reaction r are ηk.2-8) where [Sk ] is the surface site concentration and ρsite is the surface site density (see Equation 7.2.r . To include the mass transfer eﬀects and model heat release.r (Zk µk. gi.r . Zk = [Sk ]/ρsite (7.2. and is deﬁned as.r .5: Modeling the Heat Release Due to Wall Surface Reactions in the separate User’s Guide 7. January 29.0 c ANSYS. kf.2. µk. Release 12.r = Ar T βr e−Er /RT where Ar βr Er R = = = = pre-exponential factor (consistent units) temperature exponent (dimensionless) activation energy for the reaction (J/kgmol) universal gas constant (J/kgmol-K) (7.3: Including Mass Transfer To Surfaces in Continuity.2 Wall Surface Reactions and Chemical Vapor Deposition kf. 2009 7-13 . βr .r .r .2-13).4: Wall Surface Mass Transfer Eﬀects in the Energy Equation. Ar .r ) e− k.2-6) You (or the database) will provide values for gi. The surface (coverage) site fraction. Inc. refer to Section 15. Zk is the fraction of surface sites covered by specie k. si. the forward rate constant for the rth reaction is evaluated as.2-7. Section 15.

0 c ANSYS.site ∂t i = 1.gas ˙ ∂n ∂ [Si ]wall ˆ = Ri. 3.e. Ng i = 1. . .2-10 are solved for the dependent variables Yi. January 29. . . ρwall Di ∂Yi.1-1.wall is related to concentration by [Gi ]wall = ρwall Yi.2-13) 7-14 Release 12.2. and is deﬁned as [Si ]wall = ρsite Zi where ρsite is the site density and Zi is the site coverage of species i. Inc. the mass ﬂux of each gas specie due to diﬀusion and convection to/from the surface is balanced with its rate of consumption/production on the surface. .2-9 and 7. The eﬀective gas-phase reaction source terms are then available for solution of the gas-phase species transport Equation 7.wall ˆ − mdep Yi. 2. 3.2 Reaction-Diffusion Balance for Surface Chemistry Reactions at surfaces change gas-phase.bulk (7. .2-11) mdep is the net rate of mass deposition or etching as a result of surface reaction. 2.wall = Mw. .2-9) (7. ˙ Nb mdep = ˙ i=1 ˆ Mw. i.wall Mw. (7. 2009 . On reacting surfaces. Ns (7. Equations 7.2-10) The wall mass fraction Yi.i Ri.wall and Zi using a point-by-point coupled Newton solver.2-12) [Si ]wall is the site species concentration at the wall.Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry 7. surface-adsorbed (site) and bulk (solid) species.i Ri.i (7.. .

the ﬂuid ﬂow is in the slip regime and the normally used no-slip boundary conditions for velocity and temperature are no longer valid. 1.3 Slip Boundary Formulation for Low-Pressure Gas Systems Most semiconductor fabrication devices operate far below atmospheric pressure. w and c indicate gas. Maxwell’s models are adopted for these physical phenomena in ANSYS FLUENT for their simplicity and eﬀectiveness. • velocity slip Uw − Ug = 2 − αv ∂U 2 − αv Kn ≈ αv ∂n αv Vg ≡ (V · n)g = Vw λ (Ug − Uc ) δ (7.2-17) (7. Ng αv = i=1 Yi αi (7.0 c ANSYS. Since the mean free path increases as the pressure is lowered. wall and cell-center velocities. U and V represents the velocity component that is parallel and normal to the wall. kB is the Boltzmann constant.2-14) (7.2-15) Here. The Knudsen number.2.2 Wall Surface Reactions and Chemical Vapor Deposition 7. 2009 7-15 . The subscripts g. At such low pressures.2-18) σ = i=1 Yi σi σi is the Lennard-Jones characteristic length of species i.38066 × 10−23 J/K. λ. and deﬁned as the ratio of mean free path to a characteristic length scale of the system.01 < Kn < 0. respectively. the gas-phase velocity at a solid surface diﬀers from the velocity at which the wall moves. typically only a few millitorrs.7. January 29. Inc.1) [28] In the slip regime. the high end of Kn values represents free molecular ﬂow and the low end the continuum regime. denoted Kn. αv is the momentum accommodation coeﬃcient of the gas mixture and its value is calculated as massfraction weighted average of each gas species in the system. The range in between these two extremes is called the slip regime (0.2-16) The mean free path. Release 12. is computed as follows: kB T λ = √ 2πσ 2 p Ng (7. is used to quantify continuum ﬂow regimes. δ is the distance from cell center to the wall. and the gas temperature at the surface diﬀers from the wall temperature.

Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry

Equations 7.2-14 and 7.2-15 indicate that while the gas velocity component normal to the wall is the same as the wall normal velocity, the tangential components slip. The values lie somewhere between the cell-center and the wall values. These two equations can be combined to give a generalized formulation: Vw + k [(Vw · n)n + Vc − (Vc · n)n] δ Vg = 1+ k δ where k≡λ • temperature jump Tw − Tg = 2 or equivalently Tg = where β= 2(2 − αT ) αT δ (7.2-23) Tw + βTc 1+β (7.2-22) 2 − αT αT Kn ∂T 2 − αT ≈2 ∂n αT λ (Tg − Tc ) δ (7.2-21) 2 − αv αv (7.2-20) (7.2-19)

αT is the thermal accommodation coeﬃcient of the gas mixture and is calculated as αT = Yi αT,i .

i

The low-pressure slip boundary formulation is available only with the pressure-based solver.

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7.3 Particle Surface Reactions

7.3

**Particle Surface Reactions
**

As described in Section 15.4.5: The Multiple Surface Reactions Model, it is possible to deﬁne multiple particle surface reactions to model the surface combustion of a combusting discrete-phase particle. This section provides theoretical background about particle surface reactions. Information can be found in the following sections: • Section 7.3.1: General Description • Section 7.3.2: ANSYS FLUENT Model Formulation • Section 7.3.3: Extension for Stoichiometries with Multiple Gas Phase Reactants • Section 7.3.4: Solid-Solid Reactions • Section 7.3.5: Solid Decomposition Reactions • Section 7.3.6: Solid Deposition Reactions • Section 7.3.7: Gaseous Solid Catalyzed Reactions on the Particle Surface For more information about using particle surface reactions, see Section 15.3: Particle Surface Reactions in the separate User’s Guide.

7.3.1

General Description

The relationships for calculating char particle burning rates are presented and discussed in detail by Smith [324]. The particle reaction rate, R (kg/m2 -s), can be expressed as R = D0 (Cg − Cs ) = Rc (Cs )N where D0 Cg Cs Rc N = = = = = bulk diﬀusion coeﬃcient (m/s) mean reacting gas species concentration in the bulk (kg/m3 ) mean reacting gas species concentration at the particle surface (kg/m3 ) chemical reaction rate coeﬃcient (units vary) apparent reaction order (dimensionless) (7.3-1)

In Equation 7.3-1, the concentration at the particle surface, Cs , is not known, so it should be eliminated, and the expression is recast as follows: R D0

N

R = Rc Cg −

(7.3-2)

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Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry

This equation has to be solved by an iterative procedure, with the exception of the cases when N = 1 or N = 0. When N = 1, Equation 7.3-2 can be written as R= Cg Rc D0 D0 + R c (7.3-3)

In the case of N = 0, if there is a ﬁnite concentration of reactant at the particle surface, the solid depletion rate is equal to the chemical reaction rate. If there is no reactant at the surface, the solid depletion rate changes abruptly to the diﬀusion-controlled rate. In this case, however, ANSYS FLUENT will always use the chemical reaction rate for stability reasons.

**7.3.2 ANSYS FLUENT Model Formulation
**

A particle undergoing an exothermic reaction in the gas phase is shown schematically in Figure 7.3.1. Tp and T∞ are the temperatures in Equation 15.4-78.

Cd,b Cd,s Concentration Tp Ck T∞ Temperature

Distance

Figure 7.3.1: A Reacting Particle in the Multiple Surface Reactions Model

Based on the analysis above, ANSYS FLUENT uses the following equation to describe the rate of reaction r of a particle surface species j with the gas phase species n. The reaction stoichiometry of reaction r in this case is described by particle species j(s) + gas phase species n → products and the rate of reaction is given as Rj,r = Ap ηr Yj Rj,r (7.3-4)

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7.3 Particle Surface Reactions

Rj,r = Rkin,r where Rj,r Ap Yj ηr Rj,r pn D0,r Rkin,r Nr = = = = = = = = =

Rj,r pn − D0,r

N

(7.3-5)

rate of particle surface species depletion (kg/s) particle surface area (m2 ) mass fraction of surface species j in the particle eﬀectiveness factor (dimensionless) rate of particle surface species reaction per unit area (kg/m2 -s) bulk partial pressure of the gas phase species (Pa) diﬀusion rate coeﬃcient for reaction r kinetic rate of reaction r (units vary) apparent order of reaction r

The eﬀectiveness factor, ηr , is related to the surface area, and can be used in each reaction in the case of multiple reactions. D0,r is given by [(Tp + T∞ )/2]0.75 dp

D0,r = C1,r

(7.3-6)

The kinetic rate of reaction r is deﬁned as Rkin,r = Ar Tp βr e−(Er /RTp ) (7.3-7)

The rate of the particle surface species depletion for reaction order Nr = 1 is given by Rj,r = Ap ηr Yj pn For reaction order Nr = 0, Rj,r = Ap ηr Yj Rkin,r (7.3-9) Rkin,r D0,r D0,r + Rkin,r (7.3-8)

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Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry

7.3.3

Extension for Stoichiometries with Multiple Gas Phase Reactants

When more than one gas phase reactant takes part in the reaction, the reaction stoichiometry must be extended to account for this case: particle species j(s) + gas phase species 1 + gas phase species 2 + . . . + gas phase species nmax → products To describe the rate of reaction r of a particle surface species j in the presence of nmax gas phase species n, it is necessary to deﬁne the diﬀusion-limited species for each solid particle reaction, i.e., the species for which the concentration gradient between the bulk and the particle surface is the largest. For the rest of the species, the surface and the bulk concentrations are assumed to be equal. The concentration of the diﬀusion-limited species is shown as Cd,b and Cd,s in Figure 7.3.1, and the concentrations of all other species are denoted as Ck . For stoichiometries with multiple gas phase reactants, the bulk partial pressure pn in Equations 7.3-4 and 7.3-8 is the bulk partial pressure of the diﬀusion-limited species, pr,d for reaction r. The kinetic rate of reaction r is then deﬁned as Rkin,r = where pn Nr,n = bulk partial pressure of gas species n = reaction order in species n Ar T βr e−(Er /RT ) (pr,d )Nr,d

nmax

pNr,n n

n=1

(7.3-10)

When this model is enabled, the constant C1,r (Equation 7.3-6) and the eﬀectiveness factor ηr (Equation 7.3-4) are entered in the Reactions dialog box (see Section 15.3.1: User Inputs for Particle Surface Reactions in the separate User’s Guide).

7.3.4

Solid-Solid Reactions

Reactions involving only particle surface reactants can be modeled, provided that the particle surface reactants and products exist on the same particle. particle species 1(s) + particle species 2(s) + . . . → products The reaction rate for this case is given by Equation 7.3-9.

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7.3 Particle Surface Reactions

7.3.5

Solid Decomposition Reactions

The decomposition reactions of particle surface species can be modeled. particle species 1(s) + particle species 2(s) + . . . + particle species nmax (s) → gas species j + products The reaction rate for this case is given by Equations 7.3-4–7.3-10, where the diﬀusionlimited species is now the gaseous product of the reaction. If there are more than one gaseous product species in the reaction, it is necessary to deﬁne the diﬀusion-limited species for the particle reaction as the species for which the concentration gradient between the bulk and the particle surface is the largest.

7.3.6

Solid Deposition Reactions

The deposition reaction of a solid species on a particle can be modeled with the following assumptions: gas species 1 + gas species 2 + . . . + gas species nmax → solid species j(s) + products The theoretical analysis and Equations 7.3-4–7.3-10 are applied for the surface reaction rate calculation, with the mass fraction of the surface species set to unity in Equations 7.3-4, 7.3-8, and 7.3-9. In ANSYS FLUENT, for the particle surface species to be deposited on a particle, a ﬁnite mass of the species must already exist in the particle. This allows for activation of the deposition reaction selectively to particular injection particles. It follows that, to initiate the solid species deposition reaction on a particle, the particle must be deﬁned in the Set Injection Properties dialog box (or Set Multiple Injection Properties dialog box) to contain a small mass fraction of the solid species to be deposited. For details on deﬁning the particle surface species mass fractions, see Section 15.3.3: Using the Multiple Surface Reactions Model for Discrete-Phase Particle Combustion in the separate User’s Guide.

7.3.7

Gaseous Solid Catalyzed Reactions on the Particle Surface

Reactions of gaseous species catalyzed on the particle surface can also be modeled following Equations 7.3-4–7.3-10 for the surface reaction rate calculation, with the mass fraction of the surface species set to unity in Equations 7.3-4, 7.3-8, and 7.3-9. To apply this type of reaction, see Section 15.3.2: Modeling Gaseous Solid Catalyzed Reactions in the separate User’s Guide. For details on deﬁning the particle surface species mass fractions, see Section 15.3.3: Using the Multiple Surface Reactions Model for Discrete-Phase Particle Combustion in the separate User’s Guide.

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Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry

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Chapter 8.

Non-Premixed Combustion

In non-premixed combustion, fuel and oxidizer enter the reaction zone in distinct streams. This is in contrast to premixed systems, in which reactants are mixed at the molecular level before burning. Examples of non-premixed combustion include pulverized coal furnaces, diesel internal-combustion engines and pool ﬁres. Under certain assumptions, the thermochemistry can be reduced to a single parameter: the mixture fraction. The mixture fraction, denoted by f , is the mass fraction that originated from the fuel stream. In other words, it is the local mass fraction of burnt and unburnt fuel stream elements (C, H, etc.) in all the species (CO2 , H2 O, O2 , etc.). The approach is elegant because atomic elements are conserved in chemical reactions. In turn, the mixture fraction is a conserved scalar quantity, and therefore its governing transport equation does not have a source term. Combustion is simpliﬁed to a mixing problem, and the diﬃculties associated with closing non-linear mean reaction rates are avoided. Once mixed, the chemistry can be modeled as being in chemical equilibrium with the Equilibrium model, being near chemical equilibrium with the Steady Laminar Flamelet model, or signiﬁcantly departing from chemical equilibrium with the Unsteady Laminar Flamelet model. For more information about using the non-premixed combustion model, see Chapter 16: Modeling Non-Premixed Combustion in the separate User’s Guide. Theoretical information about the non-premixed combustion model is presented in the following sections: • Section 8.1: Introduction • Section 8.2: Non-Premixed Combustion and Mixture Fraction Theory • Section 8.3: Restrictions and Special Cases for Using the Non-Premixed Model • Section 8.4: The Laminar Flamelet Models Theory • Section 8.5: The Steady Laminar Flamelet Model Theory • Section 8.6: The Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model Theory

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8-1

Non-Premixed Combustion

8.1

Introduction

Non-premixed modeling involves the solution of transport equations for one or two conserved scalars (the mixture fractions). Equations for individual species are not solved. Instead, species concentrations are derived from the predicted mixture fraction ﬁelds. The thermochemistry calculations are preprocessed and then tabulated for look-up in ANSYS FLUENT. Interaction of turbulence and chemistry is accounted for with an assumed-shape Probability Density Function (PDF).

8.2

**Non-Premixed Combustion and Mixture Fraction Theory
**

Information about non-premixed combustion and mixture fraction theory are presented in the following sections: • Section 8.2.1: Mixture Fraction Theory • Section 8.2.2: Modeling of Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction • Section 8.2.3: Non-Adiabatic Extensions of the Non-Premixed Model • Section 8.2.4: Chemistry Tabulation

8.2.1

Mixture Fraction Theory

**Deﬁnition of the Mixture Fraction
**

The basis of the non-premixed modeling approach is that under a certain set of simplifying assumptions, the instantaneous thermochemical state of the ﬂuid is related to a conserved scalar quantity known as the mixture fraction, f . The mixture fraction can be written in terms of the atomic mass fraction as [319] f= Zi − Zi,ox Zi,fuel − Zi,ox (8.2-1)

where Zi is the elemental mass fraction for element, i. The subscript ox denotes the value at the oxidizer stream inlet and the subscript fuel denotes the value at the fuel stream inlet. If the diﬀusion coeﬃcients for all species are equal, then Equation 8.2-1 is identical for all elements, and the mixture fraction deﬁnition is unique. The mixture fraction is thus the elemental mass fraction that originated from the fuel stream.

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8.2 Non-Premixed Combustion and Mixture Fraction Theory

If a secondary stream (another fuel or oxidant, or a non-reacting stream) is included, the fuel and secondary mixture fractions are simply the elemental mass fractions of the fuel and secondary streams, respectively. The sum of all three mixture fractions in the system (fuel, secondary stream, and oxidizer) is always equal to 1: ffuel + fsec + fox = 1 (8.2-2)

This indicates that only points on the plane ABC (shown in Figure 8.2.1) in the mixture fraction space are valid. Consequently, the two mixture fractions, ffuel and fsec , cannot vary independently; their values are valid only if they are both within the triangle OBC shown in Figure 8.2.1.

fox

1

A 1 C

fsec

O 0 1

B

ffuel

Figure 8.2.1: Relationship of ffuel , fsec , and fox

ANSYS FLUENT discretizes the triangle OBC as shown in Figure 8.2.2. Essentially, the primary mixture fraction, ffuel , is allowed to vary between zero and one, as for the single mixture fraction case, while the secondary mixture fraction lies on lines with the following equation: fsec = psec × (1 − ffuel ) (8.2-3)

where psec is the normalized secondary mixture fraction and is the value at the intersection of a line with the secondary mixture fraction axis. Note that unlike fsec , psec is bounded between zero and one, regardless of the ffuel value.

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Non-Premixed Combustion

1

C

p

sec

f sec

O 0

B

f fuel

1

Figure 8.2.2: Relationship of ffuel , fsec , and psec

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8.2 Non-Premixed Combustion and Mixture Fraction Theory

An important characteristic of the normalized secondary mixture fraction, psec , is its assumed statistical independence from the fuel mixture fraction, ffuel . Note that unlike fsec , psec is not a conserved scalar. This normalized mixture fraction deﬁnition, psec , is used everywhere in ANSYS FLUENT when prompted for Secondary Mixture Fraction except when deﬁning the rich limit for a secondary fuel stream, which is deﬁned in terms of fsec .

**Transport Equations for the Mixture Fraction
**

Under the assumption of equal diﬀusivities, the species equations can be reduced to a single equation for the mixture fraction, f . The reaction source terms in the species equations cancel (since elements are conserved in chemical reactions), and thus f is a conserved quantity. While the assumption of equal diﬀusivities is problematic for laminar ﬂows, it is generally acceptable for turbulent ﬂows where turbulent convection overwhelms molecular diﬀusion. The Favre mean (density-averaged) mixture fraction equation is ∂ (ρf ) + ∂t · (ρvf ) = · µt f + Sm + Suser σt (8.2-4)

The source term Sm is due solely to transfer of mass into the gas phase from liquid fuel droplets or reacting particles (e.g., coal). Suser is any user-deﬁned source term. In addition to solving for the Favre mean mixture fraction, ANSYS FLUENT solves a conservation equation for the mixture fraction variance, f 2 [152]:

∂ ρf ∂t

2

+

· ρvf

2

=

·

µt f σt

2

+ Cg µt

f

2

− Cd ρ f 2 + Suser k

(8.2-5)

where f = f − f . The default values for the constants σt , Cg , and Cd are 0.85, 2.86, and 2.0, respectively, and Suser is any user-deﬁned source term. The mixture fraction variance is used in the closure model describing turbulence-chemistry interactions (see Section 8.2.2: Modeling of Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction).

2 For a two-mixture-fraction problem, ffuel and ffuel are obtained from Equations 8.2-4 and 2 8.2-5 by substituting ffuel for f and ffuel for f 2 . fsec is obtained from Equation 8.2-4 by 2 substituting fsec for f . psec is then calculated using Equation 8.2-3, and psec is obtained by solving Equation 8.2-5 with psec substituted for f . To a ﬁrst-order approximation, the variances in psec and fsec are relatively insensitive to ffuel , and therefore the equation for 2 2 psec is essentially the same as fsec .

i

2 2 The equation for psec instead of fsec is valid when the mass ﬂow rate of the secondary stream is relatively small compared with the total mass ﬂow rate.

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Non-Premixed Combustion

**The Non-Premixed Model for LES
**

For Large Eddy Simulations, ransport equation is not solved for the mixture fraction variance. Instead, it is modeled as f where Cvar Ls = = constant subgrid length scale (see Equation 4.11-16)

2

= Cvar L2 | f | s

2

(8.2-6)

The constant Cvar is computed dynamically when the Dynamic Stress option is enabled in the Viscous dialog box, else a constant value (with a default of 0.5) is used. If the Dynamic Scalar Flux option is enabled, the turbulent Sc (σt in Equation 8.2-4) is computed dynamically.

**Mixture Fraction vs. Equivalence Ratio
**

The mixture fraction deﬁnition can be understood in relation to common measures of reacting systems. Consider a simple combustion system involving a fuel stream (F), an oxidant stream (O), and a product stream (P) symbolically represented at stoichiometric conditions as F + r O → (1 + r) P (8.2-7)

where r is the air-to-fuel ratio on a mass basis. Denoting the equivalence ratio as φ, where φ= (fuel/air)actual (fuel/air)stoichiometric (8.2-8)

the reaction in Equation 8.2-7, under more general mixture conditions, can then be written as φ F + r O → (φ + r) P (8.2-9)

Looking at the left side of this equation, the mixture fraction for the system as a whole can then be deduced to be f= φ φ+r (8.2-10)

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8.2 Non-Premixed Combustion and Mixture Fraction Theory

Equation 8.2-10 allows the computation of the mixture fraction at stoichiometric conditions (φ = 1) or at fuel-rich conditions (e.g., φ > 1), or fuel-lean conditions (e.g., φ < 1).

**Relationship of f to Species Mass Fraction, Density, and Temperature
**

The power of the mixture fraction modeling approach is that the chemistry is reduced to one or two conserved mixture fractions. Under the assumption of chemical equilibrium, all thermochemical scalars (species fractions, density, and temperature) are uniquely related to the mixture fraction(s). For a single mixture fraction in an adiabatic system, the instantaneous values of mass fractions, density, and temperature depend solely on the instantaneous mixture fraction, f: φi = φi (f ) (8.2-11)

If a secondary stream is included, the instantaneous values will depend on the instantaneous fuel mixture fraction, ffuel , and the secondary partial fraction, psec : φi = φi (ffuel , psec ) (8.2-12)

In Equations 8.2-11 and 8.2-12, φi represents the instantaneous species mass fraction, density, or temperature. In the case of non-adiabatic systems, the eﬀect of heat loss/gain is parameterized as φi = φi (f, H) (8.2-13)

for a single mixture fraction system, where H is the instantaneous enthalpy (see Equation 5.2-7). If a secondary stream is included, φi = φi (ffuel , psec , H) (8.2-14)

Examples of non-adiabatic ﬂows include systems with radiation, heat transfer through walls, heat transfer to/from discrete phase particles or droplets, and multiple inlets at diﬀerent temperatures. Additional detail about the mixture fraction approach in such non-adiabatic systems is provided in Section 8.2.3: Non-Adiabatic Extensions of the NonPremixed Model. In many reacting systems, the combustion is not in chemical equilibrium. ANSYS FLUENT oﬀers several approaches to model chemical non-equilibrium, including the ﬁniterate (see Section 7.1.2: The Generalized Finite-Rate Formulation for Reaction Modeling),

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Non-Premixed Combustion

EDC (see Section 7.1.2: The Eddy-Dissipation-Concept (EDC) Model), and PDF transport (see Chapter 11: Composition PDF Transport) models, where detailed kinetic mechanisms can be incorporated. There are three approaches in the non-premixed combustion model to simulate chemical non-equilibrium. The ﬁrst is to use the Rich Flammability Limit (RFL) option in the Equilibrium model, where rich regions are modeled as a mixed-but-unburnt mixture of pure fuel and a leaner equilibrium burnt mixture (see Section 16.2.5: Enabling the Rich Flammability Limit (RFL) Option in the separate User’s Guide). The second approach is the Steady Laminar Flamelet model, where chemical non-equilibrium due to diﬀusion ﬂame stretching by turbulence can be modeled. The third approach is the Unsteady Laminar Flamelet model where slow-forming product species that are far from chemical equilibrium can be modeled. See Sections 8.4 and 8.6 for details about the Steady and Unsteady Laminar Flamelet models in ANSYS FLUENT.

8.2.2

Modeling of Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction

Equations 8.2-11 through 8.2-14 describe the instantaneous relationships between mixture fraction and species fractions, density, and temperature under the assumption of chemical equilibrium. The ANSYS FLUENT prediction of the turbulent reacting ﬂow, however, is concerned with prediction of the averaged values of these ﬂuctuating scalars. How these averaged values are related to the instantaneous values depends on the turbulencechemistry interaction model. ANSYS FLUENT applies the assumed-shape probability density function (PDF) approach as its closure model when the non-premixed model is used. The assumed shape PDF closure model is described in this section.

**Description of the Probability Density Function
**

The Probability Density Function, written as p(f ), can be thought of as the fraction of time that the ﬂuid spends in the vicinity of the state f . Figure 8.2.3 plots the time trace of mixture fraction at a point in the ﬂow (right-hand side) and the probability density function of f (left-hand side). The ﬂuctuating value of f , plotted on the right side of the ﬁgure, spends some fraction of time in the range denoted as ∆f . p(f ), plotted on the left side of the ﬁgure, takes on values such that the area under its curve in the band denoted, ∆f , is equal to the fraction of time that f spends in this range. Written mathematically, p(f ) ∆f = lim 1 T →∞ T τi

i

(8.2-15)

where T is the time scale and τi is the amount of time that f spends in the ∆f band. The shape of the function p(f ) depends on the nature of the turbulent ﬂuctuations in f . In practice, p(f ) is unknown and is modeled as a mathematical function that approximates the actual PDF shapes that have been observed experimentally.

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8.2 Non-Premixed Combustion and Mixture Fraction Theory

Figure 8.2.3: Graphical Description of the Probability Density Function, p(f )

**Derivation of Mean Scalar Values from the Instantaneous Mixture Fraction
**

The probability density function p(f ), describing the temporal ﬂuctuations of f in the turbulent ﬂow, can be used to compute averaged values of variables that depend on f . Density-weighted mean species mass fractions and temperature can be computed (in adiabatic systems) as

1

φi =

0

p(f )φi (f )df

(8.2-16)

**for a single-mixture-fraction system. When a secondary stream exists, mean values are calculated as
**

1 1 0

φi =

0

p1 (ffuel )p2 (psec )φi (ffuel , psec )dffuel dpsec

(8.2-17)

where p1 is the PDF of ffuel and p2 is the PDF of psec . Here, statistical independence of ffuel and psec is assumed, so that p(ffuel , psec ) = p1 (ffuel )p2 (psec ).

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8-9

2-16 and 8. f . Inc. it remains only to specify the shape of the function p(f ) (or p1 (ffuel ) and p2 (psec )) in order to determine the local mean ﬂuid state at all points in the ﬂow ﬁeld. f =f+ f elsewhere (8. As noted above. January 29.2-20) with suitable bounding near f = 1 and f = 0.0 c ANSYS. The Double Delta Function PDF The double delta function is given by 0. Using Equations 8. ρ(f ) or ρ(ffuel . the mean time-averaged ﬂuid density.2-18 (or Equations 8. psec ) (8. A detailed description of each function follows.Non-Premixed Combustion Similarly. The Assumed-Shape PDF The shape of the assumed PDF. can be computed as 1 = ρ for a single-mixture-fraction system.2. The shape produced by this function depends solely on the mean mixture fraction. psec ) is the instantaneous density obtained using the instantaneous species mass fractions and temperature in the ideal gas law equation.2-19).2-19) when a secondary stream exists.5. f =f− f 2 2 p(f ) = 0.and two-mixture-fraction cases) The double-delta function is the most easily computed. p(f ). f 2 . 0. and 1 = ρ 1 0 0 1 1 0 p(f ) df ρ(f ) (8.2-17 and 8. 2009 . while the β-function most closely represents experimentally observed PDFs.5. One example of the double delta function is illustrated in Figure 8. is described in ANSYS FLUENT by one of two mathematical functions: • the double-delta function (two-mixture-fraction cases only) • the β-function (single. and its variance. ρ.4. the double delta function PDF is very easy to compute but is invariably less accurate than the alternate β-function PDF because it 8-10 Release 12.2-18) p1 (ffuel )p2 (psec ) dffuel dpsec ρ(ffuel .

2-5). For this reason.2-23) Importantly.8.5 0 0 f f Figure 8. and temperature using. p(f) 0. the assumed PDF shape can be computed and used as the weighting function to determine the mean values of species mass fractions. and the mixture fraction variance. the PDF shape p(f ) is a function of only its ﬁrst two moments. it is available only for two-mixture-fraction simulations where the savings in computational cost is signiﬁcant. f 2 . given ANSYS FLUENT’s prediction of f and f 2 at each point in the ﬂow ﬁeld (Equations 8. 2009 8-11 . Release 12. density.2.2-22) β = (1 − f ) f (1 − f ) −1 f2 (8.4: Example of the Double Delta Function PDF Shape The β-Function PDF The β-function PDF shape is given by the following function of f and f 2 : f α−1 (1 − f )β−1 f α−1 (1 − f )β−1 df p(f ) = where (8.2-4 and 8.0 c ANSYS. January 29. Inc.2-21) α=f and f (1 − f ) −1 f2 (8.2 Non-Premixed Combustion and Mixture Fraction Theory assumes that only two states occur in the turbulent ﬂow. namely the mean mixture fraction. Thus. f .

In such non-adiabatic systems. heat losses do not signiﬁcantly impact the turbulent enthalpy ﬂuctuations). 2009 . and/or particles. however. droplets. for a system with a secondary stream. f ’2) Figure 8. H). Single-Mixture-Fraction Systems) 8. With this assumption..5 for a single mixture fraction.2. The system enthalpy impacts the chemical equilibrium calculation and the temperature and species of the reacting ﬂow. turbulent ﬂuctuations should be accounted for by means of a joint PDF. f ’ 2 ) Chemistry Model φ i (f ) 1 φ i = ∫ p(f ) φ i (f ) df o Look-up Table φi = φi (f . The problem can be simpliﬁed signiﬁcantly by assuming that the enthalpy ﬂuctuations are independent of the enthalpy level (i. p(f. H). H)p(f )df (8.Non-Premixed Combustion Equations 8. is not practical for most engineering applications. but also to the enthalpy. In such ﬂows the local thermochemical state is no longer related only to f .2-18 (or.2-24) 8-12 Release 12. The computation of p(f. Equations 8. H.2.2-16 and 8. January 29. and the Chemistry Model (Adiabatic.2-13.e.5: Logical Dependence of Averaged Scalars φi on f .2. f 2 .2-17 and 8. changes in enthalpy due to heat loss must be considered when computing scalars from the mixture fraction.3 Non-Adiabatic Extensions of the Non-Premixed Model Many reacting systems involve heat transfer through wall boundaries. Consequently. This logical dependence is depicted visually in Figure 8.0 c ANSYS.2-19). as in Equation 8. Inc. PDF Shape p(f ) = p (f . p(f. H) = p(f )δ(H − H) and mean scalars are calculated as 1 φi = 0 φi (f.

f 2 . psec . and the Chemistry Model (Non-Adiabatic. Figure 8. H)p1 (ffuel )p2 (psec )dffuel dpsec (8.6: Logical Dependence of Averaged Scalars φi on f .2 Non-Premixed Combustion and Mixture Fraction Theory Determination of φi in the non-adiabatic system thus requires solution of the modeled transport equation for mean enthalpy: ∂ (ρH) + ∂t · (ρvH) = · kt H + Sh cp (8. density.0 c ANSYS. H.2.6 depicts the logical dependence of mean scalar values (species mass fraction. January 29.8. Single-Mixture-Fraction Systems) When a secondary stream is included.2-25) where Sh accounts for source terms due to radiation. and heat exchange with the dispersed phase.2. 2009 8-13 . Figure 8. heat transfer to wall boundaries. and temperature) on ANSYS FLUENT’s prediction of f . the mean values are calculated from 1 1 0 φi = 0 φi (ffuel .2-26) Release 12. f 2 . Inc. and H in nonadiabatic single-mixture-fraction systems.

the non-adiabatic extensions to the PDF model are required in systems involving heat transfer to walls and in systems with radiation included. Finally. Inc..Non-Premixed Combustion As noted above. Liquid Fuel or Coal Combustion) Figure 8. the non-adiabatic model is required in systems that include multiple fuel or oxidizer inlets with diﬀerent inlet temperatures.2. Q wall or Q radiation Fuel Oxidant f=1 f=0 (a) Heat Transfer to Domain Boundaries and/or Radiation Heat Transfer Oxidant T = T1 Fuel Oxidant T = T2 (b) Multiple Fuel or Oxidant Inlets at Different Temperatures Oxidant Liquid Fuel or Pulverized Coal (c) Dispersed Phase Heat or Mass Transfer (e. the non-adiabatic model is required in particleladen ﬂows (e.0 c ANSYS..7: Reacting Systems Requiring Non-Adiabatic Non-Premixed Model Approach 8-14 Release 12.g.7 illustrates several systems that must include the non-adiabatic form of the PDF model. January 29.2. 2009 .g. Figure 8. In addition. liquid fuel systems or coal combustion systems) when such ﬂows include heat transfer to the dispersed phase.

4 Chemistry Tabulation Look-Up Tables for Adiabatic Systems For an equilibrium. where the instantaneous enthalpy is a function of only the instantaneous mixture fraction. adiabatic.8. The table.2. is all that is required.2-12). January 29.8.2-21). the instantaneous properties φi are tabulated as a function of the fuel mixture fraction ffuel and the secondary partial fraction psec (see Equation 8. Signiﬁcant computational time can be saved by computing these integrals once.2.8 illustrates the concept of the look-up tables generated for a single-mixturefraction system. density. and the PDF integrations (see Equation 8. Figure 8. density. or temperature (φi ) at that point can be obtained by table interpolation. density. Scalar Value Scaled Variance Mean Mixture Fraction Figure 8.8: Visual Representation of a Look-Up Table for the Scalar φi as a Function of f and f 2 in Adiabatic Single-Mixture-Fraction Systems For systems with two mixture fractions.2. By default. a two-dimensional look-up table. Given ANSYS FLUENT’s predicted value for f and f 2 at a point in the ﬂow domain. Inc.2. storing them in a look-up table.0 c ANSYS. There is one look-up table of this type for each scalar of interest (species mass fractions. is the mathematical result of the integration of Equation 8. In adiabatic systems. the creation and interpolation costs of fourdimensional look-up tables are computationally expensive.2.9. 4D look-up tables can be created before the simulation and Release 12.8.2-14) are performed at run-time. This two-dimensional table is illustrated in Figure 8. single-mixture-fraction case. and retrieving them during the ANSYS FLUENT simulation. Alternatively.2-16. Figure 8. like that in Figure 8.2 Non-Premixed Combustion and Mixture Fraction Theory 8. the mean value of mass fractions.2. and species fraction are functions of the f and f 2 only (see Equations 8. and temperature).2-16 and 8. the mean temperature. 2009 8-15 .

the last slice corresponds to the maximum heat gain to the system. is a three-dimensional look-up table. Instantaneous Scalar Value Secondary Partial Fraction Fuel Mixture Fraction Figure 8.2. which consists of layers of two-dimensional tables. as illustrated in Figure 8.10 is the visual representation of the integral in Equation 8.2.2-24.Non-Premixed Combustion interpolated at run time (see Section 16. 8-16 Release 12. but depends also on wall heat transfer and/or radiation. The ﬁrst slice corresponds to the maximum heat loss from the system. and H. and temperature from calculated values of f .10. The result. 2009 .9: Visual Representation of a Look-Up Table for the Scalar φi as a Function of ffuel and psec in Adiabatic Two-Mixture-Fraction Systems 3D Look-Up Tables for Non-Adiabatic Systems In non-adiabatic systems. The three-dimensional look-up table allows ANSYS FLUENT to determine the value of each mass fraction. Inc. where the enthalpy is not linearly related to the mixture fraction.2. and the zero heat loss/gain slice corresponds to the adiabatic table. f 2 . a look-up table is required for each possible enthalpy value in the system. for single mixture fraction systems. January 29. This three-dimensional table in Figure 8. each one corresponding to a normalized heat loss or gain.7. and those interpolated between the adiabatic and minimum slices correspond to heat loss.0 c ANSYS. Slices interpolated between the adiabatic and maximum slices correspond to heat gain.1: Full Tabulation of the Two-Mixture-Fraction Model in the separate User’s Guide). density.

two-mixture-fraction problems. The 3D table in Figure 8. it is very expensive to tabulate and retrieve Equation 8. This is especially true for cases with a large number of cells that require many iteration or time-steps to converge.11 is the visual representation of Equation 8.0 c ANSYS. 5D look-up tables can be created before the simulation and interpolated at run time (see Section 16. interpolating the table during ANSYS FLUENT solution is usually signiﬁcantly faster than performing the integrations at run-time.1: Full Tabulation of the Two-Mixture-Fraction Model in the separate User’s Guide).10: Visual Representation of a Look-Up Table for the Scalar φi as a Function of f and f 2 and Normalized Heat Loss/Gain in Non-Adiabatic Single-Mixture-Fraction Systems For non-adiabatic.2-26 since ﬁve-dimensional tables are required. The one-time pre-generation the 5D look-up table is very expensive.2-14 are created.2 Non-Premixed Combustion and Mixture Fraction Theory normalized heat loss/gain n+1 normalized heat loss/gain n Scalar Value normalized heat loss/gainn-1 Scaled Variance Mean Mixture Fraction Figure 8. January 29. but.7. Alternatively.8.2. The mean density during the ANSYS FLUENT solution is calculated by integrating the instantaneous density over the fuel and secondary mixture fraction space (see Equation 8. once built.2-14. 3D lookup tables of the instantaneous state relationship given by Equation 8.2-26). Inc. Release 12. By default. 2009 8-17 .2.

January 29. 2009 . it is usually expedient to start a twomixture-fraction simulation from a converged single-mixture-fraction solution.Non-Premixed Combustion i Note that the computation time in ANSYS FLUENT for a two-mixturefraction case will be much greater than for a single-mixture-fraction problem. and Normalized Heat Loss/Gain in Non-Adiabatic Two-Mixture-Fraction Systems 8-18 Release 12.0 c ANSYS. psec . This expense should be carefully considered before choosing the two-mixture-fraction model. Also. normalized heat loss/gain n+1 Instantaneous Scalar Value normalized heat loss/gain n normalized heat loss/gain n-1 Secondary Partial Fraction Fuel Mixture Fraction Figure 8.2.11: Visual Representation of a Look-Up Table for the Scalar φi as a Function of ffuel . Inc.

the volatile and char oﬀ-gases are tracked separately as distinct fuel streams.g.2-11 or 8.g. You may include multiple inlets of each fuel stream. one inlet of CH4 and one inlet of CO). The multiple oxidizer inlets must. one inlet of CH4 and one inlet of CO). density. The oxidizer may consist of a mixture of species (e. only one oﬀ-gas is permitted. The multiple fuel inlets must have the same composition. for coal combustion. but each fuel inlet must have one of the two deﬁned compositions (e. – Only one type of oxidizer is involved.8.g. January 29. one inlet of air and a second inlet of pure oxygen). have the same composition. • When two mixture fractions are used.0 c ANSYS.g. however... The fuel may be made up of a burnt mixture of reacting species (e. Release 12.3 Restrictions and Special Cases for Using the Non-Premixed Model 8. in spray combustion systems or in systems involving reacting particles.. Similarly. – Mixed fuel systems including gas-liquid. Alternatively. or liquid-coal fuel mixtures with a single oxidizer.1 Restrictions on the Mixture Fraction Approach The unique dependence of φi (species mass fractions.2-13) requires that the reacting system meet the following conditions: • The chemical system must be of the diﬀusion type with discrete fuel and oxidizer inlets (spray combustion and pulverized fuel ﬂames may also fall into this category). Each fuel stream may be made up of a mixture of reacting species (e. • When a single mixture fraction is used. a good approximation in turbulent ﬂow). three streams can be involved in the system. 90% CH4 and 10% CO) and you may include multiple fuel inlets.g. • The Lewis number must be unity.. or temperature) on f (Equation 8.3 Restrictions and Special Cases for Using the Non-Premixed Model 8. 2009 8-19 . 90% CH4 and 10% CO). In systems with a gas-coal or liquid-coal fuel mixture. 21% O2 and 79% N2 ) and you may have multiple oxidizer inlets. gas-coal. Valid systems are as follows: – Two fuel streams with diﬀerent compositions and one oxidizer stream.g.3. (This implies that the diﬀusion coeﬃcients for all species and enthalpy are equal. two or more fuel inlets with diﬀerent fuel composition are not allowed (e. Inc.. the coal volatiles and char can be treated as a single composite fuel stream and the secondary stream can represent another fuel. Two or more oxidizer inlets with diﬀerent compositions are not allowed (e. the following conditions must be met: – Only one type of fuel is involved..

1 and 8. and a non-reacting secondary stream. one inlet of air and a second inlet of pure oxygen). 21% O2 and 79% N2 ). the partially premixed model (see Chapter 10: Partially Premixed Combustion).2 Using the Non-Premixed Model for Liquid Fuel or Coal Combustion You can use the non-premixed model if your ANSYS FLUENT simulation includes liquid droplets and/or coal particles..3.3 shows a premixed conﬁguration that cannot be modeled using the non-premixed model. but each oxidizer inlet must have one of the two deﬁned compositions (e. 8. In this case.g. 8-20 Release 12. – A fuel stream. that an extended mixture fraction formulation. Figures 8.3. Note. In the case of coal. however. the volatiles and the products of char can be deﬁned as two diﬀerent types of fuel (using two mixture fractions) or as a single composite oﬀ-gas (using one mixture fraction). can be applied to non-premixed (with mixed-but-unburnt regions). • The ﬂow must be turbulent. You may have multiple inlets of each oxidizer stream. as described in Section 16.g.Non-Premixed Combustion – Two oxidizer streams with diﬀerent compositions and one fuel stream.3.4. 2009 . an oxidizer stream.2 illustrate typical reacting system conﬁgurations that can be handled by the non-premixed model in ANSYS FLUENT. as well as partially premixed ﬂames. and char combustion laws governing the dispersed phase. Inc. This is because the unburned premixed stream is far from chemical equilibrium.5: Modeling Coal Combustion Using the Non-Premixed Model in the separate User’s Guide.0 c ANSYS. It is important to emphasize that these restrictions eliminate the use of the non-premixed approach for directly modeling premixed combustion. devolatilization. Each oxidizer stream may consist of a mixture of species (e. Figure 8. fuel enters the gas phase within the computational domain at a rate determined by the evaporation.3. January 29.

3.3 Restrictions and Special Cases for Using the Non-Premixed Model 60% CH4 40% CO 21% O2 79% N2 f=1 f=0 (a) Simple Fuel/Oxidant Diffusion Flame 35% O 2 65% N 2 f=0 60% CH 4 40% CO 35% O2 65% N 2 f=1 f=0 (b) Diffusion System Using Multiple Oxidant Inlets 60% CH 4 20% CO 10% C3H8 10% CO2 21% O2 79% N2 60% CH 4 20% CO 10% C3H8 10% CO2 f=1 f=0 f=1 (c) System Using Multiple Fuel Inlets Figure 8. Inc.1: Chemical Systems That Can Be Modeled Using a Single Mixture Fraction Release 12. 2009 8-21 .8. January 29.0 c ANSYS.

2: Chemical System Conﬁgurations That Can Be Modeled Using Two Mixture Fractions CH 4 O 2 N 2 Figure 8. Inc.3: Premixed Systems That Cannot Be Modeled Using the NonPremixed Model 8-22 Release 12.3.3. 2009 .Non-Premixed Combustion CH 4/CO/C 3 8 H Oxidant CH 4/C 3 H 8 (a) System Containing Two Dissimilar Fuel Inlets 21% O2 Fuel 35% O2 (b) System Containing Two Dissimilar Oxidant Inlets Figure 8.0 c ANSYS. January 29.

Inc. Since f is a conserved quantity. mrecyc is the mass ﬂow rate of the recycle inlet. m R mfuel ˙ mfuel ˙ + msec + mox ˙ ˙ (8.3-3) (8.exit = and psec.3 Restrictions and Special Cases for Using the Non-Premixed Model 8.4: Using the Non-Premixed Model with Flue Gas Recycle Release 12.3. the mixture fraction at the ﬂue gas recycle inlet can be computed as mfuel + mrecyc fexit = (mfuel + mox + mrecyc )fexit ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ or fexit = mfuel ˙ mfuel + mox ˙ ˙ (8.3. m O f=1 f=0 fexit Figure 8.3 Using the Non-Premixed Model with Flue Gas Recycle While most problems you solve using the non-premixed model will involve inlets that contain either pure oxidant or pure fuel (f = 0 or 1). as depicted schematically in Figure 8.3-1) where fexit is the exit mixture fraction (and the mixture fraction at the ﬂue gas recycle inlet).0 c ANSYS.exit = msec ˙ msec + mox ˙ ˙ .8.4. you can include an inlet that has an intermediate value of mixture fraction (0 < f < 1) provided that this inlet represents a completely reacted mixture.3-2) (8. Such cases arise when there is ﬂue gas recirculation. ffuel. January 29. 2009 8-23 .3. mfuel is the mass ﬂow rate of the ˙ ˙ fuel inlet. m F . ˙ If a secondary stream is included. mox is the mass ﬂow rate of the oxidizer inlet.3-4) fexit .

The mixture is modeled as a blend of inert and active species. speciﬁc heat. and the inert tracer (YI ).0 c ANSYS. yet still be able to utilize previously built tables by straightforward lookup.3-7) The reaction progress variable c is not conditioned.4 Using the Non-Premixed Model with the Inert Model To model the eﬀect of dilution on combustion without the expense of using two mixture fractions. however the cell enthalpy must be conditioned to account for the inert enthalpy. when the partially premixed model is enabled). the reaction progress variable (c. The mean mixture fraction and mixture fraction variance used to access the PDF table is given by: ¯ f 1 − YI f¯2 = (1 − YI )2 ¯ fI = f¯2 I (8. The inert enthalpy and active enthalpy are obtained from the following relationships: H(T ) = (1 − YI )H pdf (T ) + YI H I (T ) (8. for non-adiabatic ﬂows). the inert does not chemically equilibrate with the primary fuel and oxidizer .Non-Premixed Combustion 8. because the problem is reduced to tracking a conserved scalar when it is assumed that the inert components have the same turbulent diﬀusivities. and density of the mixture. The equation for conservation of inert is written as: ∂ρYI + ∂t where YI Sct µt ρ = = = = inert stream tracer turbulent Schmidt number turbulent viscosity density · (vρYI ) = · µt Sct (YI ) (8.3-5 has no sources or sinks.instead. but the PDF tables need to be accessed with conditioned variables. However the inert stream does aﬀect the solution due to its inﬂuence on enthalpy. January 29.3-8) 8-24 Release 12. the cell enthalpy (H. Unlike a secondary mixture fraction.3-6) (8. its composition remains constant after mixing. 2009 .3. Inc. ANSYS FLUENT allows the introduction of an inert stream into the domain. Mixture Composition ¯ ¯ The mixture properties are computed from the mean (f ) and variance (f ) of the mixture fraction in the cell.3-5) Equation 8. Conditioning is necessary to take into account the volume taken up by the inert fraction.

Equation 8. The inert enthalpy is deﬁned as NI H I (T ) = i=0 T Yi T0 Cpi dT (8.7. and NI is the number of inert species.4-13 in the separate User’s Guide.3-10) The density of the mixture is calculated by using a harmonic average of the densities of the active and inert streams. 2009 8-25 . Inc. see Section 16. For information on how to set up the inert model.3 Restrictions and Special Cases for Using the Non-Premixed Model where H is the enthalpy of the cell at temperature T .3-8 is solved for the temperature and for H pdf . Here it is assumed that the inert and the active streams have the same temperature. Release 12.3-9) where Yi refers to the mass fraction of specie i deﬁned in the inert stream.5: Setting Up the Inert Model in the separate User’s Guide. January 29. To calculate the temperature in the cell. H pdf is the enthalpy of the active mixture-fraction stream and H I is the enthalpy of the inert stream. Cpi the speciﬁc heat of specie i. but diﬀerent enthalpies. weighted by the inert tracer: (1 − YI ) YI ρ(T ) = + I pdf (T ) ρ ρ (T ) −1 (8. Property Evaluation The speciﬁc heat of the mixture is evaluated by mixing the inert and active streams in the following way: pdf I Cp (T ) = (1 − YI )Cp (T ) + YI Cp (T ) (8. the inert density (ρI ) is calculated from the ideal gas law.8.0 c ANSYS. T0 is the reference temperature. The inert and PDF enthalpies are deﬁned further in Equation 31. which gives the partitioning of the energy between the inert and active streams.3-11) Here.

2: The Flamelet Concept • Section 8. • The mixture fraction is assumed to follow the β-function PDF. This geometry consists of opposed.4: Flamelet Import 8. As the distance between the jets is decreased and/or the velocity of the jets increased. calculated. two-mixture-fraction ﬂamelet models are not allowed. most commonly.Non-Premixed Combustion 8.4.1 Restrictions and Assumptions The following restrictions apply to all ﬂamelet models in ANSYS FLUENT: • Only a single mixture fraction can be modeled.4. For the latter.1: Restrictions and Assumptions • Section 8. The species mass fraction and temperature ﬁelds can be measured in laminar counterﬂow diﬀusion ﬂame experiments. 8.4. 267.4. 268] (see Figure 8. 8-26 Release 12. and the governing equations can be simpliﬁed to one dimension along the axis of the fuel and oxidizer jets. locally one-dimensional ﬂamelet structures embedded within the turbulent ﬂow ﬁeld [36. laminar.4. 2009 . Inc.4 The Laminar Flamelet Models Theory Information about the ﬂamelet models are presented in the following sections: • Section 8. the ﬂame is strained and increasingly departs from chemical equilibrium until it is eventually extinguished. • Empirically-based streams cannot be used with the ﬂamelet model. and scalar dissipation ﬂuctuations are ignored. A common laminar ﬂame type used to represent a ﬂamelet in a turbulent ﬂow is the counterﬂow diﬀusion ﬂame.4.4. or.3: Flamelet Generation • Section 8. where complex chemistry calculations can be aﬀordably performed.0 c ANSYS. axisymmetric fuel and oxidizer jets.1).2 The Flamelet Concept Overview The ﬂamelet concept views the turbulent ﬂame as an ensemble of thin. a self-similar solution exists. January 29.

2009 8-27 . Inc. January 29.1: Laminar Opposed-Flow Diﬀusion Flamelet Release 12.4 The Laminar Flamelet Models Theory turbulent ﬂame laminar ﬂamelet structure (see detail below) ﬂame fuel x velocity (u fuel ) velocity gradient (a fuel ) temperature (T fuel ) fuel composition oxidizer velocity (u ox ) velocity gradient (a ox ) temperature (Tox ) oxidizer composition fuel-oxidizer distance Figure 8.8.4.0 c ANSYS.

Strain Rate and Scalar Dissipation A characteristic strain rate for a counterﬂow diﬀusion ﬂamelet can be deﬁned as as = v/2d. equivalently. Instead of using the strain rate to quantify the departure from equilibrium. computational costs are reduced considerably. the chemistry is reduced and completely described by the two quantities. (see Section 8. Note that the scalar dissipation. 2009 . Hence.1: Deﬁnition of the Mixture Fraction for deﬁnition) decreases monotonically from unity at the fuel jet to zero at the oxidizer jet. Inc. they can be uniquely described by two parameters: the mixture fraction and the strain rate (or.4-1) χst = where χst as fst erfc−1 = = = = (8. where v is the relative speed of the fuel and oxidizer jets.2. The scalar dissipation is deﬁned as χ = 2D| f |2 where D is a representative diﬀusion coeﬃcient. f and χ. and d is the distance between the jet nozzles. and stored in look-up tables. and Dixon-Lewis [36. By preprocessing the chemistry. f . χ. If the species mass fraction and temperature along the axis are mapped from physical space to mixture fraction space. the mixture fraction. Comprehensive reviews and analyses are presented in the works of Bray and Peters.Non-Premixed Combustion In the laminar counterﬂow ﬂame. varies along the axis of the ﬂamelet.4-2). it is expedient to use the scalar dissipation. the ﬂamelet strain rate as can be related to the scalar dissipation at the position where f is stoichiometric by [267]: as exp −2[erfc−1 (2fst )]2 π (8. This reduction of the complex chemistry to two variables allows the ﬂamelet calculations to be preprocessed.0 c ANSYS. 72]. solution methods. and sample calculations of the counterﬂow laminar diﬀusion ﬂame can be found in several references. the scalar dissipation. deﬁned in Equation 8. January 29.4-2) scalar dissipation at f = fst characteristic strain rate stoichiometric mixture fraction inverse complementary error function 8-28 Release 12. The balance equations. denoted by χ. For the counterﬂow geometry. χ.

January 29. In the limit χst → 0 the chemistry tends to equilibrium. The temperature is then calculated from Equation 5. so some approximations are made.8. ﬂamelet tables have three dimensions: f . Inc.4-3 are preprocessed and stored in look-up tables. 240]. χst )p(f. f 2 and χst .0 c ANSYS. and adiabatic mass fractions are used [27. Embedding Laminar Flamelets in Turbulent Flames A turbulent ﬂame brush is modeled as an ensemble of discrete laminar ﬂamelets. the computational cost of modeling steady ﬂamelets over a range of enthalpies is prohibitive. Local quenching of the ﬂamelet occurs when χst exceeds a critical value. density-weighted mean species mass fractions and temperature in the turbulent ﬂame can be determined from the PDF of f and χst as φ= φ(f. Since. is modeled in ANSYS FLUENT as Cχ f k 2 χst = (8. and as χst increases due to aerodynamic straining. A β PDF shape is assumed for pf .4 The Laminar Flamelet Models Theory Physically. for adiabatic systems. χst ) df dχst (8.2-7 Release 12. the additional parameter of enthalpy is required. The instantaneous stoichiometric scalar dissipation. However. namely the mean scalar dissipation. is used as the essential non-equilibrium parameter. Fluctuations in χst are ignored so that the PDF of χ is a delta function: pχ = δ(χ − χ). the mean scalar dissipation is modeled as χst = Cχ (µt + µ) 2 | f| ρσt (8. and transport equations for f and f 2 are solved in ANSYS FLUENT to specify pf . the species mass fraction and temperature in the laminar ﬂamelets are completely parameterized by f and χst . as the ﬂame is strained. For adiabatic ﬂows.4-5) To avoid the PDF convolutions at ANSYS FLUENT run-time. For non-adiabatic steady laminar ﬂamelets. the width of the reaction zone diminishes. the non-equilibrium increases. f and χst are assumed to be statistically independent. It has the dimensions s−1 and may be interpreted as the inverse of a characteristic diﬀusion time. χst . In ANSYS FLUENT. χst ) can be simpliﬁed as pf (f )pχ (χst ).4-3) where φ represents species mass fractions and temperature. the integrations in Equation 8. The ﬁrst moment.4-4) where Cχ is a constant with a default value of 2. so the joint PDF p(f. 2009 8-29 . Heat gain/loss to the system is assumed to have a negligible eﬀect on the species mass fractions. For LES. χst . and the gradient of f at the stoichiometric position f = fst increases.

0 c ANSYS.4. Yi . Such stand-alone codes include OPPDIF [210]. ANSYS FLUENT can import ﬂamelet ﬁles in OPPDIF format or standard ﬂamelet ﬁle format. respectively. 8. a simpliﬁed set of the mixture fraction space equations are solved [272]. Accordingly. CFX-RIF [15. and H. not applied for the case corresponding to a scalar dissipation of zero. and Hi is the speciﬁc enthalpy of the ith species. ρ. 272] and RUN-1DL [270]. Inc. The approximation of constant adiabatic species mass fractions is. and f are the ith species mass fraction. For χst = 0. must be modeled across the ﬂamelet.4. however. or import them as ﬂamelet ﬁles calculated with other stand-alone packages.4-2 to variable density is used [163]: as 3( ρ∞ /ρ + 1) χ(f ) = exp −2[erfc−1 (2f )]2 4π 2 ρ∞ /ρ + 1 where ρ∞ is the density of the oxidizer stream. f 2 . respectively. N equations are solved for the species mass fractions.3 Flamelet Generation The laminar counterﬂow diﬀusion ﬂame equations can be transformed from physical space (with x as the independent variable) to mixture fraction space (with f as the independent variable) [273].4-8) 8-30 Release 12. 16. and mixture fraction. mean temperature and density PDF tables have an extra dimension of mean enthalpy.4: Flamelet Import. density. 2 (8. Instructions for generating and importing ﬂamelets are provided in Section 8. Such a case is represented by the non-adiabatic equilibrium solution. T . ρ and one equation for temperature: ∂T 1 ∂2T 1 = ρχ 2 − ∂t 2 ∂f cp 1 ∂cp ρχ + 2cp ∂f ∂Yi ∂T ∂f ∂f 1 ∂ 2 Yi ∂Yi = ρχ 2 + Si ∂t 2 ∂f (8.4-7) The notation in Equations 8. Si is the ith species reaction rate.i and cp are the ith species speciﬁc heat and mixture-averaged speciﬁc heat. χ. The scalar dissipation. An extension of Equation 8. January 29.4-6 and 8.3: Flamelet Generation and Section 8. H.i i (8. Here.4. the species mass fractions are computed as functions of f . cp. you can either generate your own ﬂamelets.4-6) ρ H i Si + i cp.Non-Premixed Combustion for a range of mean enthalpy gain/loss. temperature. 2009 . In ANSYS FLUENT. In ANSYS FLUENT.4-7 is as follows: Yi .

ANSYS FLUENT provides four methods of computing the mixture fraction proﬁle along the laminar ﬂamelet: • Average of C and H: Following the work of Drake and Blint [77].ox YN.4-11) where YN is the elemental mass fraction of nitrogen along the ﬂamelet. and oxygen atoms. and Mw. The species and temperature must then be mapped from physical space to mixture fraction space. Inc. the mixture fraction can be deﬁned in a number of ways. ASCII ﬁles generated by the CFX-RIF code [15.H Mw.O (8.8. YN.ox (8.4 Flamelet Import ANSYS FLUENT can import one or more ﬂamelet ﬁles. a unique deﬁnition of the mixture fraction exists. [26]. and YN.4-9) YC .O are the molecular weights.7. with diﬀerential diﬀusion.C Mw. January 29.fuel − YN.fuel is the mass fraction of nitrogen at the fuel inlet.ox is the mass fraction of nitrogen at the oxidizer inlet. • Nitrogen method: The mixture fraction is computed in terms of the mass fraction of the nitrogen species: f= YN − YN. Release 12.0 c ANSYS. and Mw. the mixture fraction is calculated as f= where b=2 YC YH YO + 0. Mw.4 The Laminar Flamelet Models Theory 8. hydrogen.4: Standard Flamelet Files in the separate User’s Guide and in Peters and Rogg [270]. and construct look-up tables. Three types of ﬂamelet ﬁles can be imported into ANSYS FLUENT: binary ﬁles generated by the OPPDIF code [210].C . the mixture fraction is calculated as the mean value of fC and fH . If the diﬀusion coeﬃcients of all species are equal. or with separate stand-alone computer codes.4-10) b − box bfuel − box (8. YH . where fC and f H are the mixture fraction values based on the carbon and hydrogen elements. and YO are the mass fractions of carbon. and standard format ﬁles described in Section 16. The ﬂamelet ﬁles can be generated in ANSYS FLUENT.4. 2009 8-31 . When ﬂamelets are generated in physical space (such as with OPPDIF). • Hydrocarbon formula: Following the work of Bilger et al.H . box and bfuel are the values of b at the oxidizer and fuel inlets. 272].4-3). 16. However.5 − Mw. convolute these ﬂamelets with the assumed-shape PDFs (see Equation 8. the species and temperature vary in one spatial dimension.

the species and the boundary conditions should be the same. it will instead use the hydrocarbon formula method described above. 2009 . • CFX-RIF format: A CFX-RIF ﬂamelet ﬁle contains multiple ﬂamelets at various strains and the ﬁle should not be modiﬁed manually. the steady laminar ﬂamelet model is limited to modeling combustion with relatively fast chemistry.5 The Steady Laminar Flamelet Model Theory The steady laminar ﬂamelet approach models a turbulent ﬂame brush as an ensemble of discrete. If you choose this method. The laminar ﬂamelets are then embedded in a turbulent ﬂame using statistical PDF methods. you can use ANSYS FLUENT to merge a number of single-ﬂamelet OPPDIF ﬁles into a multiple-ﬂamelet ﬁle. • Standard format: If you have a set of standard format ﬂamelet ﬁles. The advantage of the laminar ﬂamelet approach is that realistic chemical kinetic eﬀects can be incorporated into turbulent ﬂames. Inc. However. If ANSYS FLUENT does not ﬁnd mixture fraction data in the ﬂamelet ﬁle. Using detailed chemical mechanisms. ANSYS FLUENT will search for and count the occurrences of the HEADER keyword to determine the number of ﬂamelets in the ﬁle. and retrieve the data. and thus the 8-32 Release 12. oﬀering tremendous computational savings. you can select one of the four methods available for the calculation of mixture fraction. For either type of ﬁle. The scalar dissipation will be calculated from the strain rate using Equation 8. January 29. ANSYS FLUENT will search for the mixture fraction keyword Z. and ANSYS FLUENT will merge them internally into a multiple-ﬂamelet ﬁle. you can import them all at the same time. For ﬂamelets generated in physical space. as speciﬁed in Peter and Roggs’s work [270]. The formats for multiple ﬂamelets are as follows: • OPPDIF format: The multiple-ﬂamelet OPPDIF ﬁles should be produced using the CNTN keyword in the OPPDIF script. When you import the set of ﬂamelet ﬁles. The ﬂame is assumed to respond instantaneously to the aerodynamic strain. called ﬂamelets. steady laminar ﬂames.0 c ANSYS. The ﬂamelet proﬁles in the multiple-ﬂamelet data set should vary only in the strain rate imposed.Non-Premixed Combustion • Read from a ﬁle (standard format ﬁles only): This option is for ﬂamelets solved in mixture fraction space. ANSYS FLUENT will determine the number of ﬂamelet proﬁles and sort them in ascending strain-rate order. and are obtained by experiments or calculations. ANSYS FLUENT can calculate laminar opposed-ﬂow diﬀusion ﬂamelets for non-premixed combustion. 8. In addition. The individual ﬂamelets are assumed to have the same structure as laminar ﬂames in simple conﬁgurations. Only one CFX-RIF ﬂamelet ﬁle should be imported. Alternatively. it is recommended that an extinguished ﬂamelet is excluded from the multiple-ﬂamelet data set.4-2. The chemistry can then be preprocessed and tabulated.

Release 12.6: The Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model Theory) • the trace species assumption in the NOx model (see Chapter 13: Pollutant Formation) • the Laminar Finite-Rate model (see Section 7. the species can be considered to be in global chemical non-equilibrium. and radicals and heat diﬀuse more quickly out of the ﬂame.8. and the degree of local non-equilibrium increases. The chemistry.5.5. However. When the chemical time-scale is comparable to the ﬂuid mixing time-scale. the chemistry tends to equilibrium. More heat and radicals are generated in the reaction zone and some diﬀuse out. Instead.2: The Generalized Finite-Rate Formulation for Reaction Modeling).1: Introduction.5 The Steady Laminar Flamelet Model Theory model cannot capture deep non-equilibrium eﬀects such as ignition.5.5. as the ﬂame is stretched and strained by the turbulence.1: Overview • Section 8.5. The steady laminar ﬂamelet model is suited to predict chemical non-equilibrium due to aerodynamic straining of the ﬂame by the turbulence. 2009 8-33 . 8.2: Multiple Steady Flamelet Libraries • Section 8. Inc. and slow chemistry (like NOx ). In near-equilibrium ﬂames. however. you can model slow chemistry using one of the following: • the Unsteady Laminar Flamelet model (see Section 8. The steady laminar ﬂamelet model is not suitable for such slow-chemistry ﬂames. species and temperature gradients increase. Such cases include NOx formation and low-temperature CO oxidation. so as the strain relaxes to zero.4: Non-Adiabatic Steady Laminar Flamelets For general information about the mixture fraction model. Here. extinction. is assumed to respond rapidly to this strain.3: Steady Laminar Flamelet Automated Grid Reﬁnement • Section 8. the reaction rate is much faster than the diﬀusion rate. at the molecular level.0 c ANSYS. fuel and oxidizer diﬀuse into the reaction zone. Information pertaining strictly to the steady ﬂamelet model is presented in the following sections: • Section 8.1 Overview In a diﬀusion ﬂame. January 29. see Section 8. where the turbulence-chemistry interaction is ignored. they encounter high temperatures and radical species and ignite. The species have less time to reach chemical equilibrium.1.

v is a user speciﬁed Maximum Change in Value Ratio (default of 0.1. and vmax (vmin ) are the maximum (minimum) values over all grid points.5-3) 8-34 Release 12. a new grid point is inserted midway between a point i and its neighbor i + 1 if.5-1) −1 χi = χi−1 + ∆χ for χi−1 ≥ 1 s where i ranges from 1 up to the speciﬁed maximum number of ﬂamelets. 8. where an adaptive algorithm inserts grid points so that the change of values. and ∆χ is the scalar dissipation step.0 c ANSYS.5. 8. In addition a grid point is added if.5).5-2) where vi is the value for each temperature and species mass fraction at grid point i. a steady solution is calculated on a coarse grid with a user speciﬁed Initial Number of Grid Points in Flamelet (default of 8). |vi − vi+1 | > v (vmax − vmin ) (8. ﬂamelets are generated at scalar dissipation values as determined by Equation 8. If you specify the number of ﬂamelets to be greater than one. or the ﬂamelet extinguishes. 10χi−1 for χi−1 < 1 s−1 (8. Flamelets are generated until either the maximum number of ﬂamelets is reached.3 Steady Laminar Flamelet Automated Grid Reﬁnement By default. |si − si+1 | > s (smax − smin ) (8. χ0 is the initial scalar dissipation. as well as the change of slopes. January 29. Inc. At convergence. 2009 .5-1.5.2: The Eddy-Dissipation-Concept (EDC) Model) • the PDF transport model (see Chapter 11: Composition PDF Transport). which is approximated as the location of peak temperature. 1D ﬂamelet grids are discretized by clustering a ﬁxed number of points about the stoichiometric mixture fraction.Non-Premixed Combustion • the EDC model (see Section 7. ANSYS FLUENT also has the option for Automated Grid Reﬁnement of steady ﬂamelets.2 Multiple Steady Flamelet Libraries ANSYS FLUENT can generate multiple steady ﬂamelets over a range of strain rates to account for the varying strain ﬁeld in your multi-dimensional simulation. between successive grid points is less than user speciﬁed tolerances. When using automated grid reﬁnement. Extinguished ﬂamelets are excluded from the ﬂamelet library.

