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Theme 1: The Indigenous Peoples and the Europeans

1. Describe the migratory and settlement patterns of the indigenous people in the Caribbean up to the arrival of the Spaniards in 1492.
Historians believe that the earliest peoples to settle the Western Hemisphere did so between 15,000 to 20,000 years ago. They were a set of people that were nomadic: always on the go in search of food and warmer climate. This is the reason, it is believed, they came across the Bering Strait during the winter when it formed a land bridge connecting Asia to Alaska. Among these groups of early settlers were the 1. Incas of Peru 2. Aztecs of Mexico 3. Mayans of Yucatan Peninsula (Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Northern Honduras and a part of Southern Mexico) 4. Kalinagos and the Tainos who occupied the Venezuela and the Guianas. The CXC syllabus requires us to study the last three groups: the Mayans, Kalinagos and the Tainos. Continuous rivalry between the Tainos and the Kalinagos, for land, women and food forced the docile Tainos to leave the regions of South America and move upwards into the neighboring island of Trinidad. The Kalinagos still followed them so some of the Tainos left Trinidad and continued into the Lesser Antilles. Some remained so Trinidad was occupied by both Tainos and Kalinagos. In time, the Kalinagos came to control the islands of the Lesser Antilles, for example Dominica and St. Vincent while the Tainos who had fled further upwards came to control the Greater Antilles, Jamaica, Cuba, Hispaniola( Haiti and the Dominican Republic) and the Bahamas. Both groups shared the island of Puerto Rico. The Tainos settled near the coasts or streams and rivers, for example Priestman's river in Jamaica. Why? (a) Fishing was an important source of food: protein (b) They could easily get water for domestic purposes such as washing their utensils or bathing (c) They could get water for their crops (d) They could go swimming (e) It provided an excellent lookout point. From this vantage point they could see the Kalinagos approaching and get ready to fight or run. The Kalinagos settled near the coasts too. This is mainly because they were what we can call sea rovers. The sea was like a highway to them. They used it to get to and from the various

islands of the Greater and Lesser Antilles where they conducted their raids. They were also excellent fishermen.

The indigenous peoples of the Americas
a) Migration of indigenous peoples to the Americas and to the Caribbean territories (through North, Central and South America) and their interactions. The history of the Caribbean did not begin in 1492 with the arrival of Christopher Columbus. In fact, it began thousands of years earlier with the indigenes (Tainos, Kalinagos and Mayans). These indigenous peoples (Amerindians) had developed societies that spread across the Americas - the Caribbean and parts of South and Central America. The ancestors of the indigenous peoples were originally from Central East Asia and came across the frozen Bering Strait/Beringia to North America during the Ice Age. They were nomadic peoples who followed their food (mammoth) and this is presented as a factor that accounted for them wandering from Asia into North America. The nomads wandered southward through North, Central and South America, evolving distinct physical and cultural characteristics Three distinct groups developed societies in parts of the Caribbean and in Central and South Americas. b) Geographical location of Taino (Arawak), Kalinago (Carib) and Maya.

They then walked into Alaska then down into North Central and South America. They then crossed the Orinoco River in canoes and settled in the Lesser Antilles: (St Vincent, Grenada and Virgin Islands). 3. Migratory pattern of the Mayans These people migrated from Asia across the Bering Strait into Alaska then into North America areas such as Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and on the Yucatan peninsula. 4. Migratory pattern of the Aztecs These people migrated from Asia across the Bering Strait into Alaska then into North America into Yucatan peninsula and settled 5. Migratory pattern of the Incas These people migrated from Asia across the Bering Strait into South America in areas such as Peru and Bolivar.

Exercise: 1. Draw a map of the world and only include the following: bearing strait, North America, South America, the Caribbean, Europe and the Orinoco river.
2. From the map you are to put in places where the Mayans, Tainos, Kalinago and Aztec settled use colour to identify places where they settled.
You need to be sharp on your map work. You could be asked to list territories that they settled in. You could also get a labelled map as you are asked to identify the territories relating to any of Columbus' four voyages as well. I would suggest that you make a list of the territories involved in the migration and settlement of the indigenous peoples..

Movement from Asia
1. Migratory pattern of the Arawaks/Tainos The Arawaks were a group of indigenous people who came from Asia then walked across the Bearing Strait which was frozen due to the Ice age. They then walked into Alaska then down into North Central and South America. They then crossed the Orinoco River in canoes and settled in the Greater Antilles: (Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola , Puerto Rico and Bahamas). 2 Migratory pattern of the Caribs/Kalinogos Tha Caribs came from Asia then walked across the Bearing Strait which was frozen due to the Ice age.

