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Sliding Mode|Views: 80|Likes: 1

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/77907950/Sliding-Mode

07/15/2013

text

original

**Received on 22nd October 2008
**

Revised on 24th April 2009

doi: 10.1049/iet-cta.2008.0485

ISSN 1751-8644

Implementation of sliding mode controller for

linear synchronous motors based on direct

thrust control theory

Y.-S. Huang C.-C. Sung

Department of Electronic Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Tahsi, Taoyuan,

Taiwan

E-mail: yshuang@ndu.edu.tw

Abstract: Permanent magnet linear synchronous motors (PMLSMs) are a type of linear synchronous motors that

are widely used in motor control applications. However, in PMLSMs, the accuracy of position control is easily

affected by variations in its parameters and load disturbances. In this study, the implementation of a direct

thrust control (DTC) method by using a modiﬁed integrator for ﬂux estimation is proposed. The proposed

algorithm can be used to obtain accurate ﬂux magnitudes and phase angles of the controlled motors. The

sliding mode control (SMC) method is a well-established control method used in non-linear systems because

of its robustness. The authors use DTC along with SMC to construct a motor control system. The advantage of

the proposed approach is that the control system behaviour can be tracked easily. The authors conducted

simulations and experimental studies, and the results obtained agreed well.

1 Introduction

Permanent magnet linear synchronous motors (PMLSMs)

have several beneﬁts such as no backlash, less friction, high

thrust density and low thermal losses. In recent times,

PMLSMs have been widely employed in industrial

applications involving motor drive, such as linear

transmission or precision servo control [1, 2]. Lin et al.

[3, 4] successfully employed ﬁeld-oriented control (FOC)

and vector control methods in PMLSM control systems.

However, these control methods are dependent on the

parameters of the motor and are sensitive to changes in

them. Further, they require an inner current loop to serve

as a current controller and involve complicated rotating

frame transformations. For solving these problems, a well-

known control method called direct thrust control (DTC)

method, which is based on decoupling the control of thrust

and ﬂux [5, 6], can be considered. In comparison with the

FOC method, the switching-table-based DTC method has

the following advantages: (i) it does not require current

control loops; hence, the current need not be regulated

directly; (ii) complicated rotating frame transformations are

not required; (iii) it has a simple and robust control

structure; and (iv) it provides excellent thrust dynamics

[7, 8]. However, technical solutions for the implementation

of DTC in PMLSMs have not been sufﬁciently developed

yet. In particular, it is not easy to obtain the amplitude and

angular position of the actual ﬂux linkage. Therefore

designing an estimator for the ﬂux linkage becomes

important for implementing a high-performance motor

drive [9, 10]. In general, two methods are used for

estimating the ﬂux linkage: one method requires the

currents in the motor to be measured, and the other

requires the voltages [11, 12]. In the current-based method,

the air-gap ﬂux of a motor is identiﬁed by solving a set of

equations. Here, the measured motor currents and the

speed/position of the motor are required. The main

drawback of this method is that the parameters may change

with changes in the rotational speed. In the voltage-based

method, the motor ﬂux can be obtained directly from its

back electromotive force (emf) (i.e. using an integrator).

Therefore the voltage-based method is more preferable

[13]. In other words, methods for estimating the ﬂux

linkage are typically based on voltage. However, the

implementation of an integrator for the motor ﬂux

estimation is not an easy task. This problem has been

326 IET Control Theory Appl., 2010, Vol. 4, Iss. 3, pp. 326–338

& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2010 doi: 10.1049/iet-cta.2008.0485

www.ietdl.org

addressed in [14–16]. In [14, 15], it is shown that a pure

integrator has DC drift and initial value problems. From

the two approaches, it is clear that the voltage of the DC

component has to be known if one wants to measure the

back emf of the motor in practice. This DC component,

no matter how small it is, can ultimately drive the pure

integrator into saturation. To overcome this problem, a

solution has been proposed – replace the pure integrator

with a ﬁrst-order low-pass (LP) ﬁlter [16]. Unfortunately, a

crucial error both in magnitude and in phase angle is

generated by the LP ﬁlter. In this paper, we attempt to

solve the ﬂux estimation problems in a real PMLSM. For

this purpose, a modiﬁed integrator for obtaining both

actual ﬂux and actual thrust is proposed and a closed-loop

control system can be realised. By using our control

method, high-performance motor drive can be obtained.

Further, it is well known that the accuracy of PMLSM

positioning control is easily affected by parameter variations

and load disturbances. Reducing these factors quickly and

directly is a very important task. For achieving high-

accuracy tracking in a high-performance position control

system, a sophisticated control strategy is often required.

It is well known that the sliding mode control

(SMC) is insensitive in the presence of external

uncertainties and disturbances, particularly, to the so-called

matched uncertainties/disturbances. Hence, the robustness

properties of SMC can make this approach an intensive,

popular and suitable method for controlled motor systems.

The practical implementation and theoretical development

of various SMC approaches have been investigated

previously [17–20]. Consequently, the SMC has been

widely used in the position/speed control of the motor drives

[21–23]. Here, the dynamic property of the systems can be

described in two phases: reaching phase and sliding phase.

An SMC is designed such that the system trajectories reach

a sliding phase in ﬁnite time and tend to an equilibrium

point along this surface [18]. Moreover, the closed-loop

dynamics is completely governed by the sliding manifold as

long as the system trajectories remain on this surface.