4-4).5). The reﬁned ﬂamelet is reconverged. smax (smin ) are the maximum (minimum) slopes over all grid points. OPPDIF. mixture fraction variance. and then tabulated for look-up in ANSYS FLUENT. and species mass fraction are obtained from the PDF look-up table. and the reﬁnement process is repeated until no further grid points are added by Equations 8. Release 12.5. and mean enthalpy are solved.0 c ANSYS.8. χ) for χ = 0 ρ(f . f 2 . and fi is the mixture fraction value of grid point i. f 2 .5-4) In Equations 8. f 2 .5-2 and 8. H. 240] and assumes that ﬂamelet species proﬁles are unaﬀected by heat loss/gain from the ﬂamelet. In addition.. The disadvantage to this model is that the eﬀect of the heat losses on the species mass fractions is not taken into account. The non-adiabatic PDF tables have the following dimensions: T (f . The scalar dissipation ﬁeld is calculated from the turbulence ﬁeld and the mixture fraction variance (Equation 8. After ﬂamelet generation.5-3. The mean values of cell temperature. January 29. H) for χ = 0 (i. si = vi+1 − vi fi+1 − fi (8.5 The Steady Laminar Flamelet Model Theory where the slope si is deﬁned as. f 2 . equilibrium solution) Yi (f . CFX-RIF. avoiding a very cumbersome preprocessing step. density.4-3. H. No special non-adiabatic ﬂamelet proﬁles need to be generated. the equations for the mean mixture fraction. Also. 8. the compatibility of ANSYS FLUENT with external steady ﬂamelet generation packages (e. RUN-1DL) is retained.e..5-4. the eﬀect of the heat loss on the extinction limits is not taken into account. the ﬂamelet proﬁles are convoluted with the assumed-shape PDFs as in Equation 8. ANSYS FLUENT follows the approach of [27. or the user speciﬁed Maximum Number of Grid Points in Flamelet (default of 64) is exceeded. Inc. s is a user speciﬁed Maximum Change in Slope Ratio (default of 0. 2009 8-35 . χ) Yi (f .5-3 and 8.g. χ) During the ANSYS FLUENT solution.4 Non-Adiabatic Steady Laminar Flamelets For non-adiabatic steady ﬂamelets.

January 29. detailed kinetics with multiple species and stiﬀ reactions can be economically simulated in complex 3D geometries.0 c ANSYS. By reducing the chemistry computation to one dimension.4 and 8. to be near equilibrium. Computationally expensive chemical kinetics are reduced to one dimension and the model is signiﬁcantly faster than the laminar-ﬁniterate.6.2: The Diesel Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model). postprocesses an unsteady marker probability equation on a steady-state. Information pertaining strictly to the unsteady ﬂamelet model is presented in the following sections: • Section 8.6. The cause of this inaccuracy is the disparity between the ﬂamelet time-scale.1: The Eulerian Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model) and a diesel unsteady ﬂamelet model for predicting combustion in compression-ignition engines (described in Section 8.6. The unsteady laminar ﬂamelet model in ANSYS FLUENT can predict slow-forming species. and the slow-forming species time-scale.6 The Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model Theory The steady laminar ﬂamelet model. EDC or PDF Transport models where kinetics are calculated in two or three dimensions. described in Sections 8. converged ﬂow ﬁeld. 8-36 Release 12. Typical examples of slow-forming species are gas-phase pollutants like NOx . [16]. There are two variants of the unsteady laminar ﬂamelet model. In many combustors the strain is small at the outlet and the steady ﬂamelet model predicts all species.2: The Diesel Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model 8. the steady ﬂow solution must be computed with the steady laminar ﬂamelet model (see Section 8. namely an Eulerian unsteady ﬂamelet model (described in Section 8.6.1 The Eulerian Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model The Eulerian unsteady laminar ﬂamelet model can be used to predict slow-forming intermediate and product species which are not in chemical equilibrium. Since the unsteady ﬂamelet equations are postprocessed on a steady-state.Non-Premixed Combustion 8. which is often inaccurate.1: The Eulerian Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model • Section 8. Inc.5. steady ﬂamelet solution. such as gaseous pollutants or product yields in liquid reactors. In ANSYS FLUENT.5: The Steady Laminar Flamelet Model Theory). including slow-forming species like NOx . models local chemical non-equilibrium due to the straining eﬀect of turbulence. The model. which is the inverse of the scalar dissipation. and product compounds in liquid reactors. more accurately than the steady laminar ﬂamelet model. the eﬀect of the unsteady ﬂamelet species on the ﬂow-ﬁeld are neglected.6. 2009 . following the work of Barths et al. which is the residence time since the species started accumulating after mixing in the combustor.

However. Release 12. as liquid reactions are assumed to proceed immediately upon mixing.6-1 is always solved unsteady. The unsteady ﬂamelet species equations (Equation 8.6 The Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model Theory The transport equation for the unsteady ﬂamelet marker probability. All slow-forming species. The scalar dissipation at stoichiometric mixture fraction (χst ) is required by the ﬂamelet species equation. Inc.4-6) are integrated simultaneously with the marker probability equation.6-3) where χst is deﬁned in Equation 8. At inlet boundaries. t) ρ(x) χst 1/2 (x) dV (8.6-2) 0 for f < finit where f is the mean mixture fraction and finit is a user supplied constant. I. little time has elapsed for any signiﬁcant formation. t) ρ(x) χst 3/2 (x) dV I(x.8. which should be set greater than the stoichiometric mixture fraction. ANSYS FLUENT provides the option of limiting χst to a user-speciﬁed maximum value. such as NOx . I. The slow-forming species are identiﬁed by the user before solution of the unsteady ﬂamelet equations. ANSYS FLUENT always sets I toward zero. is ∂ (ρI) + ∂t · (ρvI) = · µt I σt (8. For liquid-phase chemistry. January 29. and hence the I ﬁeld decreases to zero with time as I is convected and diﬀused out of the domain (for cases with outlet boundaries). are zeroed in this initial ﬂamelet proﬁle since. the initial ﬂamelet ﬁeld is the mixed-but-unburnt ﬂamelet.0 c ANSYS. so the initial ﬂamelet ﬁeld is calculated from a steady ﬂamelet solution. at ignition. gas-phase chemistry invariably requires ignition.6-1) Equation 8. which should be approximately equal to the ﬂamelet extinction scalar dissipation (the steady ﬂamelet solver can be used to calculate this extinction scalar dissipation in a separate simulation). 2009 8-37 . This is calculated from the steady-state ANSYS FLUENT ﬁeld at each time step as a probability-weighted volume integral: V V χst (t) = I(x. and V denotes the ﬂuid volume.6-3. and is initialized as 1 for f ≥ finit I= (8.

t) = I ρ T (x|f )/Tad (f. T (x|f ) denotes the ANSYS FLUENT steady-state mean cell temperature conditioned on the local cell mixture fraction.6-1) and the ﬂamelet species equation (Equation 8. t) is calculated at each time step from the steady ﬂamelet library at the probability-weighted scalar dissipation χst from Equation 8. t) ξ(f. t) is the k’th species unsteady ﬂamelet mass fraction. t) dV V I ρ dV (8.Non-Premixed Combustion The unsteady ﬂamelet energy equation is not solved in order to avoid ﬂamelet extinction for high scalar dissipation. t) = T ad (f. Inc.6-4) ξ(f.6-3. The Eulerian unsteady laminar ﬂamelet model can be used to model liquid reactions. January 29. • High Schmidt number (Sc) and hence reduced molecular diﬀusion.6-5) In Equation 8.4-6) are advanced together in time until the probability marker has substantially convected and diﬀused out of the domain.6-6) where Yk (f. For adiabatic cases. the ﬂamelet temperature T ad (f. For non-adiabatic cases.0 c ANSYS. t) where V (8. 8-38 Release 12. t) P (f ) df dt t 0 I ρ dt (8. 2009 . reaches steady-state as the probability marker I vanishes.6-5. When the Liquid Micro-Mixing model is enabled. The unsteady ﬂamelet mean species. The probability marker equation (Equation 8. ANSYS FLUENT uses the volume-weightedmixing-law formula to calculate the density. calculated from Equation 8. and P (f ) denotes the Beta PDF. Unsteady ﬂamelet mean species mass fractions in each cell are accumulated over time as t 0 Yk uf la = Iρ 1 0 Yk (f. Liquid Reactions Liquid reactors are typically characterized by: • Near constant density and temperature. • Relatively slow reactions and species far from chemical equilibrium. the ﬂamelet temperature at time t is calculated from T (f.6-5. and to account for non-adiabatic heat loss or gain.

4-7) are solved simultaneously with the ﬂow. January 29. 8. 2009 8-39 .8. The ﬂamelet equations are advanced for a fractional step using properties from the ﬂow. one-dimensional laminar ﬂamelet. 2 Three transport equations are solved for the inertial-convective (fic ). [272. based on the work of Pitsch et al. which is modeled with the Turbulent Mixer Model [11]. 2 2 2 respectively. The ﬂamelet species and energy equations (Equations 8. and then the ﬂow is advanced for the same fractional time-step using properties from the ﬂamelet. To account for temperature rise during compression. EDC or PDF Transport models. models the chemistry in a single.0 c ANSYS. 15]. 1.6.2 The Diesel Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model In diesel engines.6 The Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model Theory The eﬀect of high Sc is to decrease mixing at the smallest (micro) scales and increase the mixture fraction variance. 0. as well as the fuel and oxidizer temperatures. the ﬂamelet energy equation (Equation 8.6-7) 2 · ρvfvc = µt 2 f 2 + C2 ρ fic − C3 ρ f2 σt vc k ν vc (8.6-10) Release 12. Sc. mixes with the surrounding gases. and then auto-ignites as compression raises the temperature and pressure.4-6 and 8. and D the mass diﬀusivity as deﬁned for the pdf-mixture material. fuel sprayed into the cylinder evaporates. is calculated as Sc = µ/ρD where µ is the viscosity.6-8) ∂ 2 ρfvd + ∂t 2 · ρvfvd = · µt C5 2 2 fvd + C3 ρ fvc − C4 + f2 σt ν Sc vd (8.4-7) has an additional term on the right-hand side as q= ˙ 1 ∂p cp ∂t (8.6-9) where the constants C1 through C5 have values of 2. viscous-convective 2 2 (fvc ). and viscous-diﬀusive (fvd ) subranges of the turbulent scalar spectrum. the cell Schmidt number. The initial ﬂamelet condition at the start of the diesel simulation is a mixed-but-unburnt distribution. In Equation 8. are passed from the ﬂow solver to the ﬂamelet solver. substantial savings in run-time can be achieved over the laminar-ﬁnite-rate. Inc. By reducing the costly chemical kinetic calculation to 1D. ∂ 2 ρfic + ∂t ∂ 2 ρfvc + ∂t 2 · ρvfic = · µt f 2 + C1 µt σt ic · f 2 2 − C2 ρ fic k (8. 0.058. and 17050. The diesel unsteady laminar ﬂamelet model. The total mixture fraction variance is the sum of fic . ρ the density. fvc and fvd . For the ﬂamelet fractional time-step.86.6-9. the volume-averaged scalar dissipation and pressure.303. and Barths et al.

0 c ANSYS.Non-Premixed Combustion where cp is a the speciﬁc heat and p is the volume-averaged pressure in the cylinder. After the ﬂamelet equations have been advanced for the fractional time-step.6: Using the Diesel Unsteady Laminar Flamelet Model in the separate User’s Guide.5. 2009 . intermediate and pollutant species.4: Non-Adiabatic Steady Laminar Flamelets). January 29. The diesel unsteady ﬂamelet approach can model ignition as well as formation of product. Inc.3. Using the properties of this table. 8-40 Release 12. the PDF Table is created as a Non-Adiabatic Steady Flamelet table (see Section 8. This rise in ﬂamelet temperature due to compression eventually leads to ignition of the ﬂamelet. the CFD ﬂow ﬁeld is then advanced for the same fractional time-step. Enabling the Diesel Unsteady Flamelet model is described in Section 16.

Chapter 9.0 c ANSYS.1 Overview In premixed combustion. Examples of premixed combustion include aspirated internal combustion engines. Premixed Combustion ANSYS FLUENT has premixed turbulent combustion models based on the reactionprogress variable approach. resolution requirements are usually unaﬀordable. as well as the detailed chemical kinetics and molecular diﬀusion processes. the eﬀective ﬂame speed. while the small turbulent eddies. The laminar ﬂame speed is determined by the rate that species and heat diﬀuse upstream into the reactants and burn. Theoretical information about this model is provided in the following sections: • Section 9. For more information about using the premixed turbulent combustion model. in turn.2: Zimont Turbulent Flame Closure Theory • Section 9. The reason for this is that premixed combustion usually occurs as a thin.4: Calculation of Temperature • Section 9. the overall rate of propagation of the ﬂame is determined by both the laminar ﬂame speed and the turbulent eddies. Premixed combustion is much more diﬃcult to model than non-premixed combustion. 2009 9-1 . Combustion occurs as a ﬂame front propagating into the unburnt reactants. leanpremixed gas turbine combustors.1.5: Calculation of Density 9. The large turbulent eddies tend to wrinkle and corrugate the ﬂame sheet. propagating ﬂame that is stretched and contorted by turbulence. if they are smaller than the laminar ﬂame thickness. see Chapter 17: Modeling Premixed Combustion in the separate User’s Guide. Inc. and gas-leak explosions. increasing the sheet area and.1 Overview and Limitations 9. Since practical laminar ﬂame thicknesses are of the order of millimeters or smaller. To capture the laminar ﬂame speed. January 29. For subsonic ﬂows.3: Extended Coherent Flamelet Model Theory • Section 9.1: Overview and Limitations • Section 9. may penetrate the ﬂame sheet and modify the laminar ﬂame structure. fuel and oxidizer are mixed at the molecular level prior to ignition. the internal ﬂame structure would need to be resolved. The eﬀect of turbulence is to wrinkle and stretch the propagating laminar ﬂame sheet. Release 12.

where the combustible mixture is ignited by the heat behind a shock wave. in comparison. The premixed combustion model is not available with either of the density-based solvers. Reaction then takes place in a combustion zone that separates unburnt reactants and burnt combustion products. January 29. However. • You cannot use the premixed combustion model to simulate reacting discrete-phase particles.2 Limitations The following limitations apply to the premixed combustion model: • You must use the pressure-based solver. it is possible to use the premixed combustion model.1.1. If the ﬂame is perfectly premixed (all streams entering the combustor have the same equivalence ratio). the EDC model (see Section 7. subsonic ﬂows. a perfectly premixed system can be modeled with the partially premixed model (see Chapter 10: Partially Premixed Combustion). can be greatly simpliﬁed to a mixing problem (see the mixture fraction approach in Section 8. The essence of premixed combustion modeling lies in capturing the turbulent ﬂame speed. They occur when an additional oxidizer or fuel stream enters a premixed system. or when a diﬀusion ﬂame becomes lifted oﬀ the burner so that some premixing takes place prior to combustion. 2009 . can be modeled with the ﬁnite-rate model using the density-based solver.Premixed Combustion Non-premixed combustion. • The premixed combustion model is valid only for turbulent. • The premixed combustion model cannot be used in conjunction with the pollutant (i. the fuel and oxidizer are intimately mixed before they enter the combustion device. 9-2 Release 12. See Chapter 7: Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry for information about the ﬁnite-rate model. Partially premixed ﬂames exhibit the properties of both premixed and diﬀusion ﬂames. Premixed and partially premixed ﬂames can be modeled using ANSYS FLUENT’s ﬁniterate/eddy-dissipation formulation (see Chapter 7: Species Transport and Finite-Rate Chemistry).. soot and NOx ) models.e. as described in this chapter. If ﬁnite-rate chemical kinetic eﬀects are important. also called detonations.2: The Eddy-Dissipation-Concept (EDC) Model) or the composition PDF transport model (see Chapter 11: Composition PDF Transport) can be used. In premixed ﬂames. These types of ﬂames are called deﬂagrations.0 c ANSYS. which can be used with the pollutant models. the Laminar FiniteRate model (see Section 7. which is inﬂuenced by both the laminar ﬂame speed and the turbulence. Only inert particles can be used with the premixed combustion model. 9.1: Introduction). Inc. see Chapter 10: Partially Premixed Combustion. Explosions.1. For information about ANSYS FLUENT’s partially premixed combustion model. since these would result in a partially premixed system.2: The Laminar Finite-Rate Model).

393]. denoted by c: ∂ (ρc) + ∂t where c Sct Sc = = = mean reaction progress variable turbulent Schmidt number reaction progress source term (s−1 ) · (ρvc) = · µt c + ρSc Sct (9. The closure of this equation is based on the deﬁnition of the turbulent ﬂame speed.1 Propagation of the Flame Front In many industrial premixed systems. based on work by Zimont et al. The ﬂame front propagation is modeled by solving a transport equation for the densityweighted mean reaction progress variable. The premixed combustion model thus considers the reacting ﬂow ﬁeld to be divided into regions of burnt and unburnt species. combustion of unburnt reactants occurs.2 Zimont Turbulent Flame Closure Theory The turbulent premixed combustion model.eq = number of products = mass fraction of product species i = equilibrium mass fraction of product species i Release 12.0 c ANSYS. January 29. 2009 9-3 . separated by the ﬂame sheet. converting unburnt premixed reactants to burnt products.2-2) Yi.eq i=1 where n Yi Yi.2. 391. n Yi c= i=1 n (9.9.2 Zimont Turbulent Flame Closure Theory 9.2.2-1) The progress variable is deﬁned as a normalized sum of the product species.1: Propagation of the Flame Front • Section 9. combustion takes place in a thin ﬂame sheet. involves the solution of a transport equation for the reaction progress variable.2: Turbulent Flame Speed 9. As the ﬂame front moves. [390. Inc. Information in this section is provided in the following sections: • Section 9.2.

and molecular diﬀusion properties.2-3) Many other models for turbulent ﬂame speed exist [36].2 Turbulent Flame Speed The key to the premixed combustion model is the prediction of Ut . The turbulent ﬂame speed is inﬂuenced by the following: • laminar ﬂame speed. 2009 . which is. More information about user-deﬁned functions can be found in the separate UDF Manual. January 29.2-1 is modeled as [391] ρSc = ρu Ut | c| where ρu Ut = density of unburnt mixture = turbulent ﬂame speed (9. and ﬂame thickening by small eddies In ANSYS FLUENT.0 c ANSYS. It is usually speciﬁed as either 0 (unburnt) or 1 (burnt). the Zimont turbulent ﬂame speed closure is computed using a model for wrinkled and thickened ﬂame fronts [391]: Ut = A(u )3/4 Ul α−1/4 τt 1/4 = Au τc 1/2 1/4 t (9.2-5) 9-4 Release 12.Premixed Combustion Based on this deﬁnition. The mean reaction rate in Equation 9. as well as the detailed chemical kinetics • ﬂame front wrinkling and stretching by large eddies.2-4) (9. the turbulent ﬂame speed normal to the mean surface of the ﬂame. Inc. determined by the fuel concentration. and can be speciﬁed using userdeﬁned functions. temperature. 9. in turn. c = 0 where the mixture is unburnt and c = 1 where the mixture is burnt: • c = 0: unburnt mixture • c = 1: burnt mixture The value of c is deﬁned as a boundary condition at all ﬂow inlets.2.

The model is strictly applicable when the smallest turbulent eddies in the ﬂow (the Kolmogorov scales) are smaller than the ﬂame thickness. The default value of 0. and can be quantiﬁed by Karlovitz numbers.9. The model is based on the assumption of equilibrium small-scale turbulence inside the laminar ﬂame. which cannot be captured in this model. Release 12. The turbulence length scale. This is called the thin reaction zone combustion region.2 Zimont Turbulent Flame Closure Theory where A u Ul α = k/ρcp t = = = = τt = t /u τc = α/Ul2 model constant RMS (root-mean-square) velocity (m/s) laminar ﬂame speed (m/s) molecular heat transfer coeﬃcient of unburnt mixture (thermal diﬀusivity) (m2 /s) = turbulence length scale (m) = turbulence time scale (s) = chemical time scale (s) t.52 for A is recommended [391]. Inc. The default value of 0.2-6) t where is the turbulence dissipation rate. greater than unity. Ka is deﬁned as v2 tl = η2 tη Ul Ka = where tl tη vη = (ν )1/4 ν (9.2-7) = characteristic ﬂame time scale = smallest (Kolmogorov) turbulence time scale = Kolmogorov velocity = kinematic viscosity Lastly. is computed from = CD (u )3 (9. Ka. and penetrate into the ﬂame zone. resulting in a turbulent ﬂame speed expression that is purely in terms of the large-scale turbulent parameters. as occurs in most industrial combustors.37 for CD should also be suitable for most premixed ﬂames. January 29. 2009 9-5 .0 c ANSYS. and is suitable for most premixed ﬂames. Flames that propagate for a long period of time equilibrate to a constant ﬂame width. the model is valid for premixed systems where the ﬂame brush width increases in time.

methanol.ref = 298K and pu.2-4) are replaced by their equivalent subgrid quantities.ref = C1 + C2 (φ − C3 )2 (9. or as a user-deﬁned function.ref γ Ul = Ul.2-11) where φ is the equivalence ratio ahead of the ﬂame front.2-8) where Cs is the Smagorinsky constant and ∆ is the cell characteristic length. 2009 . The RMS velocity in Equation 9. Ul. 9-6 Release 12.2-12) The Meghalchi-Keck laminar ﬂame speeds are available for fuel-air mixtures of methane. is calculated from Ul.2-10. Tu.Premixed Combustion Turbulent Flame Speed for LES For simulations that use the LES turbulence model. and C1 .2-4 is replaced by the subgrid velocity ﬂuctuation. Tu and pu are the unburnt reactant temperature and pressure ahead of the ﬂame. A third option appears for non-adiabatic premixed and partiallypremixed ﬂames and is based on the correlation proposed by Meghalchi and Keck [227].1-28.ref β (9.ref pu pu.2-10) In Equation 9. The reference laminar ﬂame speed. The exponents γ and β are calculated from. January 29. iso-octane and indolene fuels. C2 and C3 are fuelspeciﬁc constants. γ = 2. Inc.0 c ANSYS. In particular. calculated as −1 u = t τsgs (9.ref = 1atm.22(φ − 1) (9. given in Equation 7.1) can be speciﬁed as constant.16 + 0. the Reynolds-averaged quantities in the turbulent ﬂame speed expression (Equation 9.18 − 0.8(φ − 1) β = −0. the large eddy length scale t is modeled as t = Cs ∆ (9.ref .2. propane. Tu Tu.2-9) −1 where τsgs is the subgrid scale mixing rate (inverse of the subgrid scale time scale). Laminar Flame Speed The laminar ﬂame speed (Ul in Equation 9.

L is the turbulent integral length scale. the unburnt density and thermal diﬀusivity are calculated as volume averages ahead of the ﬂame front. these can change signiﬁcantly in time and/or space.9. the probability that the ﬂame will be unquenched is 100%. This stretch factor represents the probability that the stretching will not quench the ﬂame. When the ideal gas model is selected for density. : 1 1 ln G = erfc − 2 2σ cr σ + 2 cr (9. January 29.2-14) where µstr is the stretch factor coeﬃcient for dissipation pulsation.2-13) are deﬁned below.2-1) is multiplied by a stretch factor. such as in-cylinder combustion. G. However. the source term for the progress variable (ρSc in Equation 9. ﬂame stretching will have a signiﬁcant eﬀect on the mean turbulent heat release intensity. if there is no stretching (G = 1). The default value of 0.2.2-15) Release 12. is obtained by integrating the log-normal distribution of the turbulence dissipation rate. G [393].26 for µstr (measured in turbulent non-reacting ﬂows) is recommended by [391]. and σ and σ is the standard deviation of the distribution of : L η σ = µstr ln (9. cr is the turbulence dissipation rate at the critical rate of strain [391]: 2 = 15νgcr cr (9. 2009 9-7 . Inc.0 c ANSYS.2 Zimont Turbulent Flame Closure Theory Unburnt Density and Thermal Diffusivity The unburnt density (ρu in Equation 9. To take this ﬂame stretching into account.1) and unburnt thermal diﬀusivity (α in Equation 9. and η is the Kolmogorov micro-scale. Flame Stretch Effect Since industrial low-emission combustors often operate near lean blow-oﬀ. The stretch factor. and is suitable for most premixed ﬂames. for compressible cases.2-5) are speciﬁed constants that are set in the Materials dialog box. where erfc is the complementary error function.

Values of αw larger than 1 increase the ﬂame speed. while values less than 1 decrease the ﬂame speed in the cells next to the wall boundary. In reality. respectively. This eﬀect becomes more pronounced when the ratio of the reactant density to the product density is large. Values of this ratio greater than one indicate a tendency for counter-gradient diﬀusion. Ul . More information about user-deﬁned functions can be found in the separate UDF Manual. A reasonable model for the critical rate of strain gcr is gcr = BUl2 α (9. 2009 . laminar ﬂame speed. ANSYS FLUENT includes a constant multiplier for the turbulent ﬂame speed. radical quenching close to walls decreases reaction rates and thus the ﬂame speed. Wall Damping High turbulent kinetic energy levels at the walls in some problems can cause an unphysical acceleration of the ﬂame along the wall. Inc. To include ﬂame stretching eﬀects.2-17) The default for this constant is 1 which does not change the ﬂame speed. Recent arguments for the validity of the turbulent-ﬂame-speed model in such regimes can be found in Zimont et al. ρb . Equation 9. Gradient Diffusion Volume expansion at the ﬂame front can cause counter-gradient diﬀusion. and the premixed combustion model may be inappropriate. αw . where ρu . and I are the unburnt and burnt densities. or an appropriate value can be determined from experimental data. Numerical models can suggest a range of physically plausible values [391]. gcr is set to a very high value (1 × 108 ) so no ﬂame stretching occurs. but is not included in the model.5) and α is the unburnt thermal diﬀusivity. [392]. It can be quantiﬁed by the ratio (ρu /ρb )(Ul /I). which modiﬁes the ﬂame speed in the vicinity of wall boundaries: Ut = αw A τt τc 1/4 (9.2-16) where B is a constant (typically 0.0 c ANSYS. 9-8 Release 12. and turbulence intensity.Premixed Combustion By default. To approximate this eﬀect.2-16 can be implemented in ANSYS FLUENTusing a property user-deﬁned function. and the turbulence intensity is small. the critical rate of strain gcr should be adjusted based on experimental data for the burner. January 29.

where the wrinkled ﬂamelets regime is indicated below the Da = 1 line. based on the theory outlined above: ρSc = AGρu I 3/4 [Ul (λlp )]1/2 [α(λlp )]−1/4 = AGρu I τt τc (λlp ) 1/4 1/4 t | c| (9. January 29. which is ultimately used to model the mean reaction rate in Equation 9.3-1) Release 12.2-19) | c| 9. Typical Internal Combustion (IC) engines typically operate in this wrinkled ﬂamelet range. 2009 9-9 .3. but is less robust and requires greater computational eﬀort to converge.9.3 Extended Coherent Flamelet Model Theory ANSYS FLUENT will solve the transport equation for the reaction progress variable c (Equation 9.2: Turbulent Flame Speed in ECFM The ECFM model solves an additional equation for the ﬂame area density. however the internal laminar ﬂame proﬁle is not distorted.0 c ANSYS. ρSc . An expression for the transport of the net ﬂame area per unit volume.3 Extended Coherent Flamelet Model Theory The Extended Coherent Flamelet Model (ECFM) [274] is a more reﬁned premixed combustion model than the Zimont Turbulent Flame Closure. or ﬂame area density.1: Closure for ECFM Source Terms • Section 9. The range of applicability of the ECFM model is illustrated on the Borghi diagram in Figure 9. Inc. denoted Σ. The model assumes that the smallest turbulence length scales (Kolmogorov eddies) are larger than the laminar ﬂame thickness.1.3. so the eﬀect of turbulence is to wrinkle the laminar ﬂame sheet. Σ. The increased surface area of the ﬂame results in increased net fuel consumption and an increased ﬂame speed. computing the source term.2-1.3. Information in this section is provided in the following sections: • Section 9.2-18) (9. It has theoretically greater accuracy.2-1). can be derived based on these assumptions [44]: ∂Σ + ∂t · (vΣ) = · µt Sct Σ ρ + (P1 + P2 + P3 ) Σ − D (9.

3-1 requires closure terms for the production and destruction terms for ﬂame area density.0 c ANSYS.1: Borghi diagram for turbulent combustion where Σ Sct µt ρ P1 P2 P3 D = = = = = = = = mean ﬂame area density turbulent Schmidt number turbulent viscosity density Source due to turbulence interaction Source due to dilatation in the ﬂame Source due to expansion of burned gas Dissipation of ﬂame area Equation 9. 9-10 Release 12. Inc. 2009 . Several families of closure terms have been put forth in the literature [274].Premixed Combustion T u /Ul 222 2 222 22 Thickened 222 222 Flames 22 Ka = 100 22 222 Thickened Flamelets 10 d d dRet = 1 d d d d Da = 1 1 Ka = 1 222 22222 2 d 22 87 d IC d Engines d Wrinkled Laminar d Flamelets Combustion d d d d 1 10 100 96 22 22 222 222 2 E 1000 lt /δl Figure 9. January 29. ANSYS FLUENT uses the closure described in the following section.3.

6. ΓK .3-3) where s is deﬁned as lt δl0 s = log10 and σ1 is u Ul (9.3 Extended Coherent Flamelet Model Theory 9.11 (s + 0.3-2) where Kt is a turbulent time scale and α1 is a constant with a default value of 1. The constant α0 (default of 1) is a user-speciﬁed linear blending between the Intermediate Turbulent Net Flame Stretch (ITNFS) term. ΓK . and a straightforward turbulent time scale source when α0 = 0 for high turbulence levels.3-6) Release 12.4) Ul (9. ANSYS FLUENT provides several options for the calculation of this quantity: • Constant (user-speciﬁed) value • Meneveau Flame Thickness [223] The laminar ﬂame thickness is calculated as δl0 = 2α Ul (9. The expression for ΓK is given by: log10 (ΓK ) = − 1 u exp (−(s + 0. can be speciﬁed either as a constant or calculated as a function 0 of the two parameters u /Ul and lt /δL . lt is the integral turbulent length scale and δL is the laminar ﬂame thickness. and is modeled as P1 = α1 Kt = α1 [(1 − α0 ) + α0 ΓK ] k (9. where u is the turbulent velocity ﬂuctuation. for low turbulence levels at α0 = 1.3.1 Closure for ECFM Source Terms P1 represents the production of ﬂame area density by turbulent ﬂame stretching.4)) + (1 − exp (−(s + 0. 2009 9-11 . is sensitive to the laminar ﬂame thickness.9.3-5) The ITNFS term.4))) σ1 s − 0. ΓK . Ul 0 is the laminar ﬂame speed. Inc. January 29. The ITNFS term.0 c ANSYS.3-4) σ1 2 1 u = 1 − exp − 3 2 Ul 1 3 (9.

The ﬂame area destruction term D is modeled as D = βUl Σ2 1−c (9.3-8) where Tu is the unburned temperature. • Poinsot Flame Thickness [274] The ﬂame thickness is evaluated as in Equation 9. The term P3 models the eﬀect of thermal expansion of the burned gas on the ﬂame area density.3-10) 2 3 · (ρu) (9. The term is given by P2 = α2 where the constant α2 has a default of 1. January 29. Γp is added to ΓK . Γp is calculated as Γp = − where pq b gl s = = = = − 1 (1 + tanh (b3 /|b|)) 2 [log10 (u /Ul ) − gl ] /0. 2009 .7 α Ul (9.3-7) • Blint Correction Flame Thickness [30] This includes a correction due to rapid expansion of the gas: δl0 = 2 Tb Tu 0.3-9) 9-12 Release 12.3-6 but an additional term.0 c ANSYS. Inc. The term P2 in Equation 9.04s (0.36s) log10 (lt Ul /α) 3 lt Ul 1 log 2 δl u 1 − pq (9. and is given by P3 = α3 where α3 is 1 by default.Premixed Combustion where α is the local unburnt thermal diﬀusivity. and Tb denotes the burned temperature.3-1 models the inﬂuence of dilatation on the production of ﬂame area density.3-11) ρu 1 − c Ul Σ ρb c (9.7 + es ) e−s + (1 + e−s ) (1 + 0.

0 c ANSYS.2 Non-Adiabatic Temperature Calculation For the non-adiabatic premixed combustion model. ρu .9. ﬁnite value.4 which can occur when the turbulent integral length scale is small compared to the laminar ﬂame thickness. These numerical limiting constants can be adjusted in the TUI. As formulated. the temperature is assumed to be a linear function of reaction progress between the lowset temperature of the unburnt mixture. h. 9. and ﬂame surface area density.4 Calculation of Temperature where β is a constant with a default value of 1. laminar ﬂame speed. the quantity (s + 0.4-1) 9. 2009 9-13 . ANSYS FLUENT solves an energy transport equation in order to account for any heat losses or gains within the system. Σ.2-1 is closed as ρSc = ρu Ul Σ (9.2-3) is as follows: Release 12. The energy equation in terms of sensible enthalpy. To prevent the singularity. ANSYS FLUENT sets the production terms to zero when the laminar ﬂame speed is less than a very small value.3-3 for s = -0.4.3. and the highest adiabatic burnt temperature Tad : T = (1 − c)Tu + cTad (9. Inspection of the function for ΓK shows that a singularity exists in Equation 9.1 Adiabatic Temperature Calculation For the adiabatic premixed combustion model. for the fully premixed fuel (see Equation 5.3-12) which is the product of the unburnt density. Inc. which is unphysical. Further. Accordingly. the production terms P1 and P2 can be non-zero in regions where the mixture is outside the ﬂammability limits. Ul .4 Calculation of Temperature The calculation method for temperature will depend on whether the model is adiabatic or non-adiabatic. The stability of the solution is enhanced by ensuring that the laminar ﬂame speed in the destruction term is always greater than a small. which is handled by limiting c. 9. This results in a small net turbulent ﬂame stretch term in laminar zones. January 29.4. the model can become singular for c = 0 and c = 1.2 Turbulent Flame Speed in ECFM The mean reaction rate term in the reaction progress variable Equation 9. Tu .4) is limited to a small positive number. 9.

Equation 9.chem = ρSc Hcomb Yfuel where Sc Hcomb Yfuel = = = normalized average rate of product formation (s−1 ) heat of combustion for burning 1 kg of fuel (J/kg) fuel mass fraction of unburnt mixture (9. For the adiabatic model.4-3) 9.chem + Sh.4-2. where R is the gas constant and pop is the operating pressure. you will need to input the eﬀective molecular weight of the gas. January 29. If you choose to ignore pressure ﬂuctuations. Inc. from the incompressible ideal gas equation.chem represents the heat gains due to chemical reaction: Sh. The burnt gas density is then calculated from the following relation: ρb Tb = ρu Tu (9. For the non-adiabatic model. you can choose to either include or exclude pressure variations in the ideal gas equation of state. If you want to include pressure ﬂuctuations for a compressible gas. 2009 .5-2) where T is computed from the energy transport equation. the expression ρu RTu /pop may be considered to be the eﬀective molecular weight of the gas. the unburnt temperature (Tu ). pressure variations are neglected and the mean molecular weight is assumed to be constant. and the burnt adiabatic ﬂame temperature (Tb ).5 Calculation of Density ANSYS FLUENT calculates the premxed density using the ideal gas law. and the subscript b refers to the burnt hot mixture. ANSYS FLUENT calculates the density from ρT = ρu Tu (9. and the density will be calculated from the ideal gas equation of state.Premixed Combustion ∂ (ρh) + ∂t · (ρvh) = · k + kt h + Sh. The required inputs are the unburnt density (ρu ) and the unburnt temperature (Tu ).rad cp (9.0 c ANSYS. Note that. 9-14 Release 12.5-1) where the subscript u refers to the unburnt cold mixture. The required inputs are the unburnt density (ρu ).rad represents the heat losses due to radiation and Sh.4-2) Sh.

Ahead of the ﬂame front (c = 0).2: Partially Premixed Combustion Theory 10. the species mass fractions. Such ﬂames include premixed jets discharging into a quiescent atmosphere. For information about using the partially premixed combustion model.1: Overview and Limitations • Section 10. and imperfectly premixed inlets. or a mixture of fuel and oxidizer. which may be pure fuel.1 Partially premixed combustion systems are premixed ﬂames with non-uniform fuel-oxidizer mixtures (equivalence ratios). but incurs a major computational overhead.1. In particular. 10. Partially Premixed Combustion ANSYS FLUENT provides a partially premixed combustion model that is based on the non-premixed combustion model described in Chapter 8: Non-Premixed Combustion and the premixed combustion model described in Chapter 9: Premixed Combustion. Within the ﬂame (0 < c < 1). temperature. The two-mixture-fraction model extends the number of inlet streams to three. the single-mixturefraction approach is limited to two inlet streams. and limitations of the non-premixed and premixed models apply directly to the partially premixed model. see Chapter 18: Modeling Partially Premixed Combustion in the separate User’s Guide.1 Overview and Limitations Overview 10.1. January 29. the mixture is burnt and the equilibrium or laminar ﬂamelet mixture fraction solution is used. The partially premixed model in ANSYS FLUENT is a simple combination of the nonpremixed model (Chapter 8: Non-Premixed Combustion) and the premixed model (Chapter 9: Premixed Combustion). c. Behind the ﬂame front (c = 1). pure oxidizer.2 Limitations The underlying theory. assumptions. Inc. 2009 10-1 .1. See Sections 9.Chapter 10. determines the position of the ﬂame front.2 for additional limitations. Release 12.0 c ANSYS. and density are calculated from the mixed but unburnt mixture fraction. lean premixed combustors with diﬀusion pilot ﬂames and/or cooling air jets. Information about the theory behind the partially premixed combustion model is presented in the following sections: • Section 10. a linear combination of the unburnt and burnt mixtures is used. The premixed reaction-progress variable.

but the mixture is not reacted. c)p(f. Access to polynomials is provided in case you want to modify them. c) df dc (10. are calculated similarly by mixing a mass f of fuel with a mass (1 − f ) of oxidizer. The unburnt scalars. as well as the mean mixture fraction. Ahead of the ﬂame (c = 0). the chemistry calculations and PDF integrations for the burnt mixture are performed in ANSYS FLUENT. The burnt scalars. the mean scalars are determined from 1 1 φ=c 0 φb (f )p(f ) df + (1 − c) 0 φu (f )p(f ) df (10. and behind the ﬂame (c = 1).0 c ANSYS. φu . 10. Inc.1 Calculation of Scalar Quantities Density weighted mean scalars (such as species fractions and temperature).Partially Premixed Combustion 10. 10-2 Release 12. speciﬁc heat. so the mean unburnt scalars. φu . The unburnt density. these polynomial ﬁts are generally accurate. are functions of the mixture fraction and are calculated by mixing a mass f of fuel with a mass (1 − f ) of oxidizer and allowing the mixture to equilibrate. When non-adiabatic mixtures and/or laminar ﬂamelets are considered. respectively. 2009 .2-2) where the subscripts b and u denote burnt and unburnt. c (to determine the position of the ﬂame front).2 Partially Premixed Combustion Theory The partially premixed model solves a transport equation for the mean reaction progress variable. the fuel and oxidizer are mixed but unburnt. and thermal diﬀusivity are ﬁtted in ANSYS FLUENT to third-order polynomials of f using linear least squares: 3 n φu = n=0 cn f (10. Just as in the non-premixed model. are functions of f only. f 2 . denoted by φ. so that only unburnt reactants and burnt products exist.2-3) Since the unburnt scalars are smooth and slowly-varying functions of f . January 29. φb . and look-up tables are constructed. the mixture is burnt. φb is also a function of enthalpy and/or strain. are calculated from the probability density function (PDF) of f and c as 1 1 φ= 0 0 φ(f. f and the mixture fraction variance. temperature.2. but this does not alter the basic formulation. Turbulent ﬂuctuations are neglected for the unburnt mixture.2-1) Under the assumption of thin ﬂames.

However. The laminar ﬂame speed polynomial should be determined from other sources. for unburnt temperatures from 298 K to 800 K. and propane (C3 H8 ) fuels.2 Laminar Flame Speed The premixed models require the laminar ﬂame speed (see Equation 9. such as measurements from the relevant literature or detailed 1D simulations. Although ANSYS FLUENT defaults to a methane-air mixture. acetylene (C2 H2 ). temperature. the reactant stream has one composition. and have zero ﬂame speed. then the curve ﬁts will be incorrect. C2 H6 .2-4). Mixtures leaner than the lean limit or richer than the rich limit will not burn. and for pressures from 1 bar to 40 bars. These curves were determined for hydrogen (H2 ). or if the unburnt temperature or pressure is outside the range of validity. If an oxidizer other than air or a diﬀerent fuel is used. 2009 10-3 . Accurate laminar ﬂame speeds are diﬃcult to determine analytically. Inc. C2 H2 . January 29. the laminar ﬂame speed polynomial and the rich and lean limits are most likely incorrect for your speciﬁed fuel/oxidizer and unburnt temperature/pressure conditions. and C3 H8 . and this must be taken into account. Release 12. and then input into ANSYS FLUENT. and the laminar ﬂame speed is constant throughout the domain. i These ﬂame speed ﬁts are accurate for air mixtures with pure fuels of H2 . ANSYS FLUENT uses ﬁtted curves obtained from numerical simulations of the laminar ﬂame speed [114]. The required inputs are values for the laminar ﬂame speed at ten mixture fraction (f ) points. and are usually measured from experiments or computed from 1D simulations. and pressure of the unburnt mixture.0 c ANSYS. ethane (C2 H6 ). They are valid for inlet compositions ranging from the lean limit through unity equivalence ratio (stoichiometric). the laminar ﬂame speed will change as the reactant composition (equivalence ratio) changes. The ﬁrst (minimum) and last (maximum) f inputs are the ﬂammability limits of the mixture and the laminar ﬂame speed is zero outside these value. ethylene (C2 H4 ). in partially premixed systems. C2 H4 . methane (CH4 ).10.2 Partially Premixed Combustion Theory 10. ANSYS FLUENT ﬁts these curves to a piecewise-linear polynomial. CH4 . which depends strongly on the composition. For adiabatic perfectly premixed systems as in Chapter 9: Premixed Combustion.2.

Inc. January 29.Partially Premixed Combustion 10-4 Release 12. 2009 .0 c ANSYS.

A limitation that applies to the composition PDF transport model is that you must use the pressure-based solver as the model is not available with the density-based solver. and preferably in 2D. should be used when you are interested in simulating ﬁnite-rate chemical kinetic eﬀects in turbulent reacting ﬂows.0 c ANSYS.3: The Lagrangian Solution Method • Section 11. can be predicted. kinetically-controlled species such as CO and NOx . but requires signiﬁcantly longer run time to converge. Inc. Composition PDF Transport ANSYS FLUENT provides a composition PDF transport model for modeling ﬁnite-rate chemistry eﬀects in turbulent ﬂames.2: The Eddy-DissipationConcept (EDC) Model).1.4: The Eulerian Solution Method 11. With an appropriate chemical mechanism.2: The Laminar Finite-Rate Model) and EDC model (see Section 7.1. namely Lagrangian and Eulerian.Chapter 11. ANSYS FLUENT has two diﬀerent discretizations of the composition PDF transport equation.2: Composition PDF Transport Theory • Section 11. January 29. The Lagrangian method is strictly more accurate than the Eulerian method. PDF transport simulations are computationally expensive. and it is recommended that you start your modeling with small meshes. Release 12. as well as ﬂame extinction and ignition. like the Laminar Finite-Rate (see Section 7. see Chapter 19: Modeling a Composition PDF Transport Problem in the separate User’s Guide. For information about using the composition PDF transport model.1 Overview and Limitations The composition PDF transport model. 2009 11-1 .1: Overview and Limitations • Section 11. Information about the theory behind this model is presented in the following sections: • Section 11.

While this equation set is accurate. The turbulent scalar ﬂux is modeled in ANSYS FLUENT by gradient diﬀusion.2-1) where P ρ ui Sk ψ ui Ji. denotes expectations.2 Composition PDF Transport Theory Turbulent combustion is governed by the reacting Navier-Stokes equations. its direct solution (where all turbulent scales are resolved) is far too expensive for practical turbulent ﬂows. From the PDF. mean or RMS temperature. EddyDissipation or EDC Finite-Rate chemistry models. joint probability density function (PDF).0 c ANSYS. January 29. The mean reaction rate can be modeled with the Laminar. and A|B is the conditional probability of event A. 2009 .k (ρP ) + (ρui P ) + (ρSk P ) = − ρ ui |ψ P + ρ ψ P ∂t ∂xi ∂ψk ∂xi ∂ψk ρ ∂xi (11. The composition PDF transport equation is derived from the Navier-Stokes equations as [276]: ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ 1 ∂Ji. . P has N + 2 dimensions for the N species. Since the reaction rate is invariably highly non-linear. treating turbulent convection as enhanced diﬀusion. temperature and pressure spaces. 11-2 Release 12.Composition PDF Transport 11. which leads to unknown terms for the turbulent scalar ﬂux and the mean reaction rate. given that event B occurs. any single-point thermo-chemical moment (e. An alternative to Reynolds-averaging the species and energy equations is to derive a transport equation for their single-point. modeling the mean reaction rate in a turbulent ﬂow is diﬃcult and prone to error.. can be considered to represent the fraction of the time that the ﬂuid spends at each species. Inc. the species equations are Reynolds-averaged. This PDF. temperature and pressure state. denoted by P . . In Chapter 7: Species Transport and FiniteRate Chemistry.k = = = = = = = Favre joint PDF of composition mean ﬂuid density Favre mean ﬂuid velocity vector reaction rate for specie k composition space vector ﬂuid velocity ﬂuctuation vector molecular diﬀusion ﬂux vector The notation of . mean reaction rate) can be calculated.g.

11. an analogy is made with a stochastic diﬀerential equation (SDE) which has identical solutions. and molecular mixing/diﬀusion. and is the weakest link in the PDF transport approach. See Section 11. Modeling mixing in PDF methods is not straightforward. the terms on the left-hand side are closed. The Monte Carlo algorithm involves notional particles which move randomly through physical space due to particle convection. To solve the modeled PDF transport equation. Inc. January 29. the sum of the particle masses in a cell equals the cell mass (cell density times cell volume).2-2) where µt is the turbulent viscosity and Sct is the turbulent Schmidt number. Since practical meshes have large changes in cell volumes. The turbulent scalar ﬂux term is unclosed.2-1. The two terms on the right-hand side represent the PDF change due to scalar convection by turbulence (turbulent scalar ﬂux). The particles have mass and. A turbulence model.3. The disadvantage is that statistical errors are introduced.0 c ANSYS. and is modeled in ANSYS FLUENT by the gradient-diﬀusion assumption − ∂ ∂ ρ ui |ψ P = ∂xi ∂xi ρµt ∂P Sct ∂xi (11. information about neighboring points is missing and all gradient terms. and this determines µt .3 The Lagrangian Solution Method A Lagrangian Monte Carlo method is used to solve for the N + 1 dimensional PDF Transport equation. The mixing model is critical because combustion occurs at the smallest molecular scales when reactants and heat diﬀuse together. are unclosed and must be modeled.11. while those on the righthand side are not and require modeling. is required for composition PDF transport simulations. as described in Chapter 4: Turbulence. and also through composition space due to molecular mixing and reaction. respectively. Since single-point PDFs are described. on average.3 The Lagrangian Solution Method In Equation 11. The ﬁrst term on the left-hand side is the unsteady rate of change of the PDF. and the third term is the change due to chemical reactions. such as molecular mixing. Release 12. 2009 11-3 . the second term is the change of the PDF due to convection by the mean velocity ﬁeld. Monte Carlo methods are appropriate for high-dimensional equations since the computational cost increases linearly with the number of dimensions. The principal strength of the PDF transport approach is that the highly-nonlinear reaction term is completely closed and requires no modeling. and these must be carefully controlled. the particle masses are adjusted so that the number of particles in a cell is controlled to be approximately constant and uniform.2: Particle Mixing for a description of the mixing models.

3: Particle Reaction • Section 11.0 c ANSYS.3. For steady-state ﬂows. the particle time step is the physical time step.1 Particle Convection A spatially second-order-accurate Lagrangian method is used in ANSYS FLUENT. Inc.3-2) After the ﬁrst convection step. the second convection step is calculated as x1 = xi i where 1/2 1/2 + ∆t ui 1 1 ∂µt 2µt − u0 + + ξi i 2 ρSct ∂xi ρ∆tSct (11. and reaction are treated in fractional steps as described in the sections that follow. ∆tmix ) where ∆tconv ∆tdiﬀ ∆tmix ∆x = convection number × ∆x / (cell ﬂuid velocity) = diﬀusion number × (∆x)2 / (cell turbulent diﬀusivity) = mixing number × turbulent time scale = characteristic cell length = volume1/D where D is the problem dimension (11. Finally. particles are advanced to a new position xi where xi = ui = ∆t = particle position vector Favre mean ﬂuid-velocity vector at the particle position particle time step 1/2 1 = x0 + u0 ∆t i 2 i (11.2: Particle Mixing • Section 11.3-3) 11-4 Release 12.Composition PDF Transport The processes of convection. Information about this method is described in the following sections: • Section 11. local time steps are calculated for each cell as ∆t = min(∆tconv .3.1: Particle Convection • Section 11.3.3.3.4: The ISAT Algorithm 11. diﬀusion. consisting of two steps. all other sub-processes. refer to [45].3-1) For unsteady ﬂows. January 29. 2009 . For information on the fractional step method. ∆tdiﬀ . including diﬀusion and reaction are treated. At the ﬁrst convection step.

a few particle pairs are selected at random from all the particles in a cell. For the special case of equal particle mass.5Cφ N ∆t τt (11. Inc. a uniform random number ξ is selected and each particle’s composition φ is moved toward the pair’s mean composition by a factor proportional to ξ: (φ0 mi + φ0 mj ) j = (1 − +ξ i (mi + mj ) 0 (φ mi + φ0 mj ) j φ1 = (1 − ξ)φ0 + ξ i j j (mi + mj ) φ1 i ξ)φ0 i (11. the IEM model (which is sometimes called the LSME model) [75] and the EMST model [340]. ANSYS FLUENT provides three models for molecular diﬀusion: the Modiﬁed Curl model [147. and their individual compositions are moved toward their mean composition. For each particle pair.0 c ANSYS.3.11. January 29. and mi and mj are the masses of particles i and j. 250]. The Modiﬁed Curl Model For the Modiﬁed Curl model. Release 12.3-5) where φi and φj are the composition vectors of particles i and j.3 The Lagrangian Solution Method ρ ui µt Sct ξi = mean cell ﬂuid density = mean ﬂuid-velocity vector at the particle position = turbulent viscosity = turbulent Schmidt number = standardized normal random vector 11.model this is k/ ) 1. the number of particle pairs selected is calculated as Npair = where N Cφ τt = = = total number of particles in the cell mixing constant (default = 2) turbulent time scale (for the k. 2009 11-5 .2 Particle Mixing Molecular mixing of species and heat must be modeled and is usually the source of the largest modeling error in the PDF transport approach.3-4) The algorithm in [250] is used for the general case of variable particle mass.

The Euclidean Minimum Spanning Tree (EMST) model mixes particle pairs that are close to each other in composition space.Composition PDF Transport The IEM Model For the Interaction by Exchange with the Mean (IEM) model. 2009 . The EMST Model Physically. Since scalar ﬁelds are locally smooth. . which can be a source of error.3-7) where Yk is the kth specie mass fraction. 11. Details on the EMST model can be found in reference [340]. . T is the temperature and p the pressure. mixing occurs between ﬂuid particles that are adjacent to each other. but incurs a slightly greater computational expense.5Cφ /τt ˜ φ0 − φ (11. the composition of all particles in a cell are moved a small distance toward the mean composition: φ1 = φ0 − 1 − e−0. For the reaction fractional step. The Liquid Micro-Mixing option interpolates Cφ from model turbulence [278] and scalar [103] spectra. The Modiﬁed Curl and IEM mixing models take no account of this localness. Liquid Reactions Reactions in liquids often occur at low turbulence levels (small Re).0 c ANSYS. T.3-8) 11-6 Release 12. .3-6) ˜ where φ0 is the composition before mixing. p) (11. YN . Y2 . Inc. For such ﬂows. The EMST mixing model is more accurate than the Modiﬁed Curl and IEM mixing models. January 29. particles that are close in composition space are likely to be close in physical space. φ1 is the composition after mixing. The particle pairing is determined by a Euclidean Minimum Spanning Tree. and φ is the Favre mean-composition vector at the particle’s location. the mixing constant default of Cφ = 2 overestimates the mixing rate.3 Particle Reaction The particle composition vector is represented as φ = (Y1 . . among reactants with low diﬀusivities (large Sc). the reaction source term is integrated as φ1 = φ0 + 0 ∆t Sdt (11. which is the minimum length of the set of edges connecting one particle to at least one other particle.3.

In theory. at least 109 stiﬀ ODE integrations are required. accelerations of two to three orders of magnitude are typical.. On closer examination. it would be unrealistic to ﬁnd a composition of YOH = 1 and T = 300K in a real combustor. mappings must lie on a three dimensional manifold within the N + 3 dimensional composition space. as described in the following paragraphs. and for a conservative estimate of M = 10 discretization points and N = 7 species. 3D laminar simulations. the accessed region is not known before the simulation and the table cannot be preprocessed. pressure and time-step) is required. In practice. Hence. Equation 11. the reaction step (i. For example. temperature. the table would contain 1010 entries. hence. with 20 particles per cell. while others have much slower time scales. it is important to understand how ISAT works in order to use it optimally. In fact. Instead. consider a structured table with M points in each dimension. in the order of 10−10 s. some reactions have very fast time scales. Release 12. 2009 11-7 . the ﬁnal state φ1 depends only on φ0 and the mapping time ∆t. and this is referred to as in-situ tabulation. the table must be built during the simulation. the full storage of the entire realizable space is very wasteful because most regions are never accessed. the calculation of φ1 ) can be performed either by Direct Integration or by In-Situ Adaptive Tabulation (ISAT). Hence. ISAT is a method to tabulate the accessed composition space region “on the ﬂy” (in-situ) with error control (adaptive tabulation).11. suﬃcient to tabulate only this accessed region of the composition space. depends on the particular chemical mechanism.0 c ANSYS. It is. ANSYS FLUENT employs ISAT [277] to dynamically tabulate the chemistry mappings and accelerate the time to solution. a reaction does not occur until an ignition temperature is reached. covering all realizable φ0 states and time steps. Typically. For this reason. However.3-8 may be considered as a mapping. A typical steady-state PDF transport simulation in ANSYS FLUENT may have 50000 cells. This time-scale disparity results in numerical stiﬀness. January 29. When ISAT is used correctly. the direct integration of the chemistry is extremely CPU-demanding. the integrations could be avoided by table look-ups. and requires 1000 iterations to converge. In ANSYS FLUENT. which means that extensive computational work is required to integrate the chemical source term in Equation 11. The required table size is M N +3 . on average.e. however. molecular transport properties. The accessed region. Thus. but then proceeds very quickly until reactants are consumed. For a given reaction mechanism.3 The Lagrangian Solution Method where S is the chemical source term. this a priori tabulation is not feasible since a full table in N + 3 dimensions (N species. the chemistry can be parameterized by the spatial position vector. if a table could be built before the simulation. With an initial composition vector φ0 . Most realistic chemical mechanisms consist of tens of species and hundreds of reactions. ﬂow geometry. on the order of 1 s. and boundary conditions. Inc. To illustrate this. Since each integration typically takes tens or hundreds of milliseconds. for steady-state.3-8.

A composition vector φ0 will hence lie on either side of this q hyper-plane. This power is apparent if one considers that with a 100-fold speed-up. If the query point φ1 is within the EOA. and the mapping is retrieved. the original leaf becomes a node with two leaves—the original leaf and the new entry. Typical speedups of 100-fold are common. 2009 .3-9) The mapping gradient is hence used to linearly interpolate the table when queried. a direct integration (DI) is performed and the mapping error = |B(φ1 − φ1 )| is calculated (here.Composition PDF Transport 11. then the linear interpolation by Equation 11. This is called Direct Integration (DI).0 c ANSYS. then the original interpolation φ1 is accurate and the EOA is grown so as to include φ0 . so that the two leaves are on either side of this cutting plane. B is a scaling DI q matrix). For the ﬁrst reaction step. the ISAT table is empty. The existing table q (consisting of one entry at this stage) is queried by interpolating the new mapping as φ1 = φ1 + A(φ0 − φ0 ) q q (11. Inc. Table entries are stored as leaves in a binary tree. January 29.3-9 q is suﬃciently accurate.4 The ISAT Algorithm ISAT is a powerful tool that enables realistic chemistry to be incorporated in multidimensional ﬂow simulations by accelerating the chemistry calculations. a simulation that would take three months without ISAT can be run in one day. A cutting hyper-plane is created at the new node. The ellipsoid of accuracy (EOA) is the elliptical space around the table point φ0 where the linear approximation to the mapping is accurate to the speciﬁed tolerance. Otherwise. 11-8 Release 12. a q q new table entry is added. If not. Equation 11. where the subscript q denotes a query.3-8 is integrated with a stiﬀ ODE solver. When a new table entry is added. If this error is smaller than the speciﬁed error tolerance ( < tol ). At the start of an ANSYS FLUENT simulation using ISAT. tol .3. The ﬁrst table entry is created and consists of: • the initial composition φ0 • the mapping φ1 • the mapping gradient matrix A = ∂φ1 /∂φ0 • a hyper-ellipsoid of accuracy The next reaction mapping is calculated as follows: The initial composition vector for this particle is denoted φ0 .

0 c ANSYS. Inc. ψk is the composition space variable of specie k. x. Later. January 29. then the ellipsoid of accuracy is grown and the DI result is returned. which allows Eulerian transport equations to be derived.4 The Eulerian Solution Method The Lagrangian solution method solves the composition PDF transport equation by stochastically tracking Lagrangian particles through the domain. q 3. The Eulerian PDF transport model overcomes these limitations by assuming a shape for the PDF. Direct Integration (DI) is performed and the error between the DI and the linear interpolation is measured. and δ(.4 The Eulerian Solution Method The ISAT algorithm is summarized as follows: 1. The composition PDF of Ns + 1 dimension (Ns species and enthalpy) is represented as a collection of Ne delta functions (or modes). . 11. . most operations are adds and grows. Stochastic errors are eliminated and the transport equations are solved implicitly. If the error is less than the tolerance. It is computationally expensive since a large number of particles are required to represent the PDF. the turbulent scalar ﬂux and molecular mixing terms must be modeled. For each query φ0 the table is traversed to identify a leaf whose composition φ0 is q close to φ0 . This presumed PDF has the following form: Ne Ns P (ψ. then the mapping φ1 q q is retrieved using interpolation by Equation 11. The ISAT table is queried for every composition vector during the reaction step. initial ANSYS FLUENT iterations are slow but accelerate as the table is built.11. and a large number of iterations are necessary to reduce statistical errors and explicitly convect the particles through the domain. t)] (11. However.4-1) where pn is the probability in each mode. Release 12. the highly non-linear chemical source term is closed. and are closed with the gradient diﬀusion and the IEM models. t) k=1 δ[ψk − < φk >n (x. a new table entry is added.3-9. Since adds and grows are very slow whereas retrieves are relatively quick. 2.) is the delta function. As with the Lagrangian PDF model. respectively. 2009 11-9 . The multi-dimensional PDF shape is assumed as a product of delta functions. t) = n=1 pn (x. Otherwise. If the query composition φ0 lies within the EOA of the leaf. which is computationally economical. retrieves become frequent. At the start of the simulation. < φk >n is the conditional mean composition of specie k in the nth mode. Otherwise. as more of the composition space is tabulated. 4.

Reaction The reaction source term Sk.3-6).4-3 for the kth composition and the nth mode is calculated as.Composition PDF Transport The Eulerian PDF transport equations are derived by substituting Equation 11.n = pn < φk >n is the kth specie probability weighted conditional mean composition of the nth mode.n = pn S(< φk >n )k where S()k is the net reaction rate for the kth component.4-5) (11. Hence.n represent mixing.n ) + ρ(Mk. Sk.4-3) where pn is the probability of the nth mode. and sk. for the two-mode DQMOM-IEM model.n ) = ∂t ∂xi (ρΓ sk. Γ = µl + µt /Sct is the eﬀective turbulent diﬀusivity.n + Ck. 2009 . The resulting transport equations are: • Probability (magnitude of the nth delta function): ∂ρpn ∂ + (ρui pn ) = ∂t ∂xi (ρΓ pn ) (11. are determined by forcing lower moments of this transported PDF to match the RANS lower moment transport equations.n . The terms Mk. Note that only Ne − 1 probability equations are solved and the N th probability is calculated as one minus the sum of the Ne − 1 solved probabilities. The unknown terms.4-2) • Probability weighted conditional mean of composition k: ∂ρsk. Inc.0 c ANSYS.n and Ck.n + Sk.4-4) where τ is the turbulence time-scale and Cφ is the mixing constant. reaction and correction terms respectively.n ∂ + (ρui sk. January 29.4-1 into the closed composition PDF transport equation (Equation 11.2-2 and 11.n in Equation 11. 218]. Mixing The micro-mixing term Mk. Sk.n = Cφ (< φk >n −ψk ) τ (11. pn and < φk >n .n ) (11. using the Direct Quadrature Method of Moments (DQMOM) approach [103. 11-10 Release 12. the mixing terms for component k are.n is modeled with the IEM mixing model: Mk.2-1 with Equations 11.

For reactions in liquids.4-10) and its variance is calculated as Ne 2 φk2 = ( n=1 sk.n = n Ne n=1 (mk − 1) < φk >mk −2 pn ck.2 ) τ (11.n in Equation 11.4-7 is calculated as. Note that the condition of the matrix decreases with increasing mk .1 = Mk..1 ) τ Cφ = (p2 sk.1 Ck.2 − p2 sk. the correction terms Ck. Ne n=1 < φk >mk −1 Ck.2 Cφ (p1 sk. which is appropriate for gas-phase combustion. Inc. The dissipation term ck. which reduces the stability of higher mode simulations. Ne φk = n=1 sk. ck. Correction Using assumptions to ensure realizability and boundedness.0 c ANSYS.4-9) Calculation of Composition Mean and Variance The mean composition (specie k or energy) is calculated as.4-11) Release 12.1 − p1 sk. Γ p1 ( < φk >1 − < φk >2 = −Ck. the correction terms for the kth component are.4-3 for the kth composition are determined from the linear system.n in Equation 11.1 = Ck. January 29.2 < φk >1 )2 + p2 ( < φk >2 )2 (11.n n (11.Ne ) for each component k.n = Γ (< φk >n ) · (< φk >n ) (11.4-7) where mk are the non-negative integer lower moments (1.n (11. 2009 11-11 .11.4 The Eulerian Solution Method Mk. where the diﬀusivities are much smaller than gases.4-8) For the two-mode DQMOM-IEM model.4-6) The default value of Cφ is 2. the Liquid Micro-Mixing option interpolates Cφ from model turbulence [278] and scalar [103] spectra.n < φk >n ) − φk (11.

0 c ANSYS. 2009 .Composition PDF Transport 11-12 Release 12. Inc. January 29.

Despite the amount of research devoted to spark ignition physics and ignition devices. • Section 12.1 Spark Model The spark model in ANSYS FLUENT will be described in the context of the premixed turbulent combustion model. For information about using this model. for situations in which ANSYS FLUENT is utilized for combustion engine modeling.1: Spark Model in the separate User’s Guide.2: Autoignition Models • Section 12. including internal combustion engines. The physical description of this simple event is very involved and complex.1: Overview and Limitations • Section 12. see Section 20.0 c ANSYS. Thus. Information regarding the theory behind this model is detailed in the following sections: • Section 12. Information can be found in the following sections. January 29. the energy from the spark event is several orders of magnitude less than the chemical energy release from the fuel.1: Spark Model • Section 12.Chapter 12. creating a spark.3: Crevice Model For information about using these ignition models.1.1 Overview and Limitations Initiation of combustion at a desired time and location in a combustion chamber can be accomplished by sending a high voltage across two narrowly separated wires. Inc.1. 12. making it diﬃcult to accurately model the spark in the context of a multidimensional engine simulation. 2009 12-1 .1. see Chapter 20: Modeling Engine Ignition in the separate User’s Guide. the ignition of a mixture at a point in the domain is more dependent on the local composition than on the spark energy (see Heywood [128]).2: Spark Model Theory 12. Engine Ignition This chapter discusses the theory behind the engine ignition models available in ANSYS FLUENT. The spark event in typical engines happens very quickly relative to the main combustion in the engine. Additionally. the Release 12.

the eﬀect of the instability decreases. 2009 . which you can set. c.1-2) where κ is the laminar thermal diﬀusivity and the eﬀective diﬀusivity Dtt is given by Dt 1 − exp Dt −ttd τ Dtt = if ttd ≥ 0 if ttd < 0 (12. The instability is susceptible to numerical errors which are increased when the mesh is not aligned with the ﬂame propagation. 12-2 Release 12.0 c ANSYS. The instabilities are inherent to the model and can be dependent on the mesh.Engine Ignition spark event does not need to be modeled in great detail. τ is an eﬀective diﬀusion time. however. The derivation of the model can be done in the context of the Zimont premixed combustion model. Zimont Premixed Flame Model The transport equation for the mean reaction progress variable. January 29. 12. it may be most applicable to the premixed and partially premixed combustion models. As the spark kernel grows and the model allows turbulent mixing to occur. is given by Equation 12.2 Spark Model Theory The spark model in ANSYS FLUENT is based on the work done by Lipatnikov [203] and extended to other combustion models. the Zimont model is modiﬁed such that ∂ρc + ∂t · (ρvc) = · ((κ + Dtt ) c) + ρu Ut | c| (12. but simply as the initiation of combustion over a duration.1-3) where is ttd = t−tig and tig denotes the time at which the spark is initiated.1-1) where Dt is the turbulent diﬀusivity. Additionally. ρu is the density of the unburned mixture and Ut is the turbulent ﬂame speed. The spark model is available for all of the combustion models. the spark model requires chemical reactions to be solved. The Spark Model used in ANSYS FLUENT is based on a one-dimensional analysis by Lipatnikov [203]. Since spark ignition is inherently transient. Since the spark is often very small compared to the mesh size of the model and is often laminar in nature. which you will set.1. especially near the beginning of the spark event when the model reduces diﬀusion to simulate the initial laminar spark kernel growth.1-1 ∂ρc + ∂t · (ρvc) = · (Dt c) + ρu Ut | c| (12. The model is sensitive to perturbations and can be subject to instabilities when used in multi-dimensional simulations. the spark model is only available in the transient solver. Inc. Additionally.