Your answer would be wrong! The converse applies. If you are asked a question about island peoples. Got it? . The island peoples refer to the Kalinagos and the Tainos. the islands refer to: the Greater Antilles: Jamaica. you CANNOT refer to the Mayans of Belize. Puerto Rico and the Bahamas and the Lesser Antilles. For the purpose of the CSEC Caribbean History syllabus. The mainland peoples refer to the Mayans. Please get yourself an atlas or at least a photocopy of a map of the Caribbean and study it. If you are asked a question about mainland peoples.You also need to know the shape and location of the various territories. comprising the Windward and Leeward islands. Be familiar terms Please be familiar with the terms: island/island peoples and mainland/mainland peoples. Hispaniola. Remember that the labelled map will NOT necessarily have the names of the territories. Cuba. The mainland refers to British Honduras (Belize) and the Guianas. we do not expect you to write about the Tainos of Jamaica or the Kalinagos of Dominica.

This was his symbol of authority. Their skin colour was olive (smooth and brown). Each village was ruled by a mitayno or nobleman while the province was ruled by the cacique.  He sat on a special ceremonial stood called a dujo.   He made decisions of peace and war. They had broad noses and their nostrils were widely flared. for gold was a sign of rank among them. They were naturally good looking but distorted (changed) their features by artificial means. STYLE of DRESS of the ARAWAKS  They were completely naked in the islands of Guanahani (San Salvador)  In Hispaniola and Cuba the married women wore a piece of cloth around their waist called a nagua Political Political organization speaks to the way in which a people is governed or ruled.   He was given the best food and was carried around in a litter. He made few laws. They wore gold in their noses and ears as plugs or hanging ornaments. Their hair was black and straight but coarse and was worn long. This would increase his chances of having a male heir. It was the largest in the village and the only one to be painted.  He and his family wore ornaments of gold and copper alloy called guanine. it was the mitayno’s power which mattered. he led ceremonies playing a wooden gong and had his own zemis.    He was the leader during war time. They had many wives. As religious leader he decided how worship would go. On it he sat and dispensed justice or gave out the orders for the day. the Tainos were a peaceful set of people who believed in and practiced clan-cooperation and respect for elders. Or a female could inherit the position if her father. for ceremonial event. war. except those in Hispaniola who were plump in shape. while his son was carried on servants’ shoulders.  Duties of the Cacique    He/she was the supreme judge. but slightly built.    The cacique was a hereditary title (it passed down from father to son) The cacique ruled large provinces (villages) If the cacique died without a son the title would be passed on to the eldest son of his eldest sister. he was carried in a litter.   He was given the best part of the harvest for himself and family. for length of skirt was a sign of high rank. He was buried in a marked grave or cave or in his own hut and some of his wives were buried with him.The Taino Appearance They were short to middle height They were well shaped. We ask questions such as: Who are the leaders? What are the rules or system by which they are chosen?  The CACIQUE was the head of Arawak society.  Privileges of the Cacique  He was allowed to have more than one wife. and to protect them against insect bites They painted their faces. the planting and distributing of the crops. He could levy a kind of tax on the people of his province.) He dealt with the distribution of land. . They painted their bodies black. His house was also the largest. Firstly. They worked and played together in harmony. and nose and the bare parts of their bodies. When he travelled by land. It was carved out of wood or stone in the shape of an animal. (Their heads were flattened at the forehead by the use of boards or a bandages when they were babies) this made the skull slope up to a peak which the Arawaks thought was a mark of beauty. He fixed the day of worship and celebrations There were very few laws. eyes. He was a ceremonial leader more than a law maker (but he did make laws. This might be in the form of agricultural produce or of weapon. white and other colours usually red. the cacique did not have a son. For most Arawak people. he made the laws and enforced them He was a religious leader who was highly respected and given many privileges. There were very few crimes. His canoe was built by his tribe men.    His wives skirts were longer than those of the other women. His house (bohio) was rectangular while all the others were round. the ordering of labour on the land.