This paper proposes a new control method that combines a

modiﬁed DTC with the SMC method to implement

position control for PMLSMs. In this control method, we

have attempted to decrease the inﬂuence of the parameter

variations and load disturbances. Our experimental results

show that the accuracy of the position control for

PMLSMs has been improved. To our knowledge, this is

the ﬁrst work to combine a DTC method with the SMC

method for implementing a position control for a real-

world PMLSM.

The rest of the paper is organised as follows. A modiﬁed

ﬂux estimation algorithm of DTC for a PMLSM control

system is proposed in Section 2. The SMC method for a

PMLSM is presented in Section 3. The simulation and

experimental results are given in Section 4. Finally, Section

5 presents the conclusions.

2 DTC for real PMLSM control

systems

A real PMLSM controlled by DTC policy is stated in this

section. The PMLSM, with the type of LM210-2 brushless

linear motor, is produced by TRILOGY. The PMLSM

comprises a long stationary tubular, called ‘secondary’, that is

supported at both ends, housing a sequence of neodymium–

iron–boron (NdFeB) permanent magnet with guidance rail

and linear scale, and a full stroke (0–30 cm) mover, called

‘primary’, which contains the core armature winding and

Hall sensing elements. The electromagnetic thrust is

produced by the interaction between the secondary NdFeB

magnet and magnetic ﬁeld of ac windings included in the

primary and driven by a current-controlled pulse-width-

modulation voltage source inverter. The machine structure

of the PMLSM is shown in Fig. 1.

2.1 Mathematical model of PMLSMs

The mathematical analysis of PMLSMs is a key factor in the

development of motor control systems. In general,

the mathematical model of a linear motor is derived from

the structural parameters of a rotating motor. In a linear

motor, when the stator of a rotating motor is considered

the mover, the d–q axis theory is used for the analysis. For

convenience, the more detailed information of the space

relations is constructed in Fig. 2.

The coordinate axes are the three-phase windings (as, bs,

cs) axis, rotating d–q axis and stationary (D, Q) axis. Note

that v

e

represents the rotor electrical angular speed and u

e

represents an angle between d-axis and winding as. The

machine model of the PMLSM can be described in a

synchronous rotating reference frame as follows [3, 7, 24]

u

d

¼ R

m

i

d

þpl

d

Àv

e

l

q

(1)

u

d

¼ R

m

i

d

þpl

q

Àv

e

l

d

(2)

where p denotes the differential operator

l

d

¼ L

d

i

d

þl

F

(3)

Figure 1 Mechanical structure of PMLSM

IET Control Theory Appl., 2010, Vol. 4, Iss. 3, pp. 326–338 327

doi: 10.1049/iet-cta.2008.0485 & The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2010

www.ietdl.org

l

q

¼ L

q

i

q

(4)

v

e

¼ n

p

v

r

(5)

Moreover

v

r

¼

pv

t

(6)

v

e

¼ n

p

v ¼ 2tf (7)

For convenience, the necessary parameters of the PMLSM

are listed in Table 1.

2.2 DTC using space voltage vectors

Fig. 3 shows a basic DTCblock diagram. It is noteworthy that

the DTC method as a kind of subordinated control loop of

electromagnetic thrust and the ﬂux magnitude. In Fig. 3,

two input signals are shown: a thrust command (F

cmd

) and a

ﬂux linkage command (l

cmd

). Further, two errors, F

err

and

l

err

, respectively, are also present. Note that the two errors

can be considered as input signals for the two blocks of the

thrust dead zone and the ﬂux hysteresis controller (i.e.

threshold values r

1

and r

2

). In DTC methods, the selection

of an optimum voltage vector is very important. The

Figure 2 Relativity of stationary and rotating axes

Table 1 Necessary parameters of the PMLSM

Item Symbol Item Symbol

d–q voltages u

d

and

u

q

number of pole

primary pairs

n

p

d–q currents i

d

and i

q

linear velocity of

the mover

v

phase winding

resistance

R

m

pole pitch t

d–q inductances L

d

and

L

q

electrical linear

velocity

v

e

angular velocity v

r

electric frequency F

electrical

angular velocity

v

e

mover mass M

permanent

magnet ﬂux

linkage

l

F

friction factor D

external

disturbance

term

F

L

electromagnet

thrust

F

e

Figure 3 PMLSM control block diagram using DTC policy

328 IET Control Theory Appl., 2010, Vol. 4, Iss. 3, pp. 326–338

& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2010 doi: 10.1049/iet-cta.2008.0485

www.ietdl.org

optimum voltage vector can provide a suitable voltage vector

(in time) to the controlled motor system. In this paper, six

effective voltage vectors – V

1

(100), V

2

(110), V

3

(010), V

4

(011), V

5

(001) and V

6

(101) – and two zero voltage

vectors – V

0

(000) and V

7

(111) – have been considered.

The non-zero vectors are apart from each other by 608.

Moreover, their effects on the ﬂux linkage and thrust vary

with the resting positions of the motor. Detailed

information on the voltage vectors is listed in the switching

table (i.e. Table 2). Based on the experimental results, it can

be said that the ﬂux linkages and thrusts can be controlled

by the switching table. It is noteworthy that the difference

between any two close voltage vectors is only of one bit.

Therefore the switching table can increase/decrease the

voltage vector by only changing one bit. Further, the

changing voltage vector has a minimum switching frequency

at which the voltage is called the optimal voltage vector [5].