The theory behind the autoignition models is described in the following sections: • Section 12. Other combustion models have the energy input into the cell. In addition to convergence diﬃculties.1: Overview and Limitations • Section 12. and has a default value of 1e-5 seconds. is ramped up as the spark grows. however. Because of these issues. the diﬀusion time can be controlled by the you. in some cases it simply creates a high temperature region and does not guarantee the initiation of combustion.0 c ANSYS. Inc. 2009 12-3 . If the temperature exceeds 2500 K or the spark duration is exceeded. January 29. small changes in the diﬀusion time can change the result signiﬁcantly. the premixed and partially premixed models diﬀer in that the progress variable inside the spark region is set equal to 1. Other Combustion Models The spark model is compatible with all combustion models in ANSYS FLUENT.2.2. There are two types of autoignition models considered in ANSYS FLUENT: • knock model in spark-ignited (SI) engines • ignition delay model in diesel engines For information regarding using autoignition models.2: Ignition Model Theory Release 12. 12. so the expression for the eﬀective turbulent diﬀusivity. Dtt . a burned state. see Section 20. The spark model can be used in models other than the premixed and partially premixed combustion models. This creates higher temperatures at the location of the spark and can cause convergence diﬃculties. However. for the duration of the spark event. The model’s use has been extended to be compatible with the other models. however. you must balance energy input and diﬀusivity to produce a high enough temperature to initiate combustion.2 Autoignition Models Only turbulent scales that are smaller than the spark radius can contribute to turbulent spark diﬀusion. no energy from the spark model will be added to the spark cells.12. which can be a nontrivial undertaking.2: Autoignition Models in the separate User’s Guide.2 Autoignition Models Autoignition phenomena in engines are due to the eﬀects of chemical kinetics of the reacting ﬂow inside the cylinder.

the temperature of the gas. As a result of the premature release of the energy. and other factors. For commonly available gasoline pumps. sharp rise in pressure inside the engine can be heard clearly through the engine block as a knocking sound. However. the temperature and pressure of the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder also increase during the cycle compressions. 2009 . however. catastrophic damage to the engine components can occur. The autoignition models are inherently transient and so are not available with steady simulations. as this results in the spark event no longer controlling the combustion. The sudden. as it deﬁnes a limit in terms of eﬃciency and power production of that type of engine. The autoignition model is compatible with any volumetric combustion model.0 c ANSYS. knock usually limits the highest practical compression ratio to less than 11:1 for premium fuels and around 9:1 for less expensive fuels. The temperature and pressure increase can be large enough for the mixture to spontaneously ignite and release its heat before the spark plug ﬁres.1 Overview and Limitations Overview The concept of knock has been studied extensively in the context of premixed engines. Since ignition delay changes the combustion phasing.2. hence the term “knock”. January 29. The fuel is injected into a gas which is usually air.Engine Ignition 12. the eﬃciency of the engine as a function of the work extracted from the fuel increases. it can have a considerable amount of exhaust gas mixed in (or EGR) to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions (NOx). mainly because it does not have such a sharply deﬁning impact on engine eﬃciency. The knock model always releases energy from the fuel while the ignition delay model prevents energy from being released prematurely. ignition delay in diesel engines has not been as extensively studied as SI engines. which in turn impacts eﬃciency and emissions. with the exception of the purely premixed models. Ignition delay depends on the composition of the gas in the cylinder. it is important to account for it in a diesel engine simulation. By comparison. Model Limitations The main diﬀerence between the knock model and the ignition delay model is the manner in which the model is coupled with the chemistry. The knock model in ANSYS FLUENT is compatible with the premixed and partially premixed combustion models. The premature release of all of the energy in the air/fuel charge is almost never desirable. as the compression ratio increases. 12-4 Release 12. the turbulence level. Ignition delay in diesel engines refers to the time between when the fuel is injected into the combustion chamber and when the pressure starts to increase as the fuel releases its energy. Inc. As the compression ratio increases.

and to obtain trends before utilizing more expensive and presumably more accurate chemical mechanisms in multidimensional simulations. Transport of Ignition Species Autoignition is modeled using the transport equation for an Ignition Species. January 29. Yig . Release 12. Ignition has occurred when the ignition species reaches a value of 1 in the domain. though are more expensive to solve.0 c ANSYS. such as Halstead’s “Shell” model [121].12.2-1) where Yig is a “mass fraction” of a passive species representing radicals which form when the fuel in the domain breaks down. The τig term is a correlation of ignition delay with the units of time. Once the model is calibrated to a particular engine conﬁguration. This approach is appropriate for large simulations where geometric accuracy is more important than fully resolved chemical kinetics.2 Ignition Model Theory Both the knock and the ignition delay models are treated similarly in ANSYS FLUENT. which is given by ∂ρYig + ∂t · (ρvYig ) = · µt Yig + ρSig Sct (12. thus making the equation relatively inexpensive to solve. The model can be used on less resolved meshes to explore a range of designs quickly. Inc. The source term in the transport equation is typically not stiﬀ. Sct is the turbulent Schmidt number. These models belong to the family of single equation autoignition models and use correlations to account for complex chemical kinetics. The term Sig is the source term for the ignition species which has a form t Sig = t=t0 dt τig where t0 corresponds to the time at which fuel is introduced into the domain. 2009 12-5 . in that they share the same infrastructure. Detailed chemical kinetics may be more applicable over a wider range of conditions. The single equation autoignition models are appropriate for the situation where geometric ﬁdelity or resolution of particular ﬂow details is more important than chemical eﬀects on the simulation. 12.2 Autoignition Models The autoignition models in general require adjustment of parameters to reproduce engine data and are likely to require tuning to improve accuracy. then diﬀerent engine speeds and loads can be reasonably well represented.2. They diﬀer from the eight step reaction models. in that only a single transport equation is solved. It is assumed that all the radical species represented by Yig diﬀuse at the same rate as the mean ﬂow.

In the premixed model. Inc.2. If the progress variable has a value of zero.Engine Ignition Note that the source term for these radical species is treated diﬀerently for knock and ignition delay.0 c ANSYS. values well above that can be obtained in a short time. In this ﬁgure. Tb and Tu represent the temperatures at the burned and unburned states. In fact. the fuel is deﬁned as f uel = 1 − c. One is given by Douaud [76]. T Tb fuel = 0 Sig = 0 Tu ¦ T ¤ fuel > 0 Sig > 0 E E X Figure 12. Details of how the source term is treated are covered in the following sections. where c is the progress variable. the source term is accumulated under appropriate conditions in a cell. Here. Consider the one dimensional ﬂame in Figure 12. Modeling of the Source Term In order to model knock in a physically realistic manner. given by Heywood [128]. and the temperature is relatively low in front of the ﬂame and high behind the ﬂame. The ignition species accumulates only when there is fuel.1: Flame Front Showing Accumulation of Source Terms for the Knock Model When the ignition species reaches a value of 1 in the domain. If the progress variable is 1. knock has occurred at that point. 12-6 Release 12.1. The value of the ignition species can exceed unity. while the other is a generalized model which reproduces several correlations. respectively. then the mixture is considered burned. the mixture is considered unburned. The ignition species will continue to accumulate until there is no more fuel present. two correlations are built into ANSYS FLUENT. 2009 . For the knock model. Furthermore. the ﬂame is propagating from left to right. January 29. chemical energy in the fuel is released when the ignition species reaches a value of 1 in the domain.2. the form of the correlation of ignition delay diﬀers between the two models. Knock Modeling When modeling knock or ignition delay.

RPM is the engine speed in cycles per minute and Φ is the fuel/air equivalence ratio. The form of the correlation is τ =A ON 100 a pb T c RPMd Φd exp −Ea RT (12.2-4) where A0 = 8. These values are chosen to reﬂect single-step reaction rates appropriate for propane as described in Amsden [4].6 × 109 . January 29. the knock event is modeled by releasing the remaining fuel energy with a single-step Arrhenius reaction.2-3) where A is the pre-exponential (with units in seconds). one given by Hardenburg and Hase [125] and the other.7 exp 3800 T (12. a generalized model which reproduces several Arrhenius correlations from the literature. and Ea = −15078.2 Autoignition Models Correlations An extensively tested correlation for knock in SI engines is given by Douaud and Eyzat [76]: ON 100 3. chemical reactions are allowed to occur when the ignition species reaches a value of 1 in the domain. 2009 12-7 .01768 p−1. which burns the remaining fuel in that cell.2-2) where ON is the octane number of the fuel. two correlations are built into ANSYS FLUENT.12. Inc. Limiting the reaction rate is done purely for numerical stability.0 c ANSYS. For the ignition delay model. The reaction rate is given by ω = A0 exp ˙ −Ea RT (12. Ignition Delay Modeling When modeling ignition delay in diesel engines. is added to the rate term in the premixed model. Energy Release Once ignition has occurred in the domain. The rate at which the fuel is consumed is limited such that a completely unburned cell will burn during three of the current time steps. p is the absolute pressure in atmospheres and T is the temperature in Kelvin. An additional source term.402 τ = 0. Release 12. A generalized expression for τ is also available which can reproduce many existing Arrhenius correlations.

4 ep τid = (12. the model will set the local source term to zero. but does not wish to solve for typically expensive low temperature chemistry. there are two built-in options in ANSYS FLUENT to calculate the local source term. The ﬁrst correlation was done by Hardenburg and Hase and was developed at Daimler Chrysler for heavy duty diesel engines.2. If there is no fuel in the cell. the chemical source term is suppressed by not activating the combustion model at that particular time step. nevertheless.2. Inc.2: Propagating Fuel Cloud Showing Accumulation of Source Terms for the Ignition Delay Model relatively low in front of the spray and high behind the spray.2. Here. Consider the one dimensional spray in Figure 12. thus.2-5) 12-8 Release 12. 190 p − 12. Modeling of the Source Term In order to model ignition in a physically realistic manner. the value of Yig can be nonzero due to convection and diﬀusion. the energy release is delayed. Correlations If fuel is present in the cell. 2009 .2 exp Ea − + 6N RT 17.22S p 1 1 21. This approach is reasonable if you have a good high-temperature chemical model. the spray is propagating from left to right and the fuel mass fraction is Yf uel T ¤ fuel > 0 Sig > 0 ¦ fuel = 0 Sig = 0 E E X Figure 12. the source term is accumulated under appropriate conditions in a cell.Engine Ignition If the ignition species is less than 1 when using the ignition delay model.0 c ANSYS. January 29. The correlation works over a reasonably wide range of conditions and is given by C1 + 0.

CN . Ea is the eﬀective activation energy and ep is the pressure exponent. which is the generalized correlation. Table 12. but rather a passive scalar which represents the integrated correlation as a function of time.840 CN 25 C1 0.36 ep 0.2-3 and is available for ignition delay calculations. is given by Equation 12.63 The second correlation.1: Default Values of the Variables in the Hardenburg Correlation Variable Default Ehh 618. January 29. The default values of these variables are listed in the table below. Note that the ignition species “mass fraction” can exceed 1 in the domain. C1 is 0.2-6) where CN is the cetane number. pre-exponential. Ehh .2: Limitations • Section 12.36. Information can be found in the following sections: • Section 12.3 Crevice Model where τid is in seconds. and cetane number.3. ep . The expression for the eﬀective activation energy is given by Ea = Ehh CN + 25 (12. Inc. Energy Release If the ignition species is greater than or equal to 1 anywhere in the domain.3.3: Crevice Model in the separate User’s Guide. therefore.3 Crevice Model This section describes the theory behind the crevice model. it is not truly a mass fraction. The ignition species acts as a switch to turn on the volumetric reactions in the domain. 2009 12-9 .3: Crevice Model Theory For information regarding using the crevice model. N is engine speed in revolutions per minute.12. Release 12. are accessible from the GUI. 12. ignition has occurred and combustion is no longer delayed. The activation energy.2. C1 . see Section 20.3.1: Overview • Section 12. pressure exponent.0 c ANSYS.

The model takes mass. Detailed geometric information regarding the ring and piston—typically a ring pack around the bore of an engine—is necessary to use the crevice model.3. January 29.1 Overview The crevice model implemented in ANSYS FLUENT is a zero-dimensional ring-ﬂow model based on the model outlined in Namazian and Heywood [245] and Roberts and Matthews [295].3. Inc.1–12. The model is geared toward in-cylinder speciﬁc ﬂows.3. directinjection (DI) diesel engines. and energy from cells adjoining two boundaries and accounts for the storage of mass in the volumes of the crevices in the piston. and thus is available only for time-dependent simulations.2: Crevice Model Geometry (Ring) 12-10 Release 12.Engine Ignition 12. and more speciﬁcally.1: Crevice Model Geometry (Piston) W r Tr Figure 12. 2009 .3. Land length p 0 Cylinder wall 1 Ring spacing 2 3 1: Top gap 2: Middle gap 3: Bottom gap p 6 Piston to bore clearance Figure 12. momentum.0 c ANSYS.3.3. An example representation is shown in Figures 12.

3: Crevice Model “Network” Representation Model Parameters • The piston to bore clearance is the distance between the piston and the bore. Typical values range from 3 to 3.12. Typical values range from 1 to 3 mm for SI engines and 2 to 4 mm for DI engines. January 29.. Inc.0 c ANSYS.2. • The ring spacing is the distance between the bottom of one ring land and the top of the next ring land. Release 12. • The top gap is the clearance between the ring land and the top of the ring (40 to 80 µm). • The bottom gap is the clearance between the ring land and the bottom of the ring (40 to 80 µm).g.3. Cells that share a boundary with the top of the piston and the cylinder wall are deﬁned as the crevice cells.2.1) in most in-cylinder simulations. always deeper than the width of the ring by about 1 mm. wall. wall-8) and the cylinder wall (e.3 Crevice Model p = cylinder pressure • 0 • p2 •p 4 • p = crankcase pressure 6 Ring 1 Ring 2 Ring 3 p 1• p• 3 p• 5 Figure 12.g.. • The middle gap is the distance between the ring and the bore (10 to 40 µm). Typical values are 4 to 4. Typical values are 2 to 5 mil (80 to 120 µm) in a spark engine (SI) and 4 to 7 mil (100 to 240 µm) in some diesel engines (DI). • The ring thickness is the variable Tr in Figure 12.3. • The ring width is the variable Wr in Figure 12.3. • The shared boundary and leaking wall is the piston (e. Typical values of the ring spacing are 3 to 5 mm for SI engines and 4 to 8 mm for DI diesel engines. 2009 12-11 .e.5 mm for SI engines and 4 to 6 mm for DI diesel engines.5 mm for SI engines and 5 to 7 mm for DI diesel engines. the cutout into the piston). • The land length is the depth of the ring land (i..

the crevice model solution is a stiﬀ initial boundary-value problem.3. Additionally. If the lateral diﬀusion of species is important in the simulation. One solution to this problem is to decrease the ﬂow time step for several iterations. A steady problem with leakage ﬂow can be solved by running the transient problem to steady state. Thus. A zero-dimensional approach is used because it is diﬃcult to accurately predict lateral diﬀusion of species in the crevice. The formulation of the crevice ﬂow equations is inherently transient and is solved using ANSYS FLUENT’s stiﬀ-equation solver. if the initial conditions are very far from the solution during a time step. Additional limitations of the crevice model in its current form are that only a single crevice is allowed and only one thread can have leakage.g. the ﬂow past the last ring speciﬁed) is also calculated at each discrete step in the ANSYS FLUENT solution. it is recommended that the full multidimensional crevice geometry be simulated in ANSYS FLUENT using a nonconformal mesh. although ring positions can be set during the simulation. the mass in each volume can be found using the ideal gas equation of state. or choked compressible ﬂow between the rings and the cylinder wall. during the compression stroke in a four-stroke cycle engine).0 c ANSYS.Engine Ignition The ring pack is the set of rings that seal the piston in the cylinder bore. 12-12 Release 12. Since the temperature in the ring pack is ﬁxed and the geometry is known.. the pressure in the cylinder rises and ﬂow begins to move past the rings. as in when a spray plume in a DI engine is in close proximity to the boundary and the net mass ﬂow is into the crevice. Inc. as any individual species would be instantly distributed over the entire ring pack. The overall mass ﬂow out of the ring pack (i.e. The stiﬀness increases as the pressure diﬀerence between the ring crevices increases and also as the overall pressure diﬀerence across the ring pack increases. and currently limited to two threads that share a boundary. The pressure distribution in the ring pack is modeled by assuming either fully-developed compressible ﬂow through the spaces between the rings and the piston. 12. once a pressure distribution is calculated. Another solution is to start with initial conditions that are closer to the solution at the end of the time step. As the piston moves upward in the cylinder when the valves are closed (e. transient.2 Limitations The limitations of the crevice model are that it is zero dimensional. The mass ﬂux into the domain from the crevice is assumed to have the same composition as the cell into which mass is ﬂowing. January 29. the ODE solver may not be able to integrate the equations successfully. this approach does not speciﬁcally track individual species. In this context. Ring dynamics are not explicitly accounted for. 2009 ..

3-4) (12. and by assuming an oriﬁce ﬂow between the ring and the cylinder wall. The equation for the mass ﬂow through the ring end gaps is of the form mij = Cd Aij ρcηij ˙ (12. 2009 12-13 .3-1) where Cd is the discharge coeﬃcient.e.3-5) (12. Inc.3. and ηij is a compressibility factor given by 2 γ−1 pi pj 2 γ − pi pj γ−1 γ 0. Wr is the width of the ring along which the gas is ﬂowing. T is the temperature of the gas and R is the universal gas constant. The equation for the mass ﬂow through the top and bottom faces of the ring (i.3-6) (12. ρ is the gas density.3 Crevice Model 12. µgas is the local gas viscosity. The system of equations for a set of three rings is of the following form: dp1 dt dp2 dt dp3 dt dp4 dt dp5 dt = = = = = p1 m1 p2 m2 p3 m3 p4 m4 p5 m5 (m01 − m12 ) ˙ ˙ (m02 + m12 − m23 − m24 ) ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ (m23 − m34 ) ˙ ˙ (m24 + m34 − m45 − m46 ) ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ (m45 − m56 ) ˙ ˙ (12.12. January 29. pi the upstream pressure and pj the downstream pressure.52 (12. into and out of the volume behind the piston ring) is given by h2 p2 − p2 Aij ij i j 24Wr µgas RT mij = ˙ (12.3-2) ηij = 2 γ−1 γ+1 2(γ−1) pi pj ≤ 0.5 pi pj > 0. Aij is the gap area.3-3) where hij is the cross-sectional area of the gap. c is the local speed of sound.0 c ANSYS.3-8) Release 12.3-7) (12..3 Crevice Model Theory ANSYS FLUENT solves the equations for mass conservation in the crevice geometry by assuming laminar compressible ﬂow in the region between the piston and the top and bottom faces of the ring.52 where γ is the ratio of speciﬁc heats.

3-3 and expressions for the mass ﬂows for zones separated by two integers (e. where nr is the number of rings in the simulation.0 c ANSYS. 0-1. 12-14 Release 12.g. 2-4. Inc. etc..3-1 and 12. The expressions for the mass ﬂows for numerically adjacent zones (e.Engine Ignition where p0 is the average pressure in the crevice cells and p6 is the crankcase pressure input from the text interface.) are given by Equation 12. 1-2..3-2. 2009 . there are 2nr − 1 equations needed for the solution to the ring-pack equations. Thus. 0-2. 2-3.g. January 29. 4-6) are given by Equations 12.

1. Information is presented in the following sections: • Section 13.4: Prompt NOx Formation • Section 13.1.5: Fuel NOx Formation • Section 13.Chapter 13. Pollutant Formation This chapter discusses the theory behind the models available in ANSYS FLUENT for modeling pollutant formation. see Section 21.1: NOx Formation • Section 13. January 29.1 NOx Formation The following sections present the theoretical background of NOx prediction. see Chapter 21: Modeling Pollutant Formation in the separate User’s Guide.1.1.2: SOx Formation • Section 13.7: NOx Reduction by Reburning • Section 13.9: NOx Formation in Turbulent Flows Release 12.1.8: NOx Reduction by SNCR • Section 13. For information about using the NOx models in ANSYS FLUENT. 2009 13-1 .0 c ANSYS.1: Overview • Section 13.1.1: Using the NOx Model in the separate User’s Guide.2: Governing Equations for NOx Transport • Section 13.1.1. • Section 13.1.1.3: Thermal NOx Formation • Section 13.6: NOx Formation from Intermediate N2 O • Section 13. 13.3: Soot Formation For information about using the models in ANSYS FLUENT. Inc.

in fact. and fuel NOx formation as well as NOx consumption due to reburning in combustion systems. That is truly the power of the ANSYS FLUENT NOx model and. When fuel NOx sources are present. In other words. Under most circumstances. The NOx transport equations are solved based on a given ﬂow ﬁeld and combustion solution. and causes ozone depletion. 13-2 Release 12. and to a lesser degree nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O). prompt. NOx is a precursor for photochemical smog. contributes to acid rain. Great care must be exercised to provide accurate thermophysical data and boundary condition inputs for the combustion model. Thus. chemistry. Accurate prediction of NOx parametric trends can cut down on the number of laboratory tests.0 c ANSYS. shorten the design cycle. When the N2 O intermediate model is activated.Pollutant Formation 13. NOx is postprocessed from a combustion simulation. radiation and other submodels must be employed. Appropriate turbulence. To predict NOx emissions. an additional transport equation for N2 O will be solved. It uses rate models developed at the Department of Fuel and Energy at The University of Leeds in England as well as from the open literature. thermal NOx production doubles for every 90 K temperature increase when the ﬂame temperature is about 2200 K. 2009 . NOx reduction using reagent injection.1 Overview NOx emission consists of mostly nitric oxide (NO). can be modeled in ANSYS FLUENT along with an N2 O intermediate model which has also been incorporated. such as selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR). and reduce product development cost. For example. It is thus evident that an accurate combustion solution becomes a prerequisite of NOx prediction. The ANSYS FLUENT NOx model provides a tool to understand the sources of NOx production and to aid in the design of NOx control measures.1. To be realistic. allow more design variations to be studied. ANSYS FLUENT solves a transport equation for nitric oxide (NO) concentration. NOx is a pollutant. January 29. NOx Modeling in ANSYS FLUENT The ANSYS FLUENT NOx model provides the capability to model thermal. Inc. NOx variation trends can be accurately predicted but the NOx quantity itself cannot be pinpointed. ANSYS FLUENT solves additional transport equations for intermediate species (HCN and/or NH3 ). one can only expect results to be as accurate as the input data and the selected physical models. the power of CFD in general.

1.1 NOx Formation NOx Formation and Reduction in Flames In laminar ﬂames. Governing Equations for NOx Transport ANSYS FLUENT solves the mass transport equation for the NO species. Inc.13.1-2) · (ρvYNH3 ) = · (ρDYNH3 ) + SNH3 (13. production and consumption of NO and related species. This approach is completely general. and intermediate N2 O. the formation of NOx can be attributed to four distinct chemical kinetic processes: thermal NOx formation. January 29. diﬀusion. is included through the convection terms in the governing equations written in the Eulerian reference frame. For thermal and prompt NOx mechanisms.5: Fuel NOx Formation. i 13. and at the molecular level within turbulent ﬂames. only the NO species transport equation is needed: ∂ (ρYNO ) + ∂t · (ρvYNO ) = · (ρD YNO ) + SNO (13.0 c ANSYS. Thermal NOx is formed by the oxidation of atmospheric nitrogen present in the combustion air. taking into account convection. fuel NOx formation. 2009 13-3 .1. NOx may also be formed from molecular nitrogen (N2 ) via N2 O. respectively. the fuel NOx mechanisms are more involved.2 The NOx models cannot be used in conjunction with the premixed combustion model.1-3) · (ρvYN2 O ) = · (ρDYN2 O ) + SN2 O (13. The eﬀect of residence time in NOx mechanisms. prompt NOx formation. ANSYS FLUENT solves a transport equation for the HCN. Prompt NOx is produced by high-speed reactions at the ﬂame front. NH3 or N2 O species in addition to the NO species: ∂ (ρYHCN ) + ∂t ∂ (ρYNH3 ) + ∂t ∂ (ρYN2 O ) + ∂t · (ρvYHCN ) = · (ρDYHCN ) + SHCN (13. At elevated pressures and oxygen-rich conditions. The reburning and SNCR mechanisms reduce the total NOx formation by accounting for the reaction of NO with hydrocarbons and ammonia. a Lagrangian reference frame concept. The tracking of nitrogen-containing intermediate species is important.1-1) As discussed in Section 13.1-4) Release 12. being derived from the fundamental principle of mass conservation. and fuel NOx is produced by oxidation of nitrogen contained in the fuel.

and YNO are mass fractions of HCN. and kr.3 = 1.3 [N][OH] − kr. kf. and OH are required. kf. January 29. kr. the concentrations of O. 236]. These were selected based on the evaluation of Hanson and Salimian [124]. respectively.1 [O][N2 ] + kf. The principal reactions governing the formation of thermal NOx from molecular nitrogen are as follows: O + N2 N + O2 N + NO O + NO (13. The source terms SHCN .1.1-7 is given by d[NO] = kf. SNH3 .1-5) (13.2 kf. 2009 . NH3 .8 × 108 e−38370/T = 1.1 kf. and kf. Inc. and kr.3 Thermal NOx Formation The formation of thermal NOx is determined by a set of highly temperature-dependent chemical reactions known as the extended Zeldovich mechanism. 13.3 = 3. To calculate the formation rates of NO and N.1 × 107 e−450/T kr.2 .7 × 108 e−24560/T In the above expressions.2 .1-5–13.1-7. and the data obtained from these studies have been critically evaluated by Baulch et al.1 . 102. The net rate of formation of NO via Reactions 13. particularly at near-stoichiometric conditions and in fuel-rich mixtures: N + OH H + NO (13.2 [NO][O] − kr. SN2 O . 13-4 Release 12.1-8) where all concentrations have units of gmol/m3 . and NO in the gas phase.2 kr.1-5–13.1-7) Thermal NOx Reaction Rates The rate constants for these reactions have been measured in numerous experimental studies [29.3 are the corresponding reverse rate constants. and SNO are to be determined next for diﬀerent NOx mechanisms.0 c ANSYS.3 [NO][H] dt (13. N2 O.1 . All of these rate constants have units of m3 /gmol-s. kf.2 [N][O2 ] + kf.1 kr. YN2 O . [18] and Hanson and Salimian [124].8 × 107 e−425/T = 3.1-6) A third reaction has been shown to contribute to the formation of thermal NOx .Pollutant Formation where YHCN . YNH3 .1-5–13.8 × 104 T e−4680/T = 7.1-7 used in the NOx model are given below.81 × 103 T e−20820/T = 1. and D is the eﬀective diﬀusion coeﬃcient.1 [NO][N] − kr. H. The expressions for the rate coeﬃcients for Equations 13.3 are the rate constants for the forward reactions 13.

This eﬀect is represented by the high activation energy of reaction 13. Following the suggestion by Zeldovich.1-9. The eﬀect of partial equilibrium O atoms on NOx formation rate has been investigated [232] during laminar methane-air combustion. January 29. N2 ). by assuming equilibrium values of temperature..1 [O][N2 ] kr. Hence the NO formation rate becomes kr.1-9) Thermal NOx Temperature Sensitivity From Equation 13. as in a fuel-lean ﬂame. Decoupled Thermal NOx Calculations To solve Equation 13.2 [O = 2kf. In fact.1 kr. O atoms. the concentration of O atoms and the free radical OH will be required.2 1 − kf. the thermal NOx production rate doubles for every 90 K temperature increase beyond 2200 K. the activation energy for oxidation of N atoms is small. Inc. However.3 [OH] 2 (gmol/m3 -s) (13. and OH radicals. The results of these investigations indicate that the level of NOx emission can be underpredicted by as much as 28% in the ﬂame zone.0 c ANSYS. the rate of consumption of free nitrogen atoms becomes equal to the rate of its formation and therefore a quasi-steady state can be established. 2009 13-5 . Release 12.1 [NO] dt 1 + kf. O atoms in particular.1-5. This assumption is valid for most combustion cases except in extremely fuel-rich combustion conditions.1 NOx Formation The Quasi-Steady Assumption for [N] The rate of formation of NOx is signiﬁcant only at high temperatures (greater than 1800 K) because ﬁxation of nitrogen requires the breaking of the strong N2 triple bond (dissociation energy of 941 kJ/gmol). O2 .13. stable species. when assuming equilibrium O-atom concentrations. are observed to be more abundant than their equilibrium levels. However. which makes it the rate-limiting step of the extended Zeldovich mechanism. It also appears that thermal NO formation should be highly dependent on temperature but independent of fuel type.e. based on the limiting rate described by kf.1 . radical concentrations.2 [O2 ]+kf.1-9 it is clear that the rate of formation of NO will increase with increasing oxygen concentration. When there is suﬃcient oxygen. the thermal NOx formation mechanism can be decoupled from the main combustion process.1 [N2 ]k[NO] 2 ] d[NO] f. in addition to the concentration of stable species (i.

Using this approach. ANSYS FLUENT uses one of three approaches— the equilibrium approach.1-11) (13. this expression becomes [O] = 3. Peters and Donnerhack [269] suggest that partial equilibrium radicals can account for no more than a 25% increase in thermal NOx and that ﬂuid dynamics has the dominant eﬀect on NOx formation rate.0 c ANSYS. but work [79] has demonstrated the existence of this phenomenon in turbulent diﬀusion ﬂames. However.1-10) 13-6 Release 12. 2009 . Therefore. The assumption of equilibrium can be justiﬁed by a reduction in the importance of radical overshoots at higher ﬂame temperature [78]. To determine the O radical concentration.97 × 105 T −1/2 [O2 ]1/2 e−31090/T where T is in Kelvin. long computer processing time has made the method economically unattractive and its extension to turbulent ﬂows diﬃcult. the thermal NOx formation process can often be decoupled from the main combustion reaction mechanism and the NOx formation rate can be calculated by assuming equilibration of the combustion reactions. [25] suggest that in turbulent diﬀusion ﬂames. there is no deﬁnitive conclusion as to the eﬀect of partial equilibrium on NOx formation rates in turbulent ﬂames. According to Westenberg [377]. Presently. Inc. January 29. Bilger et al. gmol/m3 (13. and steps. the eﬀect of O atom overshoot on the NOx formation rate is very important. the equilibrium O-atom concentration can be obtained from the expression [O] = kp [O2 ]1/2 With kp included. and so most of the thermal NOx is formed after completion of combustion.Pollutant Formation Approaches for Determining O Radical Concentration There has been little detailed study of radical concentration in industrial turbulent ﬂames. the calculation of the thermal NOx formation rate is considerably simpliﬁed. and the predicted concentration approach—in recognition of the ongoing controversy discussed above. the partial equilibrium approach. one approach would be to couple the extended Zeldovich mechanism with a detailed hydrocarbon combustion mechanism involving many reactions. Method 1: Equilibrium Approach The kinetics of the thermal NOx formation rate is much slower than the main hydrocarbon oxidation rate. species. This approach has been used previously for research purposes [229]. To overcome this possible inaccuracy.

1-7) is given by [19.1 NOx Formation Method 2: Partial Equilibrium Approach An improvement to method 1 can be made by accounting for third-body reactions in the O2 dissociation-recombination process: O2 + M O+O+M (13. the concentration of OH in the third reaction in the extended Zeldovich mechanism (Equation 13. Method 3: Predicted O Approach When the O-atom concentration is well predicted using an advanced chemistry model (such as the ﬂamelet submodel of the non-premixed model).1-13) which generally leads to a higher partial O-atom concentration. 2009 13-7 .1-14) Release 12. and the use of the predicted OH concentration approach. Method 1: Exclusion of OH Approach In this approach.64T 1/2 [O2 ]1/2 e−27123/T gmol/m3 (13.129 × 102 T −0.57 e−4595/T [O]1/2 [H2 O]1/2 gmol/m3 (13. the partial equilibrium approach. Inc.13.1-12) Equation 13. the third reaction in the extended Zeldovich mechanism (Equation 13. Approaches for Determining OH Radical Concentration ANSYS FLUENT uses one of three approaches to determine the OH radical concentration: the exclusion of OH from the thermal NOx calculation approach. Method 2: Partial Equilibrium Approach In this approach. 376] [OH] = 2. January 29.1-7) is assumed to be negligible through the following observation: k2 [O2 ]eq k3 [OH]eq This assumption is justiﬁed for lean fuel conditions and is a reasonable assumption for most cases.1-11 is then replaced by the following expression [367]: [O] = 36. [O] can be taken simply from the local O-species mass fraction.0 c ANSYS.

and gas turbines can create such conditions [13]. Prompt NOx Combustion Environments The presence of a second mechanism leading to NOx formation was ﬁrst identiﬁed by Fenimore [91] and was termed “prompt NOx ”.1-13 for a partial equilibrium assumption. thermal NOx formation rate is predicted by Equation 13. when the OH radical concentration is well predicted using an advanced chemistry model such as the ﬂamelet model. There is good evidence that prompt NOx can be formed in a signiﬁcant quantity in some combustion environments. In terms of the transport equation for NO (Equation 13. and d[NO]/dt is computed from Equation 13. 13-8 Release 12. using Equation 13. You will make the choice during problem setup. January 29. staged combustion systems. However. the NO source term due to thermal NOx mechanisms is Sthermal. or using the local O-species mass fraction. Summary To summarize.1-9.NO = Mw. At present the prompt NOx contribution to total NOx from stationary combustors is small. 2009 .1-9 is computed using Equation 13.4 Prompt NOx Formation It is known that during combustion of hydrocarbon fuels.1-1). the NOx formation rate can exceed that produced from direct oxidation of nitrogen molecules (i. the relative importance of the prompt NOx can be expected to increase.NO is the molecular weight of NO (kg/gmol). as NOx emissions are reduced to very low levels by employing new strategies (burner design or furnace geometry modiﬁcation).e. Inc.. 13.0 c ANSYS.1-15) where Mw.Pollutant Formation Method 3: Predicted OH Approach As in the predicted O approach. fuel-rich conditions and where residence times are short. The O-atom concentration needed in Equation 13.1-9. [OH] can be taken directly from the local OH species mass fraction. Surface burners.1-11 for the equilibrium assumption. thermal NOx ).NO d[NO] dt (13. such as in lowtemperature.1.

13.1 NOx Formation Prompt NOx Mechanism Prompt NOx is most prevalent in rich ﬂames.1-19) A number of species resulting from fuel fragmentation have been suggested as the source of prompt NOx in hydrocarbon ﬂames (e. for example: HCN + N N2 + . Primary Reaction Reaction 13. and ﬁnally decreases due to a deﬁciency in oxygen.1-16) (13. 2009 13-9 . Inc. C2 H)..g. The route now accepted is as follows: CH + N2 N + O2 HCN + OH CN + O2 HCN + N NO + O CN + H2 O NO + CO (13. via CH2 + N2 HCN + NH (13..1-16 is of primary importance.. January 29. d[NO] = k0 [CH][N2 ] dt (13. which in turn increases with equivalence ratio.0 c ANSYS. The actual formation involves a complex series of reactions and many possible intermediate species.1-20) The products of these reactions could lead to formation of amines and cyano compounds that subsequently react to form NO by reactions similar to those occurring in oxidation of fuel nitrogen. As the equivalence ratio increases.1-16) and CH2 .1-21) Prompt NOx Formation Factors Prompt NOx formation is proportional to the number of carbon atoms present per unit volume and is independent of the parent hydrocarbon identity. indicating that the majority of the NOx at the ﬂame base is prompt NOx formed by the CH reaction. Assuming that Reaction 13. In recent studies [304]. then passes a peak. but the major contribution is from CH (Equation 13. CH.1-22) Release 12.1-17) (13. prompt NOx production increases at ﬁrst. CH2 . The quantity of HCN formed increases with the concentration of hydrocarbon radicals. C.1-16 controls the prompt NOx formation rate.1-18) (13. (13. comparison of probability density distributions for the location of the peak NOx with those obtained for the peak CH have shown close correspondence.

and p is pressure (all in SI units). are extremely complex and costly to compute. the O concentration is high and the N radical almost exclusively forms NOx rather than nitrogen. In the present NOx model.1-24) where a is the oxygen reaction order. The rate of prompt NOx formation is found to be of the ﬁrst order with respect to nitrogen and fuel concentration. 2009 . as mentioned previously. where prompt NOx is formed under fuel-rich conditions.0 c ANSYS. January 29. but the oxygen reaction order.2 × 107 (RT /p)a+1 . Hydrocarbon combustion mechanisms involve many steps and.1-16–13.Pollutant Formation Modeling Strategy There are. De Soete compared the experimental values of total NOx formation rate with the rate of formation calculated by numerical integration of the empirical overall reaction rates of NOx and N2 formation. uncertainties about the rate data for the above reaction. From Reactions 13.1-23) In the early stages of the ﬂame. kpr = 1. a global kinetic parameter derived by De Soete [69] is used. a. however. Ea = 251151 J/gmol (13. Inc. 13-10 Release 12.1-20. depends on experimental conditions. the prompt NOx formation rate will be approximately equal to the overall prompt NOx formation rate: d[NO] = kpr [O2 ]a [N2 ][FUEL]e−Ea /RT dt For C2 H4 (ethylene)-air ﬂames. Therefore. He showed that overall prompt formation rate can be predicted from the expression d[NO] = (overall prompt NOx formation rate) − (overall prompt N2 formation rate) dt (13. it can be concluded that the prediction of prompt NOx formation within the ﬂame requires coupling of the NOx kinetics to an actual hydrocarbon combustion mechanism. R is the universal gas constant.

NO = Mw.1-24 now becomes d[NO] = f kpr [O2 ]a [N2 ][FUEL]e−Ea /RT dt so that the source term due to prompt NOx mechanism is Sprompt. rather than any spatially varying quantity in the ﬂow domain.NO In the above equations.e. For values outside the range. valid for aliphatic alkane hydrocarbon fuels (Cn H2n+2 ) and for equivalence ratios between 0.2φ3 kpr = 6. 2009 13-11 .13.1-24 was tested against the experimental data obtained by Backmier et al. Here the concept of equivalence ratio refers to an overall equivalence ratio for the ﬂame. i.4 × 106 (RT /p)a+1 . and φ is the equivalence ratio. results are not likely to be signiﬁcantly biased.1 NOx Formation Rate for Most Hydrocarbon Fuels Equation 13. In complex geometries with multiple burners this may lead to some uncertainty in the speciﬁcation of φ. which incorporates the eﬀect of fuel type. the De Soete model was modiﬁed using the available experimental data. Equation 13. Release 12. the appropriate limit should be used. Values of kpr and Ea were developed at the Department of Fuel and Energy at The University of Leeds in England. Inc. f = 4.125 J/gmol n is the number of carbon atoms per molecule for the hydrocarbon fuel.1-27) d[NO] dt (13. However. [9] for diﬀerent mixture strengths and fuel types. A correction factor. f . To reduce this error and predict the prompt NOx adequately in all conditions. number of carbon atoms. January 29. The predicted results indicated that the model performance declined signiﬁcantly under fuel-rich conditions and for higher hydrocarbon fuels. since the contribution of prompt NOx to the total NOx emission is often very small. The correction factor is a curve ﬁt for experimental data.1-25) Ea = 303474.1-26) (13.6 and 1.75 + 0. (13. and air-to-fuel ratio for gaseous aliphatic hydrocarbons.0819 n − 23.0 c ANSYS.6. was developed..2φ + 32φ2 − 12.

This fuel nitrogen is a particularly important source of nitrogen oxide emissions for residual fuel oil and coal.03 (13.1-28) 13. and NH can be formed and converted to NOx . diﬀerent investigators seem to agree on a simpliﬁed model: NO O 2 ion dat oxi Fuel Nitrogen Nitrogen Intermediates red NO uct ion N2 13-12 Release 12.0. According to De Soete [69]. Studies have shown that most of the nitrogen in heavy fuel oils is in the form of heterocycles and it is thought that the nitrogen components of coal are similar [154]. 4. NH3 .1 ln XO2 . January 29. Inc.1. etc.3–2% nitrogen by weight. 2009 .11 × 10−2 O2 .e. quinoline. Reaction Pathways The extent of conversion of fuel nitrogen to NOx is dependent on the local combustion characteristics and the initial concentration of nitrogen-bound compounds. Although the route leading to fuel NOx formation and destruction is still not completely understood. This chemical mechanism has been subject to several detailed investigations [230].1 × 10 −0.11 × 10−2 < XO2 < 0.9 ln X a= XO2 ≤ 4. −3. which typically contain 0. CN. secondary intermediate nitrogen compounds) are subject to a double competitive reaction path.95 − 0.03 0.0 c ANSYS. and amine type heterocyclic ring structures are of importance. oxygen reaction order is uniquely related to oxygen mole fraction in the ﬂame: 1..1 × 10−3 −3 ≤ XO2 ≤ 1. (aniline.) in the reaction zone. Fuel-bound compounds that contain nitrogen are released into the gas phase when the fuel droplets or particles are heated during the devolatilization stage. XO2 ≥ 0. pyridine.Pollutant Formation Oxygen Reaction Order Oxygen reaction order depends on ﬂame conditions. It is believed that pyridine. 1. N. pyrroles. radicals such as HCN. From the thermal decomposition of these compounds. The above free radicals (i.35 − 0.5 Fuel NOx Formation Fuel-Bound Nitrogen It is well known that nitrogen-containing organic compounds present in liquid or solid fossil fuel can contribute to the total NOx formed during the combustion process.

liquid and coal fuels are considered separately.1-1 and 13. Contributions from thermal and prompt mechanisms have been discussed in previous sections. However.1-3) are solved. sources of NOx emission for gaseous.1-2 or 13.0 c ANSYS. Discussions to follow refer to fuel NOx sources for SNO and intermediate HCN. SNH3 . 2009 13-13 . after which the source terms SHCN . ammonia becomes the principal product of fuel nitrogen conversion.1-30) Release 12.13. Fuel NOx from Intermediate Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) When HCN is used as the intermediate species: 1: O oxi dat 2 ion NO Fuel Nitrogen HCN red uct 2: N ion O N2 The source terms in the transport equations can be written as follows: SHCN = Spl.1 NOx Formation Recent investigations [133] have shown that hydrogen cyanide appears to be the principal product if fuel nitrogen is present in aromatic or cyclic form. January 29.1-29) (13.HCN + SHCN−1 + SHCN−2 SNO = SNO−1 + SNO−2 (13. NH3 sources for SHCN and SNH3 . Inc. In the ANSYS FLUENT NOx model. or a combination of both. when fuel nitrogen is present in the form of aliphatic amines. and SNO are determined for diﬀerent fuel types. Fuel NOx from Gaseous and Liquid Fuels The fuel NOx mechanisms for gaseous and liquid fuels are based on diﬀerent physics but the same chemical reaction pathways. The nitrogen-containing intermediates are grouped as HCN. NH3 . Transport equations (13.

1-34) R2 = A2 XHCN XNO e where R1 . January 29.fuel Mw.95 J/gmol 251151 J/gmol 13-14 Release 12. so the gaseous fuel NOx option is available only when the generalized ﬁnite-rate model is used.HCN Mw.1-31) = source of HCN (kg/m3 -s) = mean limiting reaction rate of fuel (kg/m3 -s) = mass fraction of nitrogen in the fuel The mean limiting reaction rate of fuel.1-32) = source of HCN (kg/m3 -s) = rate of fuel release from the liquid droplets to the gas (kg/s) = mass fraction of nitrogen in the fuel = cell volume (m3 ) HCN Consumption The HCN depletion rates from reactions (1) and (2) in the above mechanism are the same for both gaseous and liquid fuels.N V (13.Pollutant Formation HCN Production in a Gaseous Fuel The rate of HCN production is equivalent to the rate of combustion of the fuel: Spl.fuel V Sfuel YN.fuel Rcf YN.HCN Rcf YN. is calculated from the Magnussen combustion model.fuel Mw.0 ×1010 s−1 3.HCN Sfuel YN.HCN = where Spl.1-33) (13.N (13. R2 T X A1 A2 E1 E2 = = = = = = = −E2 /RT conversion rates of HCN (s−1 ) instantaneous temperature (K) mole fractions 1. Inc. Rcf .0 ×1012 s−1 280451.HCN Mw. HCN Production in a Liquid Fuel The rate of HCN production is equivalent to the rate of fuel release into the gas phase through droplet evaporation: Spl. and are given by De Soete [69] as a R1 = A1 XHCN XO2 e−E1 /RT (13.0 c ANSYS. 2009 .HCN = where Spl.

is calculated from Equation 13.1-29 are calculated as SHCN−1 = −R1 Mw.i ) and the mixture (Mw.m ). Inc. and are evaluated as follows: SNO−1 = −SHCN−1 Mw.HCN p RT Mw.NO Mw. January 29.NO Mw.i ρRT p (13.1-28.HCN RT (13. a.NO p = R1 Mw.1-30 are the same for a gaseous as for a liquid fuel.HCN RT (13.1-35) HCN Sources in the Transport Equation The mass consumption rates of HCN which appear in Equation 13.1-38) SNO−2 = SHCN−2 Mw.1-37) consumption rates of HCN in reactions 1 and 2 respectively (kg/m3 -s) = pressure (Pa) = mean temperature (K) = universal gas constant NOx Sources in the Transport Equation NOx is produced in reaction 1 but destroyed in reaction 2.1-36) SHCN−2 = −R2 where SHCN−1 SHCN−2 p T R = (13. 2009 13-15 .1 NOx Formation The oxygen reaction order.i Mw.0 c ANSYS.m Yi = Mw.HCN p RT (13.NO p = −R2 Mw. The sources for Equation 13.1-39) Release 12. Since mole fraction is related to mass fraction through molecular weights of the species (Mw.13. Xi = Yi Mw.

is calculated from the Magnussen combustion model. so the gaseous fuel NOx option is available only when the generalized ﬁnite-rate model is used. January 29. Inc.1-40) (13.NH3 Mw.N (13.0 c ANSYS.fuel Mw.fuel Rcf YN.NH3 = where Spl. Rcf .NH3 + SNH3 −1 + SNH3 −2 SNO = SNO−1 + SNO−2 NH3 Production in a Gaseous Fuel The rate of NH3 production is equivalent to the rate of combustion of the fuel: Spl.1-42) = source of NH3 (kg/m3 -s) = mean limiting reaction rate of fuel (kg/m3 -s) = mass fraction of nitrogen in the fuel The mean limiting reaction rate of fuel.1-41) (13. 2009 .Pollutant Formation Fuel NOx from Intermediate Ammonia (NH3 ) When NH3 is used as the intermediate species: 1: O oxi dat 2 ion NO Fuel Nitrogen NH 3 red uct 2: N ion O N2 The source terms in the transport equations can be written as follows: SNH3 = Spl. 13-16 Release 12.NH3 Rcf YN.

1-44) (13.m ).NH3 Mw.0 ×106 s−1 1. Release 12.1-45) R2 = A2 XNH3 XNO e where R1 . R2 T X A1 A2 E1 E2 = = = = = = = −E2 /RT conversion rates of NH3 (s−1 ) instantaneous temperature (K) mole fractions 4. January 29. Xi can be calculated using Equation 13.13. Inc.0 c ANSYS.1-35.95 J/gmol The oxygen reaction order.2 J/gmol 113017.1-43) source of NH3 (kg/m3 -s) rate of fuel release from the liquid droplets to the gas (kg/s) mass fraction of nitrogen in the fuel cell volume (m3 ) NH3 Consumption The NH3 depletion rates from reactions (1) and (2) in the above mechanism are the same for both gaseous and liquid fuels.1-28.i ) and the mixture (Mw.8 ×108 s−1 133947. and are given by De Soete [69] as a R1 = A1 XNH3 XO2 e−E1 /RT (13.NH3 = where Spl. 2009 13-17 . is calculated from Equation 13.fuel Mw. Since mole fraction is related to mass fraction through molecular weights of the species (Mw.NH3 Sfuel YN. a.N V (13.fuel V = = = = Sfuel YN.1 NOx Formation NH3 Production in a Liquid Fuel The rate of NH3 production is equivalent to the rate of fuel release into the gas phase through droplet evaporation: Spl.

13-18 Release 12. When HCN is used as the intermediate species.NO Mw. The sources for Equation 13.NO Mw. Inc.NH3 RT (13.Pollutant Formation NH3 Sources in the Transport Equation The mass consumption rates of NH3 which appear in Equation 13.1-49) Fuel NOx from Coal Nitrogen in Char and in Volatiles For the coal it is assumed that fuel nitrogen is distributed between the volatiles and the char. 2009 .1-46) SNH3 −2 = −R2 where SNH3 −1 SNH3 −2 p T R (13.1-47) = consumption rates of NH3 in reactions 1 and 2 respectively (kg/m3 -s) = pressure (Pa) = mean temperature (K) = universal gas constant NOx Sources in the Transport Equation NOx is produced in reaction 1 but destroyed in reaction 2.NH3 p RT Mw.1-41 are the same for a gaseous as for a liquid fuel. It is assumed that fuel nitrogen is distributed between the volatiles and the char.NO p = −R2 Mw. and are evaluated as follows: SNO−1 = −SNH3 −1 Mw. much like in the calculation of NOx production from the coal via HCN.NH3 RT (13. January 29.0 c ANSYS.1-40 are calculated as SNH3 −1 = −R1 Mw. two variations of fuel NOx mechanisms for coal are included. When NH3 is used as the intermediate species.NH3 p RT (13. two variations of fuel NOx mechanisms for coal are included.NO p = R1 Mw.1-48) SNO−2 = SNH3 −2 Mw. Since there is no reason to assume that N is equally distributed between the volatiles and the char the fraction of N in the volatiles and the char should be speciﬁed separately.

0 c ANSYS.13.HCN Mw. all char-bound nitrogen converts to HCN. 2009 13-19 .char V Sc YN.1-51) = char burnout rate (kg/s) = mass fraction of nitrogen in char = cell volume (m3 ) Coal Fuel NOx Scheme B The second HCN mechanism assumes that all char N converts to NO directly [207].1 NOx Formation Coal Fuel NOx Scheme A The ﬁrst HCN mechanism assumes that all char N converts to HCN which is then converted partially to NO [327].1-50) (13.N V = 0 (13. 3: Char NO Volatile N N2 Schar. January 29.NO where Sc YN. The reaction pathway is described as follows: Char N 1: O 2 HCN 2: NO N2 NO 3: Char N2 Volatile N Release 12.char Mw. Thus. Inc.HCN = Schar. The reaction pathway is described as follows: Char N 1: O 2 HCN 2: NO N2 With the ﬁrst scheme.

the char NOx source.NO . Inc.1-53) The second HCN mechanism tends to produce more NOx emission than the ﬁrst.1-56) The partial pressure pNO is calculated using Dalton’s law: pNO = pXNO 13-20 Release 12. and SNO−2 are described previously.Pollutant Formation According to Lockwood [207]. January 29. only the heterogeneous reaction source.N V HCN Scheme Selection (13. need to be considered. Spvc. then Schar. If this approach is followed.485 J/gmol 230 gmol/m2 -s-atm BET mean temperature (K) (13.HCN . In general. the char nitrogen is released to the gas phase as NO directly. SNO−3 .1-52) (13. Therefore. SHCN−2 . however. and the HCN production source.0 c ANSYS. SNO−1 . 2009 . Schar.NO + SNO−1 + SNO−2 + SNO−3 (13. mainly as a desorption product from oxidized char nitrogen atoms. NOx Reduction on Char Surface The heterogeneous reaction of NO reduction on the char surface has been modeled according to the following [190]: R3 = A3 e−E3 /RT pNO where R3 pNO E3 A3 T = = = = = rate of NO reduction (gmol/m2 -s) BET mean NO partial pressure (atm) 142737.char Mw.HCN = 0 Sc YN.HCN + SHCN−1 + SHCN−2 SNO = Schar. it is diﬃcult to say which one outperforms the other.1-55) Source contributions SHCN−1 .NO Schar.NO = Mw. The source terms for the transport equations are SHCN = Spvc.1-54) (13.

HCN = Svol. the BET area is typically 25. The overall source of HCN (Spvc.HCN ): Spvc.HCN + Schar. Emmett and Teller [42]). January 29.HCN HCN from Volatiles The source of HCN from the volatiles is related to the rate of volatile release: Svol. the pore (BET) surface areas range from 100.0 c ANSYS. depending on the microscopic structure.13.HCN = where Svol YN. For commercial adsorbents.vol V Svol YN. Inc. 2009 13-21 . The pore surface area is also known as the BET surface area due to the researchers who pioneered the adsorption theory (Brunauer.vol Mw.HCN Mw.HCN ) is a combination of volatile contribution (Svol. Release 12.000 m2 /kg which is used as the default in ANSYS FLUENT.N V = source of volatiles originating from the coal particles into the gas phase (kg/s) = mass fraction of nitrogen in the volatiles = cell volume (m3 ) Calculation of sources related to char-bound nitrogen depends on the fuel NOx scheme selection.000 to 2 million square meters per kilogram.HCN ) and char contribution (Schar.1 NOx Formation The rate of NO consumption due to reaction 3 will then be SNO−3 = cs ABET Mw. For coal.NO R3 where ABET cs SNO−3 = BET surface area (m2 /kg) = concentration of particles (kg/m3 ) = NO consumption (kg/m3 -s) BET Surface Area The heterogeneous reaction involving char is mainly an adsorption process whose rate is directly proportional to the pore surface area.

1-57) (13. The reaction pathway is described as follows: Char N 1: O 2 NH 3 2: NO N2 NO 3: Char N2 Volatile N 13-22 Release 12. Inc.Pollutant Formation Coal Fuel NOx Scheme C The ﬁrst NH3 mechanism assumes that all char N converts to NH3 which is then converted partially to NO [327].N V = 0 (13.1-58) = char burnout rate (kg/s) = mass fraction of nitrogen in char = cell volume (m3 ) Coal Fuel NOx Scheme D The second NH3 mechanism assumes that all char N converts to NO directly [207].0 c ANSYS.char V Sc YN. 3: Char NO Volatile N N2 Schar.NH3 Mw.NH3 = Schar. Thus. all char-bound nitrogen converts to NH3 .NO where Sc YN. 2009 . The reaction pathway is described as follows: Char N 1: O 2 NH 3 2: NO N2 In this scheme.char Mw. January 29.

13.NH3 + SNH3 −1 + SNH3 −2 SNO = Schar. however. SNO−1 . SNO−2 .char Mw.0 c ANSYS. In general.NH3 NH3 from Volatiles The source of NH3 from the volatiles is related to the rate of volatile release: Svol. only the NH3 production source.NO Schar. Release 12. The source terms for the transport equations are SNH3 = Spvc.N V NH3 Scheme Selection (13. Inc.vol Mw. The overall production source of NH3 is a combination of volatile contribution (Svol. Spvc. the char nitrogen is released to the gas phase as NO directly.NO are described previously. 2009 13-23 .NH3 = 0 Sc YN.NH3 = where Svol YN. it is diﬃcult to say which one outperforms the other.1-61) (13. and char contribution (Schar.NH3 ): Spvc.1-63) = source of volatiles originating from the coal particles into the gas phase (kg/s) = mass fraction of nitrogen in the volatiles = cell volume (m3 ) Calculation of sources related to char-bound nitrogen depends on the fuel NOx scheme selection. SNO−3 .NH3 = Svol.vol V Svol YN.NO + SNO−1 + SNO−2 + SNO−3 (13. January 29. Therefore.1-60) The second NH3 mechanism tends to produce more NOx emission than the ﬁrst. then Schar.N V (13. If this approach is followed.NH3 .NH3 Mw. mainly as a desorption product from oxidized char nitrogen atoms.1-59) (13. Schar.NH3 + Schar.1-62) Source contributions SNH3 −1 . needs to be considered.NO = Mw. SNH3 −2 .1 NOx Formation According to Lockwood [207].NH3 ).

13. [381] have shown that for bituminous coal. Studies by Winter et al. 338. January 29. ﬂameless oxidation. which prevents thermal NOx . As a consequence.6 NOx Formation from Intermediate N2 O Melte and Pratt [222] proposed the ﬁrst intermediate mechanism for NOx formation from molecular nitrogen (N2 ) via nitrous oxide (N2 O). especially when the fuel is a solid. and theoretically speculated for a number of combustion systems and by a number of researchers [12. fuel nitrogen partitioning can be used whenever HCN or NH3 are intermediates for NOx production. Because these devices are operated at increasingly low temperatures to prevent NOx formation via the thermal NOx mechanism. The reaction pathways and source terms for HCN and NH3 were discussed in previous sections. using an HCN/NH3 partition ratio of 9:1 gave better NOx predictions when compared to measurements than specifying only a single intermediate species. The N2 O-intermediate mechanism may also be of importance in systems operated in ﬂameless mode (e. Inc. 112. diluted combustion. 344]. This makes it particularly important in equipment such as gas turbines and compression-ignition engines. 2009 . and FLOX systems). In particular. 61.0 c ANSYS. on the other hand. In a ﬂameless mode.1. Nitrogen enters combustion systems mainly as a component of the combustion and dilution air. whereas higher-ranking (bituminous) coal has been shown to produce only HCN [246].. In total. the relative importance of the N2 Ointermediate mechanism is increasing. and that the remainder can be attributed to the prompt NOx mechanism. In ANSYS FLUENT. both HCN and NH3 can be generated as intermediates at high enough temperatures [247]. It has been observed that about 30% of the NOx formed in these systems can be attributed to the N2 O-intermediate mechanism. this intermediate mechanism can contribute as much as 90% of the NOx formed during combustion. ﬂameless combustion.g. Research suggests that the N2 O-intermediate mechanism may contribute about 90% of the NOx formed in ﬂameless mode. Under favorable conditions. though it is mainly applicable to solid fuels such as coal and biomass. elevated peaks of temperature are avoided. Liu and Gibbs [206] work with woodybiomass (pine wood chips). The relevance of NOx formation from N2 O has been observed indirectly. 13-24 Release 12.Pollutant Formation Fuel Nitrogen Partitioning for HCN and NH3 Intermediates In certain cases. which are elevated pressures and oxygen-rich conditions. has suggested an HCN/NH3 ratio of 1:9 due to the younger age of the fuel. the above work suggests the importance of being able to specify that portions of the fuel nitrogen will be converted to both HCN and NH3 intermediates at the same time. low-ranking (lignite) coal has been shown to produce 10 times more NH3 compared to the level of HCN. fuel and oxygen are highly diluted in inert gases so that the combustion reactions and resulting heat release are carried out in the diﬀuse zone.

and the equilibrium constant of Equation 13. you will need to have ﬁrst calculated [O] and [N2 O].2 [NO]2 kr.1 [M] + kf.259 e−11651/T In the above expressions.2 [N2 O][O] − kr. O2 . while kf.1 NOx Formation N2 O-Intermediate NOx Mechanism The simplest form of the mechanism [222] takes into account two reversible elementary reactions: N2 + O + M N2 O + O N2 O + M 2NO (13.2 [NO]2 dt gmol/m3 -s (13. the rate of NOx formation via the N2 O-intermediate mechanism is d[NO] = 2 kf. It is often assumed that N2 O is at quasi-steady-state (i.1 and kf.2 .1 kf. and kr.1 and kr.1-65.1-64 and 13.2 = 4. kr. Inc.e.2 [O] (13. and kr. 1 O2 2 O (13.2 = 4. Both reactions involve the oxygen radical O. kf.2 are the forward rate constants of Equations 13. the mechanism is favored at elevated pressures.13. kf.1-66) According to the kinetic rate laws. the kinetic rate constants for Equations 13.1-65 entails that coupling of the N2 O mechanism with the thermal NOx mechanism (and other NOx mechanisms).1-64 and 13.0 c ANSYS. d[N2 O]/dt = 0). While not always justiﬁed.358 e−28234/T = 2.1-66 are known. 2009 13-25 . The units for kf. which makes the mechanism favored at oxygen-rich conditions.2 are m3 /gmol-s.1-68) The system of Equations 13.1-65.1 [N2 ][O][M] + kr. Because the ﬁrst reaction involves third bodies. Release 12.1-65) Here.2 are the corresponding reverse rate constants.00 × 108 e−28234/T = 1.90 × 107 e−11651/T kr. January 29.44 × 1032 T −8.1-68 can be solved for the rate of NOx formation when the concentration of N2 .1-67–13. The appearance of NO in Equation 13.1-67.1-64) (13. which implies [N2 O] = kf.1 .. and M. it is often assumed that the radical O atoms originate solely from the dissociation of molecular oxygen.45 × 10−29 T 9.1 has units of m6 /gmol2 -s. M is a general third body.1 kr.1-67) To solve Equation 13.

Instantaneous Approach The instantaneous NOx reburning mechanism is a pathway whereby NO reacts with hydrocarbons and is subsequently reduced.1-72) CH2 + NO → HCN + OH CH3 + NO → HCN + H2 O k3 k2 i If the temperature is outside of this range. global models describing the kinetics of NOx destruction in the reburn zone of a staged combustion system became available. In general: CHi + NO → HCN + products Three reburn reactions are modeled by ANSYS FLUENT for 1600 ≤ T ≤ 2100: (13. Inc. 2009 .1. k2 = 1.and fuelstaging technologies. velocity ﬁeld. A successful application of the in-furnace reduction techniques requires control of these parameters in an optimum manner so as to avoid impairing the boiler performance. In the mid 1990s. NO reburn will not be computed. The rate constants for these reactions are taken from Bowman [32] and have units of m3 /gmol-s: k1 = 1 × 108 . temperature and chemical concentration ﬁeld. based on air.Pollutant Formation 13. and mixing pattern.0 c ANSYS.1-70) (13.1-73) 13-26 Release 12. These parameters include local stoichiometry.1-69) 1 CH + NO → HCN + O k (13. Two of these models are described below. k3 = 2 × 105 The NO depletion rate due to reburn is expressed as d[NO] = −k1 [CH][NO] − k2 [CH2 ][NO] − k3 [CH3 ][NO] dt (13.7 NOx Reduction by Reburning The design of complex combustion systems for utility boilers.1-71) (13.4 × 106 e−550/T . residence time distribution. January 29. involves many parameters and their mutual interdependence.

0 c ANSYS. and CH3 in your problem deﬁnition.NO d[NO] dt (13.1. you must be sure to include the species CH. A multiplicative constant of 4. Inc. The reburn fuel itself can be an equivalent of CH4 . and CH3 from the species mass fraction results of the combustion calculation. The additional reduction path accounts for the NOx destruction in the fuel-rich reburn zone by CH radicals (see Figure 13. CH i (4) O2 (3) Fuel N (1) HCN NO (2) N2 Figure 13.1: De Soete’s Global NOx Mechanism with Additional Reduction Path NO CH i (5) Products This model can be used in conjunction with the eddy-dissipation combustion model and does not require the speciﬁcation of CH radical concentrations. Release 12.1. CH2 . CH2 . Partial Equilibrium Approach The partial equilibrium approach is based on the model proposed by Kandamby et al. CH3 . When you use this method.NO = −Mw. by way of predicting NOx values for a number of test cases for which experimental data exists. How this equivalent fuel is determined is open for debate and an approximate guide would be to consider the C/H ratio of the fuel itself.1 NOx Formation and the source term for the reburning mechanism in the NO transport equation can be calculated as Sreburn. since they are computed based on the CH-radical partial equilibrium. This value was obtained by researchers. who developed the model.0 × 10−4 has been developed for the partial equilibrium of CH radicals to reduce the rates of HCN and NO in the reburn model. January 29. 2009 13-27 . The model adds a reduction path to De Soete’s global model [69] that describes the NOx formation/destruction mechanism in a pulverized coal ﬂame. or CH. CH2 .1).13. ANSYS FLUENT will obtain the concentrations of CH. [156] and [7].1-74) i To calculate the NO depletion rate due to reburning.

1-79) Therefore.1-75) (13. However. 2009 . the additional source terms of the HCN and NO transport equations due to reburn reactions are given by d[HCN] = 4 × 10−4 R4 dt d[NO] = −4 × 10−4 (R4 + R5 ) dt (13. [H2 ] χ2 = [OH] [H2 O] (13. which are available in signiﬁcant amounts in the reburn zone.1-76) (13. January 29. leading respectively to the formation of HCN and of minor intermediate nitrogen radicals. the HCN oxidation is suppressed and the amount of NO formed in the primary combustion zone is decreased by the reduction reaction from HCN to N2 . Inc. the NO concentration may also decrease due to reactions with CH radicals. The following are considered to be the most important reactions of NO reduction by CH radicals: NO + CH2 −→ HCN + OH NO + CH −→ HCN + O NO + C −→ CN + O (13.1.1-77) These reactions may be globally described by the addition of pathways (4) and (5) in Figure 13.1-78) (13.1-81) 13-28 Release 12.Pollutant Formation NOx Reduction Mechanism In the fuel-rich reburn zone.1-80) (13. the global NO reduction rates are then expressed as R4 = (ka χ1 + kb χ2 )[CH4 ][NO] 1 R5 = kc χ3 χ2 [CH4 ][NO] 1 where χ1 = [H] .1.0 c ANSYS. Assuming that methane is the reburning gas.

1-83) (13. the OH-radical concentration is estimated by considering the reaction OH + H2 H2 O + H (13.6 kc = k3 kf.8 Values for the rate constants ka .5 kb = k2 CH3 + H2 CH2 + H2 O CH + H2 C + H2 (13.1-85 are kf.1-85) kf.7 and kr. because the H-radical concentration in the post-ﬂame region of a hydrocarbon diﬀusion ﬂame has been observed to be of the same order as [H2 ].1 NOx Formation Certain assumptions are required to evaluate the rate constants ka .1-86) to be partially equilibrated. January 29.6 kf. k2 . kr.1-82) (13.4 kr.5 . leading to the relationship χ2 = kr. Release 12.5 kr.5 kf.5 kr.0 c ANSYS.1 [189].1.6 . For hydrocarbon diﬀusion ﬂames. and all values of E have units of J/gmol. the following reaction set can be reasonably considered to be in partial equilibrium: CH4 + H CH3 + OH CH2 + H CH + H Thus.4 kr.1-75–13. 2009 13-29 .1-84) (13.1-77.1-82–13.7 kr.7 where k1 .4 –kr. kb .4 –kf.5 kf.4 kr.13. and k3 are the rate constants for Equations 13. kr. All rate constants have units of m3 /gmol-s.4 kf. In addition. and kc for diﬀerent equivalent fuel types are given in Arrhenius form (AT b e−E/RT ) in Table 13. it is assumed that χ1 = 1. The forward and reverse rate constants for Equations 13. Finally.6 kr.4 kf. and kc and the factors χ1 and χ2 .4 kf.8 kf.7 . the rate constants may be computed as ka = k 1 kf. respectively. Inc. kb .

is a method to reduce the emission of NOx from combustion by injecting a selective reductant such as ammonia (NH3 ) or urea (CO(NH2 )2 ) into the furnace. or window. 2009 . 13-30 Release 12. The selectivity for the reductive reactions decreases with increasing temperature [228] while the rate of the initiation reaction simultaneously increases.31 × 1013 0.0 0.8 = 1.60 e−13802/RT . January 29.1. which is based on experimental measurements.37 × 109 0. ﬁrst described by Lyon [212].13 × 109 0.54 27977 -1.02 × 105 T 1.1.0 c ANSYS. the model was found to be unsuitable for practical applications.52 × 105 T 1. where the lower temperature limit for the interval is determined by the residence time.1-86. However.23 × 107 0.0 A 3. and the other to NO formation.2.Pollutant Formation Table 13.14 × 1011 0.64 -2. However.64 -2.54 27977 -1.1.30 × 109 0.33 -3.1: Rate Constants for Diﬀerent Reburn Fuels Equivalent Fuel Type CH4 CH3 CH2 CH ka b E -1. which is a single initiation step followed by two parallel reaction pathways: one leading to NO reduction.06 × 1011 0.8 NOx Reduction by SNCR The selective noncatalytic reduction of NOx (SNCR). This limits the SNCR process to a narrow temperature interval. A simple empirical model has been proposed by Fenimore [92].33 -3. kf.21 × 1011 0. Inc.33 -3.8 = 4.0 kb b -3.33 kc b -2. Ammonia Injection Several investigators have modeled the process using a large number of elementary reactions. Ostberg and Dam-Johansen [260] proposed a two-step scheme describing the SNCR process as shown in Figure 13. kr. the reductant can be oxidized as well to form NOx .60 e−80815/RT 13.64 A 5.58 × 106 E 77077 77077 77077 77077 For Equation 13. where it can react with NO in the ﬂue gas to form N2 .23 × 1013 0.54 27977 0.64 -2.63 × 108 E 15090 15090 15090 15090 A 3.

have been estimated from work done by Brouwer et al.2: Simpliﬁed Reaction Mechanism for the SNCR Process 1 3 NO + NH3 + O2 −→ N2 + H2 O 4 2 5 3 NH3 + O2 −→ NO + H2 O 4 2 (13.1 NOx Formation OH OH NH 3 NH 2 NO NO N2 Figure 13.1-87) (13.1-89) (13. respectively.06 J/gmol and Eox = 524487. kox = 3.1. Inc.13. were proposed: RNO = −kr [NO][NH3 ] + kox [NH3 ][O2 ] RNH3 = −kr [NO][NH3 ] − kox [NH3 ][O2 ] The rate constants kr and kox have units of m3 /gmol-s. at 4% volume O2 .1-88) The reaction orders of NO and NH3 at 4% volume O2 and the empirical rate constants kr and kox for Equations 13. January 29. and are deﬁned as kr = 4.65 e−Eox /RT where Er = 349937.1-88.0 c ANSYS.50 × 10−1 T 7.1-87 and the order of NH3 was found to be 1 for both reactions.30 e−Er /RT . the following reaction rates for NO and NH3 . The reaction order of NO was found to be 1 for Equation 13.005 J/gmol.1-90) Release 12.1-87 and 13. 2009 13-31 . (13.24 × 102 T 5. As such. [40].

the residence time in the relevant temperature interval. For this reason. while the eﬀect of increasing O2 concentration depends on the temperature considered. under heating. ammonia and urea. The eﬀect of increasing the β value is to increase the eﬃciency of abatement. This model overestimates the NO reduction for temperatures above the optimum temperature by an amount similar to that of the detailed kinetic model of Miller and Bowman [228]. some experimental observations [297] show that SNCR using urea is eﬀective in a narrow temperature window that is shifted toward higher temperatures when compared to Thermal DeNOx processes at the same value of the ratio of nitrogen in the reducing agent and in NO in the feed. The temperature range or “window” at which SNCR may occur is 1073 K < T < 1373 K. β. sublimes and decomposes into isocyanic acid) since urea most probably decomposes into ammonia and isocyanic acid [228]. The SNCR process using urea is a combination of Thermal DeNOx (SNCR with ammonia) and RAPRENOx (SNCR using cyanuric acid that. i The SNCR process naturally occurs when NH3 is present in the ﬂame as a fuel N intermediate. such as CO and HNCO. Urea Injection Urea as a reagent for the SNCR process is similar to that of injecting ammonia and has been used in the power station combustors to reduce NO emissions successfully.Pollutant Formation This model has been shown to give reasonable predictions of the SNCR process in pulverized coal and ﬂuidized bed combustion applications. the NH3 to NO molar ratio. The narrow temperature “window” of eﬀectiveness and mixing limitations are diﬃcult factors to handle in a large combustor. However. The use of urea instead of ammonia as the reducing agent is attractive because of the ease of storage and handling of the reagent. please contact your support engineer for information on how to deactivate it. which are the temperature of the ﬂue gas at the injection position. To model your case without using the natural SNCR process. January 29. The model also captures the inﬂuence of the most signiﬁcant parameters for SNCR. Also. Urea seems to involve a signiﬁcant emission of carboncontaining pollutants. Inc. have major limitations as a NOx reducing agent. One problem of SNCR processes using urea is that slow decay of HNCO as well as the reaction channels leading to N2O and CO can signiﬁcantly increase the emission of pollutants other than NO. and the eﬀect of combustible additives. the natural SNCR process may still occur in the ﬂame. 2009 .0 c ANSYS. even if the SNCR model is not activated and there is no reagent injection. 13-32 Release 12. both reagents.

