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By-product: Secondary or incidental product of an industrial or manufacturing process.
Parts remaining after fillet and other parts removed for human consumption.
Major Processing Line Components: Heads Viscera Frames Skins Others such as tails, fins, scales, mince, blood, etc.
By-products from slaughter and processing of healthy fish have been treated in various ways- by incineration, fishmeal production, incorporation into petfood,food for animals kept for fur production, composting, biogas production and ensiling. About 1/3rd of world catch of fish is not used for direct human consumption but for production of fishery by-products. It is certainly of vital importance that such material be utilized. If not, causing a big environmental problem.
Fish meal means a product obtained by drying and grinding or otherwise treating fish or fish waste to which no other matter has been added
Virtually any fish or shellfish in the sea can be used to make fish meal. If fed to animals, can increase omega-3 levels in meat and eggs.
Of world s fish meal production, 90% is produced from oily fishes and only 10% from cod and haddock.
Production of fish meal and fish oil
Fish Meal provides high levels of EAA, B-complex Vit, Minerals.
Popular since low fibre, and easy to produce. For swine, cattle and poultry, it is often added at approximately a 3% rate to their cereal diets. Fish meal is obtained by cooking and pressing whole fish, such as herring, sharks and gray fish, fish scraps. Fish meal are produced in a ratio of 3:1 with fish oil. Yield of both is 1/6th to 1/8th the weight of original fish or fish scraps.
Fish meal is used in feeds for poultry, pigs, ruminants, farmed fish and fur producing animals. It increases productivity and improves the efficiency with which feed is converted to animal produce. It is of special value in diets for young animals, in broiler starter diets, diets for early weaned pigs, and for farmed fish and fur producing animals. Fish meal been shown to be superior to other proteins, specially vegetable proteins. in supplying a high quality protein a large part of which escapes breakdown in the rumen.
Ruminants can make better use of forage if fish meal is included in their diets, particularly if forage is a major part of their feed.
As well as providing a high quality protein with a near ideal balance of amino acids for farmed fish. antioxidant treated fish meal provides a valuable source of n-3 long chain fatty acids which are essential for fish such as trout, salmon, carp, catfish and eels.
Fish oil is the substance that is derived from the tissues of oily fish. Fish oil is a derived from the fat of cold water fish such as anchovies, mackerel and sardine. Fish oil approximately has 25% saturated and 75% unsat. fatty acids. Yields of fishmeal and fish oil can vary between fish species and even from season to season, but typically around 17 ± 22% fishmeal and 5 ±15% fish oil will be obtained by processing.
Omega-3 essential fatty acids (EFAs) are key ingredients of fish oil. These EFAs are docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA).
DHA: DHA is an essential fatty acid also called a long grain fatty acid. It is the most vital fat in the development of the fat in the brain of the fetus. DHA also makes up a large amount of the fat in people's brains. This makes DHA fatty acid an important addition to the diet because it is not produced by the body and must be obtained from food. DHA also benefits the nervous system and the eyes. EPA: EPA is the next component of fish oil. This essential fatty acid strengthens the cardiovascular system, reduces the risk of heart disease and strokes, and lowers triglycerides. EPA also has inflammatory effects that work to ease the pain and discomfort of arthritis. Used in treating Inflammation, support heart health, skin problems, anxiety depression , eye health and macular degeneration.
Technical applications of fish oils
The highly unsaturated properties make the oils suitable for a number of technical applications, particularly as drying oils and varnishes. From these acids are produced several types of metallic soaps, some of which are used in lubricating greases while others are used as waterproofing agents. Small quantities of fatty; acids are used pharmaceutically and medicinally, and for scientific research purposes
Fish silage is a liquid product made from whole fish or parts of fish that are liquefied by the action of enzymes in the fish in the presence of an added acid. The enzymes break down fish proteins into smaller soluble units, and the acid helps to speed up their activity while preventing bacterial spoilage.
The composition of fish silage is very similar to that of the material from which it is made. A typical analysis of white fish offal is: 80 per cent water, 15 per cent protein, 4.5 per cent ash 0.5 per cent fat, Production of fish silage is a viable alternative to fish meal, especially in location where small amount of fishery waste or by-catch is produced.
Ensiling is a process used for the preservation of fish by-products until further processing and is an important means of processing farmed and wild fish byproducts. Fish silage is liquefied fish stabilized against bacterial decomposition by acid. It involves mincing of the fish followed by addition of an acid for preservation. The enzymes in the fish gut break down the fish proteins into smaller soluble units and acid helps to increase their activity while preventing bacterial spoilage. Formic, propionic, sulfuric and phosphoric acids have been used. Normally, about 3-4% of acid is added so that the pH remains at or below 4.0. It offers a solution to the handling of fish waste when the logistics of delivering the waste to a fish reduction plant are not economical.
Preparation of fish silage
BENEFITS AND USE OF FISH SILAGE:
Fish Silage production is a simplified, low cost, hydrolysis process & crude form of hydrolysate. Relatively low technology equipment and facilities needed. Skilled or specialized labor is not required. Additional income generation opportunity is possible for processors. Value is added to an otherwise untapped and unused waste product. The amount of imported fertilizer and animal feed is reduced. Fish waste disposal costs are reduced.