It was then that the zemis were supposed to speak to them. First they tickled their throats with swallow sticks to make themselves vomit and prove to the zemis that no impurity remained in them. He was the judge whose word was law and who could sentence people to death for disobedience. he placed the cahoba on the zemi’s flat topped head and inhaled from it through his nostrils from a y-shaped cane tube. the commoners and slaves doing the work which the nobles supervised. female captives were given to outstanding warriors as concubines. 4.they believed in many gods. The cacique’s zemis were felt to be more powerful than anyone else’s. • • He was the religious leader of his village. they only went out at night in groups and protected themselves by wearing zemis around their necks or foreheads. whom the zemis represented. crops planted and harvested and any surplus stored for distribution in the community. They also believed in spirits called opia. All work was done communally.His functions were as follows: • • He organized the work of the village. each home had its own zemi in a place of honour on a small table. A bowl of snuff (cahoba) or powdered tobacco was placed before it and when the person wished to pray. Nobles and mitaynos also inherited their position. Commoners/ordinary people • • People who were born commoners remained in that class. They believed in: • • • The forces of good and evil Life after death Heaven (coyaba) and hell  They were small in size precaution against a surprise attack. stone or cotton. they would fall ill.  They were built near the sea or on top of hills as a  They had two sort of houses  The bohio-this was the chief’s house. 2. which were felt to contain the forces of nature or the spirits of the ancestors. For this reason. The most important among these were the god of the sky and the goddess of the earth from whom all living things had descended. 5. which belonged to the dead. He often rubbed the zemi with cassava to feed it. It was to be rectangular in shape but because it was hard to build they built him a round house instead. A number of families make up a clan and the clans made up the village and the villages formed the community. He decided when land should be prepared. bone. They placed great importance on religious ceremonies. Their bodies were washed and painted red. 6. The arawaks believed in many gods. Then canes were woven between them and tied .this was the family house. They also believed in a God of the moon which they thought was the sun’s twin brother. He led them to the sacred hut on the outskirts of the village and there he and the priests entered to pray. They had a number of myths to explain the mysteries of life including earth and the creation of man. good harvest. • 1. The cacique announced the day on which a ceremony was to take place. • • • • • • • • There is punishment in the afterlife for those who lived an evil life There is reward in the afterlife for those who lived a good life. Slaves were usually men and women captured in wars. consciousness. It was constructed by putting wooden posts in the ground in a circle. When all were assembled the entire people formed a procession with the cacique at its head. white and black. After this. The Tainos were polytheistic. Even though the ordinary people could not converse with the zemis. Each household kept a zemi or the bones of dead ancestors in a basket for use as a zemi to protect the family. The men wore their feathered cloaks and the women decorated their arms and legs with shells and coral. It was believed that only the cacique could speak to the zemis. Their gods were represented by zemis which they made from wood. they smoked the cahoba until they lost  Religious Beliefs and Practices Taino religious symbols Social Organization ARAWAKS COMMUNITIES/VILLAGES The Tainos were organized along family lines. The priest was the only one who could communicate with the gods (zemis) Offering food and meat offerings to the gods Using tobacco (incense) in the process of communicating with the gods Having festivals and celebrations in honor of the gods Keeping the gods happy (appeasing the gods) Offering prayers to the gods for healing. and who returned at night to try to enter their bodies.  The caneye. protection and so on. 3. for the Arawaks felt that if their zemi went hungry.

with creepers.    Their houses were strong. GENDER RELATIONS Women were a very important part of the Tainos society. They got married early . They flattened the children's forehead as a mark of beauty. Married men and women wore loincloth and cotton skirts respectively. They were not allowed to participate. The roof was thatched in a conical shape and a hole left in the top so that smoke could escape. This is what defines us and sets us apart from other people and countries. During these moments women and men usually danced alone but at times they danced together. 3. It was a game similar to volleyball and football. they produced basically the same things. Hunting They hunted conies (utia/hutia) and birds with nets and noose that they made from fibres and vines. (communally) PLEASURE AND RECREATION  The Arawaks enjoyed themselves by singing and dancing called areytos. swam and did wrestling. they did not engage in surplus production. ‘clothing' and shelter for their people. They provided just enough for their own use. Whatever trading took place was among the Tainos themselves. They also went in search of and gathered wild plants and the bark of certain trees as directed by their priests to be used for medicinal purposes. Their houses had little furniture such as (polished clay pots. In this game two teams trying to hit the ball with any part of their body into their opponents goal line. They had the hammock which was made of cotton and used for sleeping. cassava. The pipe in which the leaves were smoked was called tobacco. They formed the cheering committee. Gender relation is most clearly seen in the division and organization of labor. agouti and snakes. mother earth would transfer some of its fertility to her. and yautia.  They had the zemi (idol) which was made of (wood. The single people went naked. These were gleefully collected and added to the main menu.  They played a ball game called batos on a marked field called (batey). The indigenous peoples were no different. 5. 1.  The favorite pass time activity for the Arawaks was smoking tobacco. sweet potatoes.  Economic Organization Production These are the main activities that the Tainos did in their quest to provide food. It is interesting to note that the Tainos of Jamaica did engage in some amount of trading with the Mayans of Belize. They were to care for the children and the rest of the family while the men were away on hunting or fishing trips or out gathering food such as fruits. groundnuts. Only men were allowed to smoke and drink 4. stone or cotton) or used as a basket of bones. They played ball game called batos. It was believed that the fertility of the woman would transfer to the crop and vice versa.  The Arawaks made cigars and chewed tobacco. If she was barren. stools and a few tables. It was not safe to venture too far out at sea where the Kalinagos ruled the ‘highway'. The women were only invited to watch at wrestling matches and ball games.  They drank for pleasure during their fun times. Thirdly.  Outside their house the Arawaks cultivated plots called conucos where they grew maize (corn). 7. Trading Let us agree that trading would be limited. 6. 2. possession or wealth. The women did the weaving so that the men and children could have loincloths and cotton arm bands to wear. the Tainos' villages were constantly raided by the Kalinagos. Secondly. The most heinous crimes were theft and adultery for which the punishment was a slow and painful death. Everything was owned collectively by the members of the community. If you follow on your map you will see that a straight line connects Jamaica to Belize. The women were responsible for the planting of the crops. .  They called the tobacco plant (cohiba). There was no private property.  They used tobacco for peace and contentment and for helping them to meditate. They were a pleasure loving people. In the hills of Trinidad and Jamaica for example a lot of wild fruits grew in abundance. Why? First of all. They can be considered a step above the early hunters and gatherers. They also hunted iguanas. Different villages would contact each other when there was a need. CUSTOMS Every society has its own sets of customs and norms.