2: Seven-Step Reduced Mechanism for SNCR with Urea Reaction N H3 + N O → N2 + H 2 O + H N H3 + O2 → N O + H 2 O + H HN CO + M → H + N CO + M N CO + N O → N 2 O + CO N CO + OH → N O + CO + H N 2 O + OH → N2 + O2 + H N 2 O + M → N2 + O + M A 4. The seven-step reduced mechanism is given in Table 13.000E+07 1.109 87819.00 -2.400E+08 1.8 -1632.85 0. in addition to the usual transport equations. Table 13.1-92) Release 12.1.500E-01 2.30 7. in Tables 13.5 E 349937.1.1-91) · (ρvYHNCO ) = · (ρDYHNCO ) + SHNCO (13.000E+07 2. HNCO. and NCO When the SNCR model with urea injection is employed. ∂ (ρYCO(NH2 )2 ) + ∂t ∂ (ρYHNCO ) + ∂t · (ρvYCO(NH2 )2 ) = · (ρDYCO(NH2 )2 ) + SCO(NH2 )2 (13. January 29. HNCO and NCO species. ANSYS FLUENT solves the following three additional mass transport equations for urea.1 NOx Formation The model described here is proposed by Brouwer et al.9 moles of HNCO.24E+02 3. Transport Equations for Urea. Inc.900E+17 b 5. are m-gmol-sec and E units are J/gmol.133 where the units of A.3.2 and the two-step urea breakdown mechanism is given in Table 13.00 0.0 c ANSYS. Brouwer et al.3.13E+04 b 0 0 E 65048.00 0.000E+06 6. [40] assumes that the breakdown of urea is instantaneous and 1 mole of urea is assumed to produce 1. [40] and is a seven-step reduced kinetic mechanism.1.005 284637. [297] proposed a ﬁnite rate two-step mechanism for the breakdown of urea into ammonia and HNCO.3: Two-Step Urea Breakdown Process Reaction CO(N H 2 )2 → N H3 + HN CO CO(N H 2 )2 + H 2 O → 2N H3 + CO2 A 1.646 Table 13.2 and 13.1.27E+04 6.1 moles of N H3 and 0.13.5 271075.06 524487.4815 0 41858. The work of Rota et al.1.65 0.1. 2009 13-33 .

HNCO + SHNCO−reac (13.2 and 13. YHNCO and YNCO are mass fractions of urea. 13-34 Release 12.1-100) where Sreagent is the rate of reagent release from the liquid droplets to the gas phase (kg/s) and V is the cell volume (m3 ).1-98) SN2 O = SN2 O−reac (13.CO(NH2 )2 + SCO(NH2 )2 −reac SHNCO = Spl.1-99) Source terms Si−reac for ith species are determined from the rate equations given in Tables 13.2 and 13.3.1.1.CO(NH2 )2 = Sreagent V (13.0 c ANSYS.1-93) where YCO(NH2 )2 . SHNCO and SNCO are determined according to the rate equations given in Tables 13.1-94) (13.1. These additional source terms are determined next. Inc. The source terms in the transport equations can be written as follows: SCO(NH2 )2 = Spl.1-95) SNCO = SNCO−reac (13. Source terms SCO(NH2 )2 . 2009 .1.1-96) Apart from the source terms for the above three species. HNCO and NCO in the gas phase. Urea Production due to Reagent Injection The rate of urea production is equivalent to the rate of reagent release into the gas phase through droplet evaporation: Spl. additional source terms for N O.Pollutant Formation ∂ (ρYNCO ) + ∂t · (ρvYNCO ) = · (ρDYNCO ) + SNCO (13. N H3 and N 2 O are also determined as follows.NH3 + SNH3 −reac (13. which should be added to the previously calculated sources due to fuel NOx : SNO = SNO−reac (13. January 29.3 and the additional source terms due to reagent injection.1-97) SNH3 = Spl.

When the user-speciﬁed option is used for urea decomposition. i The mole conversion fractions (MCF) for species N H3 and HNCO are determined through the user species values such that if one mole of urea decomposes into 1.1-102) where Sreagent .1.0 c ANSYS.1-101) where Sreagent is the rate of reagent release from the liquid droplets to the gas phase (kg/s). M CFHN CO is the mole fraction of HNCO in the N H3 /HN CO mixture created from urea decomposition and V is the cell volume (m3 ).CO(NH2 )2 = 0. M CFN H3 is the mole fraction of N H3 in the N H3 /HN CO mixture created from urea decomposition and V is the cell volume (m3 ).1 moles of N H3 and 0.9 moles of HNCO. both values of Spl.45. then the rate of HNCO production is proportional to the rate of reagent release into the gas phase through droplet evaporation: Spl.13. is the rate of reagent release from the liquid droplets to the gas phase (kg/s). Release 12.1 NOx Formation N H3 Production due to Reagent Injection If the urea decomposition model is set to the user-speciﬁed option. then the rate of N H3 production is proportional to the rate of reagent release into the gas phase through droplet evaporation: Spl.HNCO = M CFHN CO Sreagent V (13. 2009 13-35 . Inc.3 and the source terms are calculated accordingly. then M CFN H3 = 0. However. the injection source term.NH3 = M CFN H3 Sreagent V (13.N H3 and Spl. HNCO Production due to Reagent Injection If the urea decomposition model is set to the user-speciﬁed option.55 and M CFHN CO = 0. the default option for urea decomposition is through rate limiting reactions given in Table 13. then Spl. January 29.HN CO are zero. In this case.

then a one. January 29. or the combination of both is used to predict the NOx emission. a single. The mean values of the independent variables needed for the PDF construction are obtained from the solution of the transport equations. velocity. Temperature and composition ﬂuctuations must be taken into account by considering the probability density functions which describe the time variation. If the non-premixed or partially premixed combustion model is used to model combustion.or two-variable PDF in terms of mixture fraction(s) is also available. temperature. Inc. a time-averaged NO formation rate must be computed at each point in the domain using the averaged ﬂow-ﬁeld information. species mass fraction. and species concentrations or mean mixture fraction and variance. Methods of modeling the mean turbulent reaction rate can be based on either moment methods [380] or probability density function (PDF) techniques [148].or joint-variable PDF in terms of a normalized temperature. 2009 . The preceding combustion simulation can use either the generalized ﬁnite-rate chemistry model by Magnussen and Hjertager or the nonpremixed combustion model. Hence. The PDF Approach The PDF method has proven very useful in the theoretical description of turbulent ﬂow [149]. ANSYS FLUENT solves the density-weighted timeaveraged Navier-Stokes equations for temperature. if time-averaged composition and temperature are employed in any model to predict the mean NOx formation rate.1. and species concentration are highly nonlinear. ANSYS FLUENT uses the PDF approach. refer to Chapters 7 and 8. In any practical combustion system. the ﬂow is highly turbulent.9 NOx Formation in Turbulent Flows The kinetic mechanisms of NOx formation and destruction described in the preceding sections have all been obtained from laboratory experiments using either a laminar premixed ﬂame or shock-tube studies where molecular diﬀusion conditions are well deﬁned.Pollutant Formation 13. 13-36 Release 12. To calculate NO concentration.0 c ANSYS. however. The Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction Model In turbulent combustion calculations. The turbulent mixing process results in temporal ﬂuctuations in temperature and species concentration that will inﬂuence the characteristics of the ﬂame. The relationships among NOx formation rate. signiﬁcant errors will result. i The PDF method described here applies to the NOx transport equations only. In the ANSYS FLUENT NOx model. For details on these models.

. The Mean Reaction Rate Used in ANSYS FLUENT The PDF is used for weighting against the instantaneous rates of production of NO (e. January 29..1-104 or 13. . Hence we have S NO = or. V2 ) can be expressed as P (V1 . if relevant.0 c ANSYS. P is the probability density function (PDF). V2 .1-106) Release 12. Equation 13.g. and P1 (V1 ) and P (V1 . 2009 13-37 .1-15) and subsequent integration over suitable ranges to obtain the mean turbulent reaction rate. Inc.1-104 or 13. for two variables S NO = SNO (V1 . . V2 . the limits of integration are determined from the minimum and maximum values of temperature in the combustion solution. V2 )dV1 dV2 (13. Equation 13. (13. . The same treatment applies for the HCN or NH3 source terms.13. . Statistical Independence In the case of the two-variable PDF. For a PDF in terms of temperature.1-105 are determined from the values stored in the look-up tables. .1-103) where V1 . In general.1-105) SNO (V1 )P1 (V1 )dV1 (13. V2 . V2 ) are the PDFs of the variables V1 and. w= ··· w(V1 .1-15. V2 . it is further assumed that the variables V1 and V2 are statistically independent so that P (V1 .. for example.1-105 must be integrated at every node and at every iteration. For a PDF in terms of mixture fraction.1-104) where S NO is the mean turbulent rate of production of NO. V2 ) = P1 (V1 )P2 (V2 ) (13.. SNO is the instantaneous rate of production given by. V2 )P (V1 .)dV1 dV2 . .)P (V1 .1 NOx Formation The General Expression for the Mean Reaction Rate The mean turbulent reaction rate w can be described in terms of the instantaneous rate w and a single or joint PDF of various variables. . Equation 13. are temperature and/or the various species concentrations present. the limits of the integrations in Equation 13. .

The Gaussian PDF Option ANSYS FLUENT can also assume P to exhibit a clipped Gaussian form with delta functions at the tails. m2 ) for m ≥ 0 : erf (m) = gammp(0.1.1-110) where erf ( ) is the error function.1-111) 13-38 Release 12. See Section 21. and m and σ 2 are the mean and variance values of m. ﬁeld variables such as temperature must be normalized. 231]. Thus.5. and its variance.5. respectively. m2 ) (13.1-108) β = (1 − m) (13. The cumulative density function for a Gaussian PDF (GCDF ) may be expressed in terms of the error function as follows: GCDF = √ 1 1 + erf (m − m) / 2σ 2 2 (13. January 29.1-107) dV V α−1 (1 − V ) β−1 where Γ( ) is the Gamma function. The equation for the beta function is Γ(α + β) α−1 V (1 − V )β−1 = Γ(α)Γ(β) 0 P (V ) = V α−1 (1 − V )β−1 1 (13. the mean value of the quantity in question. The error function may be expressed in terms of the incomplete gamma function (gammp( )): for m < 0 : erf (m) = −gammp(0.1: Setting Turbulence Parameters in the separate User’s Guide for information on using the beta PDF when using single-mixture fraction models and two-mixture fraction models. α and β depend on m.Pollutant Formation The Beta PDF Option ANSYS FLUENT can assume P to be a two-moment beta function that is appropriate for combustion calculations [123. m is the quantity in question.1-109) The beta function requires that the independent variable V assume values between 0 and 1.0 c ANSYS. 2009 . Inc. σ 2 : m(1 − m) −1 σ2 m(1 − m) −1 σ2 α=m (13.

For a PDF in terms of mixture fraction.1-112) where the constants σt . • Section 13.2 SOx Formation The Calculation Method for σ 2 The variance.86.0 c ANSYS. Inc. For information about using the SOx models in ANSYS FLUENT.1-113) The term in the brackets is the dissipation rate of the independent variable.3: Reaction Mechanisms for Sulfur Oxidation • Section 13.1: Overview • Section 13.2. respectively.5: SO2 and H 2 S Production in a Liquid Fuel • Section 13. January 29. σ 2 . Cg and Cd take the values 0. so no additional calculation for σ 2 is required. 2009 13-39 . the mixture fraction variance has already been solved as part of the basic combustion calculation. and is as follows: µt k Cg µt k Cg ∂m ( m)2 = ρ Cd ρ Cd ∂x 2 σ2 = + ∂m ∂y 2 + ∂m ∂z 2 (13. 13. and 2.1: Using the SOx Model in the separate User’s Guide.7: SOx Formation in Turbulent Flows Release 12. When this is the case or when solving for species.2.85.4: SO2 and H 2 S Production in a Gaseous Fuel • Section 13.2. This solution may be computationally intensive. 2. the calculation of σ 2 is instead based on an approximate form of the variance transport equation (also referred to as the algebraic form).6: SO2 and H 2 S Production from Coal • Section 13. Note that the previous equation may only be solved for temperature. see Section 21.0. and therefore may not always be applicable for a postprocessing treatment of NOx prediction.13. The approximate form assumes equal production and dissipation of variance.2: Governing Equations for SOx Transport • Section 13.2.2. can be computed by solving the following transport equation during the combustion calculation or pollutant postprocessing stage: ∂ ρσ 2 + ∂t · (ρvσ 2 ) = µt σ 2 + Cg µt ( m)2 − Cd ρ σ 2 σt k (13.2 SOx Formation The following sections include information on the theory used in the SOx model.2.2.2.

which solves transport equations for H 2 S. Sulfur pollutants can be captured during the combustion process.5% to 3%.Pollutant Formation 13. here some of the sulfur is decomposed into the gas phase during devolatilization as H 2 S. or with after treatment methods. and SO3 . While SOx emissions are the main cause of acid rain.1. SH. Furthermore. one can conveniently assume that sulfur is released as H2 S [235]. there is a growing interest in the interaction of sulfur species with the nitrogen oxide chemistry [235]. All SOx emissions are produced because of the oxidation of fuel-bound sulfur. The evidence to date indicates that thermal NO levels (Section 13. The percentage of sulfur retained in char is rank dependent [1]. During the combustion process. The Formation of SOx The SOx model incorporates the following stages: 1. and exists in liquid fuels mostly in organic form [235]. However. fuel sulfur is oxidized to SO2 and SO3 . COS. A portion of the gaseous SOx will condense on the particles. 3. while SO3 becomes negligible [235]. However. Sulfur reaction in the gas phase In oxygen rich ﬂames the predominant sulfur species are SO. [251] the gas phase sulfur species are assumed to be in equilibrium. while part of the sulfur is retained in the char to be oxidized at a later stage. with mass fractions ranging from 0. SO2 and SO3 . 13-40 Release 12. Sulfur emissions are regulated from stationary sources and from automotive fuels. SO2 . or may react further to form sulfates. In PCGC-3 as well as in the works of Norman et al. 2. For higher sulfur concentrations in the fuel. the SOx concentration ﬁeld should be resolved together with the main combustion calculation using any of the ANSYS FLUENT reaction models.2. Sulfur retention in sorbents Sulfur pollutants can be absorbed by sorbent particles. the post-processing option can be used.3: Thermal NOx Formation) are reduced in the presence of SO2 . attaching an amount of water and thus forming sulfuric acid. January 29. as NO levels are aﬀected by the presence of sulfur species. Coal ﬁred boilers are by far the biggest single SOx emissions source. SO. S2 and SH are also present in signiﬁcant proportions. or in the post ﬂame region. For cases where the sulfur fraction in fuel is low. Inc. the process is more complicated in the case of coal.1 Overview Sulfur exists in coal as organic sulfur. accounting for over 50% of total SO2 emissions [55]. At lower oxygen concentrations H 2 S.0 c ANSYS. and is responsible for corrosion of combustion equipment. such as wet or dry scrubbing. SO2 and CS2 . pyretic and sulfates [1]. the eﬀect of sulfur compounds on the fuel NOx formation is yet to be clariﬁed. 2009 . SO3 also contributes to particulate emissions. Sulfur release from the fuel For liquid fuels. injected either in situ.

2. then only the SO2 species transport equation is needed: ∂ (ρYSO2 ) + ∂t · (ρvYSO2 ) = · (ρD YSO2 ) + SSO2 (13. The source terms SSO2 . YSO . taking into account convection.2-1) As discussed in Section 13. and SO3 species are incorporated and an appropriate reaction set has been developed as described in the ensuing sections. being derived from the fundamental principle of mass conservation. SO.2-2) · (ρvYSO3 ) = · (ρDYSO3 ) + SSO3 (13. SSO3 . and SH species in addition to the SO2 species: ∂ (ρYH2 S ) + ∂t ∂ (ρYSO3 ) + ∂t ∂ (ρYSO ) + ∂t ∂ (ρYSH ) + ∂t · (ρvYH2 S ) = · (ρDYH2 S ) + SH2 S (13. January 29. 2009 13-41 . SO. and YSH are mass fractions of SO2 .0 c ANSYS. SOx formation mechanisms involve multiple reactions among multiple species.3: Reaction Mechanisms for Sulfur Oxidation.2 SOx Formation For low sulfur fuels. Transport equations for H 2 S. SSO .2-4) · (ρvYSH ) = · (ρDYSH ) + SSH (13.2 Governing Equations for SOx Transport ANSYS FLUENT solves the mass transport equations for the SO2 species. YH2 S . ANSYS FLUENT solves transport equations for the H 2 S. SO3 . For the char S it can be assumed that SO2 is produced directly at the same rate as that of char burnout. and SSH are to be determined depending on the form of fuel sulfur release (SO2 and/or H 2 S) and inclusion of SO3 .13. The rate of release can be determined similarly to that of fuel-bound N. If all fuel sulfur is assumed to convert directly to SO2 and the other product and intermediate species are assumed negligible. SO2 .2.2-5) where YSO2 . Inc. SH2 S . production and consumption of SO2 and related species. diﬀusion. a Lagrangian reference frame concept. is included through the convection terms in the governing equations written in the Eulerian reference frame. and SH in the gas phase. The eﬀect of residence time in SOx mechanisms. and tracking sulfurcontaining intermediate species is important.2-3) · (ρvYSO ) = · (ρDYSO ) + SSO (13. SO and SH in the SOx mechanism. Release 12. 13. we can assume that sulfur is mainly released as H 2 S. YSO3 . H 2 S. SO. SO3 . This approach is completely general. SH.

O and O2 ).1. The user is then given the option to vary the proportionality constant. H2 . the lack of simple relation to calculate the H radical concentration in a ﬂame has prompted the present choice. A units for the thirteenth reaction is m6 /gmol2 -s.3 Reaction Mechanisms for Sulfur Oxidation A detailed reaction mechanism for sulfur oxidation has been proposed by Kramlich [172]. nitrogen. However. the concentration of H radical is assumed to be proportional to the O radical concentration. At present. H 2 S or SO2 ) the species H 2 S may or may not be present for the calculation. January 29. OH.2-6) 13-42 Release 12. the second reaction is in fact the reverse reaction of the ﬁrst. The mechanism has been reduced to 8 steps and 10 species (with S and S2 removed). In addition. The reduced mechanism given in Table 13. Since each reaction of the eight-step reduced mechanism is reversible. with the rate constants taken from Hunter’s work [135].Pollutant Formation 13. S2 . However. SO.2. N2 was used as the dilutant. H 2 S. oxygen kf 1 = 3. there is no literature to guide the user on how to select a correct partition fraction. depending on the form of fuel sulfur release (e. SO2 + O + M ⇐⇒ SO3 + M M = argon.85/RT) m6 /gmol2 /sec (13.2. SO2 .2. SH.0 c ANSYS. A is in m3 /gmol-s. Table 13.1.18585 J).1 lists the reduced mechanism with the modiﬁed rate constants. for each adjacent pair of reactions given in Table 13. Inc. A major concern in these mechanisms is the presence of H radical and the method in which to calculate its concentration in the ﬂow ﬁeld. E is J/gmol (assumed 1 cal = 4.1 closely follows the SO2 concentration levels but slightly overpredicts the H 2 S concentrations at temperatures below 1500 K. both mechanisms are in close agreement for SO2 and H 2 S concentration predictions.2.3: Method 1: Equilibrium Approach). The mechanism consists of 20 reversible reactions and includes 12 species (S. which can be evaluated from one of the existing methods in ANSYS FLUENT. Above 1500 K. respectively. Although this assumption is open to debate.63 x 102 exp(+4185..1. For reduction calculations O and OH concentrations have been calculated through partial equilibrium assumptions based on O2 and H 2 O concentrations. the following two reactions were included in ANSYS FLUENT to complete the SOx mechanism.g. SO and SH are not well correlated by the reduced mechanism when compared against the predictions using the original detailed mechanism. viz. Partial Equilibrium (Section 13. H 2 O. and A units for the ﬁfteenth reaction is m6 /gmol2 -s. and validated in Perfectly Stirred Reactor (PSR) and Plug Flow Reactor (PFR) simulations. Also. H. 2009 . The user is also given the extended option of partitioning the intermediate fuel sulfur species to H 2 S and SO2 . Present implementation allows the user to either include or remove SO3 from the calculations.3: Method 2: Partial Equilibrium Approach) or Equilibrium (Section 13.

691299E+09 3.0E+00 -1.2.663412E+06 1.565926E+03 1.0E+00 0.0E+00 0.687316E+03 1.669613E+14 8.621810E+08 7.207365E+05 Release 12.1: Eight-Step Reduced Mechanism (Rate Constant k AT b exp(−E/RT )) = Reaction H 2 S + H → SH + H2 SH + H2 → H 2 S + H OH + H 2 S → H 2 O + SH H 2 O + SH → OH + H 2 S SO + OH → H + SO2 H + SO2 → SO + OH SH + O → SO + H SO + H → SH + O O + H 2 S → SH + OH SH + OH → O + H 2 S SO + O2 → SO2 + O SO2 + O → SO + O2 H + SH + M → H 2 S + M H 2 S + M → H + SH + M SO + O + M → SO2 + M SO2 + M → SO + O + M A 1.380493E+04 6.13.709647E+09 k 1.694600E+05 1. Inc.0E+00 0.0E+00 0.0E+00 0.218543E+05 2.000000E+00 5. 2009 13-43 .742150E+03 1.0E+00 0.0E+00 0.0E+00 0.0E+00 0.985385E+09 4.8E+00 0.0E+00 0.187023E+05 2. January 29.035996E+04 2.375623E+06 1.000000E+00 3.365162E+03 9.0E+00 0.484300E+03 6.0E+00 0.0E+00 E 7.104557E+07 1.703222E+04 7.613643E+04 0.0E+00 0.466832E+05 1.2 SOx Formation Table 13.253660E+04 3.380385E+02 3.819702E+07 9.819463E+05 0.0 c ANSYS.096478E+03 8.885528E+08 4.548135E+08 2.905464E+14 b 0.

fuel = = = Rcf YS.i Mw.fuel Mw. 2009 .i Sfuel YS.6 SO2 and H 2 S Production from Coal For coal. is calculated from the Magnussen combustion model.fuel Mw. 13-44 Release 12.4 SO2 and H 2 S Production in a Gaseous Fuel The rate of SO2 or H 2 S production is equivalent to the rate of combustion of the fuel: Spl.S V (13. 13.0 c ANSYS.2.5 SO2 and H 2 S Production in a Liquid Fuel The rate of SO2 or H 2 S production is equivalent to the rate of fuel release into the gas phase through droplet evaporation: Spl. it is assumed that sulfur is distributed between the volatiles and the char. Rcf .i = where Spl.313 J/gmol-K kr1 = 7.S (13. 13.i = where Spl.i Rcf YS. the fraction of S in the volatiles and the char should be speciﬁed separately.2.fuel V = = = = Sfuel YS.2-8) source of i (kg/m3 -s).41 x 1014 exp(-346123.2.2 x 106 exp(-39765.i Mw.2-7) The reverse rate of Equation 13.575/RT) m3 /gmol/sec (13. January 29. where i = SO2 or H 2 S rate of fuel release from the liquid droplets to the gas (kg/s) mass fraction of sulfur in the fuel cell volume (m3 ) 13. Inc.2-7 was determined through the equilibrium constant for that equation. where i = SO2 or H 2 S mean limiting reaction rate of fuel (kg/m3 -s) mass fraction of sulfur in the fuel The mean limiting reaction rate of fuel. Since there is no reason to assume that S is equally distributed between the volatiles and the char.2-9) source of i (kg/m3 -s). so the gaseous fuel option for SOx formation is available only when the generalized ﬁnite-rate model is used.75/RT) m3 /gmol/sec SO3 + O ⇐⇒ SO2 + O2 kf 2 = 1.Pollutant Formation where R = 8.

Temperature and composition ﬂuctuations must be taken into account by considering the probability density functions which describe the time variation. if time-averaged composition and temperature are employed in any model to predict the mean SOx formation rate.S V (13. temperature. however. 2009 13-45 .2-10) where Sc Schar.2-11) where Svol.i YS. The turbulent mixing process results in temporal ﬂuctuations in temperature and species concentration that will inﬂuence the characteristics of the ﬂame.2.i Mw. January 29. and species concentration are highly nonlinear.vol V = source of volatiles originating from the coal particles into the gas phase (kg/s).char Mw.char V = = = = char burnout rate (kg/s) source of i (kg/m3 -s) in char. where i = SO2 or H 2 S mass fraction of sulfur in char cell volume (m3 ) SO2 and H 2 S from Volatiles The source of SO2 and H 2 S from the volatiles is related to the rate of volatile release: Svol.2 SOx Formation SO2 and H 2 S from Char The source of SO2 and H 2 S from the char is related to the rate of char combustion: Schar. Inc. Release 12. Hence.i Mw. In any practical combustion system.S V (13.i YS. The relationships among SOx formation rate.0 c ANSYS.vol Mw.13. the ﬂow is highly turbulent.i = Sc YS. where i = SO2 or H 2 S = mass fraction of sulfur in the volatiles = cell volume (m3 ) 13. signiﬁcant errors will result.i = Svol YS.7 SOx Formation in Turbulent Flows The kinetic mechanisms of SOx formation and destruction are obtained from laboratory experiments in a similar fashion to the NOx model.

The PDF Approach The PDF method has proven very useful in the theoretical description of turbulent ﬂow [149]. The mean values of the independent variables needed for the PDF construction are obtained from the solution of the transport equations.1-107 – 13. and species concentrations or mean mixture fraction and variance. species mass fraction. P can be calculated as either a two-moment beta function or as a clipped Gaussian function. To calculate SO2 concentration. Equations 13. 13-46 Release 12. then a one. The PDF is used for weighting against the instantaneous rates of production of SO2 and subsequent integration over suitable ranges to obtain the mean turbulent reaction rate as described in Equations 13.9: The General Expression for the Mean Reaction Rate for the NOx model also applies to the SOx model.Pollutant Formation The Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction Model In turbulent combustion calculations. Inc.1-111 apply to the SOx model as well. In the ANSYS FLUENT SOx model. 231].or two-variable PDF in terms of mixture fraction(s) is also available. or the combination of both is used to predict the SOx emission. January 29. with the variance σ 2 computed by solving a transport equation during the combustion calculation stage. a single. velocity. a time-averaged SO2 formation rate must be computed at each point in the domain using the averaged ﬂow-ﬁeld information.1-112 or Equation 13.0 c ANSYS.1. ANSYS FLUENT solves the density-weighted timeaveraged Navier-Stokes equations for temperature.1-105 for NOx . The Mean Reaction Rate The mean turbulent reaction rate described in Section 13.or joint-variable PDF in terms of a normalized temperature. as appropriate for combustion calculations [123. using Equation 13. The PDF Options As is the case with the NOx model.1-113.1-104 and 13. 2009 . If the non-premixed combustion model is used to model combustion.

you can include the eﬀect of soot on radiation absorption when you use the P-1.1: Overview and Limitations • Section 13. or discrete transfer radiation model with a variable absorption coeﬃcient.3..13. 349].0 c ANSYS.3. That is. Release 12. in which ANSYS FLUENT predicts soot formation for methane ﬂames (and higher hydrocarbon species. Predicting Soot Formation ANSYS FLUENT predicts soot concentrations in a combustion system using one of four available models: • the one-step Khan and Greeves model [162].2: Soot Model Theory 13. if appropriately modiﬁed) by solving transport equations for normalized radical nuclei concentration and the soot mass fraction • the Moss-Brookes-Hall model [120]. January 29. In addition. 2009 13-47 .g. in which ANSYS FLUENT predicts the formation of nuclei particles. For information about using soot formation models in ANSYS FLUENT. which is an extension of the Moss-Brookes model and is applicable for higher hydrocarbon fuels (e. • Section 13. with soot formation on the nuclei • the Moss-Brookes model [39].3 Soot Formation 13. see Section 21. kerosene) The Khan and Greeves model is the default model used by ANSYS FLUENT when you include soot formation.3 Soot Formation Information about the theory behind soot formation is presented in the following sections. the predicted soot concentration can be coupled with radiation.1 Overview and Limitations ANSYS FLUENT provides four models for the prediction of soot formation in combustion systems. Inc.3.3. discrete ordinates. in which ANSYS FLUENT predicts the rate of soot formation based on a simple empirical rate • the two-step Tesner model [216.1: Using the Soot Models in the separate User’s Guide.

The detailed chemistry and physics of soot formation are quite complex and are only approximated in these models.0 c ANSYS. Both models are empirically-based. combustion of the soot (and particle nuclei) is assumed to be governed by the Magnussen combustion rate [216].3-1) Rsoot . The soot models are not available with either of the density-based solvers. You should view the results of the Khan and Greeves model and the Tesner model as qualitative indicators of your system performance unless you can undertake experimental validation of the results. January 29. Rsoot. Inc. 2009 . Restrictions on Soot Modeling The following restrictions apply to soot formation models: • You must use the pressure-based solver. and soot combustion. the net rate of soot generation.Pollutant Formation In the Khan and Greeves model and the Tesner model. The Moss-Brookes model has less impiricism and should theoretically provide superior accuracy than the Khan and Greeves and Tesner models. 13. • The Khan and Greeves model and the Tesner model can model soot formation only for turbulent ﬂows (whereas the Moss-Brookes model and the Moss-Brookes-Hall model can be used with both laminar and turbulent ﬂows). approximate models of the soot formation process in combustion systems.2 Soot Model Theory The One-Step Soot Formation Model In the one-step Khan and Greeves model [162]. ANSYS FLUENT solves a single transport equation for the soot mass fraction: ∂ (ρYsoot ) + ∂t where Ysoot σsoot Rsoot = soot mass fraction = turbulent Prandtl number for soot transport = net rate of soot generation (kg/m3 -s) · (ρvYsoot ) = · µt Ysoot + Rsoot σsoot (13. The Hall extension provides further options for modeling higher hydrocarbon fuels.form .comb : 13-48 Release 12. is the balance of soot formation.3. Note that the Moss-Brookes-Hall model is only available when the required species are present in the gas phase species list. Rsoot. Note that this limits the use of these soot formation models to turbulent ﬂows. • The soot model cannot be used in conjunction with the premixed combustion model.

R2 ] The two rates are computed as R1 = AρYsoot and R2 = Aρ where A Yox . Inc.3-3) The rate of soot combustion is the minimum of two rate expressions [216]: Rsoot. νfuel = constant in the Magnussen model = mass fractions of oxidizer and fuel = mass stoichiometries for soot and fuel combustion Yox νsoot Ysoot νsoot Ysoot νsoot + Yfuel νfuel (13. Yfuel νsoot . January 29.3-5) (13.3-4) k k The default constants for the one-step model are valid for a wide range of hydrocarbon fuels.3-6) (13.3 Soot Formation Rsoot = Rsoot.comb The rate of soot formation is given by a simple empirical rate expression: Rsoot. 2009 13-49 .13.3-2) (13.0 c ANSYS.form = Cs pfuel φr e−E/RT where Cs pfuel φ r E/R = = = = = soot formation constant (kg/N-m-s) fuel partial pressure (Pa) equivalence ratio equivalence ratio exponent activation temperature (K) (13.comb = min[R1 .form − Rsoot. Release 12.

2009 .0 c ANSYS. ANSYS FLUENT thus solves transport equations for two scalar quantities: the soot mass fraction (Equation 13.form = mp (α − βNsoot )cnuc where mp Nsoot cnuc α β = = = = = mean mass of soot particle (kg/particle) concentration of soot particles (particles/m3 ) radical nuclei concentration = ρbnuc (particles/m3 ) empirical constant (s−1 ) empirical constant (m3 /particle-s) (13.form − Rsoot. these values should be modiﬁed for other fuels. since the sooting characteristics of acetylene are known to be diﬀerent from those of saturated hydrocarbon fuels.3-4–13.3-8) In the two-step model. cnuc : Rsoot. Rsoot . Soot Generation Rate The two-step model computes the net rate of soot generation. Rsoot. in the same way as the one-step model. The default constants for the two-step model are for combustion of acetylene (C2 H2 ). as a balance of soot formation and soot combustion: Rsoot = Rsoot. depends on the concentration of radical nuclei. 13-50 Release 12. the rate of soot formation. however.comb . is computed in the same way as for the one-step model.3-7) In these transport equations. According to Ahmad et al. Inc. January 29.3-6.3-9) The rate of soot combustion. the rates of nuclei and soot generation are the net rates. [2]. using Equations 13.3-1) and the normalized radical nuclei concentration: ∂ (ρb∗ ) + ∂t nuc where b∗ nuc σnuc R∗ nuc = normalized radical nuclei concentration (particles ×10−15 /kg) = turbulent Prandtl number for nuclei transport = normalized net rate of nuclei generation (particles ×10−15 /m3 -s) · (ρvb∗ ) = nuc · µt b∗ + R∗ nuc σnuc nuc (13. involving a balance between formation and combustion.Pollutant Formation The Two-Step Soot Formation Model The two-step Tesner model [349] predicts the generation of radical nuclei and then computes the formation of soot on these nuclei.form .comb (13. Rsoot.

form = η0 + (f − g)cnuc − g0 cnuc Nsoot (13.comb b∗ nuc Ysoot (13.form R∗ nuc.comb (13. η0 .form − Rnuc.comb = rate of nuclei formation (particles ×10−15 /m3 -s) = rate of nuclei combustion (particles ×10−15 /m3 -s) The rate of nuclei formation. Release 12. is given by Equation 13. by default). depends on a spontaneous formation and branching process.3-4.3-10) where R∗ nuc.comb .3-11) η0 = a∗ cfuel e−E/RT 0 where c∗ nuc a∗ 0 a0 cfuel f −g g0 = = = = = = normalized nuclei concentration (= ρb∗ ) nuc a0 /1015 pre-exponential rate constant (particles/kg-s) fuel concentration (kg/m3 ) linear branching − termination coeﬃcient (s−1 ) linear termination on soot particles (m3 /particle-s) (13. January 29. Rsoot.3-11 is included only when nuc the kinetic rate. (f − g)c∗ .3-13) where the soot combustion rate. 2009 13-51 . in Equation 13.comb = Rsoot.form .3 Soot Formation Nuclei Generation Rate The net rate of nuclei generation in the two-step model is given by the balance of the nuclei formation rate and the nuclei combustion rate: ∗ R∗ = R∗ nuc nuc.13. Inc.0 c ANSYS. R∗ nuc. described by ∗ ∗ R∗ nuc. is greater than the limiting formation rate (105 particles/m3 -s.3-12) Note that the branching term. The rate of nuclei combustion is assumed to be proportional to the rate of soot combustion: R∗ nuc.

Here. Inc. The activation temperature Tα for the nucleation reaction is that proposed by Lindstedt [199].3-15) soot mass fraction soot mass concentration (kg/m3 ) normalized radical nuclei concentration (particles ×10−15 /kg) = soot particle number density (particles/m3 ) 1015 particles N ρNnorm The instantaneous production rate of soot particles. is assumed to be 1800 kg/m3 and dp is the mean diameter of a soot particle. the precursor is assumed to be acetylene. January 29. Cβ and l are model constants.3-16) Coagulation where Cα . NA (= 6. 13-52 Release 12.Pollutant Formation The Moss-Brookes Model The Moss-Brookes model solves transport equations for normalized radical nuclei concentration b∗ and soot mass fraction Ysoot : nuc ∂ (ρYsoot ) + ∂t ∂ (ρb∗ ) + ∂t nuc where Ysoot M b∗ nuc N Nnorm = = = = = · (ρvYsoot ) = · µt dM Ysoot + σsoot dt µt 1 dN b∗ nuc + σnuc Nnorm dt (13. The nucleation rate for soot particles is taken to be proportional to the local acetylene concentration for methane.0 c ANSYS.022045x1026 kmol−1 ) is the Avogadro number and Xprec is the mole fraction of soot precursor (for methane. 2009 . is given by dN Xprec P l Tα = Cα NA exp − − Cβ dt RT T Nucleation 24RT ρsoot NA 1/2 d1/2 N 2 p (13.3-14) · (ρvb∗ ) = nuc · (13. whereas for kerosene it is a combination of acetylene and benzene). The mass density of soot. subject to nucleation from the gas phase and coagulation in the free molecular regime. ρsoot .

m.04 (collisional eﬃciency parameter) 0.13.04. soot particles have been found to grow primarily by the addition of gaseous species at their surfaces. Cω . The model assumes that the hydroxyl radical is the dominant oxidizing agent in methane/air diﬀusion ﬂames and that the surface-speciﬁc oxidation rate of soot by the OH radical may be formulated according to the model proposed by Fenimore and Jones [93]. except for Coxid which is set to unity by default. m.m.s−1 (oxidation model constant) 0. The uncorrelated closure is the preferred option for a tractable solution of the above transport equations.015 (oxidation rate scaling parameter) Note that the implementation of the Moss-Brookes model in ANSYS FLUENT uses the values listed above. The constants Cα and Cβ are determined through numerical modeling of a laminar ﬂame for which experimental data exists. The constant MP (= 144 kg/kgmol) is the mass of an incipient soot particle.kmol−1 . January 29.0 c ANSYS.0 (model constant for coagulation rate) 11700 kg.3-17) Oxidation where Cγ . the oxidation rate may be written as (Equation 13. particularly acetylene that has been found in abundance in the sooting regions of laminar methane diﬀusion ﬂames.3-17. and n are explained in detail by Brookes and Moss [39].kmol−1 . Inc. For paraﬃnic fuels. and n are additional model constants. The closure for the mean soot source terms in the above equations was also described in detail by Brookes and Moss [39].m. Release 12. 2009 13-53 . The set of constants proposed by Brookes and Moss for methane ﬂames are given below: Cα Tα Cβ Cγ Tγ Cω ηcoll Coxid = = = = = = = = 54 s−1 (model constant for soot inception rate) 21000 K (activation temperature of soot inception) 1. Even though the model is not found to be sensitive to this assumption. Xsgs is the mole fraction of the participating surface growth species.s−1 (surface growth rate scaling factor) 12100 K (activation temperature of surface growth rate) 105. a nonzero initial mass is needed to begin the process of surface growth.3 Soot Formation The source term for soot mass concentration is modeled by the expression 2/3 n dM dt = MP Cα Xprec P l Xsgs P Tα + Cγ exp − RT T RT Nucleation XOH P RT √ T (πN )1/3 6M ρsoot m Tγ 6M exp − (πN )1/3 T ρsoot Surface Growth 2/3 − Coxid Cω ηcoll (13.8125 kg. Coxid .K−1/2 . Here. The process of determination of the exponents l. Assuming a collision eﬃciency (ηcoll ) of 0. here taken to consist of 12 carbon atoms.

based on the work of Brown [41].0 c ANSYS.Pollutant Formation Moss et al.3. such that the combined eﬀect of volatile and tar on the gas phase ﬂame simulation may be replaced by a single volatile stream (consisting of volatile and tar). [239] have shown the above model applied to kerosene ﬂames by modifying only the soot precursor species (in the original model the precursor was acetylene. February 9. [349] formulation. The predictions of soot formation within methane ﬂames have shown the Brooks and Moss [39] model to be superior compared with the standard Tesner et al. This extension includes an additional transport equation for the tar evolved during coal devolatilization. 2009 . In reality.3. A good comparison against the experimental measurements for the lower pressure (7 bar) conditions was observed.1: Presumed Path for Coal-Derived Soot 13-54 Release 12. this may not be the case. Inc. however.1). The Moss-Brookes model assumes that the physical properties of tar is similar to those of volatiles. and so the coal-derived soot extension allows you to treat the tar contribution similar to that of volatiles. The Coal-Derived Soot Extension (Beta Feature) The present implementation provides an extension to the Moss-Brookes soot model that accounts for coal-derived soot. The following set of paths was assumed for the coal-derived soot formation [214] (see Figure 13. Devolatilization Coal Char + Light Gases + Tar Agglomeration Formation Tar Gasification Primary Soot Soot Agglomerates Light Gases Figure 13. whereas for kerosene ﬂames the precursor was assumed to be a combination of both acetylene and benzene) and by setting the value of oxidation scaling parameter Coxid to unity.

Inc.soot (13.3-23) (13. and Mw.C πρsoot 1 6 6kB T ρsoot 1 2 ρYsoot Mw. benzene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may contribute to soot formation as well.3-25) Release 12. NA is Avogadro’s Number.3 Soot Formation Nucleation is assumed to be the ﬁrst step in formation of soot in most light gas ﬂames.C 1 6 (ρNnorm b∗ ) 6 nuc 11 (13.3-22) (13.0 c ANSYS.3-24) Agglomerationnuclei = 2Ca 6Mw. Soot formation in coal ﬂames is thought to occur as tars or the higher molecular weight hydrocarbons given oﬀ during devolatilization combine and condense to form soot particles. In heavier gas ﬂames. January 29.3-19) Snuclei = 1 Nnorm NA Formationsoot − Agglomerationnuclei Mw.soot is the molecular weight of the soot particle.3-20) where Nnorm is equal to 1015 particles. The remaining terms in the previous overall source expressions are deﬁned as follows: Formationtar = SPtar Oxidationtar = ρ2 Ytar YO2 AOtar exp {−EOtar /RT } Gasiﬁcationtar = ρ Ytar AGtar exp {−EGtar /RT } Formationsoot = ρ Ytar AFsoot exp {−EFsoot /RT } (13. This is a diﬀerent mechanism to that of soot formation from gaseous fuels. and acetylene is understood to be the major species involved. 2009 13-55 .13.3-18) Star = Formationtar − Formationsoot − Gasiﬁcationtar − Oxidationtar (13.3-21) (13. The related source term for each path is given as follows: Ssoot = Formationsoot − Oxidationsoot (13.

3–0. An incipient soot particle is assumed to consist of 9e+04 carbon atoms. the turbulent Schmidt number used in the transport equations for soot mass fraction and the normalized number density must be modiﬁed to account for the particle size. since tar is a fraction of volatiles and volatile transport is fully coupled with the ﬂow ﬁeld. One of the main assumptions of this implementation is that tar may be decoupled from the ﬂow ﬁeld computations. The work of Hall [120] is based on a soot inception rate due to two-ringed and three-ringed aromatics.900 198.3-24 are listed in Table 13. the extended version is a model reported by Wen et al. Soot density (ρsoot ) is assumed to be 1950 kg/m3 and the collision constant Ca is set to 3.0 c ANSYS. as opposed to the Moss-Brookes assumption of a soot inception due to acetylene or benzene (for higher hydrocarbons).5. Inc.. Here.3-22–13.1: Rate Constants for Coal-Derived Soot Term Oxidationtar Gasiﬁcationtar Formationsoot A 6.e. [120] and an oxidation model proposed by Lee et al. [374] based on model extensions proposed by Hall et al. The term SPtar is the tar release rate from coal (kg/m3 -s) and comes from the coal particle source computations of the discrete phase model. The values used for the pre-exponential constant A and the activation energy E in Equations 13. [184].77e+10 (1/s) 5.02e+08 (1/s) E (kJ/kgmol) 52. and therefore the SPtar term is related to the volatile source term via the tar mass fraction in volatiles.Pollutant Formation The soot oxidation term (Oxidationsoot ) is similar to that shown in Equation 13. thus making Mw.C (= 12 kg/kgmol) is the molecular weight of carbon and kB (= 1. a further extension for higher hydrocarbon fuels called the Moss-Brookes-Hall model was also included in the present ANSYS FLUENT implementation.900 The Moss-Brookes-Hall Model Since the Moss-Brookes model was mainly developed and validated for methane ﬂames.3-17 in the Moss-Brookes soot model theory (Fenimore-Jones or Lee oxidation model).3. It is assumed that the mass fraction of tar in coal volatiles is in the range 0. 2009 .300 286. Since the coal-derived soot particles are large. 13-56 Release 12. January 29. A value of 700 for the turbulent Schmidt number is suggested for soot mass fraction and nuclei transport.3. the number of particles ×10−15 /kg).0.77e+05 (m3 /kg-s) 9. b∗ is the normalized radical nuc nuclei concentration (i. Table 13.1.soot = 108e+04 kg/kgmol.3806503e-23 J/K) is the Boltzmann constant. Mw.

January 29. [39] Both the coagulation term and the surface growth term were formulated similar to those used by Brookes and Moss [39] with a slight modiﬁcation to the constant Cγ so that the value is 9000.2 NA 2 YC2 H2 YC6 H6 YC6 H5 WH2 Tα.3-26) (13. including that due to hydroxyl radical. [184]) was added.s−1 (based on the model developed by Lindstedt [200]). is of the form dM dt = −Coxid Cω.50 s−1 . The mass density of soot was assumed to be 2000 kg/m3 . they derived the speciﬁc rate of soot oxidation by molecular oxygen. [120] proposed a soot inception rate based on the formation rates of two-ringed and three-ringed aromatics (C10 H7 and C14 H10 ). Cα. as shown by dN dt = 8Cα. in addition to the soot oxidation due to the hydroxyl radical. oxidation due to O2 (based on measurements and model based on Lee et al.1 inception NA 2 YC2 H2 ρ MP WC2 H2 2 YC6 H5 WH2 Tα.13. Inc.2 = 6390 K as determined by Hall et al. In their model.1 exp − WC6 H5 YH2 T (13. the mass of an incipient soot particle was assumed to be 1200 kg/kgmol (corresponding to 100 carbon atoms. By assuming that the kinetics of surface reactions is the limiting mechanism and that the particles are small enough to neglect the diﬀusion eﬀect on the soot oxidation. Tα. which is also slightly diﬀerent from the value used by Brookes and Moss.1 = 127x108. Therefore the full soot oxidation term. and Tα.0 c ANSYS.2 XO2 P RT exp − Tω.6 kg. from acetylene (C2 H2 ). [120]. 2009 13-57 .3-28) +8Cα.1 = 4378 K. as opposed to 12 carbon atoms used by Brookes and Moss [39]). and the phenyl radical (C6 H5 ) based on the following mechanisms: 2 C 2 H2 + C 6 H 5 C 2 H2 + C 6 H6 + C 6 H 5 C10 H7 + H2 C14 H10 + H + H2 (13.2 ρ exp − MP WC2 H2 WC6 H6 WC6 H5 YH2 T where Cα.3 Soot Formation Hall et al.3-27) Based on their laminar methane ﬂame data. benzene (C6 H6 ).kmol−1 .88 s−1 . For the soot oxidation term.2 = 178x109.m.3-29) Release 12. the inception rate of soot particles was given to be eight times the formation rate of species C10 H7 and C14 H10 .1 ηcoll oxidation XOH P RT √ T (πN )1/3 6M ρsoot 2/3 −Coxid Cω.2 √ 6M T (πN )1/3 T ρsoot 2/3 (13.

however. The PDF Approach The PDF method has proven very useful in the theoretical description of turbulent ﬂow [149]. a time-averaged soot formation rate must be computed at each point in the domain using the averaged ﬂow-ﬁeld information.m.s−1 = 19778 K Soot Formation in Turbulent Flows The kinetic mechanisms of soot formation and destruction for the Moss-Brookes model and the Hall extension are obtained from laboratory experiments in a similar fashion to the NOx model. Temperature and composition ﬂuctuations must be taken into account by considering the probability density functions which describe the time variation.Pollutant Formation Here.1 Cω. velocity. signiﬁcant errors will result. or the combination of both is used to predict the soot formation.or two-variable PDF in terms of mixture fraction(s) is also available. if time-averaged composition and temperature are employed in any model to predict the mean soot formation rate. The relationships among soot formation rate.13 (compared to 0.81 kg. the collision eﬃciency is assumed to be 0. then a one.04 used by Brookes and Moss) and the oxidation rate scaling parameter is assumed to be unity. The Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction Model In turbulent combustion calculations. The turbulent mixing process results in temporal ﬂuctuations in temperature and species concentration that will inﬂuence the characteristics of the ﬂame. January 29.K−1/2 . To calculate soot concentration for the MossBrookes model and the Hall extension.2 = 105.m. and species concentration are highly nonlinear.51 kg. and species concentrations or mean mixture fraction and variance. Hence. 2009 .2 Tω. In any practical combustion system. In the ANSYS FLUENT Moss-Brookes model and the Hall extension. ANSYS FLUENT solves the density-weighted timeaveraged Navier-Stokes equations for temperature. the ﬂow is highly turbulent.0 c ANSYS. temperature. species mass fraction. If the non-premixed combustion model is used to model combustion. Inc. The mean values of the independent variables needed for the PDF construction are obtained from the solution of the transport equations.kmol−1 . a singleor joint-variable PDF in terms of a normalized temperature. 13-58 Release 12.s−1 (same as that used by Brookes and Moss) = 8903. The model constants used are as follows: where Cω.kmol−1 .K−1/2 .

Inc. January 29.8: The Eﬀect of Soot on the Absorption Coeﬃcient. The PDF Options As is the case with the NOx model.3 Soot Formation The Mean Reaction Rate The mean turbulent reaction rate described in Section 13. The PDF is used for weighting against the instantaneous rates of production of soot and subsequent integration over suitable ranges to obtain the mean turbulent reaction rate as described in Equations 13.1-105 for NOx . Equations 13. The Effect of Soot on the Radiation Absorption Coefﬁcient A description of the modeling of soot-radiation interaction is provided in Section 5.9: The General Expression for the Mean Reaction Rate for the NOx model also applies to the Moss-Brookes model and the Hall extension.13.1-112 or Equation 13. 231]. as appropriate for combustion calculations [123.1-107 – 13.1-113. Release 12. using Equation 13.0 c ANSYS.1.1-111 apply to the Moss-Brookes model and Hall extension as well. P can be calculated as either a two-moment beta function or as a clipped Gaussian function. 2009 13-59 . with the variance σ 2 computed by solving a transport equation during the combustion calculation stage.3.1-104 and 13.

Inc.Pollutant Formation 13-60 Release 12. January 29. 2009 .0 c ANSYS.

This section is divided into the following sections: • Section 14. • Section 14.g. turbulence) in the near ﬁeld that are responsible for generating sounds. Another challenge comes from the diﬃculty of predicting the very ﬂow phenomena (e.2: Acoustics Model Theory 14. For more information about using the acoustics model.) The main challenge in numerically predicting sound waves stems from the well-recognized fact that sounds have much lower energy than ﬂuid ﬂows. an integral method based on acoustic analogy and a method that utilizes broadband noise source models. This chapter provides an overview and theoretical background of ANSYS FLUENT’s approaches to computing aerodynamically generated sound. Inc.1: Direct Method • Section 14.Chapter 14. Many sounds that are technologically important in industrial applications are generated by and propagated in ﬂuid ﬂows.1. The phenomena associated with sounds can therefore be understood and analyzed in the general framework of ﬂuid dynamics. ANSYS FLUENT oﬀers three approaches to computing aerodynamically generated noise.0 c ANSYS. January 29. applicability.2: Integral Method Based on Acoustic Analogy • Section 14.1. Aerodynamically Generated Noise The discipline of acoustics is intimately related to ﬂuid dynamics.. 2009 14-1 . and cost widely vary. especially when one is interested in predicting sound propagation to the far ﬁeld.3: Broadband Noise Source Models Release 12.1 Overview Considering the breadth of the discipline and the challenges encountered in aerodynamically generated noise. see Chapter 22: Predicting Aerodynamically Generated Noise in the separate User’s Guide. a direct method. typically by several orders of magnitude.1. (The governing equations for acoustics are indeed the same as the ones governing ﬂuid ﬂows.1: Overview • Section 14. it is not surprising that a number of computational approaches have been proposed over the years whose sophistication. This poses a great challenge to the computation of sounds in terms of diﬃculty of numerically resolving sound waves.

The FW-H formulation adopts the most general form of Lighthill’s acoustic analogy. and quadrupoles. DNS). Inc.. compressible RANS equations. In many such situations involving near-ﬁeld sound. DES.g. such as unsteady Navier-Stokes equations (i.1. both generation and propagation of sound waves are directly computed by solving the appropriate ﬂuid dynamics equations.. sounds (or pseudo-sounds for that matter) are predominantly due to local hydrodynamic pressure which can be predicted with a reasonable cost and accuracy. one has to employ governing equations that are capable of modeling viscous and turbulence eﬀects. this incompressible treatment will not permit you to simulate resonance and feedback phenomena. at prescribed receiver locations are directly computed by evaluating a few surface integrals. However. Since sound propagation is directly resolved in this method. can incompressible ﬂow formulations be used. very ﬁne computational meshes all the way to receivers.g.e. and the receivers in the near ﬁeld consist primarily of local hydrodynamic pressure ﬂuctuations (i. The computational cost becomes prohibitive when sound is to be predicted in the far ﬁeld (e.1 Direct Method In this method. in most practical applications of the direct method.0 c ANSYS. January 29.1. In this approach. ANSYS FLUENT adopts a timedomain integral formulation wherein time histories of sound pressure. compressible form of ﬁltered equations for LES). or LES are used to predict the sound with the aid of analytically derived integral solutions to wave equations. hundreds of chord-lengths in the case of an airfoil). 14. and is capable of predicting sound generated by equivalent acoustic sources such as monopoles. dipoles.Aerodynamically Generated Noise 14.. The direct method is thus computationally diﬃcult and expensive inasmuch as it requires highly accurate numerics. the methods based on Lighthill’s acoustic analogy [195] oﬀer viable alternatives to the direct method. and acoustically nonreﬂecting boundary conditions. cabin noise).. ANSYS FLUENT oﬀers a method based on the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) formulation [95]. 14-2 Release 12.2 Integral Method Based on Acoustic Analogy For predictions of mid. Furthermore.to far-ﬁeld noise. The acoustic analogy essentially decouples the propagation of sound from its generation. RANS equations. one normally needs to solve the compressible form of the governing equations (e.g. Prediction of sound waves always requires time-accurate solutions to the governing equations. or acoustic signals. allowing one to separate the ﬂow solution process from the acoustics analysis. and ﬁltered equations used in DES and LES.e. Only in situations where the ﬂow is low and subsonic. pseudo sound). the near-ﬁeld ﬂow obtained from appropriate governing equations such as unsteady RANS equations.. The direct method becomes feasible when receivers are in the near ﬁeld (e. 2009 .

3 Broadband Noise Source Models In many practical applications involving turbulent ﬂows. or to carry out an “on the ﬂy” acoustic calculation simultaneously as the transient ﬂow calculation proceeds. while the model can be legitimately used to predict far-ﬁeld noise due to external aerodynamic ﬂows.1 Overview Time-accurate solutions of the ﬂow-ﬁeld variables. Thus. Both broadband and tonal noise can be predicted depending on the nature of the ﬂow (noise source) being considered. it cannot be used for predicting the noise propagation inside ducts or wall-enclosed space. It also permits you either to save the source data for a future use.1.14.g. turbulence model employed. which enables you to account for the contributions from the quadrupoles enclosed by the source surfaces. In those situations involving broadband noise. are required to evaluate the surface integrals. to shed some light on the source of broadband noise. or detached eddy simulation (DES) as appropriate for the ﬂow at hand and the features that you want to capture (e.. large eddy simulation (LES). noise does not have any distinct tones. Sound pressure signals thus obtained can be processed using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and associated postprocessing capabilities to compute and plot such acoustic quantities as the overall sound pressure level (SPL) and power spectra. One important limitation of ANSYS FLUENT’s FW-H model is that it is applicable only to predicting the propagation of sound toward free space.0 c ANSYS. in conjunction with semi-empirical correlations and Lighthill’s acoustic analogy. January 29. velocity components. Time-accurate solutions can be obtained from unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations. and the time scale of the ﬂow resolved in the ﬂow calculation. and the sound energy is continuously distributed over a broad range of frequencies. statistical turbulence quantities readily computable from RANS equations can be utilized. but also on interior (permeable) surfaces. The source surfaces can be placed not only on impermeable walls. and density on source (emission) surfaces. Release 12. Inc. 14. such as the ﬂows around ground vehicles and aircrafts. vortex shedding). The FW-H acoustics model in ANSYS FLUENT allows you to select multiple source surfaces and receivers. or both. 2009 14-3 . such as pressure.

2 Acoustics Model Theory This section describes the theoretical background for the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings model and the broadband noise source models.Aerodynamically Generated Noise ANSYS FLUENT oﬀers several such source models that enable you to quantify the local contribution (per unit surface area or volume) to the total acoustic power generated by the ﬂow.2: Broadband Noise Source Models 14-4 Release 12.2.1: The Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings Model • Section 14. such as the mean velocity ﬁeld. 14. Inc. the use of broadband noise source models requires the least computational resources. They include the following: • Proudman’s formula • jet noise source model • boundary layer noise source model • source terms in the linearized Euler equations • source terms in Lilley’s equation Considering that one would ultimately want to come up with some measures to mitigate the noise generated by the ﬂow in question. All source models require what typical RANS models would provide. however.0 c ANSYS. January 29. Unlike the direct method and the FW-H integral method. Therefore. that these source models do not predict the sound at receivers. 2009 . the broadband noise source models do not require transient solutions to any governing ﬂuid dynamics equations. turbulent kinetic energy (k) and the dissipation rate (ε).2. This section is divided into the following sections: • Section 14. the source models can be employed to extract useful diagnostics on the noise source to determine which portion of the ﬂow is primarily responsible for the noise generation. Note.

0 c ANSYS. January 29.2-2) The free-stream quantities are denoted by the subscript 0.2-1) where ui un vi vn δ(f ) H(f ) = = = = = = ﬂuid velocity component in the xi direction ﬂuid velocity component normal to the surface f = 0 surface velocity components in the xi direction surface velocity component normal to the surface Dirac delta function Heaviside function p is the sound pressure at the far ﬁeld (p = p − p0 ). 2009 14-5 . and Tij is the Lighthill stress tensor. For a Stokesian ﬂuid.2 Acoustics Model Theory 14.14. The surface (f = 0) corresponds to the source (emission) surface. f = 0 denotes a mathematical surface introduced to “embed” the exterior ﬂow problem (f > 0) in an unbounded space. Release 12. Inc.1 The Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings Model The Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) equation is essentially an inhomogeneous wave equation that can be derived by manipulating the continuity equation and the Navier-Stokes equations. which facilitates the use of generalized function theory and the free-space Green function to obtain the solution. and can be made coincident with a body (impermeable) surface or a permeable surface oﬀ the body surface.2-3) (14. deﬁned as Tij = ρui uj + Pij − a2 (ρ − ρ0 ) δij 0 Pij is the compressive stress tensor. The FW-H [38. 95] equation can be written as: 1 ∂2p − a2 ∂t2 0 2 p ∂2 {Tij H(f )} ∂xi ∂xj ∂ − {[Pij nj + ρui (un − vn )] δ(f )} ∂xi ∂ + {[ρ0 vn + ρ (un − vn )] δ(f )} ∂t = (14. ni is the unit normal vector pointing toward the exterior region (f > 0). this is given by Pij = pδij − µ ∂ui ∂uj 2 ∂uk + − δij ∂xj ∂xi 3 ∂xk (14.2. a0 is the far-ﬁeld sound speed.

the volume integrals are dropped. Inc. The square brackets in Equations 14. 2009 . t) where (14. whereas the volume integrals represent quadrupole (volume) sources in the region outside the source surface. The complete solution consists of surface integrals and volume integrals. r.2-7) (14.0 c ANSYS. and the distance to the observer.2-4. t) = dS a0 f =0 r (1 − Mr )2 L r − LM + dS 2 (1 − M )2 f =0 r r ˙ Lr rMr + a0 (Mr − M 2 ) 1 dS + a0 f =0 r2 (1 − Mr )3 f =0 ˙ ρ0 Un rMr + a0 (Mr − M 2 ) (14. In ANSYS FLUENT. in light of their physical meanings. t) + pL (x. Thus. pT (x. t. t) = pT (x. January 29.Aerodynamically Generated Noise The solution to Equation 14. the two terms on the right in Equation 14.2-4) 4πpT (x.2-5) (14. given the observer time. t) and pL (x. τ =t− r a0 (14. The contribution of the volume integrals becomes small when the ﬂow is low subsonic and the source surface encloses the source region.2-9) 14-6 Release 12. t). deﬁned as follows. τ .2-1 is obtained using the free-space Green function (δ(g)/4πr). The surface integrals represent the contributions from monopole and dipole acoustic sources and partially from quadrupole sources. we have p (x. t) = + ˙ ρ0 Un + Un ˙ r (1 − Mr )2 dS f =0 dS r2 (1 − Mr )3 ˙ 1 Lr 4πpL (x.2-6 denote that the kernels of the integrals are computed at the corresponding retarded times. are often referred to as thickness and loading terms.2-8) When the integration surface coincides with an impenetrable wall. respectively.2-5 and 14.2-6) where ρ (ui − vi ) ρ0 = Pij nj + ρui (un − vn ) ˆ Ui = vi + Li (14.

and therefore can be placed in the interior of the ﬂow.2-5 and 14. Inc. and a0 is the speed of sound. respectively. January 29. where r and n denote the unit vectors in r the radiation and wall-normal directions. For instance. • When a permeable source surface (either interior or nonconformal sliding interface) is placed at a certain distance oﬀ the body surface.2-10) where u and are the turbulence velocity and length scales.2-10 is a model constant. • It is not required that the surface f = 0 coincide with body surfaces or walls. When using a permeable source surface.2. The formulation permits source surfaces to be permeable. 14.2-11) (14.2 Acoustics Model Theory The various subscripted quantities appearing in Equations 14. In terms of k and ε. derived a formula for acoustic power generated by isotropic turbulence without mean ﬂow.2-6 include the contributions from the quadrupole sources within the region enclosed by the source surface. Lr = L · ˆ = Li ri and Un = U · n = Ui ni .14. Equation 14.2-6 are the inner products of a vector and a unit vector implied by the subscript. using Lighthill’s acoustic analogy. More recently. Both derivations yield acoustic power due to the unit volume of isotropic turbulence (in W/m3 ) as u3 u5 a5 0 PA = αρ0 (14. Please note the following remarks regarding the applicability of this integral solution: • The FW-H formulation in ANSYS FLUENT can handle rotating surfaces as well as stationary surfaces.2 Broadband Noise Source Models Proudman’s Formula Proudman [280].2-12) Release 12. the integral solutions given by Equations 14. α in Equation 14.2-5 and 14. Lilley [196] rederived the formula by accounting for the retarded time diﬀerence which was neglected in Proudman’s original derivation. The dot over a variable denotes source-time diﬀerentiation of that variable. 2009 14-7 . respectively.2-10 can be rewritten as PA = αε ρ0 εMt5 where Mt = √ 2k a0 (14.0 c ANSYS. the mesh resolution needs to be ﬁne enough to resolve the transient ﬂow structures inside the volume enclosed by the permeable surface.

2-16) Dshear 1 M2 1. α . is set to 0. θ. small Mach number. θ. isotropy of turbulence.Aerodynamically Generated Noise The rescaled constant. 2009 .1 in ANSYS FLUENT based on the calibration of Sarkar and Hussaini [301] using direct numerical simulation of isotropic turbulence. θ.2-14) 0 = 2πr where r and θ are the radial and angular coordinates of the receiver location. the total acoustic power emitted by the unit volume of a turbulent jet is computed from 2π π 0 2 0 π PA (y) = I(r.0 c ANSYS. however. In Goldstein’s model. y) sin θ dθ (14. Proper caution. The Proudman’s formula gives an approximate measure of the local contribution to total acoustic power per unit volume in a given turbulence ﬁeld. such as high Reynolds number.2-18) (14. which is computed from LP = 10 log PA Pref (14. The Jet Noise Source Model This source model for axisymmetric jets is based on the works of Goldstein [113] who modiﬁed the model originally proposed by Ribner [293] to better account for anisotropy of turbulence in axisymmetric turbulent jets. January 29. and zero mean motion. y)r2 sin θdθ dψ I(r.2-15 is the modiﬁed convection factor deﬁned by C = 1 − Mc cos θ and Dself = 1 + 2( + M − N ) cos2 θ sin2 θ 9 (14. y) is the directional acoustic intensity per unit volume of a jet deﬁned by 4 4 12 ρ0 ωf L1 L2 u2 Dself 24 ρ0 ωf L1 L4 u2 2 t1 2 t1 I(r. θ. Inc. y) = + 5 2 5 2 5 5 π a0 r C π a0 r 2 ∂U ∂r 2 Dshear C5 (14. and I(r.5N (3 − 3N + 2 − ) sin4 θ 3 7 ∆ 2 1 1 = cos2 θ cos2 θ + − 2N sin2 θ 2 ∆2 14-8 Release 12.2-13) where Pref is the reference acoustic power (Pref = 10−12 W/m3 by default).5 ∆2 + M − 1. ANSYS FLUENT can also report the acoustic power in dB. should be taken when interpreting the results in view of the assumptions made in the derivation.2-15) C in Equation 14.2-17) (14.