In this manner, our motor-controlled system can obtain a

thrust response in the minimum possible time. Moreover,

the thrust ripple can be reduced.

The optimumvoltage vector can be determined by using S

F

,

S

l

and S

u

listed in the switching table. Further, the

corresponding voltage vectors (e.g. V

i

, i ¼ 0, 1, . . .

.

, 7) can

be chosen from the switching table constructed for the

improvement of the system performance. For example, if the

values of the actual ﬂux linkage (jl

m

j) and thrust (F

e

) are

smaller than the reference values, from Table 2, S

l

¼ 1 and

S

F

¼ 1. These values of S

l

and S

F

indicate that the

controller has to increase its ﬂux linkage and thrust in sector

S

u

. On the other hand, S

a

, S

b

and S

c

represent the states of

the inverter switching. This is shown in greater detail in Fig. 4.

The phase voltages of the inverter output are as follows

V

an

¼

(2S

a

ÀS

b

ÀS

c

)V

dc

3

ð8Þ

V

bn

¼

(2S

b

ÀS

a

ÀS

c

)V

dc

3

ð9Þ

V

cn

¼

(2S

c

ÀS

a

ÀS

b

)V

dc

3

ð10Þ

where V

dc

is the DC link voltage.

2.3 Modiﬁed ﬂux linkage estimation

method

The problem of ﬂux estimation is an important one for the

implementation of a high-performance motor drive.

Typically, the terminal voltage and terminal current are

measured in order to obtain the ﬂux. The value of the ﬂux is

then able to provide the data for the decoupling control

[14]. However, there are two problems when the controller

is used with the DTC method for PMLSM control systems:

during the estimation of the ﬂux linkage, the DC drift is

signiﬁcantly affected by the offset error, and the variation in

mover resistance causes errors [25]. In the voltage-based

method, the voltage equation of a PMLSM in the stationary

reference frame can be expressed as follows [4, 6, 26]

l

m

¼

_

(u

m

ÀR

m

i

m

) dt ¼

_

e

m

dt (11)

where u

m

¼ [u

D

u

Q

]

T

, i

m

¼ [i

D

i

Q

]

T

, l

m

¼ [l

D

l

Q

]

T

is the ﬂux

linkage vector and e

m

is the back emf. The ﬂux linkage

amplitude and angular position can then be obtained by

using the following equations

jl

m

j ¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

l

2

D

þl

2

Q

_

(12)

u ¼ tan

À1

l

Q

l

D

_ _

(13)

where jl

m

j and u are the ﬂux linkage amplitude and angular

position, respectively. Note that the PMLSM naturally

suffers from ‘end effect’ because the length of the core is

ﬁnite; this problem does not exist in rotating machines [5].

It can be seen that the end effect affects the thrust

Table 2 Switching table

S

l

S

F

S

1

(230 to 308) S

2

(30–908) S

3

(90–1508) S

4

(150–1808)

(2180 to 21508)

S

5

(2150 to 2908) S

6

(290 to 2308)

" 1 " 1 V

2

(110) V

3

(010) V

4

(011) V

5

(001) V

6

(101) V

1

(100)

0 V

0

(111) V

7

(000) V

0

(111) V

7

(000) V

0

(111) V

7

(000)

# 21 V

6

(101) V

1

(100) V

2

(110) V

3

(010) V

4

(011) V

5

(001)

# 0 " 1 V

3

(010) V

4

(011) V

5

(001) V

6

(101) V

1

(100) V

2

(110)

0 V

7

(000) V

0

(111) V

7

(000) V

0

(111) V

7

(000) V

0

(111)

# 21 V

5

(001) V

6

(101) V

1

(100) V

2

(110) V

3

(010) V

4

(011)

Figure 4 Basic inverter drive system

IET Control Theory Appl., 2010, Vol. 4, Iss. 3, pp. 326–338 329

doi: 10.1049/iet-cta.2008.0485 & The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2010

www.ietdl.org

characteristics of the PMLSM. Hence, a high-performance

motor control system requires a highly accurate estimation of

the thrust value. Therefore a thrust correction coefﬁcient is

required to compensate the end effect. Hence, the developed

electromagnetic thrust can be written as

F

e

¼

3

2

p

t

k

F

n

p

(l

D

i

Q

Àl

Q

i

D

) (14)

where k

F

is the end-effect correction coefﬁcient of the linear

motor thrust. The thrust correction coefﬁcient can be

obtained by comparing the starting thrust computed by the

Maxwell stress tensor method with that given in (14) when

k

F

is not used. In other words, k

F

is deﬁned as follows [5]

k

F

¼

F

Maxwell

(3=2)(p=t)n

p

(l

D

i

Q

Àl

Q

i

D

)

(15)

where F

Maxwell

is the thrust value computed by the Maxwell

stress tensor method (without k

F

). In (15), all the values are

results obtained from the ﬁnite element analysis. The thrust

correction coefﬁcient k

F

(i.e. 0.9 [5]) can then be determined.

In the estimations of the ﬂux and thrust, the integration of

(11) –(14) are the key factors. In (11), the ﬂux can be directly

obtained from its back emf using an integrator. Furthermore,

the phase winding resistance (R

m

) can be neglected if the

switching time interval of the voltage vectors is sufﬁciently

short (e.g. achieved by using 20 kHz in this paper). Hence,

a value of the ﬂux can be obtained from u

m

using an

integrator. Nevertheless, it is still a hard task to implement

an integrator for the motor ﬂux estimation. Some papers

have provided the related issues and shortcomings [14–16].