Sweet potatoes Fishing They would go fishing in the dug out canoes that they made.. Fruits: pineapples. Cassava Cassava roots 3. pull it under until it drowned and then put it in the bag that he carried with him. guava. SUBSISTENCE LIVING of the ARAWAKS (FOODS and FOOD PREPARATION METHODS)  The Arawaks hunted and grew their food for themselves and had a well balanced diet and food was plentiful for them. After a few minutes he would grab a nearby fowl by the legs.1. They had an ingenious method of attaching the remora or sucking fish to the canoe by a thin line. cashew. papaya and grapefruit (the only citrus known to them before the coming of the Europeans) 2. They caught a wide variety of water animals such as: flying fish. crabs and manatee. They used nets made of vegetable fibres. The fisherman would then pull up the remora. The waterfowls became used to these harmless objects and paid them no mind. shell fish. soursop. As soon as he was convinced that the fowls were relaxed. Waterfowls were also caught by trickery. take off the fish and deposit the remora once more in the water to wait for another victim. naseberry. The Tainos would allow a number of calabashes to float on the river. The fish would then dart after the remora hoping to eat it but would only succeed in getting itself sucked onto the powerful remora. bone and turtle shell hooks and bone tipped harpoons. . the Taino would place a calabash over his head and quietly slip into the water unnoticed.

They did not know iron. They used it mainly as ornaments. sweet potatoes.  They made intoxicating drinks using cassava and maize (corn). The method of collecting gold was therefore very simple. turtle and manatee (sea-cow)  They fished using nets made using fibres. Their tools were therefore very simple.  They used salt and pepper to season their foods especially the cassareep sauce which was made of cassava juice. naseberries. They would dig a hole at the side of the river bank and let the water flow through it. The remora or sucking fish used in to catch fish Bows and arrows used in hunting Slash and burn agriculture Fertilizer: ashes. Weaving The Kalinago Location of Settlements . roasting and stewing to prepare their foods. Any gold found was collected and given to those in charge of making decorative headdress for the caciques. yautia and groundnuts in large mounds of earth They squeezed the poisonous juices out of the cassava before making cassava flour. How they caught the Turtle:  They caught a remora (suckerfish) and tied a long line to a canoe. 5. animal and vegetable manure Crude irrigation ditches Crop rotation. They would examine the silt that was left behind.  The way in which the Arawaks caught the turtle showed ingenuity (how clever they were). guavas and cashews) and vegetables.  The Arawaks used cooking methods such as baking.  The Arawaks ate a lot of fruits such as (pineapples. masks for religious ceremonies or nose rings and bracelets. Technology The Indigenous people lived in the Stone Age. 6. 9. The only time they got drunk was on some ceremonial occasions. How they caught the duck:  First they floated gourds down stream until the ducks became use to seeing gourds birds their  As the ducks become familiar with seeing the gourd. Fishing hooks made from bones Fire used as a tool in canoe building Dyeing Taino axe  When he come close to the duck he would pull it under water by its legs and drown it. mammee apples.  The Arawaks showed their agricultural skills in growing vegetables:    They cultivated maize (corn) by soaking the seeds in water and planting them in rows.  The Arawaks hunted small animals such as the utia.  The Arawaks used small dogs called alcos to help them hunt because they did not bark but made a growling noise. They caught and ate various (different) types of fish such as (shellfish. star apples. 7.  Their method of catching ducks showed a lot of cunning. They planted cassava. Mining The indigenous peoples did not place much value on gold. 4. 1. 8. Because of how this dish was prepared would feed a family for several days. Most people consider their techniques and methods backwards when judged by modern methods. vegetables.  The turtle will the be pulled into the canoe by the fisherman (Arawaks). 3.  The remora (sucker-fish) would dive for the turtle and attach itself to the back of the turtle with its sucker. These dogs were the only animals the Arawaks domesticated (train to live in their homes with them)  The Arawaks caught doves in nets and like parrot by slipping a noose over heads. Foods Iguana Meat Cassava Cakes Fish How food was Prepared Stewed Baked Smoked  The Arawaks favorite dish was Pepperpot soup/stew (made with meat. which was a stew or a soup. the hunter would put a gourd over his head breathing through a hole and seeing through eye slits Hammocks were a favourite item. nuts and pepper). They also did baskets from straw. These were used as containers for the fishermen's catch. bone hooks and harpoons. agouti and the iguana whose meat they liked a lot. 2. They were used as beds or just to ‘hang out' and catch the cool breeze.