For all other two-equation turbulence models.2-22) 3/2 (14. τ ) dS(y) r2 ∂t (14. Inc. To that end.2-20) (14.2-25) (14.2-28) S Release 12.2-19) 2 (14. they are computed from the corresponding normal stresses.2-24) ωf = 2π k where u2 and u2 are computed diﬀerently depending on the turbulence model chosen for t1 t2 the computation.2-27) The Boundary Layer Noise Source Model Far-ﬁeld sound generated by turbulent boundary layer ﬂow over a solid body at low Mach numbers is often of practical interest.0 c ANSYS.2-26) ANSYS FLUENT reports the acoustic power both in the dimensional units (W/m3 ) and in dB computed from LP = 10 log where Pref is the reference acoustic power (Pref PA Pref = 10−12 W/m3 by default). When the RSM is selected. January 29. they are obtained from u2 = t1 u2 t2 8 k 9 4 = k 9 (14. 2009 14-9 .2-21) L1 = L2 = u2 t1 u2 t2 (14. one can start with the Curle’s integral p (x.14. t) = 1 4πa0 (xi − yi ) ni ∂p (y.2-23) (14. (14.2 Acoustics Model Theory The remaining parameters are deﬁned as L2 L1 3 1 M = ∆− 2 ∆ 2 ut2 N = 1− u2 t1 ∆ = 3/2 (14. The Curle’s integral [64] based on acoustic analogy can be used to approximate the local contribution from the body surface to the total acoustic power.

ANSYS FLUENT reports the acoustic surface power deﬁned by Equation 14. r ≡ |x − y|.0 c ANSYS. The mean-square time derivative of the surface pressure and the correlation area are further approximated in terms of turbulent quantities like turbulent kinetic energy. dissipation rate. and the prime superscript refers to the turbulent components. the sound intensity in the far ﬁeld can then be approximated by 1 ≈ 16π 2 a2 0 cos2 θ ∂p (y. The total acoustic power emitted from the entire body surface can be computed from PA = = 1 ρ 0 a0 S 2π 0 0 π p 2 r2 sin θ dθdψ (14. Inc. 2009 . The resulting linearized Euler equations for the acoustic velocity components can be written as ∂uai ∂uai ∂Ui 1 ∂pa ρa ∂P + Uj + uaj + − 2 = ∂t ∂xj ∂xj ρ ∂xi ρ ∂xi −Uj ∂ui ∂Ui ∂u 1 ∂p ∂u ∂ − uj − i+ uu − uj i − ∂xj ∂xj ∂xj ρ ∂xi ∂t ∂xj j i Lsh Lse (14. τ ) Ac (y) dS(y) r2 ∂t 2 p2 (14. and acoustic components.2-31) which can be interpreted as the local contribution per unit surface area of the body surface to the total acoustic power. and S the integration surface. Using this.2-31 both in physical (W/m2 ) and dB units. January 29. Source Terms in the Linearized Euler Equations The linearized Euler equations (LEE) can be derived from the Navier-Stokes equations starting from decompositions of the ﬂow variables into mean. and by assuming that the acoustic components are much smaller than the mean and turbulent components. 14-10 Release 12.2-30) I(y) dS(y) where I(y) ≡ Ac (y) ∂p 12ρ0 πa3 ∂t 0 2 (14. and wall shear. turbulent.2-32) where the subscript “a” refers to the corresponding acoustic components. and cos θ is the angle between |x − y| and the wall-normal direction n.2-29) S where Ac is the correlation area.Aerodynamically Generated Noise where τ denotes the emission time (τ = t − r/a0 ).

2-32 can be considered as eﬀective source terms responsible for sound generation. we have S ≡ −2 ∂uk ∂uj ∂ui ∂xi ∂xk ∂xj ∂Uk ∂Uj ∂Ui ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂Ui ∂Uk ∂Uj ∂ui = −2 −2 k j i −6 −6 k j ∂xi ∂xk ∂xj ∂xi ∂xk ∂xj ∂xi ∂xk ∂xj ∂xi ∂xk ∂xj Self-Noise Terms Shear-Noise Terms (14.2-34.0 c ANSYS. ψn . Note that the source terms in the LEE are vector quantities. phase. January 29.14. the turbulent velocity ﬁeld and its derivatives are computed from a sum of N Fourier modes. In this method. Source Terms in Lilley’s Equation Lilley’s equation is a third-order wave equation that can be derived by combining the conservation of mass and momentum of compressible ﬂuids.2-35) a2 ∂Π ∂xj ∂uk ∂ ∂Π a2 ∂xj ∂xk ∂xj = −2 ∂uk ∂uj ∂ui ∂xi ∂xk ∂xj +2 (14. Lilley’s equation can be linearized about the underlying steady ﬂow as ui (x. the ﬁrst three terms involving turbulence are the main contributors. When the viscous terms are omitted. The ﬁrst two terms denoted by Lsh are often referred to as “shearnoise” source terms. t) where u (x. having two or three components depending on the dimension of the problem at hand. and directional (unit) vector of the nth Fourier ˜ mode associated with the wave-number vector kn . The turbulent velocity ﬁeld needed to compute the LEE source terms is obtained using the method of stochastic noise generation and radiation (SNGR) [23]. t) = 2 n=1 un cos kn · x + ψn σn ˜ (14.2-36) Release 12.2-34) (14. since they involve the mean shear. t) is the turbulent velocity component. 2009 14-11 . t) = Ui (x) + ui (x.2-33) where un . as it involves turbulent velocity components only.2-35 into the source term of Equation 14. Inc. The third term denoted by Lse is often called the “self-noise” source term. N u (x. Substituting Equation 14. Among them.2 Acoustics Model Theory The right side of Equation 14. it can be written in the following form: D D2 Π ∂ − Dt Dt2 ∂xj where Π = (1/γ) ln ppo . σn are the amplitude.

As with the LEE source terms.2-36 are grouped depending on whether the mean velocity gradients are involved (shear noise or self noise). January 29.Aerodynamically Generated Noise The resulting source terms in Equation 14. the source terms in Equation 14. and reported separately in ANSYS FLUENT. 14-12 Release 12.0 c ANSYS.2-36 are evaluated using the mean velocity ﬁeld and the turbulent (ﬂuctuating) velocity components synthesized by the SNGR method. Inc. 2009 .

Inc.1: Approaches to Multiphase Modeling).1: Introduction • Section 15.12: One-Way and Two-Way Coupling 15.6: Wall-Jet Model Theory • Section 15.0 c ANSYS. 2009 15-1 . Discrete Phase This chapter describes the theory behind the Lagrangian discrete phase capabilities available in ANSYS FLUENT. Information in this chapter is organized into the following sections: • Section 15.1 Introduction Advances in computational ﬂuid mechanics have provided the basis for further insight into the dynamics of multiphase ﬂows.7: Wall-Film Model Theory • Section 15.8: Particle Erosion and Accretion Theory • Section 15. Currently there are two approaches for the numerical calculation of multiphase ﬂows: the Euler-Lagrange approach (discussed below) and the Euler-Euler approach (discussed in Section 16.4: Laws for Heat and Mass Exchange • Section 15.2.2: Particle Motion Theory • Section 15.3: Laws for Drag Coeﬃcients • Section 15.Chapter 15. January 29. see Chapter 23: Modeling Discrete Phase in the separate User’s Guide.11: Droplet Collision and Coalescence Model Theory • Section 15.9: Atomizer Model Theory • Section 15.10: Secondary Breakup Model Theory • Section 15. For information about how to use discrete phase models. Release 12.5: Vapor Liquid Equilibrium Theory • Section 15.

2: Turbulent Dispersion of Particles • Section 15. A fundamental assumption made in this model is that the dispersed second phase occupies a low volume fraction. ﬂuidized beds.2 Particle Motion Theory This section is composed of the following: • Section 15. This force balance equates the particle inertia with the forces acting on the particle.1. FD (u − up ) is the drag force per unit particle mass and 15-2 Release 12.3: Integration of Particle Equation of Motion 15. bubbles.1 Equations of Motion for Particles Particle Force Balance ANSYS FLUENT predicts the trajectory of a discrete phase particle (or droplet or bubble) by integrating the force balance on the particle. which is written in a Lagrangian reference frame.Discrete Phase The Euler-Lagrange Approach The Lagrangian discrete phase model in ANSYS FLUENT (described in this chapter) follows the Euler-Lagrange approach. but inappropriate for the modeling of liquid-liquid mixtures.2: Limitations in the separate User’s Guide. or droplets through the calculated ﬂow ﬁeld.1: Equations of Motion for Particles • Section 15. This makes the model appropriate for the modeling of spray dryers. coal and liquid fuel combustion.0 c ANSYS.2.2-1) where Fx is an additional acceleration (force/unit particle mass) term. Limitations of the discrete phase model are listed in Section 23.2.2. 2009 . even though high mass loading (mparticles ≥ mﬂuid ) is acceptable. Inc. and can be written (for the x direction in Cartesian coordinates) as dup gx (ρp − ρ) = FD (u − up ) + + Fx dt ρp (15. while the dispersed phase is solved by tracking a large number of particles. The ﬂuid phase is treated as a continuum by solving the Navier-Stokes equations. and some particle-laden ﬂows. ˙ ˙ The particle or droplet trajectories are computed individually at speciﬁed intervals during the ﬂuid phase calculation.2. January 29. and energy with the ﬂuid phase. or any application where the volume fraction of the second phase cannot be neglected. mass. 15. The dispersed phase can exchange momentum.

2-5) Fx = ρp ∂xi Forces in Rotating Reference Frames The additional force term. which is deﬁned as Re ≡ ρdp |up − u| µ (15. ρp is the density of the particle. it is important to note that in ANSYS FLUENT the default gravitational acceleration is zero.2 Particle Motion Theory FD = 18µ CD Re ρp d2 24 p (15. u is the ﬂuid phase velocity.2-1 includes a force of gravity on the particle.0 c ANSYS. January 29.2-1 also includes forces on particles that arise due to rotation of the reference frame.2-3) Inclusion of the Gravity Term While Equation 15. Inc. the forces on the particles in the Cartesian x and y directions can be written as 1− ρ ρ Ω2 x + 2Ω uy. If you want to include the gravitational force. An additional force arises due to the pressure gradient in the ﬂuid: ∂u ρ up i (15.2-1 incorporates additional forces (Fx ) in the particle force balance that can be important under special circumstances.15. ρ is the ﬂuid density. Other Forces Equation 15. the force required to accelerate the ﬂuid surrounding the particle.2-6) Release 12. and dp is the particle diameter. you must remember to deﬁne the magnitude and direction of the gravity vector in the Operating Conditions dialog box. 2009 15-3 . The ﬁrst of these is the “virtual mass” force.p − uy ρp ρp (15. µ is the molecular viscosity of the ﬂuid.2-2) Here. For rotation deﬁned about the z axis. up is the particle velocity. Fx .2-4) and is important when ρ > ρp . This force can be written as Fx = 1ρ d (u − up ) 2 ρp dt (15.2: Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame). Re is the relative Reynolds number. These forces arise when you are modeling ﬂows in rotating frames of reference (see Section 2. for example. in Equation 15.

2-7) where ux. You can deﬁne the coeﬃcient to be constant.14 particle mass local ﬂuid temperature ﬂuid viscosity This expression assumes that the particle is a sphere and that the ﬂuid is an ideal gas.p − ux ρp ρp (15.Discrete Phase where uy.p and ux are the particle and ﬂuid velocities in the Cartesian x direction. in Equation 15.2-1: Fx = −DT.p is the thermophoretic coeﬃcient. 2009 .p 1 ∂T mp T ∂x (15. 15-4 Release 12. Inc. This phenomenon is known as thermophoresis. Thermophoretic Force Small particles suspended in a gas that has a temperature gradient experience a force in the direction opposite to that of the gradient. Fx . polynomial. ANSYS FLUENT can optionally include a thermophoretic eﬀect on particles in the additional acceleration (force/unit mass) term.17 2.2-9) Knudsen number = 2 λ/dp mean free path of the ﬂuid k/kp ﬂuid thermal conductivity based on translational energy only = (15/4) µR particle thermal conductivity 1. and 1− ρ ρ Ω2 y − 2Ω ux.2-8) where DT. or you can use the form suggested by Talbot [345]: Fx = − where: Kn λ K k kp CS Ct Cm mp T µ = = = = = = = = = = = 6πdp µ2 Cs (K + Ct Kn) 1 ∂T ρ(1 + 3Cm Kn)(1 + 2K + 2Ct Kn) mp T ∂x (15. or a user-deﬁned function.0 c ANSYS.18 1.p and uy are the particle and ﬂuid velocities in the Cartesian y direction. January 29.

The amplitudes of the Brownian force components are evaluated at each time step. the eﬀects of Brownian motion can be optionally included in the additional force term. or lift due to shear.2-11) Cc T is the absolute temperature of the ﬂuid. 2009 15-5 . Release 12. The lift force used is from Li and Ahmadi [191] and is a generalization of the expression provided by Saﬀman [298]: 2Kν 1/2 ρdij (v − vp ) ρp dp (dlk dkl )1/4 F = (15.2-13) where K = 2.2-10) (15. ν is the kinematic viscosity. and S0 = 216νkB T π 2 ρd5 p ρp 2 ρ (15.15. can also be included in the additional force term as an option. Saffman’s Lift Force The Saﬀman’s lift force. unit-variance-independent Gaussian random numbers.0 c ANSYS. Amplitudes of the Brownian force components are of the form πSo ∆t Fbi = ζi (15.ij = S0 δij where δij is the Kronecker delta function. The components of the Brownian force are modeled as a Gaussian white noise process with spectral intensity Sn.594 and dij is the deformation tensor. This form of the lift force is intended for small particle Reynolds numbers. January 29. This option is recommended only for submicron particles. Brownian force is intended only for laminar simulations.2-12) where ζi are zero-mean.ij given by [191] Sn. Inc. Also.2 Particle Motion Theory Brownian Force For sub-micron particles. The energy equation must be enabled in order for the Brownian force to take eﬀect. the particle Reynolds number based on the particle-ﬂuid velocity diﬀerence must be smaller than the square root of the particle Reynolds number based on the shear ﬁeld. and kB is the Boltzmann constant.

For stochastic tracking a model is available to account for the generation or dissipation of turbulence in the continuous phase (see Section 15.2-14) 15-6 Release 12. Their random value is kept constant over an interval of time given by the characteristic lifetime of the eddies.2 Turbulent Dispersion of Particles The dispersion of particles due to turbulence in the ﬂuid phase can be predicted using the stochastic tracking model or the particle cloud model (see Section 15. the ﬂuctuating velocity components are discrete piecewise constant functions of time. The particle cloud model tracks the statistical evolution of a cloud of particles about a mean trajectory (see Section 15. u. using the instantaneous ﬂuid velocity. in the trajectory equations (Equation 15. the random eﬀects of turbulence on the particle dispersion can be included.2.2: Stochastic Tracking).Discrete Phase 15.2: Turbulent Dispersion of Particles). i Turbulent dispersion of particles cannot be included if the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model is used.2-1). Optionally. The DRW model may give nonphysical results in strongly nonhomogeneous diﬀusiondominated ﬂows.2. where small particles should become uniformly distributed. u + u (t). January 29.2: Particle Cloud Tracking).2. The concentration of particles within the cloud is represented by a Gaussian probability density function (PDF) about the mean trajectory. In the stochastic tracking approach. By computing the trajectory in this manner for a suﬃcient number of representative particles (termed the “number of tries”).12.2. Stochastic Tracking When the ﬂow is turbulent. along the particle path during the integration. Inc. In the discrete random walk (DRW) model. u=u+u to predict the dispersion of the particles due to turbulence.1: Coupling Between the Discrete and Continuous Phases). the DRW will show a tendency for such particles to concentrate in low-turbulence regions of the ﬂow. 2009 . The stochastic tracking (random walk) model includes the eﬀect of instantaneous turbulent velocity ﬂuctuations on the particle trajectories through the use of stochastic methods (see Section 15. Instead. you can include the instantaneous value of the ﬂuctuating gas ﬂow velocity. ANSYS FLUENT will predict the trajectories of particles using the mean ﬂuid phase velocity. ANSYS FLUENT predicts the turbulent dispersion of particles by integrating the trajectory equations for individual particles.0 c ANSYS. ANSYS FLUENT uses a stochastic method (random walk model) to determine the instantaneous gas velocity. (15.

2-17) when the Reynolds stress model (RSM) is used [67]. For the k-ω models. substitute ω = /k into Equation 15. 2009 15-7 .0 c ANSYS.2 Particle Motion Theory The Integral Time Prediction of particle dispersion makes use of the concept of the integral time scale. and w • a time scale. the interaction of a particle with a succession of discrete stylized ﬂuid phase turbulent eddies is simulated.15.30 k (15.2-18) k (15. It can be shown that the particle diﬀusivity is given by ui uj T . This time scale can be approximated as TL = CL k (15.2-16) where CL is to be determined as it is not well known.2-16. Each eddy is characterized by • a Gaussian distributed random velocity ﬂuctuation. νt /σ. For small “tracer” particles that move with the ﬂuid (zero drift velocity). v .2-15) The integral time is proportional to the particle dispersion rate. ui uj TL . TL . u . The LES model uses the equivalent LES time scales. The Discrete Random Walk Model In the discrete random walk (DRW) model. By matching the diﬀusivity of tracer particles. the integral time becomes the ﬂuid Lagrangian integral time.15 for the k. as larger values indicate more turbulent motion in the ﬂow. which describes the time spent in turbulent motion along the particle path.model and its variants. one can obtain TL ≈ 0. T . Inc. January 29. to the scalar diﬀusion rate predicted by the turbulence model. τe Release 12. ds: ∞ T = 0 up (t)up (t + s) ds up 2 (15. and TL ≈ 0. or “eddy lifetime” model.

Inc. and the remainder of the right-hand side is the local RMS value of the velocity ﬂuctuations.4: Inlet Boundary Conditions for the LES Model for details.2-24) where TL is given by Equation 15. The particle eddy crossing time is deﬁned as tcross = −τ ln 1 − Le τ |u − up | (15.2-16 in general (Equation 15. nonisotropy of the stresses is included in the derivation of the velocity ﬂuctuations: u v w = ζ u2 = ζ v2 = ζ w2 (15. The characteristic lifetime of the eddy is deﬁned either as a constant: τe = 2TL (15. or as a random variation about TL : τe = −TL ln(r) (15.model. these values of the RMS ﬂuctuating components can be deﬁned (assuming isotropy) as u2 = v2= w2= 2k/3 (15.2-23) when viewed in a reference frame in which the second moment of the turbulence is diagonal [389]. the k-ω model. When the RSM is used. v .Discrete Phase The values of u .2-21) (15.2-25) where r is a uniform random number between 0 and 1 and TL is given by Equation 15. The option of random calculation of τe yields a more realistic description of the correlation function.2-22) (15.0 c ANSYS. Since the kinetic energy of turbulence is known at each point in the ﬂow.2-17.2-17 by default). 2009 . For the LES model. and their variants.11. so that u =ζ u2 (15.2-26) 15-8 Release 12. January 29.2-20) for the k. and w that prevail during the lifetime of the turbulent eddy are sampled by assuming that they obey a Gaussian probability distribution. See Section 4.2-19) where ζ is a normally distributed random number. the velocity ﬂuctuations are equivalent in all directions.

The particle is assumed to interact with the ﬂuid phase eddy over the smaller of the eddy lifetime and the eddy crossing time. The concentration of particles about the mean trajectory is represented by a Gaussian probability density function (PDF) whose variance is based on the degree of particle dispersion due to turbulent ﬂuctuations. The cloud expands due to turbulent dispersion as it is transported through the domain until it exits. 2009 15-9 . The mean trajectory is obtained by solving the ensemble-averaged equations of motion for all particles represented by the cloud (see Section 15. The value of the PDF represents the probability of ﬁnding particles represented by that cloud with residence time t at location xi in the ﬂow ﬁeld. The average particle number density can be obtained by weighting the total ﬂow rate of particles represented by that cloud. These are completely described by their mean.16: Stochastic Tracking in the separate User’s Guide.15.3. Particle Cloud Tracking Particle dispersion due to turbulent ﬂuctuations can also be modeled with the particle cloud model [21. 144. As mentioned before. m. 204].2-19. You can choose to use either a constant value or a random value by selecting the appropriate option in the Set Injection Properties dialog box for each injection. January 29.2 Particle Motion Theory where τ is the particle relaxation time.2-27) The PDFs for particle position are assumed to be multivariate Gaussian. Le is the eddy length scale.0 c ANSYS. i Turbulent dispersion of particles cannot be included if the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model is used. µi .2: Particle Cloud Tracking). Inc. 22. Using the DRW Model The only inputs required for the DRW model are the value for the integral time-scale constant. The cloud enters the domain either as a point source or with an initial diameter. t) ˙ (15. the distribution of particles in the cloud is deﬁned by a probability density function (PDF) based on the position in the cloud relative to the cloud center. a new value of the instantaneous velocity is obtained by applying a new value of ζ in Equation 15. When this time is reached. and variance.2-16 and 15. as described in Section 23. and are of the form Release 12.2.2-24) and the choice of the method used for the prediction of the eddy lifetime. and |u − up | is the magnitude of the relative velocity. as ˙ n(xi ) = mP (xi . The turbulent dispersion of particles about a mean trajectory is calculated using statistical methods. σi 2 . CL (see Equations 15.

or the center of the cloud.2-32) By using the substitution τ = |t2 − t1 |.ij .i (t2 ) t2 0 (15. January 29.2-30) The equations of motion are constructed using an ensemble average.ij (t2 .i (t2 )up. 2 The radius of the particle cloud is based on the variance of the PDF.ij (t2 . t3 ) whenever |t2 − t1 | = |t4 − t3 |.j (t1 ) 2 2 up.0 c ANSYS. σi (t).i are the mean square velocity ﬂuctuations.2-29) The mean of the PDF. The mean location is obtained by integrating a particle velocity as deﬁned by an equation of motion for the cloud of particles: t µi (t) ≡ xi (t) = 0 Vi (t1 ) dt1 + xi (0) (15. i = j) have been neglected. and Rp.ij (t2 .i (t2 )up.2-28) (2π)3/2 i=1 where 3 s= i=1 x i − µi σi 2 (15.ii (τ )dτ dt2 (15.2-33) Rp.j (t2 ) 1/2 (15. The variance. 15-10 Release 12. 2009 . and the fact that Rp.i (t2 ) Rp. t) = 1 3 e−s/2 σi (15. t1 ) = Rp.2-31) 2 where up.ij (t4 . Inc. we can write 2 σi (t) = 2 t 0 2 up. t1 ) = up. at a given time represents the most likely location of the particles in the cloud.Discrete Phase P (xi .ii (t2 . t1 ) is the particle velocity correlation function: Rp.2-34) Note that cross correlations in the deﬁnition of the variance (Rp. t1 )dt1 dt2 (15. of the PDF can be expressed in terms of two particle turbulence statistical quantities: t 0 t2 0 2 σi (t) = 2 2 up.

2-37) Rp.4(1+0. When the gravity vector is aligned with the z-coordinate direction.2-38) and mT TmE m 3/4 3/2 Cµ k ( 2 k)1/2 3 τa g u τa TmE τa T St2 (1 + m2 γ 2 ) − 1 T T u ¯ u u ¯ Tf E u G(m) m 1− (1 + St)0. Inc.11 = Rp.2-40) (15.2 Particle Motion Theory The form of the particle velocity correlation function used determines the particle dispersion in the cloud model. Rij takes the form: u 2 −(τ /τa ) St2 B 2 + 1 e StT B − 0. January 29.2-39) (15.33 = e − e θ θ where B = 1 + m2 γ 2 and τa is the aerodynamic response time of the particle: T τa = ρp d2 p 18µ (15.5mT γ θ θ T (15.2-43) (15.2-42) (15.5mT γ T θ θ 2 2 u −(τ B/T ) mT StT γB τ + e −1 + + 0.2-47) 2 2 G(m) = √ π e−y dy 1+ m2 π √ ( π erf(y)y − 1 + e−y2 ) 5/2 (15.15.2-46) (15.2-44) (15.01St) ∞ 0 T = Tf E = γ = St = StT = θ = m = TmE = mT = (15.2-36) (15. ANSYS FLUENT uses a correlation function ﬁrst proposed by Wang [365].2-41) (15.11 u 2 StT B −(τ /τa ) u 2 −(τ B/T ) Rp. and used by Jain [144]. 2009 15-11 .0 c ANSYS.22 = Rp.2-45) (15.2-35) (15.2-48) Release 12.

At any given time.2. January 29. This is done with a weighting factor deﬁned as P (xi . or in parallel. the cloud radius is set to three standard deviations in the coordinate directions. sources are distributed to the cells in the cloud based on the same weighting factors.2% of the area under a Gaussian PDF is accounted for at this distance. 15-12 Release 12. t)dV (15. Using the Cloud Model The only inputs required for the cloud model are the values of the minimum and maximum cloud diameters.2-1 can be cast into the following general form dup 1 = (u − up ) + a dt τp (15. Integration of time in Equation 15. the ﬂuid properties are ensemble-averaged for the mean trajectory.Discrete Phase Using this correlation function. t)dV W (xi . 2009 . are solved by stepwise integration over discrete time steps.3. and Equation 15. Once the cells within the cloud are established. t) ≡ Vcell Vcloud If coupled calculations are performed. The cloud radius is limited to three standard deviations since at least 99.2-1 yields the velocity of the particle at each point along the trajectory. Inc. and the mean path is integrated in time.3 The cloud model is not available for unsteady particle tracking. with the trajectory itself predicted by dx = up dt (15. when using the message passing option for the particles.2-51) where the term a includes accelerations due to all other forces except drag force. the variance is integrated over the life of the cloud. Integration of Particle Equation of Motion The trajectory equations. The cloud model is enabled in the Set Injection Properties dialog box for each injection. and any auxiliary equations describing heat or mass transfer to/from the particle. i 15.2-50) Note that Equation 15.0 c ANSYS.2-50 are a set of coupled ordinary diﬀerential equations. as described in Section 23.16: Cloud Tracking in the separate User’s Guide.2-1 and Equation 15.2-49) P (xi .

Inc. We get un+1 − un 1 p p = (u∗ − u∗ ) + an p ∆t τp The averages u∗ and u∗ are computed from p 1 n (u + un+1 ) p 2 p 1 n = (u + un+1 ) 2 = un + ∆tun · un p (15. The set of Equation 15. January 29.2-53 are applied when using the analytic discretization scheme.2-1 and Equation 15.2-50 can also be solved using numerical discretization schemes. For the particle velocity at the new location un+1 we get p un+1 = un + e p − ∆t τ p un − un − aτp e p − ∆t τ p −1 (15.15.2-52) The new location xn+1 can be computed from a similar relationship.2-51 the variables up and un on the right hand side are taken as averages. When applying the Euler implicit discretization to Equation 15.2 Particle Motion Theory This set can be solved for constant u.2-57) (15. p xn+1 = xn + ∆t(un + aτp ) + τp 1 − e p p − ∆t τ p un − un − aτp p (15. a and τp by analytical integration.2-53) In these equations un and un represent particle velocities and ﬂuid velocities at the old p location. 2009 15-13 . a.0 c ANSYS. Equations 15.2-54) When applying a trapezoidal discretization to Equation 15.2-59) Release 12.2-56) (15.2-51 we get un + ∆t(a + p 1+ ∆t τp un ) τp un+1 = p (15. while accelerations.2-55) u∗ = p u∗ un+1 (15. due to other forces are held constant.2-58) The particle velocity at the new location n + 1 is computed by un (1 − p 1 ∆t ) 2 τp un+1 = p + ∆t τp un + 1 ∆tun · p 2 1+ 1 ∆t 2 τp un + ∆ta (15.2-52 and 15.

y n + b51 k1 + b52 k2 + b53 k3 + b54 k4 ) k6 = ∆tf (t + a6 ∆t. It can become inaccurate for large steps and in situations where the particles are not in hydrodynamic equilibrium with the continuous ﬂow. y n ) k2 = ∆tf (t + a2 ∆t. . . which is switched oﬀ. a6 . y n + b41 k1 + b42 k2 + b43 k3 ) k5 = ∆tf (t + a5 ∆t. y n + b61 k1 + b62 k2 + b63 k3 + b64 k4 + b65 k5 ) The coeﬃcients a2 .0 c ANSYS. The numerical schemes implicit and trapezoidal.2-7. y = f (t. 15-14 Release 12. y) We get y n+1 = y n + c1 k1 + c2 k2 + c3 k3 + c4 k4 + c5 k5 + c6 k6 with (15. y n + b21 k1 ) k3 = ∆tf (t + a3 ∆t. The runge-kutta scheme is recommended of nondrag force changes along a particle integration step. b65 . January 29. y). The analytic scheme is very eﬃcient.2-60) Equations 15. .Discrete Phase For the implicit and the trapezoidal schemes the new particle location is always computed by a trapezoidal discretization of Equation 15. y n + b31 k1 + b32 k2 ) k4 = ∆tf (t + a4 ∆t.2-61) k1 = ∆tf (t. . thus accounting for system rotation. The ordinary diﬀerential equations can be considered as vectors. where the left hand side is the derivative y and the right hand side is an arbitrary function f (t.2-6 and Equation 15. . Inc. 2009 . For rotating reference frames. consider most of the changes in the forces acting on the particles and are chosen as default schemes. the integration is carried out in the rotating frame with the extra terms described in Equation 15. when no Accuracy Control is enabled. b21 . and c1 . the trajectory integration will be done accurately in time.2-51 and 15.2-50. Using the mechanisms available for accuracy control. c6 are taken from Cash and Karp [48] This scheme provides an embedded error control.2-50 can also be computed using a Runge-Kutta scheme which was published by Cash and Karp [48]. . in combination with Automated Tracking Scheme Selection. 1 xn+1 = xn + ∆t un + un+1 p p p p 2 (15.2-62) (15.

0 c ANSYS.4222φ2 − 10.2.5565φ exp(4. Inc.2-50 is required where the particle velocity up = u. 15. 2009 15-15 .2599φ3 ) exp(1.7322φ2 + 15. the particle velocity is equal to the velocity of the continuous phase. For the massless particle type. is limited to a stable range.3288 − 6.3-3) The shape factor. The new particle location along the trajectory is always computed by Equations 15. hence the solution of only the trajectory Equation 15.3 Laws for Drag Coefﬁcients The integration step size of the higher-order schemes. trapezoidal and runge-kutta.3.8944φ + 18. are available for the Euler-Lagrange Model. CD .4581φ + 2.2-58 and 15. January 29.2-60. φ. with up = u.3-4) Release 12.3 Laws for Drag Coefﬁcients Several laws for drag coeﬃcients. CD .0964 + 0.15. is deﬁned as φ= s S (15.3-1) where a1 . 15.1 Spherical Drag Law The drag coeﬃcient. and a3 are constants that apply over several ranges of Re given by Morsi and Alexander [238].3-2) (15.2 Non-spherical Drag Law For non-spherical particles Haider and Levenspiel [119] developed the correlation CD = where b1 b2 b3 b4 = = = = exp(2. Therefore it is recommended to use them in combination with Automated Tracking Scheme Selection.4486φ2 ) 0. Instructions for selecting the drag law are provided in Section 23. 15.4: Drag Laws in the separate User’s Guide.3.905 − 13. a2 .2584φ − 20. for smooth particles can be taken from CD = a1 + a2 a3 + 2 Re Re (15.8855φ3 ) 24 b3 Resph 1 + b1 Resph b2 + Resph b4 + Resph (15.4681 + 12.

5 Dynamic Drag Model Theory Accurate determination of droplet drag coeﬃcients is crucial for accurate spray modeling. accounting for variations in the droplet shape.3.3. This drag law is similar to the spherical law (Equation 15. January 29. 15. the drag of a spherical object is determined by the following [205]: 24 Re 0. 2009 . i 15. The Reynolds number Resph is computed with the diameter of a sphere having the same volume. ANSYS FLUENT provides a method that determines the droplet drag coeﬃcient dynamically. When the collision model is turned on.3-1) with corrections [57] to account for a particle Mach number greater than 0.3-5) The factor Cc is the Cunningham correction to Stokes’ drag law. Stokes-Cunningham Drag Law For sub-micron particles. The dynamic drag model is applicable in almost any circumstance. It is compatible with both the TAB and wave models for droplet breakup.257 + 0.4 at a particle Reynolds number greater than 20.4 High-Mach-Number Drag Law A high-Mach-number drag law is also available.4e−(1.sphere = 15-16 Release 12. and S is the actual surface area of the particle. a form of Stokes’ drag law is available [261].3-7) Re ≤ 1000 Cd.3. 15. Inc.Discrete Phase where s is the surface area of a sphere having the same volume as the particle.0 c ANSYS. which you can compute from Cc = 1 + 2λ (1. With this assumption. Many droplet drag models assume the droplet remains spherical throughout the domain. In this case.1dp /2λ) ) dp (15. collisions reset the distortion and distortion velocities of the colliding droplets.3-6) where λ is the molecular mean free path. FD is deﬁned as FD = 18µ dp 2 ρp Cc (15.3 The shape factor cannot exceed a value of 1.424 1+ 1 Re2/3 6 Re > 1000 (15.

Thus.54 corresponding to a disk [205]. January 29. the drag coeﬃcient of a sphere will be obtained.15. described in Section 15. linearly varying the drag between that of a sphere (Equation 15. The drag coeﬃcient is given by Cd = Cd. i. 15.6 Dense Discrete Phase Model Drag Laws The drag laws that are suitable for dense gas-solid ﬂow are the Wen and Yu. a drag model that assumes the droplet is spherical is unsatisfactory.1: Taylor Analogy Breakup (TAB) Model. the droplet shape will approach that of a disk. along with a recommendation of when to use each model. 2009 15-17 . in conjunction with the Dense Discrete Phase Model. A detailed theoretical background to the correlations.0 c ANSYS.5.3 Laws for Drag Coefﬁcients However. Note that Equation 15.3-7) and a value of 1. the Gidaspow.3-8) In the limit of no distortion (y = 0). In the extreme case. and the Syamlal-O’Brien drag model. its shape is distorted signiﬁcantly when the Weber number is large. however. The dynamic drag model accounts for the eﬀects of droplet distortion. The drag of a disk.10. the new drag models are only available when the DPM volume fraction is computed. Inc. as determined by the solution of d2 y CF ρg u2 Ck σ Cd µl dy = − y− 2 2 3 dt Cb ρl r ρl r ρl r2 dt (15.632y) where y is the droplet distortion.e. All three correlations incorporate group eﬀects and therefore are dependent on the particle phase volume fraction.3. can be found in Section 16.4: Fluid-Solid Exchange Coeﬃcient (see also Section 24.sphere (1 + 2. Release 12.5.3-9 is obtained from the TAB model for spray breakup. Since the droplet drag coeﬃcient is highly dependent upon the droplet shape. as an initially spherical droplet moves through a gas. is signiﬁcantly higher than that of a sphere.3-9) (15. while at maximum distortion (y = 1) the drag coeﬃcient corresponding to a disk will be obtained. but the dynamic drag model can be used with either of the breakup models.2: Specifying the Drag Function in the separate User’s Guide).

0 c ANSYS. 2. 6 1. January 29. Several heat and mass transfer relationships. termed “laws”. 4. 3. are explained in detail in the sections that follow. 6 7 In addition to the above laws. All particle types have predeﬁned sequences of physical laws as shown in the table below: Particle Type Massless Inert Droplet Combusting Multicomponent Description – inert/heating or cooling heating/evaporation/boiling heating. The laws that you activate depend upon the particle type that you select. and ANSYS FLUENT will use a given set of heat and mass transfer laws for the chosen type.4 Laws for Heat and Mass Exchange Using ANSYS FLUENT’s discrete phase modeling capability. evolution of volatiles/swelling. you can deﬁne your own laws using a user-deﬁned function. are available in ANSYS FLUENT and the physical models employed in these laws are described in this section. 6 1. 2009 . reacting particles or droplets can be modeled and their impact on the continuous phase can be examined.Discrete Phase 15. In the Set Injection Properties dialog box you will specify the Particle Type. which describe the heat and mass transfer conditions listed in this table. More information about user-deﬁned functions can be found in the separate UDF Manual. heterogeneous surface reaction multicomponent droplets/particles Laws Activated – 1. ANSYS FLUENT’s physical laws (Laws 1 through 6). 15-18 Release 12. 5. Inc. You can also extend combusting particles to include an evaporating/boiling material by selecting Wet Combustion in the Set Injection Properties dialog box.

At this point a noninert particle/droplet may proceed to obey one of the mass-transfer laws (2.15.4. 4. G is the incident radiation in W/m2 : G= Ω=4π IdΩ (15.1 Inert Heating or Cooling (Law 1/Law 6) The inert heating or cooling laws (Laws 1 and 6) are applied when the particle temperature is less than the vaporization temperature that you deﬁne. 3. January 29.e.4-1) where Tp is the particle temperature. mp. to the convective heat transfer and the absorption/emission of radiation at the particle surface: mp cp where mp cp Ap T∞ h p dTp = hAp (T∞ − Tp ) + dt 4 p Ap σ(θR 4 − Tp ) (15.4 Laws for Heat and Mass Exchange 15. returning to Law 6 when the volatile portion of the particle/droplet has been consumed.4-3 assumes that there is negligible internal resistance to heat transfer.0 .0 )mp. of a particle has been consumed. Tp (t). (Note that the vaporization temperature.4-3) σ θR = = = = = = = = mass of the particle (kg) heat capacity of the particle (J/kg-K) surface area of the particle (m2 ) local temperature of the continuous phase (K) convective heat transfer coeﬃcient (W/m2 -K) particle emissivity (dimensionless) Stefan-Boltzmann constant (5. fv.0 (15. the particle is at uniform temperature throughout..4-4) Release 12.4-2) (15. and/or 5). 2009 15-19 . and after the volatile fraction.0 is the initial mass of the particle. Inc.67 x 10−8 W/m2 -K4 ) G radiation temperature. and mp is its current mass. i.0 c ANSYS. ANSYS FLUENT uses a simple heat balance to relate the particle temperature.) When using Law 1 or Law 6. Law 1 is applied until the temperature of the particle/droplet reaches the vaporization temperature. Tvap . These conditions may be written as Law 1: Tp < Tvap Law 6: mp ≤ (1 − fv. ( 4σ )1/4 Equation 15. is an arbitrary modeling constant used to deﬁne the onset of the vaporization/boiling/volatilization laws. Tvap .

yielding Tp (t + ∆t) = αp + [Tp (t) − αp ]e−βp ∆t where ∆t is the integration time step and αp = and 3 Ap (h + p σTp (t)) m p cp 4 hT∞ + p σθR 3 h + p σTp (t) (15.4-5 to obtain the particle temperature at the next time value. 2009 . 285]: Nu = where dp k∞ Red Pr = particle diameter (m) = thermal conductivity of the continuous phase (W/m-K) = Reynolds number based on the particle diameter and the relative velocity (Equation 15.4-7) βp = (15. is evaluated using the correlation of Ranz and Marshall [284.4-6) (15.4-3 is integrated in time using an approximate. h.0 + 0.2. See Section 23.2-3) = Prandtl number of the continuous phase (cp µ/k∞ ) hdp 1/2 = 2.4-5 in conjunction with the equivalent mass transfer equation using a stiﬀ coupled solver.4-9) 15-20 Release 12. Radiation heat transfer to the particle is included only if you have enabled the P-1 or discrete ordinates radiation model and you have activated radiation heat transfer to particles using the Particle Radiation Interaction option in the Discrete Phase Model dialog box. The heat transfer coeﬃcient.8: Including Coupled Heat-Mass Solution Eﬀects on the Particles in the separate User’s Guide for details.Discrete Phase where I is the radiation intensity and Ω is the solid angle.4-8) ANSYS FLUENT can also solve Equation 15.0 c ANSYS.6Red Pr1/3 k∞ (15.4-5) As the particle trajectory is computed. Inc. ANSYS FLUENT integrates Equation 15. Equation 15. January 29. linearized form that assumes that the particle temperature changes slowly from one time value to the next: mp cp dTp = Ap − h + dt 3 p σTp Tp + hT∞ + 4 p σθR (15.

particles/droplets do not exchange mass with the continuous phase and do not participate in any chemical reaction. Tbp . Law 3.0 )mp. Law 2 is initiated when the temperature of the droplet reaches the vaporization temperature. and continues until the droplet reaches the boiling point. Vaporization will be halted only if the droplet temperature falls below the dew point. Note that once vaporization is initiated (by the droplet reaching this threshold temperature). When the boiling point is reached. If conditions exist in which Ni is negative (i. Inc. Tvap . Release 12.e.4..0). Mass Transfer During Law 2 During Law 2. ANSYS FLUENT treats the droplet as inert (Ni = 0.s Ci.4-12) Note that ANSYS FLUENT’s vaporization law assumes that Ni is positive (evaporation). the droplet temperature falls below the dew point and condensation conditions exist). a modeling parameter that has no physical signiﬁcance.4 Laws for Heat and Mass Exchange Finally. the droplet will remain in Law 2 but no evaporation will be predicted. with the ﬂux of droplet vapor into the gas phase related to the diﬀerence in vapor concentration at the droplet surface and the bulk gas: Ni = kc (Ci. it will continue to vaporize even if the droplet temperature falls below Tvap .∞ = molar ﬂux of vapor (kgmol/m2 -s) = mass transfer coeﬃcient (m/s) = vapor concentration at the droplet surface (kgmol/m3 ) = vapor concentration in the bulk gas (kgmol/m3 ) (15. the droplet vaporization is predicted by a boiling rate. or until the droplet’s volatile fraction is completely consumed: Tvap ≤ Tp < Tbp (15.4-10) mp > (1 − fv. During Laws 1 and 6. January 29. 2009 15-21 .4-11) The onset of the vaporization law is determined by the setting of Tvap .0 c ANSYS. the rate of vaporization is governed by gradient diﬀusion.∞ ) where Ni kc Ci.15. 15. In such cases.2 Droplet Vaporization (Law 2) Law 2 is applied to predict the vaporization from a discrete phase droplet.0 (15. the heat lost or gained by the particle as it traverses each computational cell appears as a source or sink of heat in subsequent calculations of the continuous phase energy equation. as described in a section that follows.s − Ci.

4-12 becomes a source of species i in the gas phase species transport equation. Tp : Ci. 285]: ShAB = where Di.4-12 is calculated from the Sherwood number correlation [284. The mass of the droplet is reduced according to mp (t + ∆t) = mp (t) − Ni Ap Mw.4-14) psat (Tp ) RTp (15.0 + 0.2. p is the local absolute pressure.4-16) ANSYS FLUENT can also solve Equation 15. 15-22 Release 12.∞ = Xi p RT∞ (15.8: Including Coupled Heat-Mass Solution Eﬀects on the Particles in the separate User’s Guide for details.i mp Ap = molecular weight of species i (kg/kgmol) = mass of the droplet (kg) = surface area of the droplet (m2 ) (15. and T∞ is the local bulk temperature in the gas.0 c ANSYS.m (15.5: Setting Material Properties for the Discrete Phase in the separate User’s Guide) or in the mixture fraction equation for nonpremixed combustion calculations. ρDµ i.6Red Sc1/3 Di.i ∆t where Mw.4-16 in conjunction with the equivalent heat transfer equation using a stiﬀ coupled solver. Inc. 2009 . The mass transfer coeﬃcient in Equation 15.4-15) = diﬀusion coeﬃcient of vapor in the bulk (m2 /s) = the Schmidt number.m Sc dp kc dp 1/2 = 2. The concentration of vapor in the bulk gas is known from solution of the transport equation for species i for nonpremixed or partially premixed combustion calculations: Ci.Discrete Phase The concentration of vapor at the droplet surface is evaluated by assuming that the partial pressure of vapor at the interface is equal to the saturated vapor pressure. See Section 23. (see Section 23.s = where R is the universal gas constant. January 29. psat .4-13) where Xi is the local bulk mole fraction of species i. at the particle droplet temperature.m = particle (droplet) diameter (m) The vapor ﬂux given by Equation 15.

during the setup of the discrete phase material properties.4-12 and 15.0 c ANSYS. You should provide accurate vapor pressure values for temperatures over the entire range of possible droplet temperatures in your problem. Heat Transfer to the Droplet Finally. where I is the radiation intensity Radiation heat transfer to the particle is included only if you have enabled the P-1 or discrete ordinates radiation model and you have activated radiation heat transfer to particles using the Particle Radiation Interaction option in the Discrete Phase Model dialog box.m . The heat transferred to or from the gas phase becomes a source/sink of energy during subsequent calculations of the continuous phase energy equation. Release 12. 2009 15-23 . as psat is used to obtain the driving force for the evaporation process (Equations 15.15.4-17) hfg p σ θR = = = = = = = = = droplet heat capacity (J/kg-K) droplet temperature (K) convective heat transfer coeﬃcient (W/m2 -K) temperature of continuous phase (K) rate of evaporation (kg/s) latent heat (J/kg) particle emissivity (dimensionless) Stefan-Boltzmann constant (5. Note that the diﬀusion coeﬃcient inputs that you supply for the continuous phase are not used in the discrete phase model. Vapor pressure data can be obtained from a physics or engineering handbook (e. [266]).g. Note that the vapor pressure deﬁnition is critical.. ( 4σ )1/4 .4-13). January 29. You must also input the diﬀusion coeﬃcient.67 x 10−8 W/m2 -K4 ) I radiation temperature. Inc. the droplet temperature is updated according to a heat balance that relates the sensible heat change in the droplet to the convective and latent heat transfer between the droplet and the continuous phase: mp cp where cp Tp h T∞ dmp dt dTp dmp = hAp (T∞ − Tp ) + hfg + Ap p σ(θR 4 − Tp 4 ) dt dt (15.4 Laws for Heat and Mass Exchange Deﬁning the Vapor Pressure and Diffusion Coefﬁcient You must deﬁne the vapor pressure as a polynomial or piecewise linear function of temperature (psat (T )) during the problem deﬁnition. Di.

0 c ANSYS.4-18) When the droplet temperature reaches the boiling point. When radiation heat transfer is active.23 Red ) ln 1 + dt ρp cp. (1 − fv. This yields − or − d(dp ) 2 k∞ Nu = (T∞ − Tp ) + dt ρp hfg dp 4 p σ(θR 4 − Tp ) dmp hfg = hAp (T∞ − Tp ) + Ap p σ(θR 4 − Tp 4 ) dt (15.∞ (T∞ − Tp ) = (1 + 0.3 Droplet Boiling (Law 3) Law 3 is applied to predict the convective boiling of a discrete phase droplet when the temperature of the droplet has reached the boiling temperature.0 ): Tp ≥ Tbp and mp > (1 − fv.4-22) Using Equation 15.4-23) 15-24 Release 12. Equation 15. 2009 . a boiling rate equation is applied [173]: d(dp ) 4k∞ cp.4-19) (15.∞ ρp k∞ = heat capacity of the gas (J/kg-K) = droplet density (kg/m3 ) = thermal conductivity of the gas (W/m-K) (15.0 (15.4-20 was derived assuming steady ﬂow at constant pressure.4-20) Equation 15. Inc.4-17 and assuming that the droplet temperature is constant. derived by starting from Equation 15. Note that the model requires T∞ > Tbp in order for boiling to occur and that the droplet remains at ﬁxed temperature (Tbp ) throughout the boiling law. January 29.23 Red ] (T∞ − Tp ) + − = dp dt ρp hfg 4 p σ(θR 4 − Tp ) (15.4.4-9 for the Nusselt number correlation and replacing the Prandtl number term with an empirical constant.4-21) (15.∞ dp hfg where cp.Discrete Phase 15.0 )mp.4-20. Tbp . ANSYS FLUENT uses a slight modiﬁcation of Equation 15.4-22 becomes √ d(dp ) 2 2k∞ [1 + 0. and while the mass of the droplet exceeds the nonvolatile fraction.

Tbp and Tvap refer to the boiling and evaporation temperatures for the combusting material only. The evaporated liquid enters the gas phase as species i. fw.15.4-23 when radiation is active in your model and Equation 15.4. Radiation heat transfer to the particle is included only if you have enabled the P-1 or discrete ordinates radiation model and you have activated radiation heat transfer to particles using the Particle Radiation Interaction option in the Discrete Phase Model dialog box. in turn. The droplet is assumed to stay at constant temperature while the boiling rate is applied. and the vaporization temperature. 2009 15-25 .5: Setting Material Properties for the Discrete Phase in the separate User’s Guide). exceeds the mass of the nonvolatiles in the particle: Tp ≥ Tvap and Tp ≥ Tbp and mp > (1 − fv. The energy required for vaporization appears as a (negative) source term in the energy equation for the gas phase. mp . Inc. January 29. below. 15. this result matches that of Equation 15. Once the boiling law is entered it is applied for the duration of the particle trajectory.4-20 when radiation is not active.4-20 in the limit that the argument of the logarithm is close to unity. Tbp . Tvap .0 is the mass fraction of the evaporating/boiling material if Wet Combustion is selected (otherwise. as deﬁned by your input for the destination species (see Section 23. Tvap . and remains in eﬀect while the mass of the particle. ANSYS FLUENT uses Equation 15.4 Devolatilization (Law 4) The devolatilization law is applied to a combusting particle when the temperature of the particle reaches the vaporization temperature. should be set equal to each other when Law 4 is to be used.0 c ANSYS.0 (15.0 )(1 − fw.4-24.4 Laws for Heat and Mass Exchange In the absence of radiation. the boiling point.0 = 0).0 )mp.4-24) where fw. Release 12. When wet combustion is active. ANSYS FLUENT provides a choice of four devolatilization models: • the constant rate model (the default model) • the single kinetic rate model • the two competing rates model (the Kobayashi model) • the chemical percolation devolatilization (CPD) model Each of these models is described. As implied by Equation 15.4-25) (15.

5: Setting Material Properties for the Discrete Phase in the separate User’s Guide). Values in the literature show this temperature to be about 600 K [20]. January 29. with a default value of 12 s−1 derived from the work of Pillai [271] on coal combustion. The Single Kinetic Rate Model The single kinetic rate devolatilization model assumes that the rate of devolatilization is ﬁrst-order dependent on the amount of volatiles remaining in the particle [10]: − where mp fv. deﬁned by you (see Section 23.4-26) will be used. 2009 .5.0 dt (15. the volatiles may react according to the inputs governing the gas phase chemistry.0 )(1 − fw. Inc.2: Description of the Properties in the separate User’s Guide.0 A0 = = = = 1 dmp = A0 fv. which controls the onset of devolatilization. By default. The Constant Rate Devolatilization Model The constant rate devolatilization law dictates that volatiles are released at a constant rate [20]: − where mp fv. the constant rate model (Equation 15.0 mp. Once in the gas phase.0 (1 − fw.0 c ANSYS.0 fw. Proper use of the constant devolatilization rate requires that the vaporization temperature. The volatile fraction of the particle enters the gas phase as the devolatilizing species i. be set appropriately.Discrete Phase Choosing the Devolatilization Model You will choose the devolatilization model when you are setting physical properties for the combusting-particle material in the Create/Edit Materials dialog box.0 )mp.4-26) particle mass (kg) fraction of volatiles initially present in the particle initial particle mass (kg) rate constant (s−1 ) The rate constant A0 is deﬁned as part of your modeling inputs.0 )mp.4-27) particle mass (kg) mass fraction of volatiles initially present in the particle mass fraction of evaporating/boiling material (if wet combustion is modeled) = initial particle mass (kg) = kinetic rate (s−1 ) 15-26 Release 12. as described in Section 23.0 ] dt (15.0 k = = = dmp = k[mp − (1 − fv.0 mp.

4-27 has the approximate analytical solution: (15. should be deﬁned using a value slightly in excess of that determined by proximate analysis. Inc.0 )(1 − fw.4-29 in conjunction with the equivalent heat transfer equation using a stiﬀ coupled solver.4-28) mp (t + ∆t) = (1 − fv.4-29) which is obtained by assuming that the particle temperature varies only slightly between discrete time integration steps.0 + [mp (t) − (1 − fv.0 )mp. The Two Competing Rates (Kobayashi) Model ANSYS FLUENT also provides the kinetic devolatilization rate expressions of the form proposed by Kobayashi [169]: R1 = A1 e−(E1 /RTp ) R2 = A2 e−(E2 /RTp ) (15.15. Equation 15.0 . k.8: Including Coupled Heat-Mass Solution Eﬀects on the Particles in the separate User’s Guide for details.0 )(1 − fw. A1 and E [10].0 c ANSYS.0 )mp.0 )mp.4-30) (15.4-32) volatile yield up to time t initial particle mass at injection yield factors ash content in the particle Release 12. ANSYS FLUENT can also solve Equation 15. the fraction of volatiles in the particle. is deﬁned by input of an Arrhenius type pre-exponential factor and an activation energy: k = A1 e−(E/RT ) ANSYS FLUENT uses default rate constants.2. 2009 15-27 .0 ]e−k∆t (15.0 α1 . See Section 23.4-31) where R1 and R2 are competing rates that may control the devolatilization over diﬀerent temperature ranges. January 29. α2 ma = = = = t 0 t (α1 R1 + α2 R2 ) exp − 0 (R1 + R2 ) dt dt (15. The kinetic rate.4 Laws for Heat and Mass Exchange Note that fv.0 − ma where mv (t) mp. The two kinetic rates are weighted to yield an expression for the devolatilization as mv (t) = (1 − fw.

char.8: Including Coupled Heat-Mass Solution Eﬀects on the Particles in the separate User’s Guide for details. The portion of the lattice structure that remains after devolatilization is comprised of char and mineral-compound-based ash. which are based on empirical rate relationships. should be set close to unity. Equation 15. The other set of fragments consists of tar gas precursors that have a relatively high molecular weight (and correspondingly low vapor pressure) and tend to remain in the coal for a long period of time during typical devolatilization conditions. Modeling the cleavage of the bridges and the generation of light gas. since this rate represents devolatilization at low temperature. ANSYS FLUENT uses default values for the yield factors of 0. By default. ANSYS FLUENT can also solve Equation 15. The high molecular weight compounds plus the residual lattice are referred to as metaplast.4-32 in conjunction with the equivalent heat transfer equation using a stiﬀ coupled solver. A2 . the labile bonds between the aromatic clusters in the coal structure lattice are cleaved. The softening behavior of a coal particle is determined by the quantity and nature of the metaplast generated during devolatilization. During this time. 15-28 Release 12. assuming the particle temperature to be constant over the discrete time integration step. reattachment with the coal lattice (which is referred to as crosslinking) can occur.2.0 for the second (fast) reaction. The CPD Model In contrast to the coal devolatilization models presented above. resulting in two general classes of fragments. and E2 . The CPD model characterizes the chemical and physical processes by considering the coal structure as a simpliﬁed lattice or network of chemical bridges that link the aromatic clusters. and tar precursors is then considered to be analogous to the chemical reaction scheme shown in Figure 15. One set of fragments has a low molecular weight (and correspondingly high vapor pressure) and escapes from the coal particle as a light gas. The second yield parameter.Discrete Phase The Kobayashi model requires input of the kinetic rate parameters. α2 .0 c ANSYS. Inc. See Section 23. which is the yield of volatiles at very high temperature.4. the chemical percolation devolatilization (CPD) model characterizes the devolatilization behavior of rapidly heated coal based on the physical and chemical transformations of the coal structure [100. α1 and α2 . 101.3 for the ﬁrst (slow) reaction and 1. General Description During coal pyrolysis. 2009 . E1 . A1 . and the yields of the two competing reactions. It is recommended in the literature [169] that α1 be set to the fraction of volatiles determined by proximate analysis.1. 116].4-32 is integrated in time analytically. January 29.

4.0 c ANSYS.15.1: Coal Bridge Release 12. 2009 15-29 .4 Laws for Heat and Mass Exchange Figure 15. Inc. January 29.

2009 . For the reactive bridges.Discrete Phase The variable £ represents the original population of labile bridges in the coal lattice. £∗ . These detached aromatic clusters are the heavy-molecular-weight tar precursors that form the metaplast.4-34) (15. The side chains may detach from the aromatic clusters to form light gas.0 c ANSYS.4-37) 2ρkb = kg δ = 2 dc dt 15-30 Release 12. the bridges react to form side chains. the bridges react and become a char bridge. where p = £ + c. the metaplast can also reattach to the coal lattice matrix (crosslinking). Inc. g1 . January 29. The metaplast vaporizes to form coal tar. As bridges between neighboring aromatic clusters are cleaved. In the other path. a certain fraction of the coal becomes detached from the coal lattice.4-35) (15. the following set of reaction rate expressions can be deﬁned for each. these bridges become the set of reactive bridges. While waiting for vaporization. with the release of an associated light gas product. Reaction Rates Given this set of variables that characterizes the coal lattice structure during devolatilization. g2 . starting with the assumption that the reactive bridges are destroyed at the same rate at which they ∗ are created ( ∂£ = 0): ∂t d£ dt dc dt dδ dt dg1 dt dg2 dt = −kb £ = kb = £ ρ+1 £ − kg δ ρ+1 (15. two competing paths are available. δ. c.4-36) (15. The total population of bridges in the coal lattice matrix can be represented by the variable p. Upon heating. In one path.4-33) (15.

2009 15-31 . the activation energy. kb and kg . The ratio of rate constants.4-39) (15.15. Inc.4-41) where f is the fraction of broken bridges (f = 1 − p).0 c ANSYS. Mass Conservation The following mass conservation relationships are imposed: g = g1 + g2 g1 = 2f − σ g2 = 2(c − c0 ) (15. the pre-exponential factor. p0 is the initial fraction of bridges in the coal lattice. and the distributed variation in the activation energy.4-45) where c0 is the initial fraction of char bridges. are expressed in Arrhenius form with a distributed activation energy: k = Ae−(E±Eσ )/RT (15.4-40) (15. and Eσ are. and T is the temperature. Release 12. respectively. ρ = kδ /kc .4 Laws for Heat and Mass Exchange where the rate constants for bridge breaking and gas release steps.4-42) (15. The initial conditions for this system are given by the following: c(0) £(0) δ(0) g(0) = = = = c0 £0 = p 0 − c 0 2f0 = 2(1 − c0 − £0 ) g1 (0) = g2 (0) = 0 (15.4-44) (15. and £0 is the initial fraction of labile bridges in the coal lattice. January 29.4-43) (15. is set to 0. E.9 in this model based on experimental data.4-38) where A. R is the universal gas constant.

To accomplish this. which are obtained using percolation lattice statistics: r(g1 + g2 )(σ + 1) 4 + 2r(1 − c0 )(σ + 1) 2 ffrag (t) = [ΦF (p) + rΩK(p)] 2 + r(1 − c0 )(σ + 1) fchar (t) = 1 − fgas (t) − ffrag (t) fgas (t) = (15. 2009 . and char (fchar ). and K(p) are the statistical relationships related to the cleaving of bridges based on the percolation lattice statistics. January 29. tar precursor fragments (ffrag ). Ω.0 c ANSYS.4-48) The variables Φ. This is accomplished by using the following relationships.4-47) (15. mb /ma .4-49) (15.4-52) r is the ratio of bridge mass to site mass.4-50) (15. where mb = 2Mw.4-54) 15-32 Release 12.Discrete Phase Fractional Change in the Coal Mass Given the set of reaction equations for the coal structure parameters. it is necessary to relate these quantities to changes in coal mass and the related release of volatile products.4-46) (15.δ (15. F (p). Inc.4-51) F (p) = K(p) = σ+1 1− p 2 p p σ+1 σ−1 (15.4-53) (15. the fractional change in the coal mass as a function of time is divided into three parts: light gas (fgas ).1 − (σ + 1)Mw. and are given by the following equations: Φ = 1+r £ (σ − 1)δ + p 4(1 − p) δ £ Ω = − 2(1 − p) p p p σ+1 σ−1 (15.δ ma = Mw.

January 29. which is determined from solid-state nuclear magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements related to coal structure parameters. As an estimate of the vapor/liquid that is present at any time. σ + 1 is the lattice coordination number. a cross-linking rate expression given by the following equation is used: dmcross = mfrag Across e−(Ecross /RT ) dt (15. CPD Inputs Given the set of equations and corresponding rate constants introduced for the CPD model. Eg . Eσb . For the part of the metaplast that reattaches to the coal lattice. The vapor pressure treatment is largely responsible for predicting pressure-dependent devolatilization yields. 2009 15-33 . it can be shown that the following parameters are coal independent [100]: • Ab . Ecross .δ and Mw.4-56) where mcross is the amount of mass reattaching to the matrix.1 are the side chain and cluster molecular weights respectively.4 Laws for Heat and Mass Exchange where Mw. mfrag is the amount of mass in the tar precursor fragments (metaplast).0 c ANSYS. Ag . and ρ These constants are included in the submodel formulation and are not input or modiﬁed during problem setup.15. a vapor pressure correlation based on a simple form of Raoult’s Law is used. the number of constants that must be deﬁned to use the model is a primary concern. where it is assumed that the ﬁnite fragments undergo vapor/liquid phase equilibration on a time scale that is rapid with respect to the bridge reactions. the part that vaporizes is treated in a manner similar to ﬂash vaporization.4-55) In accounting for mass in the metaplast (tar precursor fragments). and p is the root of the following equation in p (the total number of bridges in the coal lattice matrix): p (1 − p )σ−1 = p(1 − p)σ−1 (15. Release 12. Inc. and Eσg for the rate constants kb and kg • Across . For the relationships deﬁned previously. Eb . and Across and Ecross are rate expression constants.

is estimated based on the coal rank.20 .57 .49 .6 5.10 .67 . 15-34 Release 12.63 . These quantities are entered in the Create/Edit Materials dialog box.8 4.4 5. Table 15. AFR refers to coal examined at Advanced Fuel Research.15 .5 4.3 4.20 .63 . January 29.4. representing the char bridges that either exist in the parent coal or are formed very early in the devolatilization process.9 5.1 277 410 359 316 294 275 302 299 410 459 297 310 656 AR refers to eight types of coal from the Argonne premium sample bank [329.20 . as described in Section 23.2: Description of the Properties in the separate User’s Guide.δ The ﬁrst four of these are coal structure quantities that are obtained from NMR experimental data.1 5.8 5. Mw.7 p0 .7 4.4.1.0 c ANSYS.15 .42 .89 13 C NMR for 13 Coals Mw. c0 • lattice coordination number.62 .δ 40 42 36 27 24 20 17 14 47 48 36 37 12 c0 .25 Mw. Sandia refers to the coal examined at Sandia National Laboratories [99]. ACERC) 1468 (anthracite.Discrete Phase There are an additional ﬁve parameters that are coal-speciﬁc and must be speciﬁed during the problem setup: • initial fraction of bridges in the coal lattice. 363]. The last quantity.59 . Mw.1: Chemical Structure Parameters for Coal Type Zap (AR) Wyodak (AR) Utah (AR) Ill6 (AR) Pitt8 (AR) Stockton (AR) Freeport (AR) Pocahontas (AR) Blue (Sandia) Rose (AFR) 1443 (lignite. σ + 1 • cluster molecular weight.69 . ACERC) σ+1 3. Inc.74 .55 .0 5.5. ACERC refers to three types of coal examined at the Advanced Combustion Engineering Research Center. p0 • initial fraction of char bridges.54 .1 • side chain molecular weight. ACERC) 1488 (subbituminous. Values for the coal-dependent parameters for a variety of coals are listed in Table 15.14 0 0 0 0 0 .0 4. 2009 .8 4.

Csw .0 )mp.5 the ﬁnal particle diameter is half of its initial diameter.4-58) Radiation heat transfer to the particle is included only if you have enabled the P-1 or discrete ordinates radiation model and you have activated radiation heat transfer to particles using the Particle Radiation Interaction option in the Discrete Phase Model dialog box.0 − mp = 1 + (Csw − 1) dp. and when the swelling coeﬃcient is equal to 0. Heat Transfer to the Particle During Devolatilization Heat transfer to the particle during the devolatilization process includes contributions from convection. This quantity approaches a value of 1.0 fv. When the swelling coeﬃcient is equal to 1.0 volatile mass of the particle.0 )mp. Inc. When the swelling coeﬃcient is equal to 2.4 Laws for Heat and Mass Exchange Particle Swelling During Devolatilization The particle diameter changes during devolatilization according to the swelling coeﬃcient.15.0 c ANSYS.0 dp = particle diameter at the start of devolatilization = current particle diameter (15. and the heat consumed during devolatilization: mp cp dTp dmp = hAp (T∞ − Tp ) + hfg + Ap p σ(θR 4 − Tp 4 ) dt dt (15. the particle diameter stays constant.4-57) w. By default.0p is the ratio of the mass that has been devolatilized to the total fv.0 (1 − fw.0.4-58 is solved analytically.0 )mp.4-59) αp = and (15. which is deﬁned by you and applied in the following relationship: dp (1 − fw.4-60) Release 12. radiation (if active).0 −m The term (1−f(1−fw. by assuming that the temperature and mass of the particle do not change signiﬁcantly between time steps: Tp (t + ∆t) = αp + [Tp (t) − αp ]e−βp ∆t where hAp T∞ + dmp hfg + Ap p σθR 4 dt hAp + p Ap σTp 3 (15.0 as the devolatilization law is applied. 2009 15-35 .0. the ﬁnal particle diameter doubles when all of the volatile component has vaporized. Equation 15.0 )mp.0 where dp. January 29.

the surface combustion law consumes the reactive content of the particle as governed by the stoichiometric requirement. the combusting particle may contain residual “ash” that reverts to the inert heating law.0 )mp.4-61) ANSYS FLUENT can also solve Equation 15.0 c ANSYS.0 (15.8: Including Coupled Heat-Mass Solution Eﬀects on the Particles in the separate User’s Guide for details. of the particle. Sb .4-63) (15.5 Surface Combustion (Law 5) After the volatile component of the particle is completely evolved.Discrete Phase βp = Ap (h + p σTp 3 ) m p cp (15. fcomb .4-64) where Sb is deﬁned in terms of mass of oxidant per mass of char.4.0 )(1 − fw. and the oxidant and product species are deﬁned in the Set Injection Properties dialog box. fcomb . With the exception of the multiple surface reactions model.0 )mp. 15.0 and until the combustible fraction is consumed: mp > (1 − fv. Inc.2.0 − fcomb )(1 − fw.4-62) When the combustible fraction. Law 6 (described previously).4-58 in conjunction with the equivalent mass transfer equation using a stiﬀ coupled solver. a surface reaction begins which consumes the combustible fraction. ANSYS FLUENT provides a choice of four heterogeneous surface reaction rate models for combusting particles: • the diﬀusion-limited rate model (the default model) • the kinetics/diﬀusion-limited rate model • the intrinsic model • the multiple surface reactions model 15-36 Release 12. has been consumed in Law 5. See Section 23. of the surface “burnout” reaction: char(s) + Sb ox(g) −→ products(g) (15. Law 5 is thus active (for a combusting particle) after the volatiles are evolved: mp < (1 − fv. January 29. 2009 .