Fish waste dumped in landfill is greatly reduced.
They are products resulting from the enzymatic hydrolysis of protein. It is produced by the use of enzymes to break down fish proteins into amino acids (proteolysis). The resultant product is highly functional, contributing whipping, gelling and texturing properties when used as an ingredient in food products. Unlike silage production, specific enzymes and/or microbial starter cultures are added to the fish to accelerate proteolysis.
Some fish hydrolysate is ground more finely than others so more bone material is able to remain suspended. Enzymes may also be used to solubilize bones, scale and meat. If the larger chunks of bone and scales are screened out, calcium or protein, or mineral content may be lacking in the finished product form.
Some fish hydrolysates have been made into a dried product, but most of the oil is left behind in this process, which means a great deal of the functional food component would be lacking.
Fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) present: Excellent amino acid balance Good digestibility Rapid uptake Generally good functional properties Certain bioactive peptide components Biological activities of FPH Antioxidant activity: The antioxidant activity of FPH has been related to aromatic amino acids, particularly histidine and tyrosine. This activity in proline has been also underlined. Anti cancerous activity Immunostumulant activity Antimicrobial activity
Functional properties of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH):
Functional properties High solubility Emulsification capacity and stability Foaming capacity Reduce cooking loss Water-holding capacity Reduce drip loss Studies on minimizing bitterness of FPH Antioxidative properties Bioactive properties
Possible applications of FPH as ingredient in food systems: Functional food ingredients (physical properties) Antioxidant Flavour enhancer - Seafood flavour Salt and monosodium glutamate (MSG) replacer Milk replacer Protein enrichment (i.e. for sport drinks) Bioactive ingredients.
Commercial Protein Hydrolysates
Products from Fish By-products
Feed Ingredients for : Aquaculture Companion Animals Farm Animals Fertilizers : Natural fertilizers Soil conditioners Compost Human Ingredients: Oils Protein powder Pharmaceuticals Mineral supplements Gelatin films Industrial Use : Fuels Cosmetics Biodegradable materials
Fish Livers Uses Oils Vitamins Protein powders Human foods Animal feed ingredients Protein meals
Fish Frames Uses: Protein Mince Fish Meal and Oil Protein Hydrolysate Bone and Bone Meal Fish Heads Uses: Oil from salmon heads Mince Proteins-collagen Organs ± eye and brain Protein meals and hydrolysates Gills Food ± dried and fresh heads
Fish Skin Uses: Gelatin Food ingredient Feed binding agent Edible films Collagen Leathers Fish Viscera Uses: Feed Ingredient Meals Oils Source of organs Bio chemicals, enzymes etc Attractants and palatinates
Chitin and Chitosan
Chitin and Chitosan are polymers of glucosamine. Chitosan is a an aliphatic polyamine, Chitin is polysaccharide in exoskeleton of animal species. Due to the abundance of left over crustacean shell and body cavities, these raw materials make the perfect input in the production of both chitin and chitosan. Chitin is manufactured from shrimp and crab waste. Approximately 65% of whole clams and 85% by weight of whole oysters consists of shells, and shells contains 3-6% chitin. In squids, on a dry weight basis, has 40% chitin. Chitosan is collective term applied to deacetylated chitins in various stages of deacetylation and depolymerisation.
Chitosan is used in large quantities for water treatment. It acts as a cationic flocculent to remove negatively-charged particles in the water purification process. Chitosan has also been used as a stiffening agent for the manufacture of paper, a water impermeable coating for fruit and seeds to retard dehydration, a processing aid for the clarification of fruit juices and wines and a thickening agent or stabilizer for manufactured foods. Chitosan has also been used as a skin replacement in the treatment of burn victims, a carrier for drugs and has antimicrobial properties which have been applied to food preservation and as an antibacterial coating for textiles.
Fish glue is an adhesive prepared from the waste products of fish such as the head, skin, and bones. Fish glue: a strong kind of glue obtained from fish skins and bladders, isinglass. Isinglass is defined as a superior fish gelatin product, produced from the swim bladders of certain species of fish. The quality of the isinglass depends on the chosen species of fish, the manufacturing process, and additives.
Gelatin is derived from collagen, which is constituent of principal connective tissues and bones.
Gelatin has been extracted from several fish species including cod, black tilapia,red tilapia and Atlantic salmon.
Gelatin from cold water fish species exhibits lower gel strength, as well as lower gelling and melting temperatures compared to mammalian gelatin. This is due to a lower content of the imino acids, proline and hydroxyproline
Supplier of vitamins use cold water fish gelatin for micro-encapsulation of oil soluble substances such as vitamins A, D, E and carotenoids. Cold water fish gelatin is also used in pharmaceutical fast-dissolving tablets and as a protein additive for neutraceutical, cosmetic and food applications. The main potentials for fish gelatins are to utilize them in the pharmaceutical industry as material in soft capsules.
Fish By-products Advantages: Smaller & more constant amounts of byproducts available over longer periods of time. Smaller sized equipment needed for processing. High quality parts skin, frames, heads, and viscera available directly from processing line. High quality fish protein and oils available. Often close to an agriculture user (example: raw by-product as feed ingredient). Environmental friendly.
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