They believed • • • • • In many gods In evil spirits known as maboya. That the souls of cowards went to a dreary desert where they became slaves to Tainos masters. mother earth would transfer some of its fertility to her. Religious Beliefs and Practices The Kalinagos were polytheistic. That there is punishment and reward in the afterlife. He led the village in ceremonies and entertainment such as wrestling. He was in charge of the Carbets. He supervised the cultivation of the land. b. the chief was elected on the basis of his prowess that is his bravery. Political Organisation This was not as rigid or as well defined as the Tainos. how the raid should be conducted and when it should take place. It was NOT passed down from father to son.Brazil. The women were needed for the planting of the crops. His functions were: a. He presided over the victory celebrations during which everyone who had killed an arawak chief was allowed to take his name as a mark of honour. Social Organization Gender relations Women were also a very important part of the Kalinagos society. They flattened the foreheads of their babies by placing the babies on their mother's breast. the Caribs became more strickly organized. b. His functions were: a. Piraga (canoe) were used to raid the Tainos villages and the Ubutu would chose individuals to captain the Piraga (canoe). They were called tiubutuli hauthe.  • • The position of chief or Ouboutou (Ubutu) was not hereditary. c. He chose the commanders of the canoes of piragas. for each family lived in its own village. Gender relation is also most clearly seen in the division and organization of labor. singing. As a result there was constant rivalry for leadership. In having festivals and celebrations in honor of the gods. Appearance Kalinagos were taller than the Arawaks * Brown in complexion Stronger than the Arawaks due to emphasis place on physical training for fighting Both women and men painted their bodies with dyes (roucou). f. In the existence of Heaven and hell. He made few laws. The Ouboutu (Ubutu) was the most important man among the Caribs . long hunting or fishing trips. He decided when the men should be called to the carbet to plan a raid. Instead. canoe racing. Puerto Rico and Lesser Antilles. . dancing and story-telling. He was the chief only during war time. c. Guiana. In using tobacco (incense) in the process of communicating with the gods. The priest or boyez was the only one who could communicate with the gods. He supervised the fishing and hunting. g. • • • • • • • • That those who were brave warriors went to a place where they were waited on by Tainos slaves. He decided who should be attacked. In life after death. The men wore head dress (colourful) and jewellery through their lips and nose The kalinago women wore rassada (bracelets) around their arms and legs. In keeping the gods happy (appeasing the gods). Both the Tainos and the Kalinagos believed in nature and ancestor worship. There were lesser governors who ruled during times of peace. d. In offering sacrifices to the gods especially when they went to sea. If she was barren. and were the heads of families. It was believed that the fertility of the woman would transfer to the crop and vice versa. They were to care for the children and the rest of the family while the men were away on their raids. However . The leaders also changed frequently. In offering prayers to the gods for bravery. Venezuela. e. in wartime. d. The Ubutu also had the responsibility of rewarding the Kalinago men who were successful in raids and hunting.

pepper soup. Customs 1. pepper. Religion and spiritualism. Social organization: women did farming. civil leader supervised farming and fishing.The women were only invited to watch at wrestling matches. They were not allowed to participate. dancing tobacco smoking. At age ten they joined the men in the carbet and began to prepare for their manhood initiation ceremony. Weaving straw baskets . men fishing. If they bore it without flinching they were chosen to be a warrior. their society was hierarchical and pacific Government: independent Arawak community ruled by cacique. singing. They were scratched with an agouti claw and pepper rubbed in the wound. justice carried out on a personal level. Food: seafood. Social organization: women did farming. coastal areas. believed in coyaba Customs: flattened forehead of babies. cassava. They did not eat turtle. skilled in constructing dugout. 3. spears. 6. 7. 4. hereditary ruler who was also high priest and judge. They often hung the skull and or bones of their victims in their houses like trophy. vegetables. slash and bum . smoking tobacco. straw baskets. playing bates. Tainos: family — village settlements along river valleys. Painting of the body to look fierce especially when going on raids. Using indigenous material (thatch. effective fishing methods Kalinagos cultre Technology 1. Architecture: rectangular houses. This was to make the arrow bounce off should they get hit in the forehead during battle. hammocks Farming methods: subsistence farming. 2. They thought it would make them slow and stupid. they would be numbered among the priests. (slash and burn) men did hunting and fishing. So the men lived together in the carbet while the women and children lived by themselves.: cacique was high priest. They ate a lot of pepper. Men and women lived separate. 8. It was believed that this would make them fierce. agouti. Poisonous bow and arrow 2. : mitaynos. stone tools. The boys were then separated from their mothers. special boys trained as priest. They flattened their foreheads from an early age. Men and women lived separately. dancing. their society was militaristic. They formed the cheering committee. each person had their own maboya (spirit) Customs: singing. did hunting and Government: family independent. flattened babies' forehead Architecture: rectangular houses made from indigenous material (thatch and pole) Technology. The men believed that they would become weak and be like ‘sissy' if they lived with the women. All boys were required to undergo initiation test when they reached puberty. answerable to 'ouboutu' Religion: spiritualistic. bows and arrows. initiation into manhood. 5. If they flinched. poles) Technology: skilled in constructing dugout canoes. primitive tools Kalingoes family-village settlement.