4-67) (15.m Yox ρ Sb = = = = diﬀusion coeﬃcient for oxidant in the bulk (m2 /s) local mass fraction of oxidant in the gas gas density (kg/m3 ) stoichiometry of Equation 15.0 c ANSYS. and the char particles become more porous. assumes that the surface reaction proceeds at a rate determined by the diﬀusion of the gaseous oxidant to the surface of the particle: dmp Yox T∞ ρ = −4πdp Di.5.75 D0 = C1 dp and a kinetic rate R = C2 e−(E/RTp ) are weighted to yield a char combustion rate of dmp D0 R = −Ap pox dt D0 + R (15. ANSYS FLUENT uses the model of Baum and Street [20] and Field [96]. the diﬀusion-limited rate model will be used. You will choose the surface combustion model when you are setting physical properties for the combusting-particle material.15.2: Description of the Properties in the separate User’s Guide. The diﬀusion-limited rate model assumes that the diameter of the particles does not change.4-64 (15.4-66) Release 12. Inc.4 Laws for Heat and Mass Exchange Each of these models is described in detail below. By default. The Diffusion-Limited Surface Reaction Rate Model The diﬀusion-limited surface reaction rate model which is the default model in ANSYS FLUENT. the eﬀective density decreases. The Kinetic/Diffusion Surface Reaction Rate Model The kinetic/diﬀusion-limited rate model assumes that the surface reaction rate is determined either by kinetics or by a diﬀusion rate.4-65 is derived from the model of Baum and Street [20] with the kinetic contribution to the surface reaction rate ignored. as described in Section 23.4-68) (15. in which a diﬀusion rate coeﬃcient [(Tp + T∞ )/2]0. January 29.m dt Sb (Tp + T∞ ) where Di.4-65) Equation 15. Since the mass of the particles is decreasing. 2009 15-37 .

4-71) (15.4-67 are entered in the Create/Edit Materials dialog box.4-72) 15-38 Release 12. The Intrinsic Model The intrinsic model in ANSYS FLUENT is based on Smith’s model [324].4-69).5: Setting Material Properties for the Discrete Phase in the separate User’s Guide.4-69) The particle size is assumed to remain constant in this model while the density is allowed to decrease. Yox . 2009 . Inc.Discrete Phase where Ap is the surface area of the droplet (πd2 ).4-66 and 15. R. but the chemical rate.4-70) η is the eﬀectiveness factor. the rate constants used in Equations 15. or the ratio of the actual combustion rate to the rate attainable if no pore diﬀusion resistance existed [182]: η= where φ is the Thiele modulus: dp Sb ρp Ag ki pox φ= 2 De ρox 1/2 3 (φ coth φ − 1) φ2 (15. D0 . pox is the partial pressure of oxidant p species in the gas surrounding the combusting particle.4-68 is recast in terms of the oxidant mass fraction. assuming the order of reaction is equal to unity. R. January 29. the intrinsic model assumes that the surface reaction rate includes the eﬀects of both bulk diﬀusion and chemical reaction (see Equation 15. When this model is enabled. Equation 15. The intrinsic model uses Equation 15. In ANSYS FLUENT. as dmp ρRT∞ Yox D0 R = −Ap dt Mw. is explicitly expressed in terms of the intrinsic chemical and pore diﬀusion rates: R=η dp ρ p Ag k i 6 (15. and the kinetic rate.ox D0 + R (15. incorporates the eﬀects of chemical reaction on the internal surface of the char particle (intrinsic reaction) and pore diﬀusion.4-66 to compute the diﬀusion rate coeﬃcient. Like the kinetic/diﬀusion model. as described in Section 23.0 c ANSYS.

2009 15-39 . The mean value of the internal surface area during char combustion is higher than that of the pyrolysis char [182]. The default value for τ in ANSYS √ FLUENT is 2. which is assumed in this model to remain constant during char combustion. DKn is the Knudsen diﬀusion coeﬃcient: DKn = 97. Assuming that the pore size distribution is unimodal and the bulk and Knudsen diﬀusion proceed in parallel. the default values provided by ANSYS FLUENT (which are taken from a least squares ﬁt of data of a wide range of porous carbons.4-72) is the speciﬁc internal surface area of the char particle. January 29.4-75) where Tp is the particle temperature and rp is the mean pore radius of the char particle. the apparent and true densities of the pyrolysis char.0rp Tp Mw. Note that macropores (rp > 150 ˚) dominate in low-rank chars while micropores (rp < 10 ˚) dominate in high-rank A A chars [182]. Ag (in Equations 15.4-74) ρp and ρt are.4-72) is the intrinsic reactivity. De is given by De = θ 1 1 + 2 D τ D0 Kn −1 (15. which is of Arrhenius form: ki = Ai e−(Ei /RTp ) (15. Inc. respectively. an estimated mean value for bituminous chars is 300 m2 /g [50]. which can be measured by mercury porosimetry. In the absence of such measurements. including chars [323]) can be used. For example.4-70 and 15.4-76) where the pre-exponential factor Ai and the activation energy Ei can be measured for each char.15.4 Laws for Heat and Mass Exchange ρox is the density of oxidant in the bulk gas (kg/m3 ) and De is the eﬀective diﬀusion coeﬃcient in the particle pores. which corresponds to an average intersecting angle between the pores and the external surface of 45◦ [182]. Release 12.0 c ANSYS.4-70 and 15.4-73) is the tortuosity of the pores. ki (in Equations 15.4-73) where D0 is the bulk molecular diﬀusion coeﬃcient and θ is the porosity of the char particle: θ =1− ρp ρt (15. Internal surface area data for various pyrolysis chars can be found in [323].ox (15. τ (in Equation 15.

Note that 0 ≤ α ≤ 1/3 where the limiting values 0 and 1/3 correspond. and in turn. The particle surface species constitutes the reactive char mass of the particle. hence. 15.0 (15. Any number of particle surface species and any number of particle surface reactions can be deﬁned for any given combusting particle. you can specify the burning mode α. at the start of char combustion). See Section 7. where the surface species is now a “particle surface species”. The model is based on oxidation studies of char particles. 15. has been found to work well for a variety of chars [322].4-72.4-66. as described in Section 23. the rate constants used in Equations 15. 15.. In zone 2.e.Discrete Phase To allow a more adequate description of the char particle size (and hence density) variation during combustion. 15-40 Release 12. Inc.0 c ANSYS. the particle surface species can be depleted or produced by the stoichiometry of the particle surface reaction (deﬁned in the Reactions dialog box). it is added to the particle “char” mass. but it is also applicable to gas-solid reactions in general. an intermediate value of α = 0.25.4-76.4-75. the reactive “char” content of the particle is consumed.4-77) where mp is the char particle mass and the subscript zero refers to initial conditions (i. For the mixture material deﬁned in the Species Model dialog box. and 15. 2009 .4-77 are entered in the Create/Edit Materials dialog box.3: Particle Surface Reactions for information about particle surface reactions. respectively. if a particle surface species is depleted.4-73. when a surface species is produced. not only to char oxidation reactions.0 ) by [322] dp = (1 − U )α dp. 15. and combusting particles reacting according to the multiple surface reactions model can coexist in the calculation.4-70. The Multiple Surface Reactions Model Modeling multiple particle surface reactions follows a pattern similar to the wall surface reaction models. to a constant size with decreasing density (zone 1) and a decreasing size with constant density (zone 3) during burnout. 15. Multiple injections can be accommodated.5: Setting Material Properties for the Discrete Phase in the separate User’s Guide. with combusting particles following other char combustion laws. January 29. When this model is enabled. corresponding to a decrease of both size and density. relating the char particle diameter to the fractional degree of burnout U (where U = 1 − mp /mp.

For coal combustion.0 if the char burnout product is CO and 0. by assuming that the temperature and mass of the particle do not change signiﬁcantly between time steps. See Section 23. it supplies a (negative) source term during the computation of the transport equation for this species. By default. it is recommended that fh be set to 1.3 if the char burnout product is CO2 [33].4-78 in conjunction with the equivalent mass transfer equation using a stiﬀ coupled solver.15.e. ANSYS FLUENT can also solve Equation 15. The surface reaction also consumes or produces energy. Similarly.4-78 is solved analytically. Release 12.4 Laws for Heat and Mass Exchange Limitations Note the following limitations of the multiple surface reactions model: • The model is not available together with the unsteady tracking option. Equation 15. or partially premixed combustion models. Inc.8: Including Coupled Heat-Mass Solution Eﬀects on the Particles in the separate User’s Guide for details. The particle heat balance during surface reaction is m p cp dTp dmp = hAp (T∞ − Tp ) − fh Hreac + Ap p σ(θR 4 − Tp 4 ) dt dt (15.0 c ANSYS. Note that only a portion (1 − fh ) of the energy produced by the surface reaction appears as a heat source in the gasphase energy equation: the particle absorbs a fraction fh of this heat directly. the surface reaction is a source of species in the gas phase: the product of the heterogeneous surface reaction appears in the gas phase as a user-selected chemical species. 2009 15-41 . January 29. and not with the nonpremixed. premixed. Heat and Mass Transfer During Char Combustion The surface reaction consumes the oxidant species in the gas phase. Radiation heat transfer to the particle is included only if you have enabled the P-1 or discrete ordinates radiation model and you have activated radiation heat transfer to particles using the Particle Radiation Interaction option in the Discrete Phase Model dialog box.. i.2. in an amount determined by the heat of reaction deﬁned by you. • The model is available only with the species transport model for volumetric reactions.4-78) where Hreac is the heat released by the surface reaction.

The particle mass m is the sum of the masses of the components m= i mi (15.4. Radiation heat transfer to the particle is included only if you have enabled P-1 or Discrete-Ordinates (DO) radiation and you have activated radiation heat transfer to the particles using the Particle Radiation Interaction option in the Discrete Phase Model dialog box.Discrete Phase 15. 2009 .4-12). January 29.4-3) and vaporization.s over the surface and its mole fraction in the condensed phase XiL is described by Raoult’s law: Ci.i is the molecular weight of species i.6 Multicomponent Particle Deﬁnition (Law 7) Multicomponent particles are described in ANSYS FLUENT as a mixture of species within droplets/particles. Therefore it can be only modeled by a law integrating all processes of relevance in one equation. convective heating (Equation 15.4-82) The equation for the particle temperature T consists of terms for radiation.4-83) 15-42 Release 12.i (Ci.g ) dt (15. where Mw. The concentration of vapor at the particle surface Ci.∞ ) (15. Inc.4-80) For particles containing more than one component it is diﬃcult to assign the whole particle to one process like boiling or heating. The mass of the particle components mi is only inﬂuenced by the vaporization (Equation 15. Raoult’s Law The correlation between the vapor concentration of a species Ci.4-15).s depends on the saturation pressure of the component.s − Ci.0 c ANSYS.4-81) dmi dt = Ap Mw.4-79) The density of the particle ρp can be either constant. The mass transfer coeﬃcient kc.s = pi X Lp = i RT RT (15.i of component i is calculated from the Sherwood correlation (Equation 15.p − hi. or volume-averaged: mi mρi −1 ρp = i (15.i kc. The source terms for temperature and component mass are the sum of the sources from the partial processes: dTp dt 4 4 = Ap p σ(θR − Tp ) + hAp (T∞ − Tp ) + i mp cp dmi (hi.

you can deﬁne your own user-deﬁned function for delivering the vapor concentration at the particle surface . see Section 2.4-12. psat in Equation 15.5. equating the fugacity of the liquid and vapor mixture components [275]: fi V = xi V φi V p = xi L φi L p = fi L (15.5-2) Release 12.s = psat /RTp (15. absorption and extraction.5 Vapor Liquid Equilibrium Theory A number of industrially important processes. because it is not necessary for the calculation. The quantitative treatment of these rate processes requires knowledge of the equilibrium states of the system. The rate at which a species is transferred from one phase to the other depends on the departure of the system from equilibrium. bring into contact two phases which are not at equilibrium.5-1 must be replaced by pi . Besides using Raoult’s Law and the Peng-Robinson equation of state. January 29.5-1) where Tp is the droplet temperature.4-12. For the general case where N components are evaporating from a droplet (distillation). For more information. vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) relationships in multicomponent systems are needed for the solution of many other classes of engineering problems. and is computed in Equation 15. the evaporation rate of each species is again given by Equation 15. Inc.15. 15.0 c ANSYS. The partial pressure of species i can be obtained from the general expression for two phase equilibrium.S = xi V p Z V RT (15.4-13 as: Ci.15: DEFINE DPM VP EQUILIB in the separate UDF Manual.S over the surface depends on whether the compressability of the vapor phase Z V is taken into account: Ci.5 Vapor Liquid Equilibrium Theory Peng-Robinson Real Gas Model For the calculation of the vapor concentration of a species Ci. 2009 15-43 . to calculate the concentration of i at the droplet surface.s is the equilibrium concentration of the droplet species in the gas phase. Apart from these cases. when a droplet material is chosen as the component of a mixture. such as distillation. In ANSYS FLUENT the rate of vaporization of a single component droplet is computed from Equation 15. however.4-84) The data for the vapor pressure are no longer available. the partial pressure of species i. where Ci. and psat is the saturation pressure of the droplet species at Tp . such as the computation of evaporation rates in spray combustion applications.

φi V ≈ 1 and φsat. This is not likely to be valid. While Raoult’s law represents the simplest form of the VLE equation. as the assumptions made for its derivation are usually unrealistic. Under low pressure conditions where the gas phase may be assumed to be ideal. especially near or above the critical point of the components. the vaporization rate of each species from a multicomponent droplet can be computed from Equation 15. real gas eﬀects must be considered. For higher pressures.i ) RT (15. Most models describing the fugacity coeﬃcients use a cubic equation of state with the general form: 15-44 Release 12. 2009 .5-2 reduces to Raoult’s law. The exponential term is the Poynting correction factor and accounts for the compressibility eﬀects within the liquid.i is the saturation pressure of species i at Tp . γ ≈ 1.5-5) where Tp is the droplet temperature.s = xi psat. xi V p = xi L psat.i [325]: fi L = xi L φi L p = γi xL φsat.s computed as: Ci.i L psat.0 c ANSYS. and p is the absolute pressure. so the particle temperature is used instead. then Equation 15. Vi L is the molar volume of the liquid.5-4) Raoult’s law is the default vapor-liquid equilibrium expression used in the ANSYS FLUENT multicomponent droplet model. φi is the fugacity coeﬃcient for the species i in the mixture. γi is the activity coeﬃcient for species i in the mixture. R is the universal gas constant. When Raoult’s law is applicable.i ≈ 1 . Inc. The superscripts V and L are the vapor and the liquid phase variables. the Poynting factor is usually negligible. The most critical assumption is that the liquid phase is an ideal solution.Discrete Phase where xi is the mole fraction.i exp i Vi L (p − psat. The fugacity coeﬃcients account for the nonideality in the gas and liquid mixture.5-3) Here. or n-heptane and n-hexane. January 29. and accounts for the nonideality in the liquid phase.i (15. φsat. keep in mind that it is of limited use. there is a UDF hook available for userdeﬁned vapor-liquid equilibrium models. and psat. with the equilibrium concentration of species i in the gas phase Ci. unless the system is made up of species of similar molecular sizes and chemical nature. The fugacity of the liquid phase can be calculated from the pure component’s saturation pressure psat. xi is the mole fraction of species i in the droplet. Except at high pressures. We assume perfect thermal conductivity inside the particle. respectively. Furthermore.4-12. if the liquid is also assumed to be ideal.i /RTp (15.i L is the fugacity coeﬃcient for pure i at the saturation pressure. T is the particle surface temperature. However. such as in the case of benzene and toluene.

5-11) Release 12. pc.15.5 Vapor Liquid Equilibrium Theory p= RT a(V − η) − V − b (V − b)(V 2 + δV − ) (15. the Peng-Robinson equation of state is often used [265]. the particle liquid and the vapor phase.57235 pc.i Pc.i is the critical pressure and ωi is the accentric factor of the component i.i Tc.5-7) This equation deﬁnes the compressibility Z= pV RT aV /RT = − 2 RT V − b V + 2bV − b2 (15.077796 RTc.Nj=i lnφi = (15.5-8) The implementation of the Peng-Robinson equation of state in ANSYS FLUENT uses this expression for both phases.5-6) where V is the molar volume. The fugacities of the components depend on the compressibility of the liquid and vapor phase: ∂(Aγ /RT ) ∂Ni − lnZ T.574ωi − 0.i 1/2 2 bi = 0.i (15.480 + 1.0 c ANSYS.176ωi 2 ) 1 − 4.i T 1 + (0. For in-cylinder applications. 2009 15-45 . The parameters a and b are determined by the composition using a simple mixing law: N N a = i=1 j=1 N √ x i x j ai aj (15. = −b2 . and η = b: p= RT a − 2 V − b V + 2bV − b2 (15.5-9) b = i=1 x i bi where N is the number of components in the mixture. Inc.i is the critical temperature. January 29. The pure component parameters can be obtained using the relationship with the Peng-Robinson constants: ai = 2 R2 Tc.5-10) where Tc.V. where δ = 2b.

5-13) 15. Equation 15.6. z y φ H(Ψ) Ψ x x side view top view Figure 15.1. the vapor mole fraction xi V .6 Wall-Jet Model Theory The direction and velocity of the droplet particles are given by the resulting momentum ﬂux.6-1 shows the analytical solution for an axisymmetric impingement assuming an empirical function for the sheet height (H) as a function of the angle that the drop leaves the impingement (Ψ). which is a function of the compressibility: Aγ = RT ∞ [1 − Z] V dV + lnZ V (15.5-12) In summary. January 29. the pressure p. The surface vapor concentrations are calculated using the following equation: Ci.6.0 c ANSYS.S = xi V p Z V RT (15. which is a function of the impingement angle. and the compressibilities of the vapor (Z V ) and the liquid (Z L ) phase at the surface of the particle are determined from the liquid particle mole fraction of the components xi L and the particle temperature Tp .6-1) where Hπ is the sheet height at Ψ = π and β is a constant determined from conservation of mass and momentum. See Figure 15. 2009 .1: “Wall Jet” Boundary Condition for the Discrete Phase The wall-jet type boundary condition assumes an analogy with an inviscid jet impacting a solid wall. φ. and Weber number. The probability that a drop leaves the impingement point at an angle between Ψ and Ψ + δΨ is given by integrating the expression for H(Ψ) 15-46 Release 12.Discrete Phase where Aγ is the residual Helmholtz energy. Inc. H(Ψ) = Hπ eβ(1− π ) Ψ (15.

where the spray can impinge upon the piston if the injection event is early or late in the cycle. ﬁnally exits through the exhaust port.2: Interaction During Impact with a Boundary • Section 15. where it splashes and subsequently evaporates. The evaporated mixture is entrained into the cylinder of the engine. 2009 15-47 . In a direct injection engine.4: Separation Criteria • Section 15. usually at the intake port near the intake valve. The mixture that is compressed and burned. This in turn makes the ﬁlm important in hydrocarbon emissions for PFI engines.3: Splashing • Section 15. Additionally. is compounded by the presence of carbon deposits on the surfaces of the engine.7. especially in diesel engines.5: Conservation Equations for Wall-Film Particles 15.7.7.7 Wall-Film Model Theory This section is composed of the following: • Section 15.6-2) where P is a random number between 0 and 1. Inc. The expression for β is given in Naber and Reitz [244] as eβ + 1 π (eβ − 1)(1 + ( β )2 ) sin(φ) = (15. The modeling of the wall-ﬁlm inside a DI engine. The process repeats itself between 200 and 8000 times per minute. ﬁlm can form inside combustion chambers of direct injection (DI) types of engines. January 29. This carbon deposit absorbs the liquid ﬁlm as it impinges upon it. where it is mixed with the fresh charge and any residual gas in the cylinder.6-3) 15.7.1 Introduction ANSYS FLUENT has a speciﬁc boundary condition for simulation of internal combustion engines.7. Spray-wall interaction is an important part of the mixture formation process in port fuel injected (PFI) engines. It is believed that Release 12.0 c ANSYS.1: Introduction • Section 15. called the wall-ﬁlm model. fuel is injected directly into the combustion chamber.15. depending on the engine. as well as at the intake valve itself. Several cycles worth of fuel remain in the intake tract due to ﬁlm formation on the walls.7. A fuel spray impinges on a surface.7 Wall-Film Model Theory π Ψ = − ln[1 − P (1 − e−β )] β (15.

however this phenomena is very complex and is not well understood. Figure 15. Heat and Mass Transfer for the Wall-Film Release 12. • The ﬁlm temperature never exceeds the boiling temperature for the liquid. Inc. • The temperature in the ﬁlm particles change relatively slowly so that an analytical integration scheme can be utilized.¡¢ ¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡ ¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡ ¢¡¢¡ ¢¡¡ ¢¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡¢¡¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡ ¡¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢¢ ¢¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¢ ¢¡¡¡¡¡¡¢ ¢¡¡¢ ¢¡¡¢ ¢¡¢ ¢ ¡¢¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¡¡ ¤ ¢¡¢ ¢ ¤¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¢ ¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¢ ¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¢ ¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¢ ¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¤¡¤¡¢ ¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¤¡¢ ¡¤¡¢ ¤¡¤¡¢ ¢ ¤¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡¡¡ ¤ ¤ ¤ £¤¤£¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ £¤¤£¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ £¤¤£¤ ¤ £¤¤£¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¡¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¢ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢¡¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¢ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¢ ¢ ¡ ¡¢ ¢ ¡¡¢ ¢ ¡¢ ¢ ¡¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¢¡¡¢¡¡¡¡ £¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡£¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¤¡¤¡¤¡¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¡¤¡¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ £¤¡ ¡ ¡¡ £¤¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ £¤¡¡ ¡¡ ¢ ¡£¤ ¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡£¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¡ ££¤¤£ £¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡£¡ £ £ £ £ ¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¡¤¡¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤¡¤ ¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡££¤¡£¡£¡£¡££¤¡£¡£¡£¡££¤¡£¡£¡£¡£¡££¤ ¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡¡£¡£¡£¡£¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡££¤¤¡¡¡¡££¤¤¡¡¡¡££¤¤¡¡¡¡¡££¤¤ ££¤¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ££¤¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ££¤¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ££¤¤ ¤ ££¤¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ Impinging Fuel Drops Splashing Evaporation Conduction Convective heat transfer Shear Forces Film separation and sheet breakup 15-48 Discrete Phase • The simulation is transient. The model can be broken down into four major subtopics: interaction during the initial impact with a wall boundary. The main assumptions and restrictions for the wall-ﬁlm model are as follows: • The wall-ﬁlm model is not available with the Workpile Algorithm shared memory option in parallel processing. • Film particles are assumed to be in direct contact with the wall surface and the heat transfer from the wall to the ﬁlm takes place by conduction. subsequent tracking on surfaces. The wall-ﬁlm model in ANSYS FLUENT allows a single component liquid drop to impinge upon a boundary surface and form a thin ﬁlm. and coupling to the gas phase. January 29.7.1: Mechanisms of Splashing.0 c ANSYS. less than 500 microns in thickness. Figure 15. calculation of ﬁlm variables. Major Physical Phenomena DPM particles are used to model the wall-ﬁlm. Momentum. the carbon deposits adsorb the fuel later in the cycle. This limitation is due to the assumption of a linear velocity proﬁle in the ﬁlm.1 schematically shows the basic mechanisms considered for the wall-ﬁlm model. • The layer is thin. 2009 .7.

The criteria by which the regimes are partitioned are based on the impact energy and the boiling temperature of the liquid. δbl is a boundary layer thickness. and σ is the surface tension of the liquid.e. Tb Below the boiling temperature of the liquid. spread. The following chart is helpful in showing the cutoﬀs. but does not give unphysical results when the ﬁlm height approaches zero.7-1. Release 12. Here. stick.7. where the regimes are calculated for a drop-wall interaction based on local information. spread or splash. Inc. rebound. E T Splash Spread Rebound Stick E Tw Figure 15.0 c ANSYS. The four regimes.2 Interaction During Impact with a Boundary The wall interaction is based on the work of Stanton [336] and O’Rourke [258]. the particle can either rebound or splash.7-2) where the Reynolds number is deﬁned as Re = ρVr D/µ. Vr2 = (Vp − Vw )2 ). January 29.2: Simpliﬁed Decision Chart for Wall Interaction Criterion. Vr is the relative velocity of the particle in the frame of the wall (i. 15. By deﬁning the energy as in Equation 15. 1) + δbl /D (15. 2009 15-49 . the wall-jet model may be more appropriate as the assumption in the wall-jet impingement model is that there is a vapor layer underneath the drops which keeps them from making direct contact with the boundary surface. and splash are based on the impact energy and wall temperature. while above the boiling temperature. The impact energy is deﬁned by E2 = ρVr2 D σ 1 min (h0 /D.7-1) where ρ is the liquid density.15. D is the diameter of the droplet. the impinging droplet can either stick. the presence of the ﬁlm on the wall suppresses the splash. This may be a more accurate assumption for in-cylinder diesel computations at typical operating conditions. deﬁned by D δbl = √ Re (15.7 Wall-Film Model Theory If you wish to model a spray impacting a very hot wall.7.

7-3) 15. The splashing algorithm follows that described by Stanton [336] and is detailed in Section 15. and direction) of the splashed parcels are randomly sampled from the experimentally obtained distribution functions described in the following sections. et al. where the probability of the drop having a particular direction along the surface is given by an analogy of an inviscid liquid jet with an empirically deﬁned radial dependence for the momentum ﬂux. The number of splashed droplet parcels is set in the Wall boundary condition dialog box with a default number of 4. you can select numbers between zero and ten. Bear in mind that each splashed parcel can be considered a discrete sample of the distribution curves and that selecting the number of splashed drops in the Wall boundary condition dialog box does not limit the number of splashed drops. however. January 29.3: Splashing. 2009 .3 Splashing If the particle impinging on the surface has a suﬃciently high energy. and the particle velocity is set equal to the wall velocity. Splashing occurs when the impingement energy is above a critical energy threshold. the initial direction and velocity of the particle are set using the wall-jet model.993 − 1. For the rebound regime. only the number of parcels representing those drops. for each splashed parcel. deﬁned as Ecr = 57. The equation is pdf d D d d = 2 2 exp − D D 2 (15. In the spreading regime.0 c ANSYS. Setting the number of splashed parcels to zero turns oﬀ the splashing calculation. To ensure that the distribution functions produce physical results with an increasing 15-50 Release 12. which is obtained from a Weibull distribution function and ﬁtted to the data from Mundo. impingement events below a critical impact energy (Ecr ) results in the particles rebounding from the wall.Discrete Phase The sticking regime is applied when the dimensionless energy E is less than 16.7. [241].7-4) and it represents the probability of ﬁnding drops of diameter di in a sample of splashed drops. Therefore.7. The properties (diameter. a diﬀerent diameter is obtained by sampling a cumulative probability distribution function (CPDF). magnitude. The number of splashed parcels may be set to an integer value between zero and ten.76ΘI + 1. Inc.49Θ3 I I where ΘI is the impingement angle as measured from the wall surface. the particle rebounds with the following coeﬃcient of restitution: e = 0. You can explicitly set the number of particles created by each impact in the DPM tab of the Wall boundary condition dialog box. the particle splashes and several new particles are created. (15. but with the peak of the distribution function being D = dmax / 2.56Θ2 − 0. If the wall temperature is above the boiling temperature of the liquid. This distribution is similar to the Nakamura-Tanasawa distribution function used √ by O’Rourke [258].7.

7-4 at the given diameter. The expression for the diameter of the ith splashed parcel is therefore given by. The splashed mass fraction ys is given by ys = 2 2 1. the impingement Weber number W e. di = D − ln (1 − ci ) where ci is the ith random sample.15. Ecrit < E 2 < 7500 0. the following expression for dmax from O’Rourke [258] is used.7-4 to obtain cpdf d D = 1 − exp − d D 2 (15. the probability of ﬁnding that drop in a given sample is determined by evaluating Equation 15. The Weber number in Equation 15.7-5 is deﬁned using the relative velocity and drop diameter: We = ρVr2 D σ (15. Once the diameter of the splashed drop has been determined. The amount of mass splashed from the surface is a quadratic function of the splashing energy.7-7) which is bounded by zero and one. An expression for the diameter (which is a function of D.7-8) where the pdfi is for the ith sample. Low Weber number impacts are described by the second term in Equation 15. obtained from the experimental data from Mundo [241].4 .06 E2 W e (15.7-6) The cumulative probability distribution function (CPDF) is needed so that a diameter can be sampled from the experimental data.70 . 0. The values of pdfi are then normalized so that their sum is one.7-1. E 2 > 7500 Release 12. . The number of drops per parcel can be expressed as a function of the total number of splashed drops: Ni = Ntot pdfi (15. January 29.7-7 and sampling the CPDF between zero and one.8x10−4 (E 2 − Ecrit ) . Inc.7-5) where the expression for energy is given by Equation 15.7 Wall-Film Model Theory Weber number.0 c ANSYS. and the impingement energy) is obtained by inverting Equation 15. Both the number per parcel (Ni ) and the total number of splashed drops (Ntot ) is unknown.06 for very high energy impacts in any of the experiments analyzed by O’Rourke [258]. but an expression for Ntot can be obtained from the conservation of mass if the total splashed mass is known. 2009 15-51 . The CPDF is obtained from integrating Equation 15. The peak of the splashed diameter distribution is dmax /d0 = MAX 2 Ecrit 6.7-5 and the peak of the minimum splashed diameter distribution is never less than 0.

Inc. January 29.158e0.0 c ANSYS.Discrete Phase The authors (O’Rourke et al. ΘI > 50◦ (15. A Weibull function.7-11) bv = Θv Vni /Vnd Θv bv −1 Vni /Vnd exp − Θv bv (15.7-9) where m0 is the total mass of the impinging parcel.7-8 with the values of pdfi given by Equation 15. The expression for the total number of splashed drops is ys m0 Ntot = ρπ Nparcels (pdfn d3 ) n=1 n 6 The number of splashed drops per parcel is then determined by Equation 15. or the impingement angle.7-13) combined with Vti = Vni tan(Θs ) (15.4 + 0. ΘI ≤ 50◦ 1. To obtain an expression for the total number of drops. ﬁt to the data from Mundo [241].7-4.7-12) where ΘI is the angle at which the parcel impacts the surface.7-14) 2. we note that overall conservation of mass requires that the sum of the total mass of the splashed parcel(s) must equal the splashed mass fraction.1. is used as the PDF for the normal component. The tangential component of the velocity is obtained from the expression for the reﬂection angle Θs : Θs = 65. To calculate the velocity with which the splashed drops leave the surface. additional correlations are sampled for the normal component of the velocity.7-10) Finally. or ρπ Ntot 6 Nparcels pdfn d3 = ys m0 n n=1 (15.10 + 0.017ΘI (15.226Θl (15. 2009 .02ΘI . an energy balance is performed for the new parcels so that the sum of the kinetic and surface energies of the new drops does not exceed that of the old drops. [258]) noted that nearly all of the impacts for typical diesel sprays are well above the upper bound and so the splashing event nearly always ejects 70% of the mass of the impinging drop. The probability density is given by Vni pdf Vnd where bv = and Θv = 0. The energy balance is given by 1 2 Nparcel Nparcel mi Vi2 + πσ i=1 i=1 1 Ni d2 = md Vd2 mi Vi2 + πσ md d2 − Ecrit i i 2 15-52 Release 12.

These forces are complex and highly dependent on local surface conditions. For more information. so the splashing submodel is only available with unsteady tracking in ANSYS FLUENT. you can specify the maximum angle that the ﬁlm can negotiate using a special text command. To ensure conservation of energy. The normal and tangential velocity components of the splashed parcels are therefore given by √ √ Vni = KVni and Vti = KVti ANSYS FLUENT will limit the velocity of the splashed parcels so that they do not exceed the impact velocity of the original parcel. (15. Thus.7 Wall-Film Model Theory where Ecrit is the threshold energy for splashing to occur. Release 12. The components of the splashed parcel are multiplied by the square root of K in Equation 15.7-15 so that energy will be conserved. Splashing can also cause large increases in source terms in the cells in which it occurs.7-15) This correction factor is needed due to the relatively small number of sampled points for the velocity of the splashed drops (see Stanton [337] for more detail). 2009 15-53 . it may be necessary to use a smaller time step during the simulation when splashing is enabled. In ANSYS FLUENT. Inc. 15. which can cause diﬃculty in convergence between time steps.0 c ANSYS. It is important to note that splashing events are inherently transient.7. contact your ANSYS FLUENT support engineer. January 29.4 Separation Criteria The ﬁlm can separate from the wall when the stress at an edge of the ﬁlm exceeds the adhesion forces holding the ﬁlm to the wall. An order of magnitude analysis of a ﬁlm rounding a sharp corner shows that the stresses at the edge of a ﬁlm are proportional to the angle which the ﬁlm negotiates. the following correction factor is computed: K= 1 m V2 2 d d (mi Vi2 ) + πσ (md d2 ) − Ecrit − πσ i 1 2 Nparcel i=1 Nparcel i=1 (Ni d2 ) i (mi Vi2 ) .15.

7-16. tg is the unit vector in the direction of the relative motion of the gas and the ﬁlm surface. and τw is the magnitude of the stress that the wall exerts on the ﬁlm. h denotes the current ﬁlm height at the particle location. pf . µl is the liquid viscosity.Discrete Phase 15.7-17 is explicitly enforced at each time step in ANSYS FLUENT for all particles representing the wall-ﬁlm. t)drdvdTd ˆ (15.α is given by ˙ Mimp. mass.α − Mimp.α = ρl Vp v · nf (xs . tw is the unit vector in the direction of the relative motion of the ﬁlm and the wall.5 Conservation Equations for Wall-Film Particles Conservation equations for momentum. Td . Note that the body force term can be very signiﬁcant.7. The remaining expressions on the right-hand ˙ side of Equation 15. v. 2009 .α is the impingement momentum source. The particle-based approach for thin ﬁlms was ﬁrst formulated by O’Rourke [257] and most of the following derivation is based closely on that work. The requirement represented by Equation 15.7-16 are P imp.α which denotes the impingement pressure on the ﬁlm ˙ ˙ surface. v.7-16) where α denotes the current face on which the particle resides. Inc. On the right-hand side of Equation 15.α + ρh(g − aw ) (15. t)drdvdTd ˆ (15.α up + F n. τg denotes the magnitude of the shear stress of the gas ﬂow on the surface of the ﬁlm. Momentum The equation for the momentum of a parcel on the ﬁlm is ρh dup + h( dt s pf )α ˙ ˙ ˙ = τg tg + τw tw + P imp. r. ˆ (15.α is the force necessary to keep the ﬁlm on the surface. s is the gradient operator restricted to the surface. This pressure. M imp. as determined by up · nα = 0.α = ρl Vp vv · nf (xs .α · n + Mimp.7-18) and the impingement pressure is given by ˙ P imp. Td . pf . ρh(g − aw ) is the body force term. despite the small values of ﬁlm thickness due to the very high acceleration rates seen in simulations with moving boundaries. is the sum of the ﬂuid pressure and the impingement pressure from the drops on the face. and energy for individual parcels in the wall-ﬁlm are described below.α up · n ˆ ˆ ˙ where the impingement mass Mimp.7-19) 15-54 Release 12. and pf is the pressure on the surface of the ﬁlm.7-17) Here.0 c ANSYS. given by ˙ ˙ pf = Pcell − P imp. The term h( s pf )α is the surface gradient of the pressure on the face. January 29. and F n. r. Similarly to the expression for tg .

are independent and can point in completely diﬀerent directions. Here. τw . so the unit vector in the direction of the velocity diﬀerence along the surface is Vrelg − (Vrelg · n)ˆ ˆ n ˆ tg = |Vrelg − (Vrelg · n)ˆ | ˆ n where n is the normal face .7-16 is given by 2 τg = Cf (ug − 2up )2 = Cf Vrelg where Cf is the skin friction coeﬃcient and ug is the gas velocity evaluated at the ﬁlm height above the wall. The expression for the stress that the gas exerts on the surface of the wall-ﬁlm.7-21 is over all the particles which impinge upon the face during the same interval (Ni ).0 c ANSYS.α = ρVp (un+1 − un ) Aα ∆t.7 Wall-Film Model Theory where Vp is the volume of the drop. in Equation 15.7-20) and the corresponding expression of the impingement pressure in Equation 15. Since ANSYS FLUENT solves a particle position equation of the form dup = α − βup .7-21) p p n=0 The summation in Equation 15. dt Release 12.7-20 is over all the drops which actually stick to the face α during the time step (Ns ). τg . 2009 15-55 . in Equation 15. (15.7-19 is given by Ni ˙ P imp. An approximation of the impingement mass in Equation 15. The summation in Equation 15.7-16 is given by τw = − µl µl |2up − uw | = − |Vrelw | h h where µl is the liquid viscosity and uw is the velocity of the wall.7-18 is given by ˙ Mimp. The stress is tangent to the wall in the direction of the diﬀerence between the wall-ﬁlm velocity and the gas velocity. (15. The expression for the stress that the wall exerts on the ˆ ﬁlm. as given by Vrelw − (Vrelw · n)ˆ ˆ n ˆ tw = . |Vrelw − (Vrelw · n)ˆ | ˆ n ˆ ˆ Note that the tangential unit vectors.15. January 29. τw acts in the direction of the velocity diﬀerence between the wall and the ﬁlm. Inc.α = Ns ρVp n=0 Aα ∆t. tg and tw . The assumption made in evaluating the skin friction coeﬃcient is that the wall shear stress from the gas is constant over the thickness of the ﬁlm and the boundary layer above the ﬁlm (in the normal direction from the face).

i ∆t (15.7-24. Inc.7-24 for each component.7-22) The terms for Mimp and Pimp are used from the previous time step and the diﬀerential equations for the particle motion are solved with the existing integration routines. The vapor concentration at the surface is evaluated using the saturated vapor pressure at the ﬁlm surface temperature and the bulk gas concentration is obtained from the ﬂow ﬁeld solution. A wall particle has the temperature limited by the boiling temperature Tbp and does not have a speciﬁc boiling law associated with the physics of ﬁlm boiling. dup Cf |Vrelg | ˆ ( = tg − dt ρh Mass Transfer from the Film The ﬁlm vaporization law is applied when the ﬁlm particle is above the vaporization temperature Tvap . similar to droplet vaporization.0296Re4/5 Sc1/3 Rex > 2500. The temperature for the ﬁlm surface is equal to the gas temperature.∞ are the vapor concentrations on the ﬁlm surface and in the bulk gas. ρ ρh2 ρh ρh ρh ρh (15. The vaporization rate is sensitive to the saturated vapor pressure.7-16 must be rearranged.s − Ci. but is limited by the boiling temperature of the liquid.Discrete Phase Equation 15. The vaporization rate of the ﬁlm is governed by gradient diﬀusion from the surface exposed to the gas phase.∞ ) (15.6 < Sc < 60 x (15.i is the molecular weight of the gas phase species to which the vapor from the liquid is added. and Ci. The mass of the particle is decreased by mp (t + ∆t) = mp (t) − Ni Ap Mw.7-25) where Mw. For multicomponent vaporization. The particle properties are evaluated at the surface temperature when used in correlation 15. The units of vapor concentration are kgmol/m3 . The equation is N ux = Bf x = kf 1/2 0.7-24) where the Reynolds number is based on a representative length derived from the face area. 2009 . The ﬁlm particle acceleration is then given by ˙ 2Cf |Vrelg | 2µl µl |uw | ˆ Pimp Mimp s pf )α + tw + + g − + 2+ up . The diameter of the ﬁlm particle is decreased to account for the mass 15-56 Release 12. The mass transfer coeﬃcient is obtained using a Nusselt correlation for the heat transfer coeﬃcient and replacing the Prandtl number with the Schmidt number. the Schmidt number based on the diﬀusivity of each species is used to calculate the correlation in equation 15. 0.7-23) ˙ where Ni is the molar ﬂux of vapor (with units of kgmol/m2 -s).6 < Sc < 50 0. respectively. January 29. Bf is the mass transfer coeﬃcient (in m/s).0 c ANSYS.s and Ci. 0.332Rex Sc1/3 Rex < 2500. The gradient of vapor concentration between the ﬁlm surface and the gas phase is ˙ Ni = Bf (Ci.

7-26) dt where Qcond is the conduction from the wall. given by Qcond = κAp (Tw − Tp ) h where κ is the thermal conductivity of the liquid and h is the ﬁlm height at the location of the particle. as well as contributions from the gradients of the mean temperature on the edges of the ﬁlm. and will be the same boiling temperature as the liquid.7. the boiling point of the liquid and the wall temperature will be the maximum of the wall face temperature Tw . This keeps the number of drops in the parcel constant and acts only as a place holder.7. Qconv is given by Qconv = hf Ap (Tg − Tp ) where hf is the ﬁlm heat transfer coeﬃcient given by Equation 15. as seen in Figure 15. the diameter is set to the height of the ﬁlm and the number in the parcel is adjusted so that the overall mass of the parcel is conserved. Furthermore. Inc.3. taken to be a mass weighted percentage of the face area.0 c ANSYS.7-24 and Ap is the area represented by a ﬁlm particle. When the parcel detaches from the boundary.15. Ts Tp 2h Tw Figure 15. energy ﬂux from the gas side as well as energy ﬂux from the wall side must be considered. January 29. Af . Energy Transfer from the Film To obtain an equation for the temperature in the ﬁlm. 2009 15-57 . Contributions from the impingement terms are neglected in this formulation. with the surface temperature Ts being the maximum temperature of the gas at the ﬁlm height.7 Wall-Film Model Theory loss in the individual parcel. The convection from the top surface. An energy balance on a ﬁlm particle yields d {mp Cp Tp } = Qcond + Qconv (15.3: Assumption of a Bilinear Temperature Proﬁle in the Film Release 12. The assumed temperature proﬁle in the liquid is bilinear.

When the thermal boundary conditions on the wall are set to a constant heat ﬂux. Inc.Discrete Phase Assuming that the temperature changes slowly for each particle in the ﬁlm. yielding Tp (t + ∆t) = αp + [Tp (t) − αp ]e−βp ∆t where ∆t is the integration time step and αp and βp are given by αp = and βp = hf Tg + κ Tw h hf + κ h Ap (hf + κ ) h mp Cp (15. Additionally. the equation for the change in temperature of a non vaporizing particle can be written as mp Cp κ dTp κ = Ap − hf + Tp + hTg + Tw dt h h (15. Since ﬁlm boiling is modeled by limiting the liquid phase temperature to the boiling point of the material.0 c ANSYS. which is given by mp Cp dTp κ κ = Ap − hf + Tp + hTg + Tw + mp hf g ˙ dt h h (15. the local temperature of the wall face is used as the thermal boundary condition for the wall-ﬁlm particles. January 29.7-28) (15.7-32) κ hf + h When the wall-ﬁlm model is active. i The wall-ﬁlm model has been speciﬁcally implemented for in-cylinder ﬂows and should be used with caution for other applications. This alters the expression for αp in Equation 15.7-31) where hf g is the latent heat of vaporization (with units of J/kg) and the expression mp ˙ is the rate of evaporation in kg/s.7-27) As the particle trajectory is computed. the heat ﬂux from the wall to the liquid ﬁlm is subtracted from the heat ﬂux from the wall to the gas phase. 2009 . energy in excess of that absorbed by the liquid will be put into the gas phase. ANSYS FLUENT integrates Equation 15. an additional term is added to Equation 15. 15-58 Release 12.7-27 to account for the enthalpy of vaporization.7-27 to obtain the particle temperature at the next time value.7-29) (15. enthalpy from vaporization of the liquid from the wall is subtracted from the cell to which the vapor mass goes.7-29 so that ˙ hf Tg + κ Tw + mp hf g /Ap h αp = (15.7-30) When the particle changes its mass during vaporization.

f (α) is a function of impact angle. You will need to specify appropriate values at all walls. for example) you can either deﬁne a custom ﬁeld function to divide the erosion rate by the density of the wall material or include this division in the units for C and/or f .8-1) where C(dp ) is a function of particle diameter. 299] containing model constants [126.15. To compute an erosion rate in terms of length/time (mm/year. The erosion rate is deﬁned as Nparticles Rerosion = p=1 mp C(dp )f (α)v b(v) ˙ Aface (15. b(v) is a function of relative particle velocity. i. Equation 15. f . Note that the units given by ANSYS FLUENT when displaying the erosion rate are no longer valid in the latter case. [86].8-2 ER = 1559B −0. and can therefore be changed accordingly to the deﬁned units in ANSYS FLUENT. the default values are not updated to reﬂect the material being used. and b are deﬁned as boundary conditions at a wall. the Tulsa Angle Dependent Model [85] described by Equation 15.59 Fs = v b(v) = C(dp ) where ER is the erosion rate. 126.59 Fs v 1. 221. 249.8 Particle Erosion and Accretion Theory Particle erosion and accretion rates can be monitored at wall boundaries. 2009 15-59 . Release 12. α is the impact angle of the particle path with the wall face.. v is the relative particle velocity.73 f (α) (15. rather than properties of a material. f = 1. Since C. Values of these functions for sand eroding both carbon steel and aluminum are given by Edwards et al.0 c ANSYS.8 Particle Erosion and Accretion Theory 15.8 × 10−9 . mass ﬂux. The functions C and f have to be speciﬁed in consistent units to build a dimensionless group with the relative particle velocity and its exponent. 85. and Aface is the area of the cell face at the wall. Default values are C = 1. Inc.8-1 with the following substitutions: v 1.8-2) can be rewritten in the form of Equation 15.e.73 1559B −0. The erosion rate as calculated above is displayed in units of removed material/(areatime). B is the Brinell hardness. The equations describing some of the erosion models can be modiﬁed to appear in the form of the general equation describing the erosion rate. and Fs is a particle shape coeﬃcient. January 29. A variety of erosion models [97. For example. and b = 0. 85] and angle functions can be easily implemented into ANSYS FLUENT.8-1.

For more complex models. The droplets will be more evenly spread among the computational cells near the atomizer. and velocity of the particles. Inc. f (α). Source terms in the energy and species conservation equations are also more evenly distributed among neighboring cells. see Section 2. or contact your support engineer for further assistance. Further information on staggering can be found in section Section 23. For sprays.1: Injection Types in the separate User’s Guide. the droplets must be randomly distributed. 2009 .5. both spatially through a dispersion angle and in their time of release. the default Erosion Model in the Wall boundary condition dialog box cannot be used. Note that the particle erosion and accretion rates can be displayed only when coupled calculations are enabled. a userdeﬁned function should be used instead. such as oriﬁce diameter and mass ﬂow rate.0 c ANSYS. and the stochastic trajectory selection picks an initial direction within this angle.8-3) 15.Discrete Phase User-deﬁned functions can be used to describe erosion models of any form. All of the atomization models use physical atomizer parameters. and position.3. position. there are models available to predict the droplet size and velocity distributions.8: Staggering of Particles in Space and Time in the separate User’s Guide. This approach improves the accuracy of the results for spray-dominated ﬂows. you will need to provide the initial diameter. which improves the coupling to the gas phase by spreading drag more smoothly over the cells near the injection. to calculate initial droplet size. For information on how to apply user-deﬁned functions for DPM erosion models.4: DEFINE DPM EROSION in the separate UDF Manual. For realistic atomizer simulations. All of the atomizer models provide an initial dispersion angle. For other types of injections in ANSYS FLUENT (nonatomizer). such as those models with varying function angles. 15-60 Release 12. ANSYS FLUENT also provides more complex injection types for sprays describing primary breakup phenomena. January 29.2. Stochastic trajectory selection is the random dispersion of initial droplet directions. For most types of injections. however. velocity. Hence. all of the droplets are released along ﬁxed trajectories at the beginning of the time step. The atomizer models use stochastic trajectory selection and staggering to attain a random distribution. improving solution convergence.9 Atomizer Model Theory In addition to the simple injection types described in Section 23. The accretion rate is deﬁned as Nparticles Raccretion = p=1 mp ˙ Aface (15.

The internal regime determines the velocity at the oriﬁce exit.3. Inc. Diagrams of each case are shown in Figures 15. You can choose them as injection types and deﬁne the associated parameters in the Set Injection Properties dialog box.1: The Plain-Oriﬁce Atomizer Model • Section 15. the liquid is accelerated through a nozzle.1. The plain oriﬁce may operate in three diﬀerent regimes: single-phase. Details about the atomizer models are provided below. and 15.1: Injection Types in the separate User’s Guide.1 The Plain-Oriﬁce Atomizer Model The plain-oriﬁce is the most common type of atomizer and the most simply made. forms a liquid jet and then breaks up to form droplets. Release 12.9.9. Information is organized into the following subsections: • Section 15. as described in Section 23.15. This apparently simple process is dauntingly complex.9. The transition between regimes is abrupt.9.9.2. producing dramatically diﬀerent sprays. However there is nothing simple about the physics of the internal nozzle ﬂow and the external atomization.4: The Flat-Fan Atomizer Model • Section 15.9.9. In the plain-oriﬁce atomizer model in ANSYS FLUENT.0 c ANSYS.9 Atomizer Model Theory Five atomizer models are available in ANSYS FLUENT to predict the spray characteristics from knowledge of global parameters such as nozzle type and liquid ﬂow rate. 2009 15-61 .3.3: The Air-Blast/Air-Assist Atomizer Model • Section 15.9.9. January 29.2: The Pressure-Swirl Atomizer Model • Section 15. cavitating and ﬂipped [330]. as well as the initial droplet size and the angle of droplet dispersion.5: The Eﬀervescent Atomizer Model 15. 15.

0 c ANSYS.9.Discrete Phase r p d 1 p liquid jet oriﬁce walls L 2 downstream gas Figure 15.2: Cavitating Nozzle Flow (Vapor Pockets Form Just After the Inlet Corners) liquid jet oriﬁce walls downstream gas Figure 15.9.3: Flipped Nozzle Flow (Downstream Gas Surrounds the Liquid Jet Inside the Nozzle) 15-62 Release 12.9. January 29. 2009 .1: Single-Phase Nozzle Flow (Liquid Completely Fills the Oriﬁce) vapor liquid jet vapor oriﬁce walls downstream gas Figure 15. Inc.

ANSYS FLUENT uses Nurick’s ﬁt for the coeﬃcient of contraction: Cc = 1 − (15. Inc. the plain-oriﬁce model in ANSYS FLUENT must identify the correct state of the internal nozzle ﬂow because the nozzle state has a tremendous eﬀect on the external spray. The coeﬃcient of contraction is deﬁned as the area of the stream of contracting liquid over the total cross-sectional area of the nozzle.9. there is no established theory for determining the nozzle state.9-2) The liquid ﬂow often contracts in the nozzle. ANSYS FLUENT uses several dimensionless parameters to determine the internal ﬂow regime for the plain-oriﬁce atomizer model.0 c ANSYS.9.9-1) K= (15. Table 15.9 Atomizer Model Theory Internal Nozzle State To accurately predict the spray characteristics. Nurick [252] found it helpful to use a coeﬃcient of contraction (Cc ) to represent the reduction in the cross-sectional area of the liquid jet. A list of the parameters that control internal nozzle ﬂow is given in Table 15.1: List of Governing Parameters for Internal Nozzle Flow nozzle diameter nozzle length radius of curvature of the inlet corner upstream pressure downstream pressure viscosity liquid density vapor pressure d L r p1 p2 µ ρl pv Reh = dρl µ 2(p1 − p2 ) ρl p1 − pv p1 − p2 (15. Unfortunately. January 29.3.9-3) 1 2 Cct 11. These parameters may be combined to form nondimensional characteristic lengths such as r/d and L/d.2 and 15.9.1.4r d Release 12. One must rely on empirical models obtained from experimental data.15. as can be seen in Figures 15. 2009 15-63 . as well as nondimensional groups like the Reynolds number based on hydraulic “head” (Reh ) and the cavitation parameter (K).9. These parameters and the decision-making process are summarized below.

9-8) If r/d is greater than 0.0 c ANSYS.9-5) Here.7: Point Properties for Plain-Oriﬁce Atomizer Injections in the separate User’s Guide).3. The cavitation number (K in Equation 15.9 for short. 15-64 Release 12. However. in other words the correct mass ﬂow rate for the sector being modeled.05.9-2) is an essential parameter for predicting the inception of cavitation. Note that the mass ﬂow rate that you input should be for the appropriate start and stop angles.0. the eﬀective mass ﬂow rate is identical to the mass ﬂow rate in the interface. Inc.9 1 − r d 2 − 1000 Reh (15. then ﬂip is deemed impossible and Kcrit is set to 1. m is the mass ﬂow rate speciﬁed in the user interface.611. Coefﬁcient of Discharge Another important parameter for describing the performance of nozzles is the coeﬃcient of discharge (Cd ).9-6) as input by you (see Section 23. January 29. deﬁned by ˙ meﬀ = ˙ 2π m ˙ ∆φ (15. an empirical relationship is used: Kincep = 1. 2009 . which comes from potential ﬂow analysis of ﬂipped nozzles. The inception of cavitation is known to occur at a value of Kincep ≈ 1. Cct is a theoretical constant equal to 0.9-4) where meﬀ is the eﬀective mass ﬂow rate of the nozzle.9-7) Similarly.Discrete Phase Here. sharp-edged nozzles. The coeﬃcient of discharge is the ratio of the mass ﬂow rate through the nozzle to the theoretical maximum mass ﬂow rate: Cd = meﬀ ˙ A 2ρl (p1 − p2 ) (15. and ∆φ is the diﬀerence ˙ between the azimuthal stop angle and the azimuthal start angle ∆φ = φstop − φstart (15. a critical value of K where ﬂip occurs is given by Kcrit = 1 + 1 1+ L 4d 1+ 2000 Reh e70r/d (15. Note also that for ∆φ of 2π. to include the eﬀects of inlet rounding and viscosity.

is compared to the values of Kincep and Kcrit to identify the nozzle state. Release 12. For a single-phase nozzle (K > Kincep . a unique closure is chosen for the above equations.9.25L/d) Reh (15.827 − 0.0 c ANSYS.9-9) where Cdu is the ultimate discharge coeﬃcient.15. the exit velocity is calculated.9-11) K ≤ Kincep K > K incep K < Kcrit K ≥ K crit K < Kcrit K ≥ Kcrit ﬂipped cavitating ﬂipped single phase Figure 15. The nozzle state may change as the upstream or downstream pressures change.4. and is deﬁned as Cdu = 0. 2009 15-65 . the coeﬃcient of discharge is given by Cd = 1 1 Cdu + 20 (1+2. Once the nozzle state is determined.611 (15. and appropriate correlations for spray angle and initial droplet size distribution are determined.4: Decision Tree for the State of the Cavitating Nozzle All of the nozzle ﬂow equations are solved iteratively.9-10) For a cavitating nozzle (Kcrit ≤ K ≤ Kincep ) [252] the coeﬃcient of discharge is determined from √ Cd = Cc K For a ﬂipped nozzle (K < Kcrit ) [252].0085 L d (15. along with the appropriate relationship for coeﬃcient of discharge as given by the nozzle state. The decision tree is shown in Figure 15. Inc.9-12) (15. Cd = Cct = 0. K ≥ Kcrit ) [193]. K. January 29.9 Atomizer Model Theory The cavitation number. Depending on the state of the nozzle.9.

is thought to be a constant for a given nozzle geometry. they derived an expression for a higher velocity over a reduced area: u= 2Cc p1 − p2 + (1 − 2Cc )pv Cc 2ρl (p1 − pv ) (15.0 c ANSYS.9-14) This analytical relation is used for cavitating nozzles in ANSYS FLUENT. the narrower the spray. cavitating (15. Instead.6d (15. the estimate of exit velocity (u) comes from the conservation of mass and the assumption of a uniform exit velocity: u= meﬀ ˙ ρl A (15. Reitz [288] suggests the following correlation for CA : CA = 3 + L 3. January 29. Schmidt and Corradini [306] have shown that the uniform exit velocity is not accurate. The parameter CA .9-15) Spray Angle The correlation for the spray angle (θ) comes from the work of Ranz [283]: tan−1 4π CA √ ρg 3 ρl 6 θ = 2 single phase.9-13) For the cavitating nozzle. For ﬂipped nozzles.Discrete Phase Exit Velocity For a single-phase nozzle. For the case of ﬂipped nozzles. which you must specify.9-16) ﬂipped 0. 2009 . Inc. the spray angle has a constant value.01 The spray angle for both single-phase and cavitating nozzles depends on the ratio of the gas and liquid densities and also the parameter CA .9-17) 15-66 Release 12. the exit velocity is found from the conservation of mass and the value of the reduced ﬂow area: u= meﬀ ˙ ρl Cct A (15. The larger the value.

10: Secondary Breakup Model Theory. 2009 15-67 . deﬁned as We ≡ ρl u 2 λ . The most probable droplet size. For an explanation of eﬀective area of cavitating nozzles. please see Schmidt and Corradini [306]. πρl u deﬀ = (15. deﬀ . For more information about mean particle diameters.9-20) Release 12. σ (15. Inc.15. January 29. d. For a more detailed discussion of droplet surface tension and the Weber number. d0 is obtained in ANSYS FLUENT from the Sauter mean diameter.0 c ANSYS. For an atomizer. Typical values range from 4. see Section 23. (15. see Section 15. For more information about the Rosin-Rammler size distribution.74 . and thus represents the eﬀective diameter of the exiting liquid jet. σ is the droplet surface tension.3. ANSYS FLUENT’s spray models use a two-parameter Rosin-Rammler distribution.9 Atomizer Model Theory The spray angle is sensitive to the internal ﬂow regime of the nozzle. the correlation of Wu et al.9-18. is calculated from the eﬀective area of the cavitating oriﬁce exit. The length scale for a cavitating nozzle is λ = deﬀ /8.8: Summary Reporting of Current Particles in the separate User’s Guide.9-19) Here. Hence. λ is the radial integral length scale at the jet exit based upon fullydeveloped turbulent pipe ﬂow. see Section 23. the droplet diameter distribution is closely related to the nozzle state. The initial jet diameter used in Wu’s correlation. arbitrary value that represents the lack of any turbulence or initial disturbance from the nozzle. where 4meﬀ ˙ . Droplet Diameter Distribution One of the basic characteristics of an injection is the distribution of drop size. characterized by the most probable droplet size and a spread parameter.7.9-18) where λ = d/8. [383] is used to calculate d32 and relate the initial drop size to the estimated turbulence quantities of the liquid jet: d32 = 133. d32 [186].0 to 6. you may wish to choose smaller values of CA for cavitating nozzles than for single-phase nozzles.13: Using the Rosin-Rammler Diameter Distribution Method in the separate User’s Guide. ANSYS FLUENT uses a slight modiﬁcation of Equation 15. For cavitating nozzles.0λWe−0. For single-phase nozzle ﬂows. and We is the Weber number.0. The spray angle for ﬂipped nozzles is a small.

5 ∞ (15. the narrower the droplet size distribution.2: Values of Spread Parameter for Diﬀerent Nozzle States State single phase cavitating ﬂipped Spread Parameter 3. these are converted to the most probable diameter. Lefebvre [186] gives the most general relationship between the Sauter mean diameter and most probable diameter for a RosinRammler distribution. Inc. The larger the value of the spread parameter. d0 . The simpliﬁed version for s=3. The values for the spread parameter are chosen from past modeling experience and from a review of experimental observations. Table 15. velocity.2726d32 1 − (15.Discrete Phase For the case of the ﬂipped nozzle. The second parameter required to specify the droplet size distribution is the spread parameter. 15-68 Release 12. s. Table 15.9. the droplet size. provide the Sauter mean diameter.2 lists the values of s for the three nozzle states.5 1. 2009 .9-22) At this point. and spray angle have been determined and the initialization of the injections is complete.9-21) Since the correlations of Wu et al.5 is as follows: 1 s 1/s d0 = 1.0 c ANSYS. January 29. the initial droplet diameter is set to the diameter of the liquid jet: d0 = d Cct where d0 is deﬁned as the most probable diameter. d32 .9.

9. It then emerges from the oriﬁce as a thinning sheet.5: Theoretical Progression from the Internal Atomizer Flow to the External Spray The interaction between the air and the sheet is not well understood.2 The Pressure-Swirl Atomizer Model Another important type of atomizer is the pressure-swirl atomizer. January 29.5. and secondary breakup. The swirling liquid pushes against the walls of the swirl chamber and develops a hollow air core. The mathematical analysis below assumes that Kelvin-Helmholtz waves grow on the sheet and eventually break the liquid into ligaments.0 c ANSYS. This type of atomizer accelerates the liquid through nozzles known as swirl ports into a central swirl chamber. Inc. sheet breakup. coalescence. breaking up into ligaments and droplets. A sketch of how this process is thought to occur is shown in Figure 15. The pressure-swirl atomizer is very widely used for liquid-fuel combustion in gas turbines.9. sometimes referred to by the gas-turbine community as a simplex atomizer. 2009 15-69 .15. collision. Once the liquid droplets are formed. which is unstable. the spray evolution is determined by drag. and direct-injection spark-ignited automobile engines. It is generally accepted that an aerodynamic instability causes the sheet to break up. half angle dispersion angle Figure 15. and atomization. oil furnaces. The transition from internal injector ﬂow to fully-developed spray can be divided into three steps: ﬁlm formation. Release 12.9. It is then assumed that the ligaments break up into droplets due to varicose instability.9 Atomizer Model Theory 15.

Discrete Phase The pressure-swirl atomizer model used in ANSYS FLUENT is called the Linearized Instability Sheet Atomization (LISA) model of Schmidt et al. If the nozzles are cavitating. The other unknown in Equation 15. Instead.7. Inc. For single-phase nozzles with sharp inlet corners and L/d ratios of 4. Lefebvre [186] has noted that kv is a function of the injector design and injection pressure. a typical Cd value is 0. [122] is used.9-23 is u. Reducing kv by 10% to 0. If the swirl ports are treated as nozzles and if it is assumed that the dominant portion of the pressure drop occurs at those ports. the following expression is used for kv : kv = max 0.9-23) where dinj is the injector exit diameter. and meﬀ is the eﬀective mass ﬂow rate. yet be large enough to permit suﬃcient mass ﬂow. which ˙ is deﬁned by Equation 15. is related to the mass ﬂow rate by meﬀ = πρut(dinj − t) ˙ (15. Film Formation The centrifugal motion of the liquid within the injector creates an air core surrounded by a liquid ﬁlm. January 29. Hence. This quantity depends on internal details of the injector and is diﬃcult to calculate from ﬁrst principles. 2009 . To guarantee that the size of the air core is non-negative.61. The LISA model is divided into two stages: 1.9-25) d2 ρl 0 15-70 Release 12. the approach of Han et al. Physical limits on kv require that it be less than unity from conservation of energy. [308]. 4meﬀ ˙ cos θ ρl 2∆p (15. ﬁlm formation 2. The total velocity is assumed to be related to the injector pressure by 2∆p ρl U = kv (15.7 approximates the eﬀect of other momentum losses on the discharge coeﬃcient.78 or less [193]. the value of Cd may be as low as 0. 0.78 should be a practical upper bound for kv .9-5 . sheet breakup and atomization Both parts of the model are described below. The thickness of this ﬁlm. t. the axial component of velocity at the injector exit.0 c ANSYS.9-24) where kv is the velocity coeﬃcient. kv is the expression for the discharge coeﬃcient (Cd ).

η0 is the initial wave amplitude. respectively. Squire [335]. The liquid and gas have densities of ρl and ρg . [310]) that the Release 12. called the sinuous mode. and surface tension on the breakup of the liquid sheet. The tangential component of velocity (w = U sin θ) is assumed to be equal to the radial velocity component of the liquid sheet downstream of the nozzle exit. Li and Tankin [192]. the thickness and axial component of the liquid ﬁlm are known at the injector exit.9-24 can be used to ﬁnd U . incompressible gas medium. The axial component of velocity is assumed to remain constant. The model assumes that a two-dimensional. For a more robust implementation. The spectrum of disturbances results in ﬂuctuating velocities and pressures for both the liquid and the gas. and a spectrum of inﬁnitesimal wavy disturbances of the form η = η0 eikx+ωt (15. incompressible liquid sheet of thickness 2h moves with velocity U through a quiescent. Details of the theoretical development of the model are given in Senecal et al.. the gas-phase velocity is neglected in calculating the relative liquid-gas velocity and is instead set by you. and the viscosity of the liquid is µl .9-26) where θ is the spray angle. In Equation 15. and ω = ωr + iωi is the complex growth rate. inviscid.9-27) is imposed on the initially steady motion. and Hagerty and Shea [118] have shown that two solutions. It has been shown by numerous authors (e. The second solution is called the varicose mode which has the waves at the upper and lower interfaces π radians out of phase.15. u is found from u = U cos θ (15. January 29.9 Atomizer Model Theory Assuming that ∆p is known. has waves at the upper and lower interfaces in phase. liquid viscosity. At this point. k = 2π/λ is the wave number. Once U is determined. A coordinate system is used that moves with the sheet. Inc. it is desired to obtain a dispersion relation ω = ω(k) from which the most unstable disturbance can be calculated as a function of wave number. which is assumed to be known. The ﬁrst solution. 2009 15-71 . and is assumed to be responsible for sheet breakup. Equation 15. exist that satisfy the governing equations subject to the boundary conditions at the upper and lower interfaces. Senecal et. Sheet Breakup and Atomization The pressure-swirl atomizer model includes the eﬀects of the surrounding gas. denoted here by Ω. viscous.9-27. or modes.0 c ANSYS. The most unstable disturbance has the largest value of ωr . al. This avoids having the injector parameters depend too heavily on the usually under-resolved gas-phase velocity ﬁeld very near the injection location.g. [310] and are only brieﬂy presented here. Thus.

January 29. and sheet half-thickness).9-29 as a function of k. τ . the maximum growth rate. The sheet breaks up and ligaments will be formed at a length given by 15-72 Release 12.Discrete Phase sinuous mode dominates the growth of varicose waves for low velocities and low gas-toliquid density ratios. gas density. An order-of-magnitude analysis using typical values shows that the terms of second order in viscosity can be neglected in comparison to the other terms in Equation 15. If the surface disturbance has reached a value of ηb at breakup. can be evaluated: ηb = η0 eΩτ ⇒ 1 ηb ln Ω η0 (15. Inc. a mechanism of sheet disintegration proposed by Dombrowski and Johns [74] is adopted. is found by numerically maximizing Equation 15. 2009 . The speed of modern high pressure fuel injection systems is high enough to ensure that the ﬁlm Weber number is well above this critical limit. For long waves.9-29) For waves that are long compared with the sheet thickness. the atomization model in ANSYS FLUENT is based upon the growth of sinuous waves on the liquid sheet. Above a critical Weber number of Weg = 27/16 (based on the liquid velocity. For Weg < 27/16. the dispersion relation for the sinuous mode is given by ω 2 [tanh(kh) + Q] + [4νl k 2 tanh(kh) + 2iQkU ] + 4νl k 4 tanh(kh) − 4νl2 k 3 tanh( h) − QU 2 k 2 + where Q = ρg /ρl and 2 σk 3 =0 ρl (15.9-28 reduces to 1 −2νl k 2 tanh(kh) + tanh(kh) + Q σk 3 ρl ωr = 4νl2 k 4 tanh2 (kh) − Q2 U 2 k 2 − [tanh(kh) + Q] −QU 2 k 2 + (15. As a result. In addition.9-28) = k 2 + ω/νl . it can be shown that the sinuous and varicose modes become indistinguishable for high-velocity ﬂows. the wavelengths are long compared to the sheet thickness. Using this assumption.0 c ANSYS. the fastest-growing waves are short.9-30) where Ω.9-28. Equation 15. As derived in Senecal et al. The maximum is found using a binary search that checks the sign of the derivative. [310]. a breakup time. ligaments are assumed to form from the sheet breakup process once the unstable waves reach a critical amplitude.

