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A SPECIAL VOCABULARY TO VIRGIL, COVERING HI!S COMPLETE WORKS. By J. B. GREENOUGH. BOSTON: PUBLISHED BY GINN, HEATH, & CO. 1884, Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1882, by JAMES B. GREENOUGH, in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, sHING & Co., Printers, Boston, PREFACE. Ss author, in preparing this Vocabulary to accompany his Virgil, or for use with other editions, has had two things in view: first, to supply as much information as was possible in regard to the history and uses of the Latin words, so that the book should not be a mere key to translate by, but should also furnish means for the study of the language itself; and, secondly, at the same time to give or suggest a suitable English expression for every passage. In every language which is to be rendered into another, there may be said to be three classes of meanings to the words: first, the etymological meaning, 7.¢., the idea that a word presented when it was first formed or used ; second, the literal meanings, z.e., the ideas which a word came to have to those who used it in its later develop- ment; and, third, the foreign meaning or translation, é.¢., the word expressing the nearest equivalent idea in the language into which one wishes to translate. Of course these three classes of meanings may happen to coincide; a word may not have deviated essentially from its primitive force, and this same force may happen to belong to some similar word in the other language. It is, however, oftener other- wise; words have often diverged very far and in many directions from the primitive conception underlying them, and it is rare that a word in one language exactly covers the group of ideas which belongs to the nearest corresponding word in another; and this is especially true in poetry. The author has aimed to keep these classes of meanings separate so’ far as space would: permit. For