To overcome these drawbacks, a voltage-based ﬂux

estimator has been proposed previously [27]. However, this

does not seem to solve the problem completely. It is

noteworthy that the modiﬁed ﬂux linkage estimator

proposed in this paper is based on [27]. Our estimator has

a correction coefﬁcient (k

w

) in the ﬂux estimation

algorithm. A new modiﬁed block diagram is shown in

Fig. 5. The estimator structure consists of a LP ﬁlter and a

signal feedback block. Note that the input signals of the

estimator are a train of voltage pulses. The train of voltage

pulses is combined with a sine wave having a fundamental

frequency and higher-order harmonics. From waveform

theory, the input signals can be expressed as a Fourier

series [28]

4A

0

p

sin v

0

t þ

1

3

sin 3v

0

t þ

1

5

sin 5v

0

t þÁ Á Á

_ _

(16)

where A

0

is the amplitude value and v

0

is the fundamental

frequency. The output signals are sine waves having only

the fundamental frequency. The proposed estimator plays

the role of an LP ﬁlter to reject the higher-order harmonics

components. Hence, the cutoff frequency of the LP ﬁlter is

chosen as v

0

, v

c

, 2v

0

. In fact, the main objective of

this estimator is to obtain the amplitude of the ﬂux linkage

and the angular position. For this purpose, the proposed

estimator structure consists of an LP ﬁlter and a feedback

signal [i.e. the correction coefﬁcient (k

w

)]. According to

waveform theory, the amplitude of the correction factor is

between that of the pulse wave and the sine wave. Hence,

the correction coefﬁcient is taken as p/4 in this paper.

Note that a typical input –output characteristic curve with

saturation non-linearity is included in the block diagram (i.e.

see Fig. 5). For small input signals, the output of a saturation

element is proportional to the input. Once the input signal is

large, the output will not increase proportionally. Moreover,

the large input signal should be regarded as a constant

output. In this paper, the constant, called limiting level, is

equal to L. In general, the block diagram can be regarded

as a pure integrator. It is found that the gain of the

feedback loop is close to zero when the frequency e

m

of the

input signals is considerably larger than the cutoff

frequency (v

c

). On the other hand, the functions of the

feedback loop can be used to eliminate the DC drift and

ﬂux saturation. Note that the DC drift is generated by the

pure integrator while the ﬂux saturation is inherent in the

system. It is well known that the level of non-linear

distortion produced by the saturation element can be

reduced at the output of the feedback loop. However, this

paper does not consider this problem since this feedback

loop is essentially an LP ﬁlter. Even though predicting the

behaviour of non-linear systems is always difﬁcult, we do

not force the controlled system to become a linear one.

This is mainly because a linear controlled system could be

more expensive than a non-linear one. Moreover, the

performance of the original system will be distorted if

the non-linear system is changed into a linear one. Hence,

the saturation element is retained in our control system.

Furthermore, the actual ﬂux amplitude should have the

value L. As a result, we can conclude that the new

modiﬁed integrator will perform better than integrator

proposed in the prior research [27] if a proper compensator

is designed. Further, we can expect the inherent problems

of the system also to be eliminated. We will now discuss

the experimental performances of the different control

systems in detail.

Figure 5 New modiﬁed integrator block diagram based

on [27]

330 IET Control Theory Appl., 2010, Vol. 4, Iss. 3, pp. 326–338

& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2010 doi: 10.1049/iet-cta.2008.0485

www.ietdl.org

Figs. 6a and b show the system performances of the old

control method [27] and our method, respectively; the

former does not use the correction coefﬁcient k

w

, whereas

the latter does. Note that both performances are shown

with the same position input – a triangular signal moving

6 cm with a velocity of 6 cm/s. For convenience, all the

experimental results of the motor controlled system are

normalised. For example, the normalised position output

(x

p

) is (x

p

/6.096 cm), angle theta is (u/180 degrees) and

the ﬂux linkage ﬂux D is (l

D

/0.425 Wb). Fig. 6a reveals

the disadvantages of the conventional method [27]. From

our experimental results, we conclude that the conventional

method cannot estimate both the amplitude and the

angular position of the ﬂux linkage. The main reason for

this is the absence of the correction factor. This suggests

that the correct voltage vectors cannot be provided (in

time) by the switching table for the motor controlled

system. Nevertheless, the unsuitable voltage vectors increase

the errors, thereby making the system unstable. Fig. 6b

shows that the problem of ﬂux linkage is improved by the

correction factor. The amplitude and angular position of

the ﬂux linkage can be obtained correctly by using our

modiﬁed ﬂux linkage estimator. Based on the experimental

results, it can be said that the new angular position u is

more linear, and the new ﬂux linkage l

D

has less distortion

than the old one. In addition, the position-tracking

performance of the new method is better than that of the

old one. As a result, we conclude that the performance of

our control method is better than that proposed in the

prior work [27].

3 Sliding mode controller design

The concept of SMC is based on the introduction of a

‘customised’ function named the sliding function, which

can be properly chosen by the designer [29, 30]. As soon

as the properly designed sliding function becomes equal to

zero, the sliding manifold is established. The proper design

of the sliding function yields a suitable closed-loop system

performance while the system’s trajectories belong to the

sliding manifold. SMC aims to steer the system trajectory

to the properly chosen sliding manifold and then maintain

subsequent motions on the surface by means of control.