they had a fairly elaborate and rigid system of government. the priests. Farmers 11. He had the final say in all matters. Traders 10. the nobles: those who held top ranking . the merchant class. These ranged from the royal family. military and religious duties to perform. Those who worked in the Forest industry 13. We know that the Mayans lived on the Central American mainland and that they chiefly occupied the Yucatan Peninsula. Priests 4. Each independent city state was ruled by a Halach Uinic. Remember that we are dealing with a very large area when compared to the Caribbean region occupied by the  A Mayan city Social Organisation Not surprisingly therefore the society was also organized along rigid class lines. It was passed down from father to son only. Belize alone is twice the size of Jamaica. There was much fertile land for agriculture. Rivers were located inland so they were also near water supply. 1. Architects 3. 4. 5. There was an extensive trade network in the interior. As such. Unlike the Tainos and Kalinagos they built most of their settlement inland. Because the Mayans were constantly engaged in defending themselves from neighboring invaders. His powers were wide. They built vast empires and independent city states. Mathematicians 6.Tainos and Kalinagos. They were very intelligent and therefore the society accommodated these privileged people in the noble class. Usually though the astronomers and astrologers and mathematicians were from the priesthood. The Mayan society was a complex one. They were however elected for three years. A list of the various occupations that existed will help us to understand the various groups of people that made up the Mayan society. They were to see to it government positions as well as the scribes. Engineers 2. Why? 1. This was a hereditary position. Astronomers 7.  Political Organisation Of the three groups the Mayans were the most advanced. Craftsmen or artisans The Maya A Mayan warrior that the laws and policies were enforced. 3. The states were divided into villages which were ruled by batabs. Teachers 5. There were all chosen from the noble class so this post was also hereditary. He designed all domestic policies and foreign affairs. They could get vast expanse of land to build their large and magnificent temples. Scribes 8. Merchants 9. During their term of office they were not allowed to drink any strong drink! They were responsible for providing and training soldiers. 2. the farmers and craftsmen and the slaves. the war chiefs or nacoms were also an important part of the government. He was almost an absolute ruler. Miners 12. He had various civil. They had easy access to limestone for building.

The highlands had goods that the lowlands did not have. They were often used as and suspected of being spies who carried information from one city to another. They were supposed to take their drunken husbands home! They could not hold public office. terracing and raised field farming techniques. Sun. They believed in as many as 166 gods! They had too had a number of myths to explain the mysteries of life including earth and the creation of man. Their main functions were child bearers and home makers. They were also given specific roles. • Offering human sacrifices to the gods. The merchants and traders were known as ppolms. Maize. Maize (corn) was also . Death and the Goddes of death Gender Relations In Mayan society.• • Having birthday festivals and celebrations in honor of the gods Keeping the gods happy (appeasing the gods) 1. The flint was in great demand for fire purposes but was only plenty in a certain area. Farming They practiced slash and burn. They grew a wider variety of crops to include starch and vegetables. a Mayan man could divorce his wife if she did not bear him any children. They traded by land and sea. Trade They traded within the mainland. The men also participated in bow and arrow contests. There were more recreational activities that the men were allowed to participate in. All other dances were done by the men together. What were the MAIN activities that they did to produce their basic needs?  Religious Beliefs and Practices The Mayans were polytheistic. We already know that they traded with the people of the Greater Antilles. 2. They worked to pay the tribute tax. the women played a subservient role. A picture showing Mayan hierarchy in society Mayan women were not allowed to drink at functions. Mayan Gods of Rain. They also traded obsidian and flint. they could carry a large volume of goods in the large canoes that they built instead of a limited amount on their heads over long distances. for example there was only one dance in which the men and women were allowed to dance together. There was a day set aside for market day and there established market centers. They believed in: The forces of good and evil • Life after death • Heaven and hell • The underworld • There is punishment in the afterlife for those who lived an evil life • There is reward in the afterlife for those who lived a good life. Other precious metals and stones were traded to be used for ornamental or religious purposes. They used the rivers and the long coastline as sea routes to get from one city state to another. This way too. Weaving and pottery were done exclusively by the women. For that same reason they traded feathers. In fact. especially virgin girls! • Using incense in the process of communicating with the gods • Mayan Jade was believed to bestow greenness and fertility to the land around it. • Confessing to the priest on one's death bed.