9-33) This mechanism is not used for waves that are short compared to the sheet thickness. Ω. The choice of spread parameter and dispersion angle is based on past modeling Release 12.9-31) ηb where the quantity ln( η0 ) is an empirical sheet constant that you must specify. which is a function of the breakup length. The diameter of the ligaments formed at the point of breakup can be obtained from a mass balance. Inc. is equal to 0. the resulting diameter is given by 8h Ks dL = (15. Dombrowski and Hooper [73] showed that a value of 12 for the sheet constant agreed favorably with experimental sheet breakup lengths over a range of Weber numbers from 2 to 200.9-32) where Ks is the wave number corresponding to the maximum growth rate. In either the long-wave or the short-wave case.5 and a default dispersion angle of 6◦ (which can be modiﬁed in the GUI).9-35.9-34) where CL . The ﬁlm thickness is calculated from the breakup length and the radial distance from the center line to the mid-line of the sheet at the atomizer exit. For short waves. 2009 15-73 .9 Atomizer Model Theory Lb = U τ = ηb U ln Ω η0 (15.2: Jet Stability Analysis for more details about Oh).0 c ANSYS. r0 : hend = r0 h0 r0 + Lb sin θ 2 (15. or the ligament constant.15. If it is assumed that the ligaments are formed from tears in the sheet twice per wavelength. the breakup from ligaments to droplets is assumed to behave according to Weber’s [369] analysis for capillary instability. it is assumed that this droplet diameter is the most probable droplet size of a Rosin-Rammler distribution with a spread parameter of 3. dL = 2πCL Ks (15.9-35) Here.5 by default. January 29. The ligament diameter depends on the sheet thickness.88dL (1 + 3Oh)1/6 (15. Once d0 has been determined from Equation 15. The default value of 12 was obtained theoretically by Weber [369] for liquid jets. the ligament diameter is assumed to be linearly proportional to the wavelength that breaks up the sheet.10. Oh is the Ohnesorge number which is a combination of the Reynolds number and the Weber number (see Section 15. d0 = 1.

depending on the quantity of air and its velocity. Inc. 15-74 Release 12. and air is then directed against the sheet to promote atomization. This feature is convenient for simulations in large domains.9-26). One important diﬀerence between them is that the sheet thickness is set directly in the air-blast atomizer model. The angle in the case of the air-blast atomizer is the initial trajectory of the ﬁlm as it leaves the end of the oriﬁce. You will also specify the maximum relative velocity that is produced by the sheet and air. you must create the air streams surrounding the injector as boundary conditions within the ANSYS FLUENT simulation. These streams are ordinary continuous-phase ﬂows and require no special treatment. preventing collisions between them. Hence the air-blast atomizer model does not contain the sheet formation equations that were included in the pressure-swirl atomizer model (Equations 15.0 c ANSYS. where especially ﬁne atomization is required. and is calculated from Equation 15. The liquid is formed into a sheet by a nozzle. This input is necessary because of the variety of sheet formation mechanisms used in air-blast atomizers. 15. The addition of the external air stream past the sheet produces smaller droplets than without the air. in addition to the dispersion angle whose default value is 6◦ (which can be modiﬁed in the GUI). 2009 .Discrete Phase experience [307]. Since the air-blast atomizer model does not include internal gas ﬂows.9-34. An additional diﬀerence is that the air-blast atomizer model assumes that the sheet breakup is always due to short waves. The value of the angle is negative if the initial ﬁlm trajectory is inward. Speciﬁcation of the inner and outer diameters of the ﬁlm at the atomizer exit are also required. Though this quantity could be calculated. towards the centerline.3 The Air-Blast/Air-Assist Atomizer Model In order to accelerate the breakup of liquid sheets from an atomizer. The air may also help disperse the droplets. specifying a value relieves you from the necessity of ﬁnely resolving the atomizer internal ﬂow. an additional air stream is often directed through the atomizer.9. It is important to note that the spray cone angle must be speciﬁed by you when using this model. it is thought that the assisting air may accelerate the sheet instability. This technique is called air-assisted atomization or air-blast atomization. Other inputs are similar to the pressure-swirl model – you must provide the mass ﬂow rate and spray angle. Air-assisted atomization is used in many of the same applications as pressure-swirl atomization. ANSYS FLUENT’s air-blast atomization model is a variation of the pressure-swirl model. This assumption is a consequence of the greater sheet thickness commonly found in air-blast atomizers. where the atomizer is very small by comparison. Though the exact mechanism for this enhanced performance is not completely understood. Hence the ligament diameter is assumed to be linearly proportional to the wavelength of the fastest-growing wave on the sheet. January 29.9-23–15.

You also need to provide the half-angle of the fan arc. The liquid emerges from a wide. dispersion angle half angle dispersion angle Figure 15. The primary atomization process is thought to be similar to the pressure-swirl atomizer. is very similar to the atomization of a ﬂat sheet. 2009 15-75 .9.0 c ANSYS.15. the width of the oriﬁce (in the normal direction) and the mass ﬂow rate of the liquid to use the ﬂat-fan atomizer model. ANSYS FLUENT will ﬁnd the vector that points from the origin to the center point in order to determine the direction of the injection. January 29. The ﬂat-fan atomizer is available only for 3D models.6.6: Flat Fan Viewed from Above and from the Side Release 12.9. Some researchers believe that ﬂat-fan atomization. but it makes a ﬂat sheet and does not use swirl.9. You need to provide the location of this origin. because of jet impingement. The model assumes that the fan originates from a virtual origin. The ﬂat-fan model could serve doubly for this application. which is the intersection of the lines that mark the sides of the fan as well as the location of the center point of the arc from which the fan originates. Inc. An image of the three-dimensional ﬂat fan is shown in Figure 15.4 The Flat-Fan Atomizer Model The ﬂat-fan atomizer is very similar to the pressure-swirl atomizer. thin oriﬁce as a ﬂat liquid sheet that breaks up into droplets.9 Atomizer Model Theory 15.

The sheet breaks up into ligaments which then form individual droplets.9-38) 15-76 Release 12. the model must rely on rough empirical ﬁts.9-37) The maximum droplet diameter is set to the eﬀective diameter of the exiting jet: dmax = d Cct (15. assuming the exiting jet has a cross-sectional area that is Cct times the nozzle area.5 The Effervescent Atomizer Model Eﬀervescent atomization is the injection of liquid infused with a super-heated (with respect to downstream conditions) liquid or propellant. Since the physics of eﬀervescence is not well understood. January 29. Inc. where Cct is a ﬁxed constant. dL in Equation 15. This angle can be set in the Set Injection Properties dialog box. The model also applies to cases where a very hot liquid is discharged. the ﬂat fan sheet is assumed to form ligaments at half-wavelength intervals. The initial velocity of the droplets is computed from conservation of mass. with a Rosin-Rammler spread parameter of 3. The photographs of Reitz and Bracco [288] provide some insights.611 as speciﬁed in Equations 15. Hence the ligament diameter for short waves is given by 16h Ks dL = (15.9-36 is taken to be the most probable diameter. 15. 2009 . This phase change quickly breaks up the stream into small droplets with a wide dispersion angle.5 and a default dispersion angle of 6◦ . equal to 0. As the volatile liquid exits the nozzle.9-12. u= meﬀ ˙ ρl Cct A (15.9-36) In this case. In all other respects. These photographs show a dense liquid core to the spray. surrounded by a wide shroud of smaller droplets. the ﬂat-fan atomizer model is like the sheet breakup portion of the pressure-swirl atomizer.9. it rapidly changes phase.Discrete Phase The breakup of the ﬂat fan is calculated very much like the breakup of the sheet in the pressure-swirl atomizer.9-3 and 15. The only diﬀerence is that for short waves.0 c ANSYS.

such that the temperature of the droplet is close to boiling. the ﬂashing vapor must also be included in the calculation.10 Secondary Breakup Model Theory The droplet size is then sampled from a Rosin-Rammler distribution with a spread parameter of 4. mass ﬂow rate. and the speciﬁed value for the dispersion constant.99 times the saturation temperature. (See Section 23. x.3. January 29. When the eﬀervescent atomizer model is selected. To complete the model. you will need to specify the nozzle diameter. between the droplet’s stochastic trajectory and the injection direction: d0 = dmax e−(θ/Θs ) 2 (15. θ. saturation temperature of the volatile substance. For Weber numbers greater than 100. mixture quality. the wave model is more applicable.) The most probable droplet size depends on the angle.9-39) The dispersion angle multiplier.0.9-41) This technique creates a spray with large droplets in the central core and a shroud of smaller surrounding droplets.0 c ANSYS. The TAB model is recommended for low-Weber-number injections and is well suited for low-speed sprays into a standard atmosphere. Inc. 2009 15-77 .9-40) (15. This vapor is part of the continuous phase and not part of the discrete phase model. The droplet temperature is initialized to 0. Release 12. Θs . The wave model is popular for use in high-speed fuel-injection applications. 15. spray half-angle and dispersion constant in addition to specifying the position and direction of the injector. Details for each model are provided below.15. You must create an inlet at the point of injection when you specify boundary conditions for the continuous phase.13: Using the Rosin-Rammler Diameter Distribution Method in the separate User’s Guide for details on the Rosin-Rammler distribution.10 Secondary Breakup Model Theory ANSYS FLUENT oﬀers two droplet breakup models: the Taylor analogy breakup (TAB) model and the wave model. Ceﬀ : x = Θs mvapor ˙ (mvapor + mliquid ) ˙ ˙ x = Ceﬀ (15. is computed from the quality.

As a droplet is distorted from a spherical shape. Use and Limitations The TAB model is best for low-Weber-number sprays. Table 15. Droplet Distortion The equation governing a damped.10. which governs the oscillating and distorting droplet.10-1) where x is the displacement of the droplet equator from its spherical (undisturbed) position.1: Comparison of a Spring-Mass System to a Distorting Droplet Spring-Mass System restoring force of spring external force damping force Distorting and Oscillating Droplet surface tension forces droplet drag force droplet viscosity forces The resulting TAB model equation set.10-2) 15-78 Release 12. As described in detail below.10.1 Taylor Analogy Breakup (TAB) Model Introduction The Taylor analogy breakup (TAB) model is a classic method for calculating droplet breakup. can be solved to determine the droplet oscillation and distortion at any given time. See Section 15. 2009 . The coeﬃcients of this equation are taken from Taylor’s analogy: F ρg u 2 = CF m ρl r (15.10. which is applicable to many engineering sprays.5: Dynamic Drag Model Theory for details.3. which is not described well by the spring-mass analogy. Inc.Discrete Phase 15. Extremely high-Weber-number sprays result in shattering of droplets. the drag coeﬃcient changes.1 illustrates the analogous components. forced oscillator is [256] F − kx − d dx d2 x =m 2 dt dt (15. A drag model that incorporates the distorting droplet eﬀects is available in ANSYS FLUENT. when the droplet oscillations grow to a critical value the “parent” droplet will break up into a number of smaller “child” droplets. Table 15.0 c ANSYS. January 29. This method is based upon Taylor’s analogy [347] between an oscillating and distorting droplet and a spring mass system.

σ is the droplet surface tension. Equation 15.10-3) (15.10-5) Where Cb is a constant equal to 0.10-8) (15.10-2–15.10-6) where breakup now occurs for y > 1.10-12) Release 12. This implicitly assumes that the droplet is undergoing only one (fundamental) oscillation mode.10-4: d2 y CF ρg u2 Ck σ Cd µl dy = − y− 2 2 3 dt Cb ρl r ρl r ρl r2 dt (15. u is the relative velocity of the droplet.10-6 if the relative velocity is assumed to be constant: y(t) = Wec + e−(t/td ) (y0 − Wec ) cos(ωt) + where 1 ω dy0 y0 − Wec + sin(ωt) dt td (15.15. oscillations at the north and south pole with this amplitude will meet at the droplet center. 2009 15-79 .10-1 is nondimensionalized by setting y = x/(Cb r) and substituting the relationships in Equations 15.10-4) where ρl and ρg are the discrete phase and continuous phase densities. Ck . The droplet is assumed to break up if the distortion grows to a critical ratio of the droplet radius. and Cd will be deﬁned later. This breakup requirement is given as x > Cb r (15. The dimensionless constants CF .0 c ANSYS.10-11) (15.10-7) We = Wec = y0 = dy0 = dt 1 = td ρg u 2 r σ CF We Ck Cb y(0) dy (0) dt Cd µl 2 ρl r 2 (15. i.e. if breakup is assumed to occur when the distortion is equal to half the droplet radius.10-10) (15. Inc.. For under-damped droplets.10-9) (15. the equation governing y can easily be determined from Equation 15. January 29.5. and µl is the droplet viscosity.10 Secondary Breakup Model Theory k σ = Ck 3 m ρl r d µl = Cd 2 m ρl r (15. r is the undisturbed droplet radius.

The energy of the parent droplet is [256] π dy = 4πr2 σ + K ρl r5 5 dt 2 Eparent + ω2y2 (15.10-14 and 15.10-7 is solved for all droplets. u is the relative velocity between the droplet and the gas phase and We is the droplet Weber number. a dimensionless parameter deﬁned as the ratio of aerodynamic forces to surface tension forces. Equations 15.10-15). based upon the work of Liu et al. The constants have been chosen to match experiments and theory [174]: Ck = 8 Cd = 5 1 CF = 3 If Equation 15. the energy of the child droplets can be shown to be Echild = 4πr2 σ r π dy + ρl r 5 r32 6 dt 2 (15.10-16) Once the size of the child droplets is determined.0 c ANSYS. r32 can be found by equating the energy of the parent and child droplets (i. The child droplets are assumed to be nondistorted 3 and nonoscillating.Discrete Phase 1 σ − 2 3 ρl r td ω 2 = Ck (15. the number of child droplets can easily be determined by mass conservation.10-14) where K is the ratio of the total energy in distortion and oscillation to the energy in the fundamental mode.10-15) where r32 is the Sauter mean radius of the droplet size distribution. Size of Child Droplets The size of the child droplets is determined by equating the energy of the parent droplet to the combined energy of the child droplets. setting y = 1. and ω 2 = 8σ/ρl r3 : r32 = r 1+ 8Ky 2 20 + ρl r 3 (dy/dt)2 σ 6K−5 120 (15.10-13) In Equation 15. 15-80 Release 12.10-7.e. Inc. [205]. January 29. Thus. those with y > 1 are assumed to break up. The size and velocity of the new child droplets must be determined. of the order ( 10 ).. 2009 . The default value of y0 is 0. The droplet oscillation frequency is represented by ω.

breakup does not occur.10-18) According to Equation 15. the TAB model ﬁrst determines the amplitude for an undamped oscillation (td ≈ ∞) for each droplet at time step n using the following: (dy/dt)n + ω 2 A= (y n − Wec )2 (15.10-7 and its derivative. the equator of the parent droplet is traveling at a velocity of dx/dt = Cb r(dy/dt). breakup is possible only if the following condition is satisﬁed: Wec + A > 1 (15. When breakup occurs. as damping will only reduce the chance of breakup. which are both based on work done by O’Rourke and Amsden [256]: y n+1 = Wec + e−(∆t/td ) (y n − Wec ) cos(ωt) + 1 ω dy dt n + y n − Wec sin(ωt) td (15. If a droplet fails the above criterion. The only additional calculations required then. dy dt (15.15. Inc.10-21) Release 12.10-18.10-20) dy dt n+1 = Wec − y n+1 + td 1 ω dy dt n ωe −(∆t/td ) + y n − Wec cos(ω∆t) − (y n − Wec ) sin(ω∆t) td (15. 2009 15-81 .10-19) This is the limiting case.10 Secondary Breakup Model Theory Velocity of Child Droplets The TAB model allows for a velocity component normal to the parent droplet velocity to be imposed upon the child droplets.0 c ANSYS.10-17) Droplet Breakup To model droplet breakup. are to update y using a discretized form of Equation 15. January 29. Therefore. the child droplets will have a velocity normal to the parent droplet velocity given by vnormal = Cv Cb r where Cv is a constant of order (1).

10-16) and a spread parameter of 3. N .10-22) If tbu > tn+1 . 15-82 Release 12. and y and (dy/dt) are updated by Equations 15. then breakup will not occur during the current time step.10-25) It is assumed that the child droplets are neither distorted nor oscillating. The value of tbu is set to the time required for oscillations to grow suﬃciently large that the magnitude of the droplet distortion.e. The breakup time. The number of child droplets. i. The breakup time is therefore the smallest root greater than tn of an undamped version of Equation 15.10-23) (15. tbu . must be determined to see if breakup occurs within the time step ∆t. The breakup time is determined under the assumption that the droplet oscillation is undamped for its ﬁrst period. y. then breakup will occur and the child droplet radii are determined by Equation 15.10-20 and 15. The child droplets are represented by a number of child parcels which are created from the original parcel.. January 29. Inc.5. then breakup is possible.10-16.10-19 is met.10-21. If the criterion of Equation 15. The diameter of each of the child parcels is sampled from a Rosin Rammler distribution based on the Sauter mean radius (Equation 15.0 c ANSYS. The breakup calculation then continues with the next droplet.Discrete Phase All of the constants in these expressions are assumed to be constant throughout the time step. is equal to unity. y = (dy/dt) = 0. if tn < tbu < tn+1 . 2009 . Conversely. These child parcels are distributed equally along the equator of the parent droplet in a plane normal to the parent relative velocity vector. is determined by mass conservation: N n+1 = N n rn rn+1 3 (15.10-7: Wec + A cos[ω(t − tn ) + φ] = 1 where cos φ = and sin φ = − (dy/dt)n Aω (15.10-24) y n − Wec A (15.

0 c ANSYS. ρ1 . and a cylindrical polar coordinate system is used which moves with the jet. you may wish to inject a modest number of droplets initially. Jet Stability Analysis The jet stability analysis described in detail by Reitz and Bracco [289] is presented brieﬂy here. liquid jet of radius a issuing from a circular oriﬁce at a velocity v into a stagnant. viscous. The model assumes that the time of breakup and the resulting droplet size are related to the fastest-growing Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. and viscosity. with magnitude computed by Equation 15. inviscid gas of density ρ2 . i A large number of child parcels ensures a smooth distribution of particle diameters and source terms which is needed when simulating. k = 2π/λ.10-17.10 Secondary Breakup Model Theory A velocity component normal to the relative velocity vector.2 Wave Breakup Model Introduction An alternative to the TAB model that is appropriate for high-Weber-number ﬂows is the wave breakup model of Reitz [287]. is imposed upon the child droplets.10. The wavelength and growth rate of this instability are used to predict details of the newlyformed droplets. Inc. derived from the jet stability analysis described below.10-26) is imposed on the initially steady motion and it is thus desired to ﬁnd the dispersion relation ω = ω(k) which relates the real part of the growth rate. An arbitrary inﬁnitesimal axisymmetric surface displacement of the form η = η0 eikz+ωt (15.15. where the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is believed to dominate droplet breakup (We > 100). The analysis considers the stability of a cylindrical. µ1 . evaporating sprays. 2009 15-83 . Use and Limitations The wave model is appropriate for high-speed injections. Release 12. Because this breakup model can increase the number of computational parcels. incompressible. 15. to its wave number. ω. for example. It is decomposed at the equator into components pointing radially outward. which considers the breakup of the droplets to be induced by the relative velocity between the gas and liquid phases. The liquid has a density. January 29.

continuity of shear stress.0 c ANSYS. I0 and I1 are modiﬁed Bessel functions of the ﬁrst kind.10-31) σ ∂2η η + a2 2 a2 ∂z + p2 = 0 (15.10-27) (15.10-31 was obtained under the assumption that v2 = 0. and σ is the surface tension. L2 = k 2 + ω/ν1 . v1 is the radial perturbation liquid velocity.10-29) where K0 and K1 are modiﬁed Bessel functions of the second kind and u is the relative velocity between the liquid and the gas. the linearized equations for the hydrodynamics of the liquid are solved assuming wave solutions of the form φ1 = C1 I0 (kr)eikz+ωt ψ1 = C2 I1 (Lr)eikz+ωt (15. 15-84 Release 12. respectively.10-28) where φ1 and ψ1 are the velocity potential and stream function. January 29. The liquid pressure is obtained from the inviscid part of the liquid equations. In addition.10-32) which are mathematical statements of the liquid kinematic free surface condition. Inc. the inviscid gas equations can be solved to obtain the ﬂuctuating gas pressure at r = a: − p21 = −ρ2 (U − iωk)2 kη K0 (ka) K1 (ka) (15. The linearized boundary conditions are v1 = ∂u1 ∂r and − p1 + 2µ1 − ∂η ∂t ∂v1 = − ∂z (15. 2009 . C1 and C2 are integration constants. and ν1 is the liquid kinematic viscosity [287].Discrete Phase In order to determine the dispersion relation. and continuity of normal stress. Also note that Equation 15. Note that u1 is the axial perturbation liquid velocity.10-30) (15. respectively.

Thus.67 a (1 + 0. Equation 15.6 ρ1 a3 (0. Furthermore. when the pressure and velocity solutions are substituted into Equation 15.10-33 were generated for the maximum growth rate. Curve ﬁts of numerical solutions to Equation 15. 2009 15-85 . Inc.38We1. Λ. January 29.10-37) Release 12. breakup of droplet parcels is calculated by assuming that the radius of the newly-formed droplets is proportional to the wavelength of the fastest-growing unstable surface wave on the parent droplet.10-35) √ √ where Oh = We1 /Re1 is the Ohnesorge number and Ta = Oh We2 is the Taylor number. We1 = ρ1 U 2 a/σ and We2 = ρ2 U 2 a/σ are the liquid and gas Weber numbers.02 1.15. the desired dispersion relation is obtained: ω 2 + 2ν1 k 2 ω I1 (ka) 2kL I1 (ka) I1 (La) − 2 = I0 (ka) k + L2 I0 (ka) I1 (La) L 2 − a2 L 2 + a2 σk L2 − a2 (1 − k 2 a2 ) ρ 1 a2 L 2 + a2 I1 (ka) ρ2 ω + U −i I0 (ka) ρ1 k 2 I1 (ka) K0 (ka) (15.10-32.0 c ANSYS.10 Secondary Breakup Model Theory As described by Reitz [287]. Ω.5 ) 2 Ω = σ (1 + Oh)(1 + 1.61 based on the work of Reitz [287].5 )(1 + 0. and the corresponding wavelength.87We2 )0. and are given by Reitz [287]: Λ (1 + 0. Equations 15. r = B0 Λ (15. In other words.6 ) (15. Droplet Breakup In the wave model.7 ) = 9. and Re1 = U a/ν1 is the Reynolds number.4Ta0.10-33) I0 (ka) K1 (ka) As shown by Reitz [287]. r≤a dt τ (15.10-34) (15. respectively.45Oh0.10-36) where B0 is a model constant set equal to 0. Furthermore.10-27 and 15.10-28.10-31 can be used to eliminate the integration constants C1 and C2 in Equations 15.4Ta0. the rate of change of droplet radius in the parent parcel is given by da (a − r) =− .34 + 0.10-30 and 15.10-33 predicts that a maximum growth rate (or most unstable wave) exists for a given set of ﬂow conditions.

10-38) and Λ and Ω are obtained from Equations 15.Discrete Phase where the breakup time. if ANSYS FLUENT tracks a set of parcels. A larger number for B1 in the context of interaction with the gas phase would mean that the interaction with the subgrid is less intense. You must also specify the model constants which determine how the gas phase interacts with the liquid droplets. Thus. The breakup time constant. 2009 . respectively. and the momentum of the parent parcel is adjusted so that momentum is conserved.11 Droplet Collision and Coalescence Model Theory Introduction 15. This motivates the concept of parcels. Inc. (The factor of 1 appears because droplet A colliding with droplet 2 2 B is identical to droplet B colliding with droplet A. The velocity magnitude of the new parcel is the same as the parent parcel.) with the exception of radius and velocity. is set to a value of 1. [205]. Since a spray can consist of several million droplets. Because the cost of the collision calculation still scales with the square of N . For example. Values of B1 can range between 1 and 60. ANSYS FLUENT provides an option for estimating the number of droplet collisions and their outcomes in a computationally eﬃcient manner. January 29. the cost of the collision calculation is reduced by a factor of 106 .10-38 until the shed mass is equal to 5% of the initial parcel mass. Parcels are statistical representations of a number of individual droplets. The diﬃculty in any collision calculation is that for N droplets. This symmetry reduces the number of possible collision events by half. the computational cost of a collision calculation from ﬁrst principles is prohibitive. temperature.) An important consideration is that the collision algorithm must calculate 1 N 2 possible 2 collision events at every time step. For example. The new parcel is given a component of velocity randomly selected in the plane orthogonal to the direction vector of the parent parcel. the number of possible collision pairs is approximately 1 N 2 .11. At this time. mass is accumulated from the parent drop at a rate given by Equation 15. τ . depending on the injector characterization.1 When your simulation includes tracking of droplets. the breakup time constant B1 is the constant multiplying the time scale which determines how quickly the parcel will loose mass. a new parcel is created with a radius given by Equation 15.73 as recommended by Liu et al. 15.10-36. B1 .e.726B1 a ΛΩ (15. each droplet has N − 1 possible collision partners. the 15-86 Release 12. etc.10-35.. material. a larger number means that it takes longer for the particle to loose a given amount. is given by τ= 3. In the wave model.0 c ANSYS. each of which represents 1000 droplets. B0 is the constant for the drop size and is generally taken to be 0.10-34 and 15. The new parcel is given the same properties as the parent parcel (i. Therefore.61. position.

Inc. The coalescence of droplets tends to cause the spray to pull away from cell boundaries. The probability of each outcome is calculated from the collisional Weber number (W ec ) and a ﬁt to experimental observations. The state of the two colliding parcels is modiﬁed based on the outcome of the collision. the method of O’Rourke is second-order accurate at estimating the chance of collisions. the model is most applicable for low-Weber-number collisions where collisions result in bouncing and coalescence. The algorithm of O’Rourke [255] eﬃciently reduces the computational cost of the spray calculation. however. In two dimensions. the eﬀort to calculate the possible intersection of so many parcel trajectories would still be prohibitively expensive. Here. This is a result of the assumption that droplets can collide only within the same cell. the algorithm further determines the type of collision.11. the outcome of collision could be shattering. best results are achieved when the spray is modeled using a polar mesh with the spray at the center.15. If the collision model is used in a transient simulation. Only coalescence and bouncing outcomes are considered. You should adjust the particle length scale accordingly. These tend to be visible when the source of injection is at a mesh vertex. a ﬁner mesh and more computational droplets can be used to reduce these eﬀects. In such cases.0 c ANSYS. O’Rourke’s method is a stochastic estimate of collisions. 15. 2009 15-87 . Additionally. In three dimensions. Once it is decided that two parcels of droplets collide. Sometimes the collision model can cause mesh-dependent artifacts to appear in the spray. The concept of parcels together with the algorithm of O’Rourke makes the calculation of collision possible for practical spray problems. Rather than using geometry to see if parcel paths intersect. If the particle time step is too large. O’Rourke also makes the assumption that two parcels may collide only if they are located in the same continuous-phase cell. These two assumptions are valid only when the continuous-phase cell size is small compared to the size of the spray. Above a Weber number of about 100. then the results may be timestep-dependent. W ec = 2 ρUrel D σ (15. For these conditions.11 Droplet Collision and Coalescence Model Theory reduction of cost is signiﬁcant.11-1) where Urel is the relative velocity between two parcels and D is the arithmetic mean diameter of the two parcels. only one DPM iteration per time step will be calculated. multiple DPM iterations per time step cannot be speciﬁed in the Number of Continuous Phase Iterations per DPM Iteration ﬁeld in the Discrete Phase Model dialog box.2 Use and Limitations The collision model assumes that the frequency of collisions is much less than the particle time step. January 29. Release 12.

11-2 can be generalized for parcels. a collision will take place. called the collector droplet and identiﬁed below with the number 1. O’Rourke’s algorithm assumes that two droplets may collide only if they are in the same continuous-phase cell. Thus. where there are n1 and n2 droplets in the collector and smaller droplet parcels.11-2) Equation 15.3 Theory As noted above.11. but not in the same cell. The calculation is in the frame of reference of the larger droplet so that the velocity of the collector droplet is zero.11-3) 15-88 Release 12. Inc. It is known that the smaller droplet is somewhere within the continuous-phase cell of volume V . respectively. If the smaller droplet is on a collision course with the collector. The collector undergoes a mean expected number of collisions given by n= ¯ n2 π(r1 + r2 )2 vrel ∆t V (15. More precisely. Probability of Collision The probability of collision of two droplets is derived from the point of view of the larger droplet. The algorithm of O’Rourke uses the concept of a collision volume to calculate the probability of collision. if the smaller droplet center passes within a ﬂat circle centered around the collector of area π(r1 + r2 )2 perpendicular to the trajectory of the smaller droplet. January 29.0 c ANSYS. Rather than calculating whether or not the position of the smaller droplet center is within the collision volume. 2009 . If there is a uniform probability of the droplet being anywhere within the cell. This assumption can prevent droplets that are quite close to each other. namely π(r1 + r2 )2 vrel ∆t. The smaller droplet is identiﬁed in the following derivation with the number 2. which is the area of the aforementioned disk multiplied by the distance traveled by the smaller droplet in one time step. from colliding. the centers will pass within a distance of r1 + r2 . although the eﬀect of this error is lessened by allowing some droplets that are farther apart to collide. The overall accuracy of the scheme is second-order in space. then the chance of the droplet being within the collision volume is the ratio of the two volumes. the algorithm calculates the probability of the smaller droplet being within the collision volume.Discrete Phase 15. Only the relative distance between the collector and the smaller droplet is important in this derivation. This disk can be used to deﬁne the collision volume. the probability of the collector colliding with the smaller droplet is P1 = π(r1 + r2 )2 vrel ∆t V (15.

the collision oﬀset parameter.11-4) where n is the number of collisions between a collector and other droplets. where f is a function of r1 /r2 . deﬁned as (15. Inc. The calculated value of b is compared to bcrit .15. where Y is a random number between 0 and 1. the probability of coalescence can be related to the oﬀset of the collector droplet center and the trajectory of the smaller droplet. and bouncing if the collision is more oblique.0 c ANSYS. The properties of the coalesced droplets are found from the basic conservation laws. according to O’Rourke. In the reference frame being used here. the outcome tends to be coalescence if the droplets collide headon.11 Droplet Collision and Coalescence Model Theory The actual number of collisions that the collector experiences is not generally the mean expected number of collisions. and if b < bcrit . Using assumed forms for the energy loss. is (r1 + r2 ) Y .11-5) r1 (15.11-6) r2 √ The value of the actual collision parameter. the outcome of the collision must be determined. Equation 15. In general. b. f = − 2.11-4 gives the number of smaller droplets that coalesce with the collector.4f We bcrit = (r1 + r2 ) min 1. the new velocities are calculated based on conservation of momentum and kinetic energy. It is assumed that some fraction of the kinetic energy of the droplets is lost to viscous dissipation and angular momentum generation.11-7) Release 12. which is given by n P (n) = e−¯ nn ¯ n! (15. Collision Outcomes Once it is determined that two parcels collide. The critical oﬀset is calculated by O’Rourke using the expression 2.7 In the case of a grazing collision. O’Rourke derived the following expression for the new velocity: m1 v1 + m2 v2 + m2 (v1 − v2 ) m1 + m2 b − bcrit r1 + r2 − bcrit r1 r2 r1 r2 3 r1 r2 2 v1 = (15. 2009 15-89 . The critical oﬀset is a function of the collisional Weber number and the relative radii of the collector and the smaller droplet.0. January 29. The probability distribution of the number of collisions follows a Poisson distribution. the result of the collision is coalescence. This fraction is related to b.4 + 2.

while the continuous phase always impacts the discrete phase.1: Heat. ANSYS FLUENT keeps track of the heat. and momentum from the particle to the continuous phase is depicted qualitatively in Figure 15. where the discrete phase trajectories have no impact on the continuum.1 Coupling Between the Discrete and Continuous Phases As the trajectory of a particle is computed. you can also incorporate the eﬀect of the discrete phase trajectories on the continuum.1. Inc.12.12. 15. This two-way coupling is accomplished by alternately solving the discrete and continuous phase equations until the solutions in both phases have stopped changing. typical particle trajectory mass-exchange heat-exchange momentum-exchange typical continuous phase control volume Figure 15. In the coupled approach.12 One-Way and Two-Way Coupling You can use ANSYS FLUENT to predict the discrete phase patterns based on a ﬁxed continuous phase ﬂow ﬁeld (an uncoupled approach or “one-way coupling”). and you can alternate calculations of the continuous phase and discrete phase equations until a converged coupled solution is achieved. or you can include the eﬀect of the discrete phase on the continuum (a coupled approach or “two-way coupling”). No other droplet properties are altered in grazing collisions. January 29. the continuous phase ﬂow pattern is impacted by the discrete phase (and vice versa). Mass.12. and Momentum Transfer Between the Discrete and Continuous Phases 15-90 Release 12. mass. and momentum gained or lost by the particle stream that follows that trajectory and these quantities can be incorporated in the subsequent continuous phase calculations.0 c ANSYS. 2009 . This interphase exchange of heat.Discrete Phase This relation is used for each of the components of velocity. 15. Thus. mass. Note that no interchange terms are computed for particles deﬁned as massless.

This momentum change is computed as 18µCD Re (up − u) + Fother mp ∆t ˙ ρp d2 24 p F = where µ ρp dp Re up u CD mp ˙ ∆t Fother = = = = = = = = = = (15.0 ˙ (mp in − mp out )[−Hlatref + Hpyrol ] − mp out mp.2 Momentum Exchange The momentum transfer from the continuous phase to the discrete phase is computed in ANSYS FLUENT by examining the change in momentum of a particle as it passes through each control volume in the ANSYS FLUENT model.3 Heat Exchange The heat transfer from the continuous phase to the discrete phase is computed in ANSYS FLUENT by examining the change in thermal energy of a particle as it passes through each control volume in the ANSYS FLUENT model. Inc.12-1) viscosity of the ﬂuid density of the particle diameter of the particle relative Reynolds number velocity of the particle velocity of the ﬂuid drag coeﬃcient mass ﬂow rate of the particles time step other interaction forces This momentum exchange appears as a momentum source in the continuous phase momentum balance in any subsequent calculations of the continuous phase ﬂow ﬁeld and can be reported by ANSYS FLUENT as described in Section 23.7: Postprocessing for the Discrete Phase in the separate User’s Guide.12 One-Way and Two-Way Coupling 15. In the absence of a chemical reaction (i.12-2) Release 12.12.12. 2009 15-91 . for all particle laws except Law 5) the heat exchange is computed as Q= mp.0 c ANSYS. 15.15.e. January 29.0 Tp out Tref cp p dT + mp in Tp in Tref cp p dT (15..

January 29.12-5) 15-92 Release 12.4 Mass Exchange The mass transfer from the discrete phase to the continuous phase is computed in ANSYS FLUENT by examining the change in mass of a particle as it passes through each control volume in the ANSYS FLUENT model. and can be related to the latent heat at the boiling point as follows: Hlatref = Hlat − where cp g Tbp Hlat = heat capacity of gas product species (J/kg-K) = boiling point temperature (K) = latent heat at the boiling point temperature (J/kg) Tbp Tref Tbp cp g dT + Tref cp p dT (15. one consisting of the ﬂuid and the other consisting of the volatiles. 2009 .0 c ANSYS.12-3) For the volatile part of the combusting particles.12-4) 15. Inc.0 ˙ mp.Discrete Phase where mp. The formulation should be consistent with the mixing of two gas streams.0 ˙ mp.0 mp in mp out cp p Hpyrol Tp in Tp out Tref Hlatref = = = = = = = = = = initial mass ﬂow rate of the particle injection (kg/s) initial mass of the particle (kg) mass of the particle on cell entry (kg) mass of the particle on cell exit (kg) heat capacity of the particle (J/kg-K) heat of pyrolysis as volatiles are evolved (J/kg) temperature of the particle on cell entry (K) temperature of the particle on cell exit (K) reference temperature for enthalpy (K) latent heat at reference conditions (J/kg) The latent heat at the reference conditions Hlatref for droplet particles is computed as the diﬀerence of the liquid and gas standard formation enthalpies. some constraints are applied to ensure that the enthalpy source terms do not depend on the particle history. Hence Hlatref is derived by applying a correction to Hlat .12.0 (15.init Tref Tp. which accounts for diﬀerent heat capacities in the particle and gaseous phase: Hlatref = Hlat − where Tp. The mass change is computed simply as M= ∆mp mp.init = particle initial temperature (K) Tp.init cp g dT + Tref cp p dT (15.

Keep in mind that the DPM source terms are updated every continuous ﬂow iteration. at the same time.12 One-Way and Two-Way Coupling This mass exchange appears as a source of mass in the continuous phase continuity equation and as a source of a chemical species deﬁned by you. Two options exist when updating the new particle source terms Fnew . Fcalculated . Release 12. Qnew and Mnew .12-6) Qnew = Qold + α(Qcalculated − Qold ) (15. while the particle source terms. heat. The latter option is recommended for transient ﬂows. changes with the number of updates for varying under-relaxation factors. January 29. Qcalculated and Mcalculated . when applied to the ﬂow equations.12.12. S. Qnew and Mnew . In Figure 15.2 can be applied to this option as well.12.12-8) where α is the under-relaxation factor for particles/droplets. so that Fnew = Fold + α(Fcalculated − Fold ) (15. 2009 15-93 .2 shows how the source term.15. are calculated every Discrete Phase Model iteration.5.7: Postprocessing for the Discrete Phase in the separate User’s Guide.5 Under-Relaxation of the Interphase Exchange Terms Note that the interphase exchange of momentum. Inc.12-7) Mnew = Mold + α(Mcalculated − Mold ) (15. Figure 15. Note that the value of α does not inﬂuence the predictions obtained in the ﬁnal converged solution. The ﬁrst option is to compute the new source terms and the particle source terms. Fcalculated . The mass sources are included in any subsequent calculations of the continuous phase ﬂow ﬁeld and are reported by ANSYS FLUENT as described in Section 23. S∞ is the ﬁnal source term for which a value is reached after a certain number of updates and S0 is the initial source term at the start of the computation.12. The second option is to update the new source terms. 15.2. The value of S0 is typically zero at the beginning of the calculation. every ﬂow iteration.0 c ANSYS. Fnew . The default value for α is 0. Figure 15. and mass is under-relaxed during the calculation. where the particles are updated once per ﬂow time step. This value may be reduced to improve the stability of coupled calculations. Qcalculated and Mcalculated .

January 29.2: Eﬀect of Number of Source Term Updates on Source Term Applied to Flow Equations 15-94 Release 12.0 c ANSYS. 2009 .12.Discrete Phase Figure 15. Inc.

the interphase exchange terms are computed via Equations 15.12-8 based on ensemble-averaged ﬂow properties in the particle cloud. Inc. Release 12. mp0 .12. the interphase exchange terms. divided by the number of stochastic tracks computed.12-8.15.12 One-Way and Two-Way Coupling 15.12-1 to 15. 15.12. 2009 15-95 . are computed for each stochastic trajectory with the particle mass ﬂow rate. The exchange terms are then distributed to all the cells in the cloud based on the weighting factor deﬁned in Equation 15.2-49. This implies ˙ that an equal mass ﬂow of particles follows each stochastic trajectory.7 Interphase Exchange During Cloud Tracking When the particle cloud model is used. January 29.0 c ANSYS. computed via Equations 15.6 Interphase Exchange During Stochastic Tracking When stochastic tracking is performed.12-1 to 15.

2009 . Inc.0 c ANSYS.Discrete Phase 15-96 Release 12. January 29.

2: Choosing a General Multiphase Model • Section 16. For information about using the general multiphase models in ANSYS FLUENT.0 c ANSYS.5: Eulerian Model Theory • Section 16. and Chapter 17: Solidiﬁcation and Melting describes ANSYS FLUENT’s model for solidiﬁcation and melting. Information about the various theories behind the multiphase models is presented in the following sections: • Section 16. Section 16.Chapter 16.4: Mixture Model Theory • Section 16. Inc.6: Wet Steam Model Theory • Section 16.1: Introduction provides a brief introduction to multiphase modeling.1: Introduction • Section 16.7: Modeling Mass Transfer in Multiphase Flows • Section 16. see Chapter 24: Modeling Multiphase Flows in the separate User’s Guide.8: Modeling Species Transport in Multiphase Flows Release 12. Multiphase Flows This chapter discusses the general multiphase models that are available in ANSYS FLUENT.3: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory • Section 16. 2009 16-1 . January 29. Chapter 15: Discrete Phase discusses the Lagrangian dispersed phase model.

but the concept of phase in a multiphase ﬂow system is applied in a broader sense.Multiphase Flows 16.1: Multiphase Flow Regimes • Section 16. and solid. Gas-Liquid or Liquid-Liquid Flows The following regimes are gas-liquid or liquid-liquid ﬂows: • Bubbly ﬂow: This is the ﬂow of discrete gaseous or ﬂuid bubbles in a continuous ﬂuid. liquid-solid ﬂows. liquid.0 c ANSYS. 16-2 Release 12. 2009 . • Droplet ﬂow: This is the ﬂow of discrete ﬂuid droplets in a continuous gas.1 Introduction A large number of ﬂows encountered in nature and technology are a mixture of phases. • Stratiﬁed/free-surface ﬂow: This is the ﬂow of immiscible ﬂuids separated by a clearly-deﬁned interface. January 29.1. a phase can be deﬁned as an identiﬁable class of material that has a particular inertial response to and interaction with the ﬂow and the potential ﬁeld in which it is immersed. Information is organized into the following subsections: • Section 16. and three-phase ﬂows. In multiphase ﬂow. See Figure 16. For example.1 for illustrations of these regimes. Physical phases of matter are gas.2: Examples of Multiphase Systems 16. gas-solid ﬂows. Inc.1.1.1 Multiphase Flow Regimes Multiphase ﬂow regimes can be grouped into four categories: gas-liquid or liquid-liquid ﬂows.1. • Slug ﬂow: This is the ﬂow of large bubbles in a continuous ﬂuid. diﬀerent-sized solid particles of the same material can be treated as diﬀerent phases because each collection of particles with the same size will have a similar dynamical response to the ﬂow ﬁeld.

See Figure 16. • Pneumatic transport: This is a ﬂow pattern that depends on factors such as solid loading.1. Depending on the gas ﬂow rate.1 for illustrations of these regimes. Inc. bubbles appear and rise through the bed.1. At the bottom.0 c ANSYS. slug ﬂow. and homogeneous ﬂow. Reynolds numbers. the particles will slow down and form a sludge layer. January 29.2-4) is normally less than 1. Liquid-Solid Flows The following regimes are liquid-solid ﬂows: • Slurry ﬂow: This ﬂow is the transport of particles in liquids. into which a gas is introduced through a distributor. See Figure 16. The fundamental behavior of liquid-solid ﬂows varies with the properties of the solid particles relative to those of the liquid. and in the middle a constant settling zone will exist.16.1 Introduction Gas-Solid Flows The following regimes are gas-solid ﬂows: • Particle-laden ﬂow: This is ﬂow of discrete particles in a continuous gas. • Fluidized bed: This consists of a vertical cylinder containing particles. Typical patterns are dune ﬂow. Three-Phase Flows Three-phase ﬂows are combinations of the other ﬂow regimes listed in the previous sections. the Stokes number (see Equation 16. intensifying the mixing within the bed. Release 12. the characteristic of the ﬂow is liquid-solid ﬂuidization. and particle properties.1 for illustrations of these regimes. When the Stokes number is larger than 1. 2009 16-3 . In slurry ﬂows. At the top. The gas rising through the bed suspends the particles. • Hydrotransport: This describes densely-distributed solid particles in a continuous liquid • Sedimentation: This describes a tall column initially containing a uniform dispersed mixture of particles. a clear interface will appear.

0 c ANSYS.1: Multiphase Flow Regimes 16-4 Release 12.Multiphase Flows slug ﬂow bubbly. or particle-laden ﬂow stratiﬁed/free-surface ﬂow pneumatic transport. or slurry ﬂow sedimentation ﬂuidized bed Figure 16. Inc. droplet. January 29. hydrotransport. 2009 .1.

• Particle-laden ﬂow examples include cyclone separators. and metal powders.2 Choosing a General Multiphase Model The ﬁrst step in solving any multiphase problem is to determine which of the regimes provides some broad guidelines for determining appropriate models for each regime. or particles. • Pneumatic transport examples include transport of cement. Inc. aeration.2: Model Comparisons • Section 16.1: Approaches to Multiphase Modeling • Section 16. air lift pumps.1. 16. and scrubbers.1: Multiphase Flow Regimes are listed below: • Bubbly ﬂow examples include absorbers. combustors. air classiﬁers. January 29.2 Choosing a General Multiphase Model 16. and scrubbers.2. • Slug ﬂow examples include large bubble motion in pipes or tanks.0 c ANSYS. cavitation. dryers. evaporators.2. Information is organized into the following subsections: • Section 16. • Droplet ﬂow examples include absorbers. droplets.4: Stability and Convergence Release 12. cryogenic pumping.2.1. and how to determine the degree of interphase coupling for ﬂows involving bubbles.2 Examples of Multiphase Systems Speciﬁc examples of each regime described in Section 16. evaporation. and the appropriate model for diﬀerent amounts of coupling.2. gas cooling. and dust-laden environmental ﬂows. 2009 16-5 . • Slurry ﬂow examples include slurry transport and mineral processing • Hydrotransport examples include mineral processing and biomedical and physiochemical ﬂuid systems • Sedimentation examples include mineral processing. grains. • Fluidized bed examples include ﬂuidized bed reactors and circulating ﬂuidized beds.16. • Stratiﬁed/free-surface ﬂow examples include sloshing in oﬀshore separator devices and boiling and condensation in nuclear reactors.3: Time Schemes in Multiphase Flow • Section 16. atomizers. ﬂotation. dust collectors.

These equations are closed by providing constitutive relations that are obtained from empirical information. bubbly ﬂows. and the steady or transient tracking of any liquid-gas interface. It is designed for two or more immiscible ﬂuids where the position of the interface between the ﬂuids is of interest. three diﬀerent Euler-Euler multiphase models are available: the volume of ﬂuid (VOF) model. the motion of large bubbles in a liquid. 16-6 Release 12. The Euler-Euler Approach In the Euler-Euler approach. 2009 .2. Currently there are two approaches for the numerical calculation of multiphase ﬂows: the Euler-Lagrange approach (discussed in Section 15. the prediction of jet breakup (surface tension). sedimentation. The Mixture Model The mixture model (described in Section 16. and the volume fraction of each of the ﬂuids in each computational cell is tracked throughout the domain. In ANSYS FLUENT. January 29. ﬁlling. The mixture model solves for the mixture momentum equation and prescribes relative velocities to describe the dispersed phases. which have similar structure for all phases. Since the volume of a phase cannot be occupied by the other phases. in the case of granular ﬂows. In the VOF model. The VOF Model The VOF model (described in Section 16.0 c ANSYS.Multiphase Flows 16. and cyclone separators. the diﬀerent phases are treated mathematically as interpenetrating continua. the motion of liquid after a dam break.3: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory) is a surface-tracking technique applied to a ﬁxed Eulerian mesh.1: Introduction) and the Euler-Euler approach (discussed in the following section). The mixture model can also be used without relative velocities for the dispersed phases to model homogeneous multiphase ﬂow. the concept of phasic volume fraction is introduced. and the Eulerian model. As in the Eulerian model. or. Conservation equations for each phase are derived to obtain a set of equations. the mixture model. Inc. These volume fractions are assumed to be continuous functions of space and time and their sum is equal to one. Applications of the VOF model include stratiﬁed ﬂows.4: Mixture Model Theory) is designed for two or more phases (ﬂuid or particulate). by application of kinetic theory.1 Approaches to Multiphase Modeling Advances in computational ﬂuid mechanics have provided the basis for further insight into the dynamics of multiphase ﬂows. the phases are treated as interpenetrating continua. Applications of the mixture model include particle-laden ﬂows with low loading. sloshing. free-surface ﬂows. a single set of momentum equations is shared by the ﬂuids.

droplet. use either the mixture model (described in Section 16.3: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory for more information about the VOF model. complex multiphase ﬂows that involve multiple ﬂow regimes. Note that the accuracy of results will not be as good as for ﬂows that involve just one ﬂow regime. and choose the model that is most appropriate for that aspect of the ﬂow. See Section 16. ANSYS FLUENT’s user-deﬁned functions allow you to customize the calculation of the momentum exchange. • For pneumatic transport.3: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory for more information about the VOF model.5: Eulerian Model Theory). • For stratiﬁed/free-surface ﬂows.4: Mixture Model Theory) or the Eulerian model for granular ﬂow (described in Section 16. Coupling is achieved through the pressure and interphase exchange coeﬃcients. Momentum exchange between the phases is also dependent upon the type of mixture being modeled.4 and 16.2. See Section 16. in Sections 16. select the aspect of the ﬂow that is of most interest. Applications of the Eulerian multiphase model include bubble columns. granular (ﬂuid-solid) ﬂows are handled diﬀerently than nongranular (ﬂuid-ﬂuid) ﬂows. For granular ﬂows.5: Eulerian Model Theory for more information about the Eulerian model. use the mixture model for homogeneous ﬂow (described in Section 16. The manner in which this coupling is handled depends upon the type of phases involved. See Section 16. risers. • For slurry ﬂows and hydrotransport. See Section 16. use the Eulerian model for granular ﬂow.5: Eulerian Model Theory).16. once you have determined the ﬂow regime that best represents your multiphase system. It solves a set of n momentum and continuity equations for each phase. Release 12. and particle-laden ﬂows in which the phases mix and/or dispersed-phase volume fractions exceed 10%.5: Eulerian Model Theory) is the most complex of the multiphase models in ANSYS FLUENT.2 Choosing a General Multiphase Model The Eulerian Model The Eulerian model (described in Section 16. Inc.0 c ANSYS. use the Eulerian model. use the VOF model. • For slug ﬂows. 16. 2009 16-7 .5). • For sedimentation. and ﬂuidized beds. • For ﬂuidized beds. use the mixture or Eulerian model (described. you can select the appropriate model based on the following guidelines: • For bubbly. use the VOF model. January 29. • For general.4: Mixture Model Theory) or the Eulerian model (described in Section 16.2 Model Comparisons In general.5: Eulerian Model Theory for more information about the Eulerian model. the properties are obtained from application of kinetic theory. since the model you use will be valid for only part of the ﬂow you are modeling. particle suspension. respectively.

(Flows in which the dispersed-phase volume fractions are less than or equal to 10% can be modeled using the discrete phase model described in Chapter 15: Discrete Phase. which requires less computational eﬀort. 16-8 Release 12. the VOF model is appropriate for stratiﬁed or free-surface ﬂows.) To choose between the mixture model and the Eulerian model. January 29. the Eulerian model can usually provide more accurate results than the mixture model. Even though you can apply the same drag laws to the mixture model. For more information on the dynamic mesh feature. the mixture model may be a better option. For more information about how other ANSYS FLUENT models are compatible with ANSYS FLUENT’s multiphase models.e. • If interphase drag laws that are applicable to your system are available (either within ANSYS FLUENT or through a user-deﬁned function). however. since it solves a smaller number of equations than the Eulerian model.e. ANSYS FLUENT’s multiphase models are compatible with ANSYS FLUENT’s dynamic mesh modeling feature. less computationally expensive).Multiphase Flows As discussed in this section. if the particles vary in size and the largest particles do not separate from the primary ﬂow ﬁeld).. For cases with nonspherical particles. the mixture model may be preferable (i. Inc. the mixture model may be a better choice. then a user-deﬁned function can be used. For most cases with spherical particles. and the mixture and Eulerian models are appropriate for ﬂows in which the phases mix or separate and/or dispersed-phase volume fractions exceed 10%. If the dispersed phases are concentrated just in portions of the domain. 2009 . then the Schiller-Naumann law is more than adequate. the Eulerian model is a better choice. as you can for a nongranular Eulerian simulation. see Appendix A: ANSYS FLUENT Model Compatibility in the separate User’s Guide. that the complexity of the Eulerian model can make it less computationally stable than the mixture model. Keep in mind.. see Section 3: Flows Using Sliding and Deforming Meshes. you should consider the following guidelines: • If there is a wide distribution of the dispersed phases (i. • If you want to solve a simpler problem. If accuracy is more important than computational eﬀort. you should use the Eulerian model instead. if the interphase drag laws are unknown or their applicability to your system is questionable.0 c ANSYS.

The particulate loading is deﬁned as the mass density ratio of the dispersed phase (d) to that of the carrier phase (c): β= The material density ratio γ= ρd ρc (16.) The Effect of Particulate Loading Particulate loading has a major impact on phase interactions. Information about these parameters is important for determining how the γ dispersed phase should be treated. the particle can therefore be treated as isolated (i. [62]: L π1+κ = dd 6 κ 1/3 (16.16. St. 2009 16-9 .0 c ANSYS. Using these parameters it is possible to estimate the average distance between the individual particles of the particulate phase. there are some parameters that help to identify the appropriate multiphase model for these other ﬂows: the particulate loading. droplet. is straightforward.2-3) where κ = β . and the Stokes number. the interparticle space dd is about 8.e. As a general guide. the choice of the VOF model. (Note that the word “particle” is used in this discussion to refer to a particle. about 1 for liquid-solid ﬂows.. β.2. Inc.2-1) is greater than 1000 for gas-solid ﬂows. as indicated in Section 16.2-2) αd ρd αc ρc (16.2 Choosing a General Multiphase Model Detailed Guidelines For stratiﬁed and slug ﬂows. An estimate of this distance has been given by Crowe et al. for a gas-particle ﬂow with a particulate L loading of 1. Choosing a model for the other types of ﬂows is less straightforward. Release 12. very low particulate loading).2: Model Comparisons. For example. and less than 0.001 for gas-liquid ﬂows. January 29. or bubble.

mixture. The discrete phase (Chapter 15: Discrete Phase). For St > 1.. you can choose the least expensive or the most appropriate considering other factors. in most cases). estimating the value of the Stokes number can help you select the most appropriate model. mixture.0 c ANSYS. the discrete phase or mixture model is recommended. there is two-way coupling plus particle pressure and viscous stresses due to particles (four-way coupling). again any of the three models is applicable.2-4) d where τd = 18µd and ts is based on the characteristic length (Ls ) and the characteristic c s velocity (Vs ) of the system under investigation: ts = Ls . For St ≈ 1. V For St 1. the ﬂuid carrier inﬂuences the particulate phase via drag and turbulence. and Eulerian models can all handle this type of problem correctly.Multiphase Flows Depending on the particulate loading. Inc.0. January 29. you can therefore choose the least expensive (the mixture model.0. the ﬂuid carrier inﬂuences the particles via drag and turbulence.. • For high loading. Only the Eulerian model will handle this type of problem correctly. The Signiﬁcance of the Stokes Number For systems with intermediate particulate loading.e. the particle will follow the ﬂow closely and any of the three models (discrete phase(Chapter 15: Discrete Phase) . and Eulerian models are all applicable in this case. but the particles have no inﬂuence on the ﬂuid carrier). 16-10 Release 12. See below for information about using the Stokes number as a guide. but the particles in turn inﬂuence the carrier ﬂuid via reduction in mean momentum and turbulence). Since the Eulerian model is the most expensive. The Stokes number can be deﬁned as the relation between the particle response time and the system response time: St = ρ d2 τd ts (16. the particles will move independently of the ﬂow and either the discrete phase model (Chapter 15: Discrete Phase) or the Eulerian model is applicable.0. or the most appropriate considering other factors. 2009 . the coupling between the phases is one-way (i. or Eulerian) is applicable. mixture. The discrete phase(Chapter 15: Discrete Phase) . but you need to take into account other factors in order to decide which model is more appropriate. the degree of interaction between the phases can be divided into the following three categories: • For very low loading.e. the coupling is two-way (i. • For intermediate loading.

(The volume fractions are too high for the discrete phase model (Chapter 15: Discrete Phase). In this case. as noted below.2 m and a characteristic velocity of 2 m/s. i The second-order time scheme cannot be used with the VOF Explicit Schemes. January 29. energy equations. a general transport equation (similar to that of Equation 18. and with the VOF Implicit Scheme. the pressure correction equation. For the case of mineral processing.16. τ is the diﬀusion term.0 for particles with a diameter of 300 microns. 16. species transport equations. In multiphase ﬂow. Release 12. the discrete phase model is the only multiphase model that allows you to specify the particle distribution or include combustion modeling in your simulation. ρ is the mixture phase density. turbulence models. including mixture phase momentum equations.3 Time Schemes in Multiphase Flow In many multiphase applications. in a system with a characteristic length of 0.2. Clearly the mixture model will not be applicable to the latter case.005 for particles with a diameter of 300 microns. but 4.3-15) may be written as ∂(αρφ) + ∂t · (αρV φ) = · τ + Sφ (16. The second-order time scheme has been adapted to all the transport equations.04 for particles with a diameter of 30 microns. the Stokes number is 0. phase volume fraction equations. In addition to the ﬁrst-order time scheme in ANSYS FLUENT. you can choose between the mixture and Eulerian models.2 Choosing a General Multiphase Model Examples For a coal classiﬁer with a characteristic length of 1 m and a characteristic velocity of 10 m/s. the second-order time scheme is available in the Mixture and Eulerian multiphase models. Also.) Other Considerations Keep in mind that the use of the discrete phase model (Chapter 15: Discrete Phase) is limited to low volume fractions. and the granular ﬂow model. and Sφ is the source term. Inc. the process can vary spatially as well as temporally. V is the mixture or phase velocity (depending on the equations).2-5) Where φ is either a mixture (for the mixture model) or a phase variable. the Stokes number is 0.0 c ANSYS. both higher-order spatial and time discretization schemes are necessary. In order to accurately model multiphase ﬂow. 2009 16-11 . α is the phase volume fraction (unity for the mixture equation).

16-12 Release 12. When solving a time-dependent problem. which usually arise from poor initial ﬁelds. may produce oscillatory solutions if the time steps are large. in this version of ANSYS FLUENT.5(αp ρp φp V ol)n−1 ∆t This scheme is easily implemented based on ANSYS FLUENT’s existing ﬁrst-order Euler scheme. For a steady solution. For single phase and multiphase compressible liquid ﬂows. it is recommended that you use the Multiphase Coupled solver. 16. by default. however. which can be increased after performing a few time steps to get a better approximation of the pressure ﬁeld. or if the solution requires higher order numerical schemes.2-5 is discretized as 3(αp ρp φp V ol)n+1 − 4(αp ρp φp V ol)n + (αp ρp φp )n−1 = 2∆t [Anb (φnb − φp )]n+1 + S U n+1 − S p n+1 φp n+1 Equation 16. Therefore. The iterative nature of this solver requires a good starting patched ﬁeld. 2009 . the second-order time scheme is. January 29.Multiphase Flows As a fully implicit scheme. If the CPU time is a concern for transient problems. This problem can be eliminated if a bounded second-order scheme is introduced.2-7) Sφ = S U n+1 + 2(αp ρp φp V ol)n −0. Inc.0 c ANSYS. Equation 16.1: Coupled Solution for Multiphase Flows in the separate User’s Guide.2. the negative coeﬃcient at the time level tn−1 . the bounded scheme.3-17).2-6) An bφn b + Sφ (16. then the best option is to use PC SIMPLE. a proper initial ﬁeld is required to avoid instabilities.7. it is recommended that you start with a small time step. described in detail in Section 24. When body forces are signiﬁcant. this second-order time-accurate scheme achieves its accuracy by using an Euler backward approximation in time (see Equation 18. oscillating solutions are most likely seen in compressible liquid ﬂows.5(αp ρp V ol)n+1 ∆t (16.4 Stability and Convergence The process of solving a multiphase system is inherently diﬃcult and you may encounter some stability or convergence problems. a bounded second-order time scheme has been implemented for compressible liquid ﬂows only. of the three-time level method.2-6 can be written in simpler form: Ap φp = where Ap = Anb n+1 + S p n+1 + 1. However. The general transport equation. It is unconditionally stable.

All other under-relaxation factors are implicit. ANSYS FLUENT oﬀers a Full Multiphase Coupled solver where all velocities.16. In addition. This can later be increased if the iteration process runs smoothly.3.10: Open Channel Wave Boundary Conditions Release 12.2: Volume Fraction Equation • Section 16. on the contrary.3. or due to the complexities of the problem.5 or above is adequate).3.1: Overview and Limitations of the VOF Model • Section 16.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory Information is organized into the following subsections: • Section 16. January 29. The default Courant number is 200 but it can be reduced to as low as 4. pressure correction and volume fraction correction are solved simultaneously. In addition. ANSYS FLUENT has an option to solve stratiﬁed immiscible ﬂuids within the Eulerian multiphase formulation.3.6: Additional Scalar Equations • Section 16. but in the context of multiple velocities.5: Energy Equation • Section 16.7: Time Dependence • Section 16.3. This feature is similar to the single ﬂuid VOF solution.3.9: Open Channel Flow • Section 16.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory If diﬃculties are encountered due to higher order schemes. there are explicit under-relaxation factors for velocities and pressure. you may need to reduce the Courant number.3. PC SIMPLE would normally need a low under-relaxation for the volume fraction equation.3: Material Properties • Section 16. 2009 16-13 .3.8: Surface Tension and Wall Adhesion • Section 16.3.4: Momentum Equation • Section 16. Lower under-relaxation factors for the volume of fraction equation may delay the solution dramatically with the Coupled solver (any value 0.3.0 c ANSYS. 16. which currently is not as robust as the others. Furthermore. Inc.

There is no limitation on using compressible liquids using user-deﬁned functions. when running in parallel. and the steady or transient tracking of any liquid-gas interface.0 c ANSYS. the motion of liquid after a dam break. • Only one of the phases can be deﬁned as a compressible ideal gas. enables the compatibility of all multiphase ﬂow models with the DPM model. The VOF model does not allow for void regions where no ﬂuid of any type is present. Typical applications include the prediction of jet breakup. • When tracking particles in parallel. • The second-order implicit time-stepping formulation cannot be used with the VOF explicit scheme. the DPM model cannot be used with the VOF model if the shared memory option is enabled (Section 23. • Streamwise periodic ﬂow (either speciﬁed mass ﬂow rate or speciﬁed pressure drop) cannot be modeled when the VOF model is used.Multiphase Flows 16.1 Overview and Limitations of the VOF Model Overview The VOF model can model two or more immiscible ﬂuids by solving a single set of momentum equations and tracking the volume fraction of each of the ﬂuids throughout the domain. (Note that using the message passing option.3. Inc.) 16-14 Release 12. the motion of large bubbles in a liquid. Limitations The following restrictions apply to the VOF model in ANSYS FLUENT: • You must use the pressure-based solver. • All control volumes must be ﬁlled with either a single ﬂuid phase or a combination of phases. January 29.8: Parallel Processing for the Discrete Phase Model in the separate User’s Guide). The VOF model is not available with the density-based solver. 2009 .

it is possible to perform a steady-state calculation. By default. if the q th ﬂuid’s volume fraction in the cell is denoted as αq . The VOF formulation relies on the fact that two or more ﬂuids (or phases) are not interpenetrating.3-1. or representative of a mixture of the phases. the appropriate properties and variables will be assigned to each control volume within the domain. depending upon the volume fraction values. For the q th phase. On the other hand. A steady-state VOF calculation is sensible only when your solution is independent of the initial conditions and there are distinct inﬂow boundaries for the individual phases. as long as the volume fraction of each of the phases is known at each location. Based on the local value of αq . a variable is introduced: the volume fraction of the phase in the computational cell. 2009 16-15 . • αq = 1: The cell is full (of the q th ﬂuid). For each additional phase that you add to your model. January 29.0 c ANSYS. • 0 < αq < 1: The cell contains the interface between the q th ﬂuid and one or more other ﬂuids. the source term on the right-hand side of Equation 16. Thus the variables and properties in any given cell are either purely representative of one of the phases. For example. 16. Inc. since the shape of the free surface inside a rotating cup depends on the initial level of the ﬂuid. then the following three conditions are possible: • αq = 0: The cell is empty (of the q th ﬂuid). The ﬁelds for all variables and properties are shared by the phases and represent volume-averaged values. In other words. but for problems in which you are concerned only with a steady-state solution. In each control volume. this equation has the following form: 1 ∂ (αq ρq ) + ρq ∂t n · (αq ρq vq ) = Sαq + p=1 (mpq − mqp ) ˙ ˙ (16.16.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory Steady-State and Transient VOF Calculations The VOF formulation in ANSYS FLUENT is generally used to compute a time-dependent solution. the volume fractions of all phases sum to unity. the ﬂow of water in a channel with a region of air on top and a separate air inlet can be solved with the steady-state formulation. such a problem must be solved using the time-dependent formulation.3.2 Volume Fraction Equation The tracking of the interface(s) between the phases is accomplished by the solution of a continuity equation for the volume fraction of one (or more) of the phases.3-1) where mqp is the mass transfer from phase q to phase p and mpq is the mass transfer from ˙ ˙ phase p to phase q. Release 12.

ANSYS FLUENT’s standard ﬁnite-diﬀerence interpolation schemes are applied to the volume fraction values that were computed at the previous time step. QUICK.2.3-2) The volume fraction equation may be solved either through implicit or explicit time discretization. Inc.3-4) p=1 16-16 Release 12. and the Modiﬁed HRIC schemes. The implicit scheme can be used for both time-dependent and steady-state calculations.7: Modeling Mass Transfer in Multiphase Flows for more information on the modeling of mass transfer in ANSYS FLUENT’s general multiphase models. n+1 n αq ρn+1 − αq ρn q q V + ∆t n n (ρq Uf αq. are used to obtain the face ﬂuxes for all cells. n+1 n αq ρn+1 − αq ρn q q V + ∆t n+1 n+1 (ρn+1 Uf αq. but you can specify a constant or user-deﬁned mass source for each phase.f ) = Sαq + q f n p=1 (mpq − mqp ) V ˙ ˙ (16. including those near the interface. See Section 24. Second Order Upwind and First Order Upwind. the primary-phase volume fraction will be computed based on the following constraint: n αq = 1 q=1 (16. ANSYS FLUENT’s standard ﬁnite-diﬀerence interpolation schemes. a standard scalar transport equation is solved iteratively for each of the secondary-phase volume fractions at each time step.0 c ANSYS. 2009 . as for the explicit scheme).2: Choosing a Volume Fraction Formulation in the separate User’s Guide for details. The Implicit Scheme When the implicit scheme is used for time discretization. The volume fraction equation will not be solved for the primary phase. See Section 16. is zero.3-3) Since this equation requires the volume fraction values at the current time step (rather than at the previous step. January 29.Multiphase Flows Sαq . The Explicit Scheme In the explicit approach.f ) = f n (mpq − mqp ) + Sαq V ˙ ˙ (16.

3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory where n + 1 = index for new (current) time step n = index for previous time step αq. and QUICK. CICSAM.3.1: QUICK Scheme. January 29.3.16. modiﬁed HRIC (Section 18. based on normal velocity This formulation does not require iterative solution of the transport equation during each time step. QUICK. Modiﬁed HRIC.2: Interpolation near the Interface). as is needed for the implicit scheme. In the geometric reconstruction and donor-acceptor schemes.f = face value of the q th volume fraction.1: Second-Order Upwind Scheme). Second Order Upwind. or CICSAM scheme). rather than applying a special treatment. or CICSAM scheme V = volume of cell Uf = volume ﬂux through the face. Figure 16.0 c ANSYS. second-order (Section 18.3. 2009 16-17 .3. computed from the ﬁrstor second-order upwind. QUICK (Section 18.1: Modiﬁed HRIC Scheme).. modiﬁed HRIC. the face ﬂuxes can be interpolated either using interface reconstruction or using a ﬁnite volume discretization scheme (Section 16.1 shows an actual interface shape along with the interfaces assumed during computation by these two methods. The reconstruction based schemes available in ANSYS FLUENT are Geo-Reconstruct and Donor-Acceptor.1: First-Order Upwind Scheme). ANSYS FLUENT applies a special interpolation treatment to the cells that lie near the interface between two phases. The discretization schemes available with explicit scheme for VOF are First Order Upwind.3.3. When the explicit scheme is used for time discretization. Release 12. using the standard upwind (Section 18. Interpolation near the Interface ANSYS FLUENT’s control-volume formulation requires that convection and diﬀusion ﬂuxes through the control volume faces be computed and balanced with source terms within the control volume itself. a time-dependent solution must be computed.e. Inc. i When the explicit scheme is used. The explicit scheme and the implicit scheme treat these cells with the same interpolation as the cells that are completely ﬁlled with one phase or the other (i.