The main features of the sliding mode include its

insensitivity to external and internal disturbances, which is

matched by control, ultimate accuracy and ﬁnite time

reaching of the transient. The SMC design approach

consists of two components. The ﬁrst involves the design

of a sliding function so that the system motion on the

sliding manifold (termed the sliding phase) satisﬁes

the design speciﬁcations. The second is concerned with the

selection of a control law. This makes the sliding manifold

attractive to the system state in the presence of external and

internal disturbances/uncertainties.

Deﬁnition 1(matching conditions [31, 32]): Consider

the system

_ x ¼ Ax þBu þf (t, x) (17)

where x [ R

n

is the state vector, A [ R

nÂn

, B [ R

nÂm

and

u [ R

mÂ1

are the control inputs and f (t, x) [ R

nÂ1

is the

disturbance term. If there exists g(t, x) [ R

nÂ1

such that

f (t, x) ¼ Bg(t, x), n . m and B has the full rank, (17)

meets the demands of matching conditions.

The design process for matching the conditions in a real

linear motor control system is now introduced. The mover

electromagnetic thrust of the PMLSM can be described in

Fig. 7.

Consider the mover dynamic equation of the PMLSM

F

e

¼ M€ x

p

þD_ x

p

þF

L

(18)

Here, x

p

is the position output and kF

L

k F is the bounded

external uncertainties and disturbance term that may

Figure 6 Comparison between the old and new algorithms

a System performance of the old ﬂux estimate algorithm [27]

b Performance of a new ﬂux estimate algorithm

IET Control Theory Appl., 2010, Vol. 4, Iss. 3, pp. 326–338 331

doi: 10.1049/iet-cta.2008.0485 & The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2010

www.ietdl.org

comprise dry and viscous friction as well as any other

unknown forces. Note that the uncertainties and

disturbance terms have to be assumed for the control

scheme. Here, the values of the terms are bounded and

satisfy the matching conditions. Equation (18) can then be

written in the state-space form

[_ x] ¼

_ x

1

_ x

2

_ _

¼

0 1

0 À

D

M

_ _

x

1

x

2

_ _

þ

0

1

M

_ _

(u ÀF

L

) (19)

where x

1

¼ x

p

is the actual position signal and u ¼ F

e

is the

control input.

Deﬁne the position-tracking error e

1

¼ r

1

–x

1

, r

1

¼ x

pcmd

and compute its dynamics as

_ e

1

¼ _ r

1

À _ x

1

¼ r

2

Àx

2

¼ e

2

(20)

where r

1

(r

2

) is the position (velocity) reference signal. The

error-model state equation corresponding to (19) can be

described as

_ e

1

¼ e

2

(21)

_ e

2

¼ € r

1

À _ x

2

¼ € r

1

þ

D

M

(_ r

1

Àe

2

) À

1

M

(u ÀF

L

) (22)

The goal of the SMC method is to derive the control u such

that the motion of the system is restricted to belong to the

sliding manifold S

S ¼ {e : s(e) ¼ Ge ¼ 0}, s ¼ e

2

þce

1

(23)

where G ¼ [c 1]; c, a positive constant that represents the

slope of the sliding manifold; e, the state vector e

T

¼ [e

1

e

2

]; and s(e), the sliding function.

The derivation of the control law begins with the selection

of the Lyapunov function V(s) and an appropriate form of

the derivative of the Lyapunov function

_

V(s). For single-

input –single-output systems that are required to have

motion in a sliding manifold, the natural selection of

Lyapunov function candidate has the form

V(s) ¼ 0:5s

2

(24)

The derivative of the Lyapunov function is then

_

V(s) ¼ s_ s ¼ s(_ e

2

þc_ e

1

)

¼ s € r

1

þ

1

M

(B_ r

1

ÀBe

2

þF

L

) À

1

M

u

t

þce

2

_ _

(25)

Aglobal reaching condition is given by

_

V(s),0 when s =0.

Choosing different time derivatives of the Lyapunov function

_

V(s) leads to different rates of change for s. In this paper, the

derivative of the Lyapunov function

_

V(s) can be chosen as

_

V(s) ¼ s À1 sign(s) Àks þ

F

L

M

_ _

(26)

where 1 and k are positive constants such that

j1 þkjsjj . (F=M). Hence, if the control law is chosen as

(27), which can be determined from (25) and (26), the

asymptotic stability of solution (21) and (22) will be

guaranteed since V(s) . 0, V(0) ¼ 0 and

_

V(s) , 0,

_

V(0) ¼ 0. Here, the control u can drive the state variables

(i.e. e

1

and e

2

) to the sliding manifold (s ¼ 0) in ﬁnite time.

Moreover, the state variables can be retained in the sliding

manifold even if the bounded disturbance exists

u ¼ M € r

1

þ

D

M

_ r

1

þ c À

D

M

_ _

e

2

þ1 sign(s) þks

_ _

(27)

This control law gives two different rates of change for s

(i.e. _ s ¼ À1 sign(s) Àks þF

L

=M): one is the equal

velocity trending term [–1 sign(s)] and the other is an

exponential trending term ( –ks). The parameter 1 indicates

the speed of the system reaching the sliding manifold.