. Puerto Rico and the Bahamas and the Lesser Antilles. This should come in very handy in your revision exercise. 5. and the jaguar. They too had cotton. For the purpose of the CSEC Caribbean History syllabus. music. They practiced a form of writing known as hieroglyphics. Using their limestone and mortar the Mayans constructed the following to create their magnificent empires: . They created a Calendar very similar to ours with 365 days in a year and leap as well! 6. The island peoples refer to the Kalinagos and the Tainos.Roads and bridges . ___________________________________________________________ _____ Mayan tools large deposits of limestone to be found along the Central American mainland. They had books made from the bark of trees. The wild forests of the Central American mainland were the natural habitat of many animals such as a number of birds. (6 marks) (c) Describe ONE way in which the political organisation of the Tainos . The cultivation of food crops also increased as more and more Taino women were captured and brought to live with the Kalinagos. painting. • • • • • • • • Social and political organisation Religious practices Customs Gender relations Trade Technology Agricultural practices Art forms: architecture. They observed the stars and planets and used these to determine the ‘right' time to plant. They practiced astrology. the islands refer to: the Greater Antilles: Jamaica. There was also a mixing of cultures in the diet since the women were the ones who prepared the food. papaya and sweet potatoes. Hispaniola.Massive temples with staircases for worship . In instances such as these the people in these territories spoke a mixture of Arawak and Carib language. We will do engineering and architecture as a separate item since this was a very important part of Mayan religion and society.Stone stelae with their history depicted on them Explain the relationship between the main art forms and the beliefs and technology of the indigenous peoples If you are asked a question about island peoples.Entire cities with huge pyramids were constructed of stones. temples and pyramids. (See table at right. Children born out of this force union also helped in the interaction.Corbelled arch . 4. Got it? Remember that you can get a comparative question. There were 2.Causeways . Examples of these are rabbits and the tapir. pottery and dance I would suggest that you make a chart and fill in the historical facts relating to each aspect. They too hunted the agouti. Among the list of foods.Large public buildings made of limestone and mortar . If you are asked a question about mainland peoples. Using their slave labor they extracted huge blocks of limestone for the construction of their cities. we find squash. You may be asked to compare any two or maybe even all three indigenous groups. pumpkin and of course cacao. You are expected to know about their: Interaction We know that much of the interaction between the Tainos and the Kalinagos was hostile and involved violence. It is also said that the Tainos on these two islands were not as docile as the others and that in fact they were quite hostile. Your answer would be wrong! The converse applies. Cocoa beans was used for money -They used irrigation methods -They used dams and wells to ensure water supply -They knew and used the art of dyeing Be familiar terms Please be familiar with the terms: island/island peoples and mainland/mainland peoples. deer. reap and even marry! 7. 5.their favourite starch. Hunting The Tainos and Kalinagos only knew two animals. Some Kalinagos came to have Tainos name and so on. Cuba. They were skilled in Mathematics 3. They had three farming techniques to include the slash and burn method -They had a form of currency. They also captured some of the women and used them as their wives or took away their parts of their land occupied it as we see in Trinidad and Puerto Rico. like Chichen Itza and Tikal. we do not expect you to write about the Tainos of Jamaica or the Kalinagos of Dominica. Through this constant warfare the Kalinagos obtained Tainos as prisoners and they were used as slaves. How did they manage to earn the title of the most advanced civilization? Technology 1. cassava. bloodshed and death. The mainland refers to British Honduras (Belize) and the Guianas. 3. Animal Husbandry They reared a wide variety of animals in order to provide meat for their families and for sale in the market. Mining This was very society and important to Mayan politics. you CANNOT refer to the Mayans of Belize. The mainland peoples refer to the Mayans. comprising the Windward and Leeward islands. (2 marks) (b) Describe TWO ways in which the social organisation of the Kalinagos was different from that of the Tainos.) Here is a question for you to practise: (a) Name ONE Caribbean territory where the Tainos lived and ONE Caribbean territory where the Mayans lived. 4.