3.1: Interface Calculations 16-18 Release 12. January 29.0 c ANSYS. 2009 .Multiphase Flows actual interface shape interface shape represented by the geometric reconstruction (piecewise-linear) scheme interface shape represented by the donor-acceptor scheme Figure 16. Inc.

you must ensure that there are no two-sided (zero-thickness) walls within the domain. The geometric reconstruction scheme represents the interface between ﬂuids using a piecewise-linear approach. If there are.16. as described in Section 6. When the cell is near the interface between two phases. The second step is calculating the advecting amount of ﬂuid through each face using the computed linear interface representation and information about the normal and tangential velocity distribution on the face. a time-dependent solution must be computed. The Donor-Acceptor Scheme In the donor-acceptor approach.8.0 c ANSYS. January 29. a “donor-acceptor” scheme is used to determine the amount of ﬂuid advected through the face [131]. The amount of ﬂuid from one phase that can be convected across a cell boundary is limited by the minimum of two values: the ﬁlled volume in the donor cell or the free volume in the acceptor cell. you will need to slit them. i When the geometric reconstruction scheme is used.. the standard interpolation schemes that are used in ANSYS FLUENT are used to obtain the face ﬂuxes whenever a cell is completely ﬁlled with one phase or another. and is used to prevent numerical diﬀusion at the interface. and uses this linear shape for calculation of the advection of ﬂuid through the cell faces. Also. if you are using a conformal mesh (i.e.3. Release 12. the geometric reconstruction scheme is used. 2009 16-19 . the standard interpolation schemes that are used in ANSYS FLUENT are used to obtain the face ﬂuxes whenever a cell is completely ﬁlled with one phase or another. (See Figure 16. This scheme identiﬁes one cell as a donor of an amount of ﬂuid from one phase and another (neighbor) cell as the acceptor of that same amount of ﬂuid.6: Slitting Face Zones in the separate User’s Guide. The geometric reconstruction scheme is generalized for unstructured meshes from the work of Youngs [388]. The third step is calculating the volume fraction in each cell using the balance of ﬂuxes calculated during the previous step.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory The Geometric Reconstruction Scheme In the geometric reconstruction approach. In ANSYS FLUENT this scheme is the most accurate and is applicable for general unstructured meshes. based on information about the volume fraction and its derivatives in the cell. if the mesh node locations are identical at the boundaries where two subdomains meet).) The ﬁrst step in this reconstruction scheme is calculating the position of the linear interface relative to the center of each partially-ﬁlled cell. Inc. It assumes that the interface between two ﬂuids has a linear slope within each cell. When the cell is near the interface between two phases.1.

if you are using a conformal mesh (i. pure downwinding.6: Slitting Face Zones in the separate User’s Guide. viscosity) are computed in this manner. the density in each cell is given by ρ = α2 ρ2 + (1 − α2 )ρ1 (16.8. if the mesh node locations are identical at the boundaries where two subdomains meet).3-6) All other properties (e. CICSAM is implemented in ANSYS FLUENT as an explicit scheme and oﬀers the advantage of producing an interface that is almost as sharp as the geometric reconstruction scheme.e. January 29. Depending on the interface’s orientation as well as its motion. Also. In a two-phase system.3-5) In general. a time-dependent solution must be computed. In addition. 16-20 Release 12. the donor-acceptor scheme can be used only with quadrilateral or hexahedral meshes.g. 16. you must ensure that there are no two-sided (zero-thickness) walls within the domain.. Inc.0 c ANSYS. the volume-fraction-averaged density takes on the following form: ρ= αq ρq (16. 2009 . The CICSAM scheme is particularly suitable for ﬂows with high ratios of viscosities between the phases. based on Ubbink’s work [351]. and that of the neighbor cell that shares the face in question.Multiphase Flows The orientation of the interface is also used in determining the face ﬂuxes. ﬂux values are obtained by pure upwinding. for example. depending on the direction of the volume fraction gradient of the q th phase within the cell.3. if the phases are represented by the subscripts 1 and 2. If there are. or some combination of the two.. you will need to slit them. The Compressive Interface Capturing Scheme for Arbitrary Meshes (CICSAM) The compressive interface capturing scheme for arbitrary meshes (CICSAM). for an n-phase system. and if the volume fraction of the second of these is being tracked. The interface orientation is either horizontal or vertical. i When the donor-acceptor scheme is used. is a high resolution diﬀerencing scheme. as described in Section 6.3 Material Properties The properties appearing in the transport equations are determined by the presence of the component phases in each control volume.

this may lead to convergence diﬃculties.4 Momentum Equation A single momentum equation is solved throughout the domain.3. is shown below.3-9) αq ρq q=1 where Eq for each phase is based on the speciﬁc heat of that phase and the shared temperature. as well as any other volumetric heat sources.3. E. T . shown below.3. the accuracy of the velocities computed near the interface can be adversely aﬀected. January 29. 16.3-7) One limitation of the shared-ﬁelds approximation is that in cases where large velocity diﬀerences exist between the phases. The source term. Note that if the viscosity ratio is more than 1x103 .2: The Compressive Interface Capturing Scheme for Arbitrary Meshes (CICSAM)) is suitable for ﬂows with high ratios of viscosities between the phases.5 Energy Equation The energy equation.0 c ANSYS. as mass-averaged variables: n αq ρq Eq E= q=1 n (16.16. is dependent on the volume fractions of all phases through the properties ρ and µ. contains contributions from radiation. ∂ (ρE) + ∂t · (v(ρE + p)) = · (keﬀ T ) + Sh (16. ∂ (ρv) + ∂t · (ρvv) = − p + · µ v+ vT + ρg + F (16.3-8) The VOF model treats energy. Release 12. also shared among the phases. and the resulting velocity ﬁeld is shared among the phases. Inc. thus solving the problem of poor convergence. The compressive interface capturing scheme for arbitrary meshes (CICSAM) (Section 16. Sh . The properties ρ and keﬀ (eﬀective thermal conductivity) are shared by the phases. and temperature. 2009 16-21 .3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory 16. The momentum equation.

additional scalar equations may be involved in your solution. For example.3-1 is solved using an explicit timemarching scheme.3.Multiphase Flows As with the velocity ﬁeld. as a function of temperature.g. Such problems also arise in cases where the properties vary by several orders of magnitude. the conductivities of the materials can diﬀer by as much as four orders of magnitude. which in turn can lead to convergence and precision limitations. Inc. Equation 16. January 29. 16. The model can be augmented by the additional speciﬁcation of the contact angles between the phases and the walls. and the turbulence variables (e. 16. the accuracy of the temperature near the interface is limited in cases where large temperature diﬀerences exist between the phases. 2009 . k and or the Reynolds stresses) are shared by the phases throughout the ﬁeld. In the case of turbulence quantities. 16-22 Release 12.0 c ANSYS.3. ANSYS FLUENT automatically reﬁnes the time step for the integration of the volume fraction equation. Variable surface tension coeﬃcient eﬀects are usually important only in zero/near-zero gravity conditions. if a model includes liquid metal in combination with air.3.5: Setting Time-Dependent Parameters for the VOF Model in the separate User’s Guide. The solver will include the additional tangential stress terms (causing what is termed as Marangoni convection) that arise due to the variation in surface tension coeﬃcient.8 Surface Tension and Wall Adhesion The VOF model can also include the eﬀects of surface tension along the interface between each pair of phases. 16. You can choose to update the volume fraction once for each time step.6 Additional Scalar Equations Depending upon your problem deﬁnition.7 Time Dependence For time-dependent VOF calculations. or once for each iteration within each time step. but you can inﬂuence this time step calculation by modifying the Courant number. You can specify a surface tension coeﬃcient as a constant. or through a UDF. These options are discussed in more detail in Section 24. Such large discrepancies in properties lead to equation sets with anisotropic coeﬃcients. a single set of transport equations is solved..3.

that is required to maintain equilibrium in such instances. thereby increasing the pressure on the concave side of the surface. Within the bubble. a formulation of the CSF model is used. R1 and R2 : p2 − p1 = σ 1 1 + R1 R2 (16.0 c ANSYS. Inc. deﬁned as the gradient of αq . and the combined eﬀect of the radial components of force across the entire spherical surface is to make the surface contract. the net force on a molecule due to its neighbors is zero. January 29.3-13) ·n ˆ (16. [34]. the volume fraction of the q th phase. but one of them is not in the form of spherical bubbles. The surface tension model in ANSYS FLUENT is the continuum surface force (CSF) model proposed by Brackbill et al. The surface tension is a force. for example. It can be shown that the pressure drop across the surface depends upon the surface tension coeﬃcient. where the surface curvature is computed from local gradients in the surface normal at the interface.16.3-12) Release 12. however. It acts to balance the radially inward intermolecular attractive force with the radially outward pressure gradient force across the surface. At the surface. In regions where two ﬂuids are separated. and the surface curvature as measured by two radii in orthogonal directions.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory Surface Tension Surface tension arises as a result of attractive forces between molecules in a ﬂuid. 2009 16-23 . the net force is radially inward. acting only at the surface. n [34]: ˆ κ= where n= ˆ n |n| (16. κ. the surface tension acts to minimize free energy by decreasing the area of the interface. and where only the forces normal to the interface are considered. In ANSYS FLUENT. the addition of surface tension to the VOF calculation results in a source term in the momentum equation. is deﬁned in terms of the divergence of the unit normal. σ. n= αq (16.3-10) where p1 and p2 are the pressures in the two ﬂuids on either side of the interface. To understand the origin of the source term. Let n be the surface normal. Consider an air bubble in water.3-11) The curvature. With this model. consider the special case where the surface tension is constant along the surface.

and the Weber number. and the capillary number. i<j σij αi ρi κj αj + αj ρj κi αi 1 (ρi + ρj ) 2 (16.3-14) This expression allows for a smooth superposition of forces near cells where more than two phases are present. Note that the calculation of surface tension eﬀects on triangular and tetrahedral meshes is not as accurate as on quadrilateral and hexahedral meshes.3-15 shows that the surface tension source term for a cell is proportional to the average density in the cell. If only two phases are present in a cell. Inc. The region where surface tension eﬀects are most important should therefore be meshed with quadrilaterals or hexahedra. Re. January 29. When Surface Tension Effects Are Important The importance of surface tension eﬀects is determined based on the value of two dimensionless quantities: the Reynolds number. Re. the quantity of interest is the Weber number: We = ρLU 2 σ (16.3-15) where ρ is the volume-averaged density computed using Equation 16. or the Reynolds number.Multiphase Flows The surface tension can be written in terms of the pressure jump across the surface. 2009 .3-17) 1 where U is the free-stream velocity. and Equation 16.3. refer to Section 24. It has the following form: Fvol = pairs ij. It is this volume force that is the source term which is added to the momentum equation. then κi = −κj and αi = − αj .3-14 simpliﬁes to Fvol = σij 1 ρκi αi (ρi + ρj ) 2 (16. the quantity of interest is the capillary number: Ca = and for Re µU σ (16. Equation 16.0 c ANSYS. The force at the surface can be expressed as a volume force using the divergence theorem. To include the eﬀects of surface tension in your model. Surface tension eﬀects can be neglected if Ca or We 1. 16-24 Release 12.4: Including Surface Tension and Wall Adhesion Eﬀects in the separate User’s Guide. We.3-16) 1.3-6. For Re 1. Ca.

g is gravity. refer to Section 24. then the surface normal at the live cell next to the wall is ˆ n = nw cos θw + tw sin θw ˆ ˆ (16..3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory Wall Adhesion An option to specify a wall adhesion angle in conjunction with the surface tension model is also available in the VOF model.4: Including Surface Tension and Wall Adhesion Eﬀects in the separate User’s Guide. Flow is generally governed by the forces of gravity and inertia. and this curvature is used to adjust the body force term in the surface tension calculation.9 Open Channel Flow ANSYS FLUENT can model the eﬀects of open channel ﬂow (e. 2009 16-25 . the distance from the bottom of the channel to the free surface. V Fr = √ gy (16. January 29.0 c ANSYS.3-19 is the propagation speed of the wave. These ﬂows involve the existence of a free surface between the ﬂowing ﬂuid and ﬂuid above it (generally the atmosphere).3-19) where V is the velocity magnitude. Inc. the wave propagation and free surface behavior becomes important. respectively. the contact angle that the ﬂuid is assumed to make with the wall is used to adjust the surface normal in cells near the wall. rivers. The denominator in Equation 16. and y is a length scale. and surface-piercing structures in unbounded stream) using the VOF formulation and the open channel boundary condition.3. This feature is mostly applicable to marine applications and the analysis of ﬂows through drainage systems.g. 16. If θw is the contact angle at the wall. dams. Open channel ﬂows are characterized by the dimensionless Froude Number. ˆ The combination of this contact angle with the normally calculated surface normal one cell away from the wall determine the local curvature of the surface. In such cases. The wave speed as seen by the ﬁxed observer is deﬁned as Vw = V ± √ gy (16.3-18) ˆ where nw and tw are the unit vectors normal and tangential to the wall. in this case. Rather than impose this boundary condition at the wall itself.3. To include wall adhesion in your model.16.3-20) Release 12. which is deﬁned as the ratio of inertia force and hydrostatic force. This so-called dynamic boundary condition results in the adjustment of the curvature of the surface near the wall. The model is taken from work done by Brackbill et al. [34].

g is the unit g g ˆ vector of gravity. respectively.3-23) ρ − ρ0 2 V 2 (16. V < gy (thus Vw < 0 or Vw > 0). and ρ0 is the reference density. free surface is assumed to be horizontal and normal to the → → direction of gravity. • When F r = 1 (thus Vw = 0). Inc.3-22) 16-26 Release 12. downstream conditions might aﬀect the ﬂow upstream. In this case. the ﬂow is known to be critical. January 29.. the character of the ﬂow changes. open channel ﬂows can be classiﬁed in the following three categories: √ • When F r < 1. − is the gravity vector. the ﬂow is known to be subcritical where disturbances can travel upstream as well as downstream. √ • When F r > 1.. i. ρ is the density of the mixture in the cell. |− | is the gravity magnitude.e. Here. In this case. V is the velocity magnitude. the ﬂow is known to be supercritical where disturbances cannot travel upstream. downstream conditions do not aﬀect the ﬂow upstream. V > gy (thus Vw > 0). From this. Upstream Boundary Conditions There are two options available for the upstream boundary condition for open channel ﬂows: • pressure inlet • mass ﬂow rate Pressure Inlet The total pressure p0 at the inlet can be given as 1 → → g − → p0 = (ρ − ρ0 )V 2 + (ρ − ρ0 )|− |(ˆ · ( b − − )) g a 2 (16. where upstream propagating waves remain stationary. In this case.Multiphase Flows Based on the Froude number.3-21) → − → where b and − are the position vectors of the face centroid and any point on the free a surface. the dynamic pressure q is q= and the static pressure ps is → → g − → ps = (ρ − ρ0 )|− |(ˆ · ( b − − )) g a (16.e. i. 2009 .0 c ANSYS.

otherwise the pressure is taken from the neighboring cell. therefore this option has been disabled.0 c ANSYS. otherwise you must specify the static pressure as the Gauge Pressure.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory which can be further expanded to → → g − ps = (ρ − ρ0 )|− |((ˆ · b ) + ylocal ) g where the distance from the free surface to the reference position. ylocal . January 29. For subcritical outlet ﬂows (Fr < 1). the static pressure is dictated by Equation 16. ANSYS FLUENT reconstructs the volume fraction values on the boundary by using the values from the neighboring cells. Release 12.3-23 and Equation 16. This can be accomplished using the following procedure: • Calculate the node values of volume fraction at the boundary using the cell values. 2009 16-27 . ANSYS FLUENT internally calculates the volume fraction based on the input parameters speciﬁed in the boundary conditions dialog box. • Calculate the volume fraction at the each face of boundary using the interpolated node values. Using the Free Surface Level. (16. For supercritical inlet ﬂows (Fr > 1).3-26) (16. the volume fraction value on the boundary can be calculated using the ﬁxed height of the free surface from the bottom.16.3-24) Downstream Boundary Conditions Pressure Outlet Determining the static pressure is dependent on the Pressure Speciﬁcation Method. For supercritical ﬂows (Fr >1). For subcritical inlet ﬂows (Fr < 1). is → ˆ ylocal = −(− · g ) a Mass Flow Rate The mass ﬂow rate for each phase associated with the open channel ﬂow is deﬁned by mphase = ρphase (Areaphase )(V elocity) ˙ Volume Fraction Speciﬁcation In open channel ﬂows. Inc. the pressure is always taken from the neighboring cell.3-25) (16. if there are only two phases.3-25. then the pressure is taken from the pressure proﬁle speciﬁed over the boundary.

It is not compatible with pressure inlets and pressure outlets. In other words. this option is disabled. however. • An outﬂow boundary condition can only be used with mass ﬂow inlets. If the conditions are unknown at the outﬂow boundaries. This is an upstream boundary condition and is applied to the velocity inlet of the VOF model. is the phase diﬀerence. such that kx = k cos θ and ky = k sin θ. Note that this only holds true for open channel ﬂow. therefore. to understand the limitations of this boundary type: • You can only use single outﬂow boundaries at the outlet.10 Open Channel Wave Boundary Conditions The open channel wave boundary condition allows you to simulate the propagation of waves. respectively. and kx and ky are the wave numbers in the x and y directions. 2009 . then ANSYS FLUENT will extrapolate the required information from the interior.3-27) where z is the wave height. outﬂow splitting is not permitted in open channel ﬂows with outﬂow boundaries. t is the time. It is important. which is achieved by setting the ﬂow rate weighting to 1. which will result in an unreliable solution. then you can only use pressure-outlet at the outlet. such surfaces should be placed accordingly. January 29. 16. If you choose the inlet as mass-ﬂow-inlet. if you choose the inlet as pressure-inlet.3. Inc. The wave proﬁle for an incident wave can be described as follows: ζ = A cos(kx x + ky y − ωe t + ) (16. • There should be an initial ﬂow ﬁeld in the simulation to avoid convergence issues due to ﬂow reversal at the outﬂow. which is useful in the marine industry. Therefore. For example. Backﬂow Volume Fraction Speciﬁcation ANSYS FLUENT internally calculates the volume fraction values on the outlet boundary by using the neighboring cell values.0 c ANSYS. then you can use either outﬂow or pressure-outlet boundary conditions at the outlet. A is the wave amplitude.Multiphase Flows Outﬂow Boundary Outﬂow boundary conditions can be used at the outlet of open channel ﬂows to model ﬂow exits where the details of the ﬂow velocity and pressure are not known prior to solving the ﬂow problem. 16-28 Release 12. • Note that the outﬂow boundary condition assumes that ﬂow is fully developed in the direction perpendicular to the outﬂow boundary surface.

3-31) w= gkA sinh[k(z + h)] sin(kx x + ky y − ωe t + ) ω cosh(kh) (16. Release 12. v.0 c ANSYS. January 29. the wave frequency. and v is in the cross direction of the ﬂow and gravity direction. For more information on how to use and set up this model.3-32) Short gravity waves are deﬁned as u v gkA kz e ω cos θ sin θ cos(kx x + ky y − ωe t + ) = (16. Note that direction speciﬁcations for the velocity components are such that u is based on the ﬂow direction speciﬁed in the wave velocity speciﬁcation method. Inc.3-28) where λ is the wave length and the eﬀective wave frequency ωe is ωe = ω + kU (16. refer to Section 24.2: Modeling Open Channel Wave Boundary Conditions in the separate User’s Guide. is deﬁned as ω= gk tanh(kh) (16.3-30) where h is the liquid height and g is the gravity magnitude.3-33) w= gkA kz e sin(kx x + ky y − ωe t + ) ω (16. The velocity components for the incident wave boundary condition can be described in terms of shallow waves and short gravity waves.16. Shallow waves are deﬁned as u v = gkA cosh[k(z + h)] ω cosh(kh) cos θ sin θ cos(kx x + ky y − ωe t + ) (16.3-34) where u. and w are the velocity components. w is based on the gravity direction.3 Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model Theory The wave number k is deﬁned as k= 2π λ (16. 2009 16-29 .3-29) U is the uniform incident wave velocity and ω.3.

the volume fraction equations for the secondary phases. The mixture model can model n phases (ﬂuid or particulate) by solving the momentum.10: Solids Pressure 16. It can be used to model homogeneous multiphase ﬂows with very strong coupling and phases moving at the same velocity and lastly. but assume local equilibrium over short spatial length scales.1 Overview and Limitations of the Mixture Model Overview The mixture model is a simpliﬁed multiphase model that can be used in diﬀerent ways. particle-laden ﬂows with low loading. A simpler model like the mixture model can perform as well as a full multiphase model while solving a smaller number of variables than the full multiphase model.4.4.4. 2009 .7: Granular Properties • Section 16.9: Interfacial Area Concentration • Section 16.3: Momentum Equation • Section 16.4. The mixture model is a good substitute for the full Eulerian multiphase model in several cases.2: Continuity Equation • Section 16. Typical applications include sedimentation. This is applicable for liquid-solid ﬂows.6: Volume Fraction Equation for the Secondary Phases • Section 16.4.8: Granular Temperature • Section 16. the mixture models are used to calculate non-Newtonian viscosity. cyclone separators. 16-30 Release 12.5: Relative (Slip) Velocity and the Drift Velocity • Section 16.1: Overview and Limitations of the Mixture Model • Section 16.4 Mixture Model Theory Information is organized into the following subsections: • Section 16. and bubbly ﬂows where the gas volume fraction remains low.4.Multiphase Flows 16.4: Energy Equation • Section 16.0 c ANSYS. Inc. It can be used to model multiphase ﬂows where the phases move at diﬀerent velocities. The mixture model allows you to select granular phases and calculates all properties of the granular phases.4.4.4. January 29. and algebraic expressions for the relative velocities. continuity. A full multiphase model may not be feasible when there is a wide distribution of the particulate phase or when the interphase laws are unknown or their reliability can be questioned. and energy equations for the mixture.4.4.

uses a single-ﬂuid approach. depending on the space occupied by phase q and phase p. Inc. • Do not model solidiﬁcation and melting in conjunction with the mixture model.) The mixture model solves the continuity equation for the mixture. 2009 16-31 . (Note that using the message passing option. The volume fractions αq and αp for a control volume can therefore be equal to any value between 0 and 1. the momentum equation for the mixture. like the VOF model. It diﬀers from the VOF model in two respects: • The mixture model allows the phases to be interpenetrating. using the concept of slip velocities. and the volume fraction equation for the secondary phases. • When tracking particles in parallel. cavitation model (available with the mixture model) is not compatible with the LES turbulence model. January 29. • The Singhal et al.3.4 Mixture Model Theory Limitations The following limitations apply to the mixture model in ANSYS FLUENT: • You must use the pressure-based solver.16. when running in parallel. • The mixture model does not allow for inviscid ﬂows. (Note that the phases can also be assumed to move at the same velocity. enables the compatibility of all multiphase ﬂow models with the DPM model. do not model streamwise periodic ﬂow with speciﬁed mass ﬂow rate. The mixture model is not available with the density-based solver. • Only one of the phases can be deﬁned as a compressible ideal gas. and the mixture model is then reduced to a homogeneous multiphase model. as well as algebraic expressions for the relative velocities (if the phases are moving at diﬀerent velocities). Release 12. • When the mixture model is used. the energy equation for the mixture. do not use the DPM model with the mixture model if the shared memory option is enabled (Section 23.0 c ANSYS. There is no limitation on using compressible liquids using user-deﬁned functions.1: Limitations in the separate User’s Guide). • Do not use the relative formulation in combination with the MRF and mixture model (see Section 10.) The mixture model. • The shell conduction model for walls is not allowed with the mixture model. • The mixture model allows the phases to move at diﬀerent velocities.8: Parallel Processing for the Discrete Phase Model in the separate User’s Guide).

4-2) ρm = k=1 αk ρk (16.4-1) αk ρk vk ρm (16. It can be expressed as ∂ (ρm vm ) + ∂t · (ρm vm vm ) = − p + n · µm vm + T vm + (16.3 Momentum Equation The momentum equation for the mixture can be obtained by summing the individual momentum equations for all phases.k vdr.k = vk − vm (16.4-4) ρm g + F + · k=1 αk ρk vdr. Inc.k where n is the number of phases. and µm is the viscosity of the mixture: n µm = k=1 αk µk (16.2 Continuity Equation The continuity equation for the mixture is ∂ (ρm ) + ∂t where vm is the mass-averaged velocity: vm = and ρm is the mixture density: n n k=1 · (ρm vm ) = 0 (16.0 c ANSYS. January 29.k is the drift velocity for secondary phase k: vdr.4-3) αk is the volume fraction of phase k. F is a body force. 2009 .4. 16.4-6) 16-32 Release 12.4.Multiphase Flows 16.4-5) vdr.

and Ek = hk for an incompressible phase.16.0 c ANSYS. where kt is the turbulent thermal conductivity. Ek = hk − p v2 + k ρk 2 (16. The basic assumption of the algebraic slip mixture model is that to prescribe an algebraic relation for the relative velocity. deﬁned according to the turbulence model being used). SE includes any other volumetric heat sources. January 29. In Equation 16.4-7 represents energy transfer due to conduction. the form of the relative velocity is given by: Release 12.5 Relative (Slip) Velocity and the Drift Velocity The relative velocity (also referred to as the slip velocity) is deﬁned as the velocity of a secondary phase (p) relative to the velocity of the primary phase (q): vpq = vp − vq The mass fraction for any phase (k) is deﬁned as ck = αk ρk ρm (16. 16.p = vpq − k=1 ck vqk (16.4 Mixture Model Theory 16. a local equilibrium between the phases should be reached over a short spatial length scale. 2009 16-33 .4-10) (16. Following Manninen et al.4-11) ANSYS FLUENT’s mixture model makes use of an algebraic slip formulation. Inc.4-9) The drift velocity and the relative velocity (vqp ) are connected by the following expression: n vdr.4-7) where keﬀ is the eﬀective conductivity ( αk (kk + kt )).4.4-7.4 Energy Equation The energy equation for the mixture takes the following form: ∂ n (αk ρk Ek ) + ∂t k=1 n · k=1 (αk vk (ρk Ek + p)) = · (keﬀ T ) + SE (16.4-8) for a compressible phase. where hk is the sensible enthalpy for phase k.4. The ﬁrst term on the right-hand side of Equation 16. [217].

This diﬀusivity is calculated from the continuous-dispersed ﬂuctuating velocity correlation. January 29. in which the acceleration of the particle is given by gravity and/or a centrifugal force and the particulate relaxation time is modiﬁed to take into account the presence of other particles.0 c ANSYS.4-14) and the acceleration a is of the form a = g − (vm · )vm − ∂vm ∂t (16.0183 Re Re > 1000 fdrag = (16. Inc. a is the secondary-phase particle’s acceleration.15 Re0. In turbulent ﬂows the relative velocity should contain a diﬀusion term due to the dispersion appearing in the momentum equation for the dispersed phase.4-13) d is the diameter of the particles (or droplets or bubbles) of secondary phase p. such that k2 γγ 2 (1 + Cβ ζγ )−1/2 1 + γγ ζγ = |vpq | 2/3k ηt = Cµ (16.75 and ηt is the turbulent diﬀusivity.4-17) (16.Multiphase Flows vpq = where τp is the particle relaxation time τp (ρp − ρm ) a fdrag ρp (16.687 Re ≤ 1000 0. 2009 .4-18) 16-34 Release 12. ANSYS FLUENT adds this dispersion to the relative velocity: (ρp − ρm )d2 ηt p a− = 18µq fdrag σt αp αq − αp αq vpq (16.4-12) τp = ρp d2 p 18µq (16. The default drag function fdrag is taken from Schiller and Naumann [305]: 1 + 0.4-16) where σt is a Prandtl/Schmidt number set to 0.4-15) The simplest algebraic slip formulation is the so-called drift ﬂux model.

8 − 1. Note that.4.1: Deﬁning the Phases for the Mixture Model in the separate User’s Guide for instructions on how to enable them. the volume fraction equation for secondary phase p can be obtained: ∂ (αp ρp ) + ∂t n · (αp ρp vm ) = − · (αp ρp vdr. the mixture model is reduced to a homogeneous multiphase model. if the slip velocity is not solved.4.4 Mixture Model Theory where Cβ = 1.0 c ANSYS.16. you can directly prescribe formulations for the drag function.p ) + q=1 (mqp − mpq ) ˙ ˙ (16. 2009 16-35 .35 cos2 θ and cos θ = vpq · vp |vpq ||vp | γγ is the time ratio between the time scale of the energetic turbulent eddies aﬀected by the crossing-trajectories eﬀect and the particle relaxation time. In addition.6 Volume Fraction Equation for the Secondary Phases From the continuity equation for secondary phase p.5. See the separate UDF Manual for details. January 29. and Section 24.4-19) Release 12. 16. When you are solving a mixture multiphase calculation with slip velocity. The following choices are available: • Schiller-Naumann (the default formulation) • Morsi-Alexander • symmetric • constant • user-deﬁned See Section 16. the mixture model can be customized (using user-deﬁned functions) to use a formulation other than the algebraic slip method for the slip velocity. Inc.4: Interphase Exchange Coeﬃcients for more information on these drag functions and their formulations.

The volume weighted averaged for the viscosity would now contain shear viscosity arising from particle momentum exchange due to translation and collision.ss 5 2 µs.ss 6 (3 − ess ) 5 µs.4-20) Collisional Viscosity The collisional part of the shear viscosity is modeled as [110. 343] 4 Θs µs.kin αs (16. we may use the granular viscosity to get a value for the viscosity of the suspension. are added to give the solids shear viscosity: µs = µs.4-23) 16-36 Release 12.kin (16. January 29. [343]: √ αs ds ρs Θs π 2 = 1 + (1 + ess ) (3ess − 1) αs g0. The collisional and kinetic parts. Inc.0 c ANSYS.kin + µs.ss (1 + ess ) 5 π 1/2 αs (16.4. [110] is also available: √ 10ρs ds Θs π 4 = 1 + g0. 2009 .Multiphase Flows 16. The default expression is from Syamlal et al.ss αs (1 + ess ) 96αs (1 + ess ) g0. and the optional frictional part.col = αs ρs ds g0.col + µs.4-22) The following optional expression from Gidaspow et al.7 Granular Properties Since the concentration of particles is an important factor in the calculation of the eﬀective viscosity for the mixture.fr (16.4-21) Kinetic Viscosity ANSYS FLUENT provides two expressions for the kinetic viscosity.

4-25) The transfer of the kinetic energy of random ﬂuctuations in particle velocity from the sth solids phase to the lth ﬂuid or solid phase is represented by φls [110]: φls = −3Kls Θs (16. This term is represented by the expression derived by Lun et al. • UDF for granular temperature Release 12. 0 = (−ps I + τ s ) : where (−ps I + τ s ) : vs γΘs φls = the generation of energy by the solid stress tensor = the collisional dissipation of energy = the energy exchange between the lth ﬂuid or solid phase and the sth solid phase vs − γΘs + φls (16.8 Granular Temperature The viscosities need the speciﬁcation of the granular temperature for the sth solids phase.4-24) The collisional dissipation of energy. This is only applicable for dense ﬂuidized beds where the convection and the diﬀusion term can be neglected under the premise that production and dissipation of granular energy are in equilibrium.4.16. Here we use an algebraic equation from the granular temperature transport equation. 2009 16-37 .ss 2 √ss ρs αs Θ3/2 s ds π (16.4-26) ANSYS FLUENT allows you to solve for the granular temperature with the following options: • algebraic formulation (the default) This is obtained by neglecting convection and diﬀusion in the transport equation (Equation 16.0 c ANSYS. Inc. • constant granular temperature This is useful in very dense situations where the random ﬂuctuations are small. January 29. represents the rate of energy dissipation within the sth solids phase due to collisions between particles.4-24) [343]. γΘs . [208] γΘm = 12(1 − e2 )g0.4 Mixture Model Theory 16.

• Breakage due to the impact of turbulent eddies. 2009 . only the ﬁrst three eﬀects will be considered. 139]. • Coalescence due to wake entrainment. According to their study. The interfacial area concentration model uses a single transport equation per secondary phase and is speciﬁc to bubbly ﬂows in liquid at this stage. momentum and energy transfers through the interface between the phases. January 29.4-27 are of gas bubble expansion due to compressibility and mass transfer (phase change). mg is the mass transfer rate into ˙ 3 the gas phase per unit mixture volume (kg/m /s). coalescence. the Hibiki-Ishii model [129] and the Ishii-Kim model [281. the mechanisms of interactions can be summarized in ﬁve categories: • Coalescence due to random collision driven by turbulence. but is computationally expensive since several transport equations need to be solved using moment methods. SRC and SW E are the coalescence sink terms due to random collision and wake entrainment. exist for those source and sink terms for the interfacial area concentration. [129. or more if the discrete method is used. breakage and/or nucleation mechanisms. 281]. one discrete (particles) and one continuous. and αg is the gas volume fraction.9 Interfacial Area Concentration Interfacial area concentration is deﬁned as the interfacial area between two phases per unit mixture volume. • Breakage of large cap bubbles due to ﬂow instability on the bubble surface. ST I is the breakage source term due to turbulent impact. which are based on the works of Ishii et al. This is an important parameter for predicting mass. the size and its distribution of the discrete phase or particles can change rapidly due to growth (mass transfer between phases).0 c ANSYS. In ANSYS FLUENT. The Population Balance model (see the separate Population Balance Module Manual) ideally captures this phenomenon. 16-38 Release 12. expansion due to pressure changes. The ﬁrst two terms on the right hand side of Equation 16.4. • Shearing-oﬀ of small bubbles from large cap bubbles. In two-ﬂuid ﬂow systems. The transport equation for the interfacial area concentration can be written as ∂(ρg χp ) + ∂t · (ρg ug χp ) = 1 Dρg 2 mg ˙ χp + χp + ρg (SRC + SW E + ST I ) 3 Dt 3 αg (16.Multiphase Flows 16. Two sets of models. Inc. respectively.4-27) where χp is the interfacial area concentration (m2 /m3 ).

4-29) λc = exp(−Kc ) (16.4-30) ST I = =( 1 αg 2 ( ) fB ne λB 3φ χp 2/3 (16. respectively. January 29. respectively. In Equation 16. 1 The shape factor ψ is given as 6 and φ as 36π for spherical particles/bubbles.4-31 λB = exp(−KB σ ρf db 5/3 2/3 ) (16. the eﬃciency of breakage from the impact.264. λB and ne are the frequency of collision between particles/bubbles and turbulent eddies of the primary phase.0 c ANSYS. Release 12.16. 2009 16-39 . the eﬃciency of coalescence from the collision. The averaged size of the particle/bubble db is assumed to be calculated as db = ψ and db 5/6 ρf 1/2 σ 1/2 1/3 αg χp (16.129. λc and nb are the frequency of particle/bubble collision.4-32) The experimental adjustable coeﬃcients are given as follows: ΓC = 0.4-31) ) αg 2 ΓB αg (1 − αg ) 1/3 σ ) 11/3 exp(−KB 5/3 χp db (αgmax − αg ) ρf db ΓB (1 − αg ) 1/3 χp 5/3 KB σ χp = 11/3 2/3 exp[− 5/3 ( )5/3 ] 2/3 α ψ αg (αgmax − αg ) ψ ρf g where fB . KB = 1.188.37 . There is no model for SW E in the Hibiki-Ishii formulation. and the number of turbulent eddies per unit mixture volume. Inc.4 Mixture Model Theory Hibiki-Ishii Model SRC = − 1 αg 2 ( ) fc nb λc 3φ χp αg 2 Γc αg 2 1/3 db 5/6 ρf 1/2 ) 11/3 exp(−Kc χp db (αgmax − αg ) σ 1/2 1/3 (16.4-28) ) = −( = − 1/3 Γc ρf 1/2 1/3 αg 5/6 αg 1/3 χp 5/3 exp[−Kc ψ 5/6 ( ) ] ψ 11/3 (αgmax − αg ) σ 1/2 χp where fc . and the number of particles per unit mixture volume. ΓB = 0. KC = 0.

In this model. ut . when the Weber number.002 = 0.4-35) where the mean bubble ﬂuctuating velocity. is less than the critical Weber number.0 = 6.4-37) (16. the breakage rate equals zero. Inc.1ReD 0. i. W e. 2009 . W ecr .75 16-40 Release 12.4-38) where µf is the molecular viscosity of the ﬂuid phase.4-36) CD = 24 (1 + 0.75 ) ρf ur db and ReD ≡ (1 − αg ) ReD µf We = ρf ut 2 db σ (16. ur .0 = 0.Multiphase Flows Ishii-Kim Model SRC = − nb 2 ut db 2 1 αg 2 ( ) CRC [ ] (16. g is the gravitational acceleration and σ is the interfacial tension. is given by 1/3 db 1/3 . ur = ( db g∆ρ 1/2 ) 3CD ρf (16. The bubble terminal velocity. is a function of the bubble diameter and local time-averaged void fraction. January 29. ST I = 0. The coeﬃcients used are given as follows [139]: CRC CW E CT I C W ecr αgm ax = 0.4-34) ST I = (16.085 = 3.e.004 = 0.4-33) 3φ χp αgmax 1/3 (αgmax 1/3 − αg 1/3 ) αgmax 1/3 αg 1/3 [1 − exp(−C )] αgmax 1/3 − αg 1/3 1 1 αgmax 1/3 αg 1/3 = − CRC ut χp 2 [ ][1 − exp(−C )] 3π αgmax 1/3 (αgmax 1/3 − αg 1/3 ) αgmax 1/3 − αg 1/3 1 αg 2 2 2 1 ( ) nb db ur CD 1/3 = − CW E ur χp 2 CD 1/3 3φ χp 3π 1 αg 2 n b ut W ecr 1/2 W ecr ( ) CT I ( )(1 − ) exp(− ) 3φ χp db We We 1 χp 2 W ecr 1/2 W ecr = CT I ut (1 − ) exp(− ) 18 αg We We SW E = − (16.0 c ANSYS.

5.5.10: Description of Heat Transfer • Section 16. See the separate UDF Manual for details.5.14: Immiscible Fluid Model Release 12. which can apply to other ﬂow regimes. 16.5-67 16.11: Turbulence Models • Section 16. this model is only suitable for two-phase ﬂow regimes. bubbly column applications.13: Dense Discrete Phase Model • Section 16. i.7: Solids Shear Stresses • Section 16.3: Conservation Equations • Section 16. Inc.6: Maximum Packing Limit in Binary Mixtures • Section 16.5.5.e.4: Interphase Exchange Coeﬃcients • Section 16.8: Granular Temperature • Section 16.total = q=1 pq (16.5.4.5 Eulerian Model Theory i Currently. you can always use UDFs to include your own interfacial area concentration models.16.5.5.0 c ANSYS.9: Interfacial Area Concentration • Section 16.5 Eulerian Model Theory Details about the Eulerian multiphase model are presented in the following subsections: • Section 16.10 Solids Pressure The total solid pressure is calculated and included in the mixture momentum equations: N Ps.5: Solids Pressure • Section 16. one phase being gas and another liquid.5.1: Overview and Limitations of the Eulerian Model • Section 16.5.5.5.5.5.12: Solution Method in ANSYS FLUENT • Section 16. 2009 16-41 .4-39) where pq is presented in the section for granular ﬂows by equation Equation 16. January 29.2: Volume Fraction Equation • Section 16. However.

the number of secondary phases is limited only by memory requirements and convergence behavior. or solids in nearly any combination. gases. 2009 . a constant. • Several interphase drag coeﬃcient functions are available.turbulence models are available.) • All of the k. January 29. The ANSYS FLUENT solution is based on the following: • A single pressure is shared by all phases.7. a user-deﬁned function. – Solid-phase shear and bulk viscosities are obtained by applying kinetic theory to granular ﬂows. 16-42 Release 12.Multiphase Flows 16. The phases can be liquids. Frictional viscosity for modeling granular ﬂow is also available.1 Overview and Limitations of the Eulerian Model Overview The Eulerian multiphase model in ANSYS FLUENT allows for the modeling of multiple separate. which are appropriate for various types of multiphase regimes. An Eulerian treatment is used for each phase. and may apply to all phases or to the mixture. as described in the separate UDF Manual. (You can also modify the interphase drag coeﬃcient through user-deﬁned functions. See Section 24.5: Eulerian Model in the separate User’s Guide for multiphase modeling strategies. You can select appropriate models and user-deﬁned functions for all properties. or a partial diﬀerential equation. Any number of secondary phases can be modeled. A granular ﬂow is simply one that involves at least one phase that has been designated as a granular phase. you may ﬁnd that your solution is limited by convergence behavior. however.5. • Momentum and continuity equations are solved for each phase. With the Eulerian multiphase model. You can select either an algebraic formulation. For complex multiphase ﬂows. in contrast to the EulerianLagrangian treatment that is used for the discrete phase model. provided that suﬃcient memory is available. Inc. ANSYS FLUENT’s Eulerian multiphase model does not distinguish between ﬂuid-ﬂuid and ﬂuid-solid (granular) multiphase ﬂows. yet interacting phases.0 c ANSYS. • The following parameters are available for granular phases: – Granular temperature (solids ﬂuctuating energy) can be calculated for each solid phase.

• Melting and solidiﬁcation are not allowed. (Note that using the message passing option. • Particle tracking (using the Lagrangian dispersed phase model) interacts only with the primary phase. 2009 16-43 .16. Volume fractions represent the space occupied by each phase. as well as mechanisms for the exchange of momentum. among other things. . the DPM model cannot be used with the Eulerian multiphase model if the shared memory option is enabled (Section 23. • Streamwise periodic ﬂow with speciﬁed mass ﬂow rate cannot be modeled when the Eulerian model is used (the user is allowed to specify a pressure drop). . enables the compatibility of all multiphase ﬂow models with the DPM model. additional sets of conservation equations must be introduced. • When tracking particles in parallel. heat. except for the following limitations: • The Reynolds Stress turbulence model is not available on a per phase basis.2 Volume Fraction Equation The description of multiphase ﬂow as interpenetrating continua incorporates the concept of phasic volume fractions. the original set must also be modiﬁed. The modiﬁcations involve.) To change from a single-phase model. and the laws of conservation of mass and momentum are satisﬁed by each phase individually. denoted here by αq . Release 12. 16. continuity and (optionally) energy is solved. α2 . to a multiphase model. when running in parallel. The derivation of the conservation equations can be done by ensemble averaging the local instantaneous balance for each of the phases [5] or by using the mixture theory approach [31]. and mass between the phases.5. In the process of introducing additional sets of conservation equations. where a single set of conservation equations for momentum. αn for the multiple phases.0 c ANSYS.8: Parallel Processing for the Discrete Phase Model in the separate User’s Guide).5 Eulerian Model Theory Limitations All other features available in ANSYS FLUENT can be used in conjunction with the Eulerian multiphase model. Inc. . • Inviscid ﬂow is not allowed. January 29. the introduction of the volume fractions α1 .

16-44 Release 12. Inc.5-2) The eﬀective density of phase q is ρq = αq ρq ˆ where ρq is the physical density of phase q. refer to Section 16. January 29.3 Conservation Equations The general conservation equations from which the equations solved by ANSYS FLUENT are derived are presented in this section. (16. The volume fraction equation may be solved either through implicit or explicit time discretization.5-3) 16. but you can specify a constant or user-deﬁned mass source for each phase.5-1) αq = 1 q=1 (16.5-4 is zero.5.3. Equations in General Form Conservation of Mass The continuity equation for phase q is ∂ (αq ρq ) + ∂t n · (αq ρq vq ) = p=1 (mpq − mqp ) + Sq ˙ ˙ (16.2: The Implicit Scheme and Section 16. 2009 . followed by the solved equations themselves.7: Modeling Mass Transfer in Multiphase Flows for more information on the modeling of mass transfer in ANSYS FLUENT’s general multiphase models.5-4) where vq is the velocity of phase q and mpq characterizes the mass transfer from the pth ˙ th to q phase. and you ˙ are able to specify these mechanisms separately. For detailed information about both VOF schemes.3.2: The Explicit Scheme. Vq . By default. See Section 16. the source term Sq on the right-hand side of Equation 16.Multiphase Flows The volume of phase q. A similar term appears in the momentum and enthalpy equations.0 c ANSYS. is deﬁned by Vq = where n V αq dV (16. and mqp characterizes the mass transfer from phase q to phase p.

the inclusion of lift forces is not appropriate for closely packed particles or for very small particles. Likewise.5. but the ANSYS FLUENT model assumes that the particle diameter is much smaller than the interparticle spacing.0 c ANSYS. pressure.. ANSYS FLUENT can include the eﬀect of lift forces on the secondary phase particles (or droplets or bubbles). ANSYS FLUENT uses a simple interaction term of the following form: n n Rpq = p=1 p=1 Kpq (vp − vq ) (16. deﬁned as follows.16. 2009 16-45 . These lift forces act on a particle mainly due to velocity gradients in the primary-phase ﬂow ﬁeld. phase p mass is being ˙ transferred to phase q)..q is a lift force.q ) ˙ ˙ where τ q is the q th phase stress-strain tensor τ q = αq µq ( vq + 2 T vq ) + αq (λq − µq ) 3 · vq I (16. phase q mass is being transferred to ˙ phase p). and is subject to the conditions that Rpq = −Rqp and Rqq = 0. Lift Forces For multiphase ﬂows. January 29.5-5 must be closed with appropriate expressions for the interphase force Rpq .e.5 Eulerian Model Theory Conservation of Momentum The momentum balance for phase q yields ∂ (αq ρq vq ) + ∂t n p=1 · (αq ρq vq vq ) = −αq p + · τ q + αq ρq g+ (16. Flift. cohesion. and other eﬀects.4: Interphase Exchange Coeﬃcients). vpq is the interphase velocity. if mqp < 0 then vqp = vp . Inc. The lift force will be more signiﬁcant for larger particles.5-5) (Rpq + mpq vpq − mqp vqp ) + (Fq + Flift. and p is the pressure shared by all phases. This force depends on the friction. vpq = vq . Release 12. Thus. if mpq < 0 (i.q + Fvm. vpq = vp . Fvm. Rpq is an interaction force between phases.q is a virtual mass force. Fq is an external body force. If mpq > 0 (i.5-7) where Kpq (= Kqp ) is the interphase momentum exchange coeﬃcient (described in Section 16.e. if mqp > 0 then vqp = vq .5-6) Here µq and λq are the shear and bulk viscosity of phase q. ˙ ˙ Equation 16.

In most cases. so there is no reason to include this extra term.5ρq αp (vq − vp ) × ( × vq ) (16. Virtual Mass Force For multiphase ﬂows. i It is important that if you include the lift force in your calculation.5-9) denotes the phase material time derivative of the form dq (φ) ∂(φ) = + (vq · dt ∂t )φ (16.0 c ANSYS.. the lift force is insigniﬁcant compared to the drag force. 16-46 Release 12.5-10) The virtual mass force Fvm will be added to the right-hand side of the momentum equation for both phases (Fvm.q = −Fvm. for a transient bubble column). If the lift force is signiﬁcant (e.Multiphase Flows The lift force acting on a secondary phase p in a primary phase q is computed from [80] Flift = −0. in the wall boundary layer for turbulent bubbly ﬂows in channels. By default. 2009 ..p ). Inc. Fvm is not included. The virtual mass eﬀect is signiﬁcant when the secondary phase density is much smaller than the primary phase density (e. January 29.5αp ρq The term dq dt (16. you need not include it everywhere in the computational domain since it is computationally expensive to converge. the lift force is signiﬁcant when the slip velocity is large in the vicinity of high strain rates for the primary phase. it may be appropriate to include this term. Flift is not included.g.p ).g. if the phases separate quickly). By default.5-8) The lift force Flift will be added to the right-hand side of the momentum equation for both phases (Flift. The lift force and lift coeﬃcient can be speciﬁed for each pair of phases. The inertia of the primary-phase mass encountered by the accelerating particles (or droplets or bubbles) exerts a “virtual mass force” on the particles [80]: dq vq dp vp − dt dt Fvm = 0.q = −Flift. if desired. ANSYS FLUENT includes the “virtual mass eﬀect” that occurs when a secondary phase p accelerates relative to the primary phase q. For example.

in the case of evaporation).5-2). Release 12. 2009 16-47 . allows for the calculation of the primary-phase volume fraction. and hpq is the interphase enthalpy (e. as solved by ANSYS FLUENT. This treatment is common to ﬂuid-ﬂuid and granular ﬂows. the enthalpy of the vapor at the temperature of the droplets. along with the condition that the volume fractions sum to one (given by Equation 16.g. Continuity Equation The volume fraction of each phase is calculated from a continuity equation: 1 ∂ (αq ρq ) + ρrq ∂t n · (αq ρq vq ) = p=1 (mpq − mqp ) ˙ ˙ (16. a separate enthalpy equation can be written for each phase: ∂ (αq ρq hq ) + ∂t · (αq ρq uq hq ) = αq ∂pq +τq : ∂t n uq − · q q + Sq + p=1 (Qpq + mpq hpq − mqp hqp ) ˙ ˙ (16.5-12) where ρrq is the phase reference density. qq is the heat ﬂux. due to chemical reaction or radiation).. The heat exchange between phases must comply with the local balance conditions Qpq = −Qqp and Qqq = 0. Qpq is the intensity of heat exchange between the pth and q th phases..5-11) where hq is the speciﬁc enthalpy of the q th phase. January 29.16.5 Eulerian Model Theory Conservation of Energy To describe the conservation of energy in Eulerian multiphase applications. Equations Solved by ANSYS FLUENT The equations for ﬂuid-ﬂuid and granular multiphase ﬂows. The solution of this equation for each secondary phase. are presented here for the general case of an n-phase ﬂow.0 c ANSYS. Inc.g. Sq is a source term that includes sources of enthalpy (e. or the volume averaged density of the q th phase in the solution domain.

110. Fluid-Solid Momentum Equations Following the work of [3.q . and pressure of the solid phase. Inc. and that for the sth solid phase is ∂ (αs ρs vs ) + ∂t · (αs ρs vs vs ) = −αs p − N ps + · τ s + αs ρs g + (Kls (vl − vs ) + mls vls − msl vsl ) + ˙ ˙ l=1 (Fs + Flift. 71. 2009 . Flift. 16-48 Release 12.q are as deﬁned for Equation 16.q . 49.s ) (16. 254.5-5. ANSYS FLUENT uses a multiﬂuid granular model to describe the ﬂow behavior of a ﬂuid-solid mixture. the intensity of the particle velocity ﬂuctuations determines the stresses. 208. N is the total number of phases. The solid-phase stresses are derived by making an analogy between the random particle motion arising from particle-particle collisions and the thermal motion of molecules in a gas. Fq .q + Fvm. taking into account the inelasticity of the granular phase.5-5.q are as deﬁned for Equation 16. As is the case for a gas. 183. Kls = Ksl is the momentum exchange coeﬃcient between ﬂuid or solid phase l and solid phase s. January 29. viscosity.0 c ANSYS. The conservation of momentum for the ﬂuid phases is similar to Equation 16. and Fq .5-13. 343].5-13) Here g is the acceleration due to gravity and τ q .5-14) where ps is the sth solids pressure. and Fvm.q ) (16. Flift. The kinetic energy associated with the particle velocity ﬂuctuations is represented by a “pseudothermal” or granular temperature which is proportional to the mean square of the random motion of particles.s + Fvm. and Fvm.Multiphase Flows Fluid-Fluid Momentum Equations The conservation of momentum for a ﬂuid phase q is ∂ (αq ρq vq ) + ∂t · (αq ρq vq vq ) = −αq p + n · τ q + αq ρq g + (Kpq (vp − vq ) + mpq vpq − mqp vqp ) + ˙ ˙ p=1 (Fq + Flift.

since the sparser ﬂuid is more likely to form droplets or bubbles. Kpq should tend to zero whenever the primary phase is not present within the domain. Fluid-Fluid Exchange Coefﬁcient For ﬂuid-ﬂuid ﬂows. the “particulate relaxation time”. the ﬂuid-solid and solid-solid exchange coeﬃcients Kls . It is this drag function that diﬀers among the exchange-coeﬃcient models. January 29.5.5-15. each secondary phase is assumed to form droplets or bubbles. For example. Nearly all deﬁnitions of f include a drag coeﬃcient (CD ) that is based on the relative Reynolds number (Re). This has an impact on how each of the ﬂuids is assigned to a particular phase. To enforce this. is deﬁned as ρp d2 p τp = 18µq where dp is the diameter of the bubbles or droplets of phase p. 2009 16-49 . liquid-liquid or gas-liquid mixtures can be written in the following general form: Kpq = αq αp ρp f τp (16.16. (16. the predominant ﬂuid should be modeled as the primary ﬂuid.5-13 and 16.5 Eulerian Model Theory Conservation of Energy The equation solved by ANSYS FLUENT for the conservation of energy is Equation 16. The exchange coeﬃcient for these types of bubbly. Inc.5-11. For all these situations.5-16) Release 12. 16. for granular ﬂows.5-15) where f .5-14 that momentum exchange between the phases is based on the value of the ﬂuid-ﬂuid exchange coeﬃcient Kpq and. is deﬁned diﬀerently for the diﬀerent exchange-coeﬃcient models (as described below) and τp . in ﬂows where there are unequal amounts of two ﬂuids.4 Interphase Exchange Coefﬁcients It can be seen in Equations 16. as is reﬂected in Equation 16. the drag function f is always multiplied by the volume fraction of the primary phase q. the drag function.0 c ANSYS.

5-17) and Re is the relative Reynolds number.5-18) CD Re 24 (16. • For the Morsi and Alexander model [238] f= where CD = a1 + a2 a3 + 2 Re Re (16. and it is acceptable for general use for all ﬂuid-ﬂuid pairs of phases. The relative Reynolds number for the primary phase q and secondary phase p is obtained from Re = ρq |vp − vq |dp µq (16. Inc. January 29.Multiphase Flows • For the model of Schiller and Naumann [305] f= where CD = 24(1 + 0.44 Re > 1000 (16.15 Re0.5-21) 16-50 Release 12.0 c ANSYS.5-20) where µrp = αp µp + αr µr is the mixture viscosity of the phases p and r. The Schiller and Naumann model is the default method.5-22) CD Re 24 (16. 2009 .5-19) The relative Reynolds number for secondary phases p and r is obtained from Re = ρrp |vr − vp |drp µrp (16.687 )/Re Re ≤ 1000 0.

January 29.5-25. 22. −490. −1662.16.50. 5416700 0 < Re < 0. 578700 0.357. 2 if air is injected into the bottom of a container ﬁlled halfway with water. then dp = dq in Equation 16. Inc.1 0.5 Eulerian Model Theory and Re is deﬁned by Equation 16. Note that if there is only one dispersed phase. 29.5-19 or 16. but calculations with this model may be less stable than with the other models. −3. the air is the continuous phase.687 )/Re Re ≤ 1000 0.6167.5-27) CD Re 24 (16.5191.62. 148.5-20. a2 . Release 12.1667. −2778 0.5-19 or 16. 0. For example.5-24) and Re is deﬁned by Equation 16. −116. dp = dq and (dp +dq ) = dp .5. The symmetric model is recommended for ﬂows in which the secondary (dispersed) phase in one region of the domain becomes the primary (continuous) phase in another.44 Re > 1000 (16.5-26) (αp ρp + αq ρq )( dp +dq )2 2 = 18(αp µp + αq µq ) (16.0 c ANSYS.15 Re0. −47500 0.0903 1. 2009 16-51 . • For the symmetric model Kpq = where τpq and f= where CD = 24(1 + 0.46. adjusting the function definition frequently over a large range of Reynolds numbers.222.5-20. 46. This model can also be used for the interaction between secondary phases.546. a3 = 0. the air is the dispersed phase in the bottom half of the container.8889 0. 0 3.67 0.5-23) The Morsi and Alexander model is the most complete. Thus for a single dispersed phase. 24.690.1 < Re < 1 1 < Re < 10 10 < Re < 100 100 < Re < 1000 1000 < Re < 5000 5000 < Re < 10000 Re ≥ 10000 (16. 98.33.73.5-25) αp (αp ρp + αq ρq )f τpq (16.3644. The a’s are deﬁned as follows: a1 . in the top half of the container.

and ds is the diameter of the sth solid phase particles.0 c ANSYS.63 + 4.s 2 (16. the ﬂow ﬁelds for the ﬂuids will be computed independently.s (16. It is this drag function that diﬀers among the exchange-coeﬃcient models. Fluid-Solid Exchange Coefﬁcient The ﬂuid-solid exchange coeﬃcient Ksl can be written in the following general form: Ksl = αs ρs f τs (16. 2009 . with correlations that are a function of the volume fraction and relative Reynolds number [294]: Res = ρl ds |vs − vl | µl (16.5-32) where the subscript l is for the lth ﬂuid phase. If the exchange coeﬃcient is equal to zero (i. and τs . s is for the sth solid phase. is deﬁned as τs = ρs d2 s 18µl (16. if no exchange coeﬃcient is speciﬁed).5-31) This model is based on measurements of the terminal velocities of particles in ﬂuidized or settling beds.Multiphase Flows You can specify diﬀerent exchange coeﬃcients for each pair of phases.5-30) where the drag function has a form derived by Dalla Valle [66] CD = 0. It is also possible to use user-deﬁned functions to deﬁne exchange coeﬃcients for each pair of phases. • For the Syamlal-O’Brien model [342] f= CD Res αl 2 24vr. All deﬁnitions of f include a drag function (CD ) that is based on the relative Reynolds number (Res ). January 29. with the only “interaction” being their complementary volume fractions within each computational cell.8 Res /vr.e. 16-52 Release 12. the “particulate relaxation time”.5-29) where ds is the diameter of particles of phase s. Inc..5-28) where f is deﬁned diﬀerently for the diﬀerent exchange-coeﬃcient models (as described below).

Inc.5-39) (16.5-83).s (16.15(αl Res )0. • For the model of Wen and Yu [373].8αl (16.s is the terminal velocity correlation for the solid phase [105]: vr.85. January 29.14 A = αl (16.687 αl Res (16.65 B = αl (16.28 B = 0.12 Res (2B − A) + A2 (16.5-32. 2009 16-53 .5-38) and Res is deﬁned by Equation 16.5 Eulerian Model Theory The ﬂuid-solid exchange coeﬃcient has the form Ksl = 3αs αl ρl Res CD |vs − vl | 2 d 4vr.65 Ksl = CD αl 4 ds where CD = 24 1 + 0. and 2.06 Res )2 + 0.5-34) 4. the ﬂuid-solid exchange coeﬃcient is of the following form: 3 αs αl ρl |vs − vl | −2.5-36) for αl ≤ 0.85. Release 12.06 Res + with (0.s = 0. This model is appropriate for dilute systems.5-33) where vr.16.0 c ANSYS.5-37) for αl > 0.5 A − 0.s s vr. [343] (Equation 16. This model is appropriate when the solids shear stresses are deﬁned according to Syamlal et al.5-35) and 1.

ls + Cfr.ls = 0) = the diameter of the particles of solid l = the radial distribution coeﬃcient = = Note that the coeﬃcient of restitution is described in Section 16. When αl > 0.75 2 αl ds ds (16. 2009 .ls 2π (ρl d3 + ρs d3 ) s l 2 |vl − vs | (16.Multiphase Flows • The Gidaspow model [110] is a combination of the Wen and Yu model [373] and the Ergun equation [88]. Solid-Solid Exchange Coefﬁcient The solid-solid exchange coeﬃcient Kls has the following form [341]: 3 (1 + els ) π 2 Kls = where els Cfr. Inc.15(αl Res )0.5-41) (16.8.65 Ksl = CD αl 4 ds where CD = When αl ≤ 0.ls dl g0. January 29.5-42) 24 1 + 0. Ksl = 150 αs (1 − αl )µl ρl αs |vs − vl | + 1.8.5-43) the coeﬃcient of restitution the coeﬃcient of friction between the lth and sth solid-phase particles (Cfr.5: Radial Distribution Function. 16-54 Release 12.0 c ANSYS.5. the ﬂuid-solid exchange coeﬃcient Ksl is of the following form: 3 αs αl ρl |vs − vl | −2.687 αl Res (16.5: Solids Pressure and the radial distribution coeﬃcient is described in Section 16.5.ls π8 αs ρs αl ρl (dl + ds )2 g0.5-40) This model is recommended for dense ﬂuidized beds.

The drag coeﬃcient is deﬁned diﬀerently for bubbly and droplet ﬂows. g the gravity. Release 12. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability wavelength is σ g∆ρpq 0.0 c ANSYS. Re = ρq |vq − vp |dp µe (16.e. The drag laws can apply to non-spherical particles with the constraint of a pool ﬂow regime. i.5 Eulerian Model Theory Universal Drag Laws for Bubble-Liquid and Droplet-Gas Flows The universal drag laws [170] are suitable for the calculation of the drag coeﬃcients in bubble-liquid or droplet-gas ﬂow regimes.5-48) Where σ is the surface tension. Inc. January 29. 2009 16-55 .5-44) Where q represents the primary phase and p the particulate phase.5-45) The relative Reynolds number for the primary phase q and the secondary phase p is obtained based on the relative velocity of the two phases.5 λRT = (16. and ∆ρpq the absolute value of the density diﬀerence between phases p and q.5-47) Where µe is the eﬀective viscosity of the primary phase accounting for the eﬀects of family of particles in the continuum. The particulate relaxation time τp is deﬁned as τp = The drag function f is deﬁned as f= CD Re 24 (16. The exchange coeﬃcient for bubbly and droplet ﬂows can be written in the general form Kpq = αq αp ρp f τp (16.5-46) ρp dp 2 18µe (16.16. the hydraulic diameter of the ﬂow domain which is far larger than the averaged size of the particles.

5-57) (16.Multiphase Flows Bubble-Liquid Flow CDvis = 24 (1 + 0.67f ∗ 6/7 = 2/3( ) λRT 18.67f ∗ . 2009 .5-53) (16.5-49) CDdis dp 1 + 17. f ∗ = (1 − αp )1.5-52) (16. the following condition is satisﬁed: CDdis < CDvis The drag coeﬃcient. January 29. capped bubbles.5 (16.1Re0. CD . the following condition is satisﬁed: CDdis > CDcap The drag coeﬃcient can be written as CD = CDcap The eﬀective viscosity for the bubble-liquid mixture is µe = µq 1 − αp (16.0 c ANSYS.5-56) 16-56 Release 12.5-54) (16. Inc.5-58) (16.75 ) Re 2 (16.5-50) 8 CDcap = (1 − αp )2 3 • In the viscous regime. the following condition is satisﬁed: CDvis < CDdis < CDcap The drag coeﬃcient is calculated as CD = CDdis (16. is computed as CD = CDvis • In the distorted bubble regime.5-55) • In the regime of strongly deformed.5-51) (16.

5-59) • When 1 ≤ Re ≤ 1000. 2009 16-57 . The function g0. the drag coeﬃcient for the stokes regime is CD = 24 Re (16.75 ) Re (16. but the value can be adjusted to suit the particle type. Solids Pressure For granular ﬂows in the compressible regime (i. and appears in the expression for the solids pressure and viscosities.5-60) • For the Newton’s regime (Re ≥ 1000).5 Eulerian Model Theory Droplet-Gas Flow • When Re < 1. Inc.ss is the radial distribution function. and will be described later in this section. a granular temperature is introduced into the model. g0. in the granular-phase momentum equation.5 The drag model is currently suitable for bubble-liquid and/or droplet-gas ﬂow when the characteristic length of the ﬂow domain is much larger than the averaged size of the particles.ss (described below in more detail) is a distribution function that governs the transition from the “compressible” Release 12. Because a Maxwellian velocity distribution is used for the particles. f ∗ = (1 − αp )3 (16.67f ∗ 6/7 ) CD = 2/3( λRT 18.1Re0. a solids pressure is calculated independently and used for the pressure gradient term. the drag coeﬃcient is dp 1 + 17. where the solids volume fraction is less than its maximum allowed value). and Θs is the granular temperature. ANSYS FLUENT uses a default value of 0. ps . January 29.ss Θs (16.16.67f ∗ 2 .5-63) where ess is the coeﬃcient of restitution for particle collisions. The granular temperature Θs is proportional to the kinetic energy of the ﬂuctuating particle motion.e.5-62) i 16.5.5-61) The eﬀective viscosity for a bubble-liquid mixture is µe = µq (1 − αp )2.0 c ANSYS. the drag coeﬃcient for the viscous regime is CD = 24 (1 + 0.5 (16..9 for ess . The solids pressure is composed of a kinetic term and a second term due to particle collisions: 2 ps = αs ρs Θs + 2ρs (1 + ess )αs g0.

mp and mq 2 are the masses of the particles in phases p and q. A known problem is that N solid phases with identical properties should be consistent when the same phases are described by a single solids phase.ss ) + [(1 + ess )(1 − ess + 2µf ric )]] (16.max . Other formulations that are also available in ANSYS FLUENT are [343] 2 ps = 2ρs (1 + ess )αs g0. 2009 .qp )ρq Θq d3 p=1 q N pq = αq ρq Θq + ( (16.5-66) where dpq = dp +dq is the average diameter. and f is a function of the masses of the particles and their granular temperatures. the above expression does not take into account the eﬀect of other phases.pq d3 nq np (1 + eqp )f (mp . Θq ) qp 3 p=1 N pq = αq ρq Θq + (16. Θp . January 29.pq αq αp ρq Θq d3 q (16. where no further decrease in the spacing can occur. np . where the spacing between the solid particles can continue to decrease. Inc.5-68) where pc.5-64) and [213] 1 ps = αs ρs Θs [(1 + 4αs g0.qp is the collisional part of the pressure between phases q and p.max .0 c ANSYS. to the “incompressible” condition with α = αs.ss Θs (16. 16-58 Release 12. Equations derived empirically may not satisfy this property and need to be changed accordingly without deviating signiﬁcantly from the original form.5-67) Since all models need to be cast in the general form. A derivation of the expressions from the Boltzman equations for a granular mixture are beyond the scope of this manual.Multiphase Flows condition with α < αs. From [109]. nq are the number of particles.max . The above expression reverts to the one solids phase expression when N = 1 and q = p but also has the property of feeling the presence of other phases. mq . we have to simplify this expression so that it depends only on the granular temperature of phase q N pq = αq ρq Θq + p=1 2 d3 pq (1 + epq )g0. a general solids pressure formulation in the presence of other phases could be of the form π g0. but you can modify it during the problem setup. A value of 0. however there is a need to provide a better formulation so that some properties may feel the presence of other phases. For now.5-65) 2 When more than one solids phase are calculated.63 is the default for αs. it follows that d3 pq pc.

For two identical phases with the property that αq = α1 + α2 . This function may also be interpreted as the nondimensional distance between spheres: g0 = s + dp s (16.5 Eulerian Model Theory Radial Distribution Function The radial distribution function.16. g0 . From Equation 16. and therefore g0 → 1. the above function is not consistent for the calculation of the partial pressures p1 and p2 . In the literature there is no unique formulation for the radial distribution function. January 29. pq = p1 +p2 . s → 0 and g0 → ∞.max 1 3 −1 1 N αk + dl 2 k=1 dk (16. χ is equal to 1 for a rare gas. ANSYS FLUENT has a number of options: • For one solids phase. In order to correct this problem.5-70) This is an empirical function and does not extend easily to n phases.5-72) and k are solid phases only. is a correction factor that modiﬁes the probability of collisions between grains when the solid granular phase becomes dense.max 1 3 −1 (16. use [254]: g0 = 1 − αs αs.0 c ANSYS. • The following expression is also available [137]: g0.max ) 2 k=1 dk 1 (16. and increases and tends to inﬁnity when the molecules are so close together that motion is not possible.ll = 1 − where αs αs. 2009 16-59 .ll = 3 N αk + dl αs (1 − αs. In the limit when the solid phase compacts. T