Higher 1 implies greater speed. The system response also

generates chattering at higher frequencies. The exponential

term not only shortens the reaching time but also reduces

the chattering. In short, it drives the system states to reach

the sliding manifold in inﬁnite time. However, it cannot be

guaranteed that the reaching phase will be achieved in a

ﬁnite time. This seems to suggest that the sliding phase does

not exist. Hence, we have attempted to combine the

constant value term and the exponential term to solve these

problems. By using our new control method, the sliding

manifold can be reached in ﬁnite time. Furthermore, the

convergence of the position error will be guaranteed in a

ﬁnite time. Based on the experimental results, the new

method gives a good dynamic performance if the parameters

(k and 1) are carefully selected.

It is well known that the presence of chattering because

of the discontinuous control is one of the drawbacks of

SMC. The sign function is the main contributor to the

existence of chattering. The introduction of a boundary

layer can improve the performance but at the cost of

Figure 7 Mover electromagnetic thrust of the PMLSM

332 IET Control Theory Appl., 2010, Vol. 4, Iss. 3, pp. 326–338

& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2010 doi: 10.1049/iet-cta.2008.0485

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lower steady-state precision and reduced robustness properties.

In this paper, we substitute the sign function with a sat

function to weaken the chattering. The sat function is

deﬁned as

sat(s, d) ¼

sign(s), jsj ! d

s

d

, jsj , d

_

(28)

where d is a small positive constant that deﬁnes a boundary

layer. A large boundary layer leads to a larger steady-state

error whereas a too small boundary layer leads to high-

frequency switching. Therefore the designer must select

the value of d carefully. Unfortunately, no simple method

exists to obtain the parameters for the SMC.

Conventionally, a trial-and-error method has been used to

select the parameters of a motor control system.

Simulations have to be conducted and examined to judge

whether the intended aims are achieved; hence, the

designer ﬁnds it difﬁcult to obtain precise parameters.

Further, a long time is wasted in many attempts. Hence,

the selection of the parameters complicates the controller

design. Therefore methods to ﬁnd a parameter vector

P ¼ [1, k, c, d] such that the sliding mode controller with

a better performance can be obtained is an important

issue. In the next section, an optimisation method based

on gradient descent algorithm is introduced to determine

the parameters of the SMC controller.

4 Simulation and experimental

results

The non-linear control design (NCD) toolbox was

investigated by using Matlab/Simulink, which provides a

Table 4 Parameter values of the PMLSM

Parameter Value

(unit)

Parameter Value (unit)

mover mass 1.97 (kg) phase

winding

resistance

11.8/3 (V)

friction factor 5.2982

(N/(m/s)

inductance 4.8/3(mH)

permanent

magnet ﬂux

linkage

0.4849

(Wb)

number of

pole pairs

1

pole pitch 0.06096

(m)

DC voltage

V

dc

280 (V)

Table 3 Related parameters of the DTC controller

Parameter Value

(unit)

Parameter Value

(unit)

thrust threshold

value r

1

0.5 ﬂux hysteretic

value r

2

0.025

cutoff

frequency v

c

100 (Hz) ﬂux linkage

command (l

cmd

)

0.4

(Wb)

Figure 8 Simulation results of the system position response

a Simulation results of the SMC and PI (x

p

)

b Simulation results of the SMC and PI (e

1

)

c Simulation result of the error state phase trajectory (s)

IET Control Theory Appl., 2010, Vol. 4, Iss. 3, pp. 326–338 333

doi: 10.1049/iet-cta.2008.0485 & The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2010

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time-domain-based optimisation approach to control system

design [33]. This tool is able to automatically tune system

parameters on the basis of user-deﬁned time-domain

performance constraints. This method can attain the

performance objectives and optimising tunable parameters

intuitively. Hence, one can automatically convert time-

domain speciﬁcations into a problem of constrained

optimisation. The problem then needs to be solved using a

state-of-the-art optimisation theory, which uses gradient

methods to adjust tunable parameters to meet the constraint

objectives (i.e. optimisation criteria). The NCD toolbox

transforms the constraints and the simulated system into an

optimisation problem. The optimisation problem is as follows

min

x,g

g s:t:

g(x) Àwg 0

x

l

x x

u

_

(29)

where x is a vector of the tunable variables; x

l

and x

u

, vectors of

the lower and upper bounds on the tunable variables; g(x), a

vector of the constraint bound error; and w, a vector of the

weightings on the constraints. The scalar g imposes an

element of slackness into the problem, which otherwise

imposes that the goals be rigidly met. Basically, g attempts

to minimise the maximum (weighted) constraint error. The

constraint error is deﬁned as the difference between the

constraint boundary and simulated output. This type of

optimisation problem is solved using the sequential

Figure 10 Three kinds of different wave input simulation results

a Simulation result of square wave input (x

p

)

b Simulation result of trapezoid wave input (x

p

)

c Simulation result of square wave input (x

p

)

d Simulation result of square wave input (e

1

)

Figure 9 Simulation results of the DTC and FOC

334 IET Control Theory Appl., 2010, Vol. 4, Iss. 3, pp. 326–338

& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2010 doi: 10.1049/iet-cta.2008.0485

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quadratic programming (SQP) method [33, 35]. In this

method, a quadratic programming (QP) problem is solved at

each iteration. In addition, the routine updates an estimate

of the Hessian of the Lagrangian [35, 36]. As a result, the

NCD toolbox is able to provide a graphical user interface

(GUI) to assist in time-domain-based control design.