Additionally. Additionally. Mayans Instead of idols. that this was quite rare. During this time. Lesser governors for their villages. the Mayans had several gods. They felt that since each person had his own maboya. Taino villages were normally established on sites with easy access to reliable fresh water and with the availability of flat fertile ground for cassava (manioc) cultivation. hammocks. In essence. hunting.and the Kalinagos was similar. Kalinagos and Mayans. these included Yum Kax (god of Corn) and Chac (god of Rain). all evils. POLITICAL ORGANISATION Tainos The cacique/chief of the Taino society enjoyed a hereditary position. The women and girls were in charge of crop cultivation. he was chosen because of his prowess in combat. These villages housed between 300 and 500 people.one had to defeat or kill several enemies in battle to be elected to this position. These groups were polytheistic in nature. they themselves would fall ill. they frequently had to fast and abstain from eating meat. Polygamy was a common practice among the noble classes and it was usually the norm for the chief or cacique to have many wives. fishing and defence of the village. The zemis were often fed cassava because it was believed that if they went hungry. In this regard. they believed in many gods. the maboya was used in this process. war and peace. Tainos worshipped idols known as zemis. Village Life In Kalinago villages there was the segregation of the sexes and a communal house was established. sickness. however. Division of labour In Taino villages the duties were designated based on one's sex and age. making handicrafts (baskets. the men and boys played integral roles in house construction and canoe making. slept and ate.they controlled the weather. spinning and weaving of cotton. The 'ordinary' Taino men usually had only one wife for economic reasons. could afford to pay for their bride in trading goods. This is so as men desirous of marrying had to make payment of a 'bride price' and many commoners had to pay for their wives through service to her parents. communication was quite critical with them and this was carried out by the cacique. They believed in immortality of the soul and practised burying the dead with several of their favourite items that they would use in the afterlife. men and boys undertook tasks such as clearing the fields. Kalinagos The ouboutou was the chief of the Kalinago society . who ruled in times of Areas Social organisation Political organisation Religious practices Customs Gender relations Trade Technology Agricultural practices Architecture Music Painting Pottery Kalinagos Mayans Tainos . As such. whether sickness. One of the boyez's duties had to do with overcoming evil spirits. I should point out. Kalinagos The maboya was essential in the religious life of the Kalinagos. However. came because of a spell put on them by an enemy maboya. if there were no male heir. Elite men and chiefs. Each family in the village would have a zemi but the cacique's was thought to be the most powerful in the village. (4 marks) (d) Give THREE reasons the Spanish settlers enslaved the indigenous peoples of the Caribbean. however. aprons and utensils) and child rearing. (4 marks) TOTAL 25 marks Tainos c) Social organisation of the Tainos. the eldest son of his eldest sister would assume the title. This was not the case in Taino communities. to which boys went at puberty and where adult and adolescent males lived. crops. The cacique was entrusted with several responsibilities such as: a) making the laws b) distributing land and allocating labour c) officiating religious and social festivals d) heading religious ceremonies e) being the final judge in all disputes. defeat in battle or even death. because of the military struggles taking place in the region. RELIGIOUS ORGANISATION Religion and religious practices were important to the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Zemis were considered to possess potent skills . military defence was part of the consideration in setting up these villages. They were generally laid out around a central village square and consisted of individual houses with thatched roofs and timber walls. Nobles or nitayanos assisted the cacique in the village. these were usually older men who were considered wise and mature. Marriage Taino women had little choice in marriage as parents often arranged marriages when the girls were close to puberty. (9 marks) (e) List FOUR methods of resistance used by these indigenous peoples in response to the Spanish systems of enslavement. The boys had to undergo a rigid initiation process as well. This was passed from father to son. Many Kalinago boys were trained as priests or boyez.

This position passed from father to son. iguanas. In terms of agricultural practice. peanut. trading beyond the limits of the Caribbean Sea and further afield to South and North America. birds. . If this were not successful either. which could be as long as 25 metres. a council of nobles would elect a suitable person from the ruler's family. however. Other leaders included the nobles and priests (boyez). ECONOMIC/AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES Tainos/kalingos The indigenes were also very good mariners. The ppolms were important merchants who had their own laws. The Kalinago cultivated crops such as cassava. yellow snake and their favourite dish pepper pot. it was primarily subsistence farming that was practised by both the Tainos and Kalinagos. scrapers and axes that further facilitated the constructing of their important boats and allowed them to make impressive woodcarvings. with the capacity for 50 people. Crops cultivated included maize. birds. worshipped their own gods and did not have to pay taxes. which they traded with neighbouring peoples and further afield. agoutis. turtle eggs. agouti and fish. Nobles and ppolms (merchants) were other important persons in Mayan society. To facilitate this trade they made huge canoes from tree trunks. They ate animals such as snails. Their economic system was more complex and they had land and seaborne trade between city-states carried out by the ppolms. These men were called tiubutuli hauthe and carried out duties such as supervising the fishing and cultivating as well as leading in social ceremonies. as this would have caused rough seas. They also refused to consume crabs before a voyage. They also possessed well-crafted stone tools . A barter system was in place that facilitated the exchange of foods. sweet potato. textile and minerals. shellfish. They did not eat pig or turtle because they believed these foods would make them stupid. Mayans The Mayans had a rich seafood diet that included fish and oyster. The duties of the ouboutou included: a) presiding over victory celebrations b) deciding when raids were to be held. Cocoa beans were the official currency.knives. In these they transported their wares like cotton textile goods and ceramics. sweet potato and yam and ate animals such as manatee. one of his brothers became head of state. hot pepper and cassava.peace. Mayans The position of Mayan chief (the halach uinich) was inherited through family lineage. if the son of the deceased ruler was not competent. the latter's primary role being that of a religious nature. assisted the ouboutou.