Hence, in this paper, a NCD toolbox is used to obtain the

vector P ¼ [1, k, c, d] for the SMC controller. In the

simulation, we tune parameters P to meet time-domain

performance requirements under a unit step signal input

that is deﬁned as follows: the rise-time t

r

0.2 s, the

settle-time t

s

0.5 s and the overshoot 5%. We hope

that the parameter vector P ¼ [1, k, c, d] will settle

between the lower and upper bounds (i.e. [1, 1, 1, 0] and

[500, 500, 500, 0.1]). For enhancing the system

performance of the robust control method, other

parameters of uncertainty bounds can be used; for this

purpose, the uncertain parameters of the control motor are

allowed to have variations within a range of +20%. The

total mass (M) is acceptable if it lies between the nominal

mass and ﬁve times the nominal mass. Finally, the criterion

of the desired system can be met by the suitable parameter

vector P ¼ [13.5, 3.72, 121, 0.01].

4.1 Simulation results

The performance of the proposed integration algorithms is

investigated by using Matlab/Simulink. For this simulation,

controller data are required. The SMC parameters are

obtained by NCD and the information on the PMLSM

parameters are given in Tables 3 and 4. For a comparison of

the system performance, a reference model based on the

FOC policy for a PMLSM [37] is used. In this study, two

PI controllers were used to serve the position and velocity

control, respectively. Under the NCD environment, we give

the same time-domain speciﬁcation to both the controllers.

In summary, from the simulations, we ﬁnd the system

performance of our DTC method to be better than that of

the old one. Fig. 8 shows this in detail. The simulated

results of the motor systems under the ramp input signal

with slope 1 cm/0.1 s are shown in Fig. 9. Note that

the input-position-command tracking performance of the

controlled system can be reached in 0.015 and 0.06 s by the

DTC and FOC methods, respectively. This indicates that

the system response of the DTC method is faster than that

of the FOC method. In addition, we have compared the

two control methods (i.e. SMC and PI) based on the DTC

method. This reference model employs a PI controller and a

DTC method, which has been proposed in [38]. The PI

parameters are obtained by a simple genetic algorithm (GA)

to minimise the performance index (i.e. optimisation

criterion). Therefore the sum of square error (SSE), which is

deﬁned as

e

2

1

, is selected by us as a performance index.

The simulated results of the motor system with a triangular-

wave input signal (slope of the rising ramp ¼ 6 and the

descending ramp ¼ –6) are shown in Figs. 8a and b.

The position-tracking error is obviously less than 20 mm

Figure 11 Computer controlled PMLSM servo drive system

Figure 12 Experimental results of position response with

different loadings

a Experimental results of position response at nominal mass (x

p

)

b Experimental results of position response at ﬁve times nominal

mass (x

p

)

IET Control Theory Appl., 2010, Vol. 4, Iss. 3, pp. 326–338 335

doi: 10.1049/iet-cta.2008.0485 & The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2010

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with the SMC method. However, the error reaches almost

500 mm with the PI method. From a comparison of the

results, it can be seen that the accuracy of the position

control can be effectively improved by our control method.

Fig. 8c shows the simulation result of the phase trajectory of

the error states (e

1

and e

2

); it can be seen that the reaching

phase can be achieved irrespective of the initial condition.

Furthermore, the error states trajectory maintain motion on

the sliding phase. In addition, we have also attempted to

employ a square wave as the reference input in the proposed

control systems. The simulation result is given in Fig. 10a.

Fig. 10a shows that the system response does not have

overshoots and oscillations. Furthermore, we have tried to

use a trapezoid wave as the reference input; the system

performance is shown in Fig. 10b. Moreover, a small signal

of a square wave with 1 mm is considered as the reference

input. Its simulation results under a nominal mass are given

in Figs. 10c and d. From these results, we think that our

controller can provide two brilliant performances (i.e. a fast

response and good trace ability) to meet the designer

requirements. Based on the simulation results, it can be

concluded that the performance of our control method is

suitable for applications to practical PMLSM systems. In the

next section, a practical PMLSM control system is

presented. For comparing the simulation results with the

corresponding experimental results, the same equations and

parameters as above will be used.

4.2 Experimental results

The structure of a practical PMLSM control system using the

current-controlled technique is shown in Fig. 11; the

PMLSM control system consists of a PCI card, a DSP

servo card (TMS320LF2400), a linear synchronous motor

drive (UTP10), a personal computer (Pentium II 300 MHz

with 512 MB RAM) and a PMLSM (LM210-2A-WD3).

The adopted PMLSM is the 220 V 5.0 A 475 N type.

Some experimental results have been provided to demonstrate

the system performance of the proposed control system. To

demonstrate the system performance, two cases have been used

in the experimental study – with and without loading. The

former case, called the parameter variation case, implies loading

a weight (about 8 kg) on the mover. The latter case, called the

Figure 13 Comparison with the tracing performance under different control methods

a Experimental results of position response at nominal mass (x

p

)

b Experimental results of position error at nominal mass (e

1

)

c Experimental results of position response at three times nominal mass (x

p

)

d Experimental results of position error at three times nominal mass (e

1

)

336 IET Control Theory Appl., 2010, Vol. 4, Iss. 3, pp. 326–338

& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2010 doi: 10.1049/iet-cta.2008.0485

www.ietdl.org

nominal case, implies not loading any weight onthe mover. Note

that the weight of the mover is 1.97 kg. Hence, the total mass

(about 9.97 kg) is more than ﬁve times the nominal mass. In

fact, 8 kg is the full load condition in our motor system. Based

on this experimental result, our system performance appears to

demonstrate more robustness than the one in the previous

work [4]. For convenience, Figs. 12a and b show the system

responses of the nominal case and the parameter variation case,

respectively. Fig. 12a shows that the entire system response

almost meets the simulation result. Fig. 12b shows that the

entire system response when loaded is four times the nominal

mass case. Note that the transient state suffers very slight

disturbance when the parameter variation is drastic. In

addition, the trace of the output response almost meets the

input command. The system performance of the SMC

method and the PI method [39] is discussed in this paper.

Considering the comparison results, two cases have been

considered in the experimental studies. In Case I, that is the

parameter variation case, a mass (about 4 kg) is added to the

mass of the mover. Note that loading with mass of 8 kg cannot

work well in our system if only the PI method is used. Case II

is the nominal case, that is without any loading. The detailed

experimental results are shown in Figs. 13a–d. Figs. 13a and c

show the system responses of both cases. Figs. 13b and d focus

on the position-tracking error performance of the two cases. It

is found that the transient state errors for the two cases with

the SMC method have maximum values of 0.14 and 0.18 cm,

respectively. In contrast, the transient state errors for the two

cases with the PI method have maximum values of 0.68 and

1.18 cm, respectively. Furthermore, the steady-state errors for

the two cases with the SMC method are both less than

25 mm. However, the steady-state errors of the PI method

almost reach 80 mm. Obviously, the SMC method is more

robust than the PI method. Nevertheless, a large position-

tracking error still exists in the transient state irrespective of the

control method. This is mainly because the starting position of

the controlled motor cannot be identiﬁed by the motor drive.

This suggests that a suitable voltage vector cannot be provided

correctly by the switch table for the drive system in the initial

state. Finally, in summary, our proposed approach can thus be

applied to real motor systems.

5 Conclusions

This paper presents an NCD-based SMC controller, a DTC

method and a real PMLSM control system. The SMC

parameters of the real motor are automatically generated by

an NCD optimisation algorithm. For obtaining the actual

thrust, a modiﬁed integrator has been proposed, which is

an improvement of a prior work [27]. It has been

experimentally demonstrated that the performance of the

new method is better than that of the previously proposed

one [27]. The advantage of the proposed approach is that

the system behaviour can be tracked easily. Moreover, the

control system is robust with regard to parameter variations

and load disturbances. Our method gives a fast response

and more accurate performance. It is noteworthy that our

method also solves for the inherent ﬂux linkage problems.

From the simulation and experimental results, it can be

concluded that our approach can be applied to position

tracking in an actual PMLSM.

6 Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the National Science Council of

Taiwan, R.O.C., under Grant NSC 97-2221-E-606-018.

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& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2010 doi: 10.1049/iet-cta.2008.0485

www.ietdl.org

it is clear that the voltage of the DC component has to be known if one wants to measure the back emf of the motor in practice. 3. The coordinate axes are the three-phase windings (as.org addressed in [14 – 16]. is produced by TRILOGY. a crucial error both in magnitude and in phase angle is generated by the LP ﬁlter. Section 5 presents the conclusions. In [14. Hence. Moreover. To our knowledge. particularly. with the type of LM210-2 brushless linear motor. Consequently. it is shown that a pure integrator has DC drift and initial value problems. popular and suitable method for controlled motor systems. The electromagnetic thrust is produced by the interaction between the secondary NdFeB magnet and magnetic ﬁeld of ac windings included in the primary and driven by a current-controlled pulse-widthmodulation voltage source inverter. a modiﬁed integrator for obtaining both actual ﬂux and actual thrust is proposed and a closed-loop control system can be realised. housing a sequence of neodymium – iron – boron (NdFeB) permanent magnet with guidance rail and linear scale. Reducing these factors quickly and directly is a very important task. called ‘primary’. 326 – 338 doi: 10. It is well known that the sliding mode control (SMC) is insensitive in the presence of external uncertainties and disturbances. the mathematical model of a linear motor is derived from the structural parameters of a rotating motor. 2010. To overcome this problem. the robustness properties of SMC can make this approach an intensive. By using our control method. In this control method. The PMLSM comprises a long stationary tubular. The rest of the paper is organised as follows. In general. The SMC method for a PMLSM is presented in Section 3. high-performance motor drive can be obtained. can ultimately drive the pure integrator into saturation. no matter how small it is. the d – q axis theory is used for the analysis. a solution has been proposed – replace the pure integrator with a ﬁrst-order low-pass (LP) ﬁlter [16]. For this purpose. In this paper. a sophisticated control strategy is often required. when the stator of a rotating motor is considered the mover. rotating d– q axis and stationary (D. Here.1049/iet-cta.0485 2 DTC for real PMLSM control systems A real PMLSM controlled by DTC policy is stated in this section. pp. 4.www. This paper proposes a new control method that combines a modiﬁed DTC with the SMC method to implement position control for PMLSMs. Our experimental results show that the accuracy of the position control for PMLSMs has been improved. For convenience. 24] ud ¼ Rm id þ pld À ve lq ud ¼ Rm id þ plq À ve ld where p denotes the differential operator (1) (2) ld ¼ Ld id þ lF (3) Figure 1 Mechanical structure of PMLSM 327 & The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2010 . Unfortunately. the closed-loop dynamics is completely governed by the sliding manifold as long as the system trajectories remain on this surface. the dynamic property of the systems can be described in two phases: reaching phase and sliding phase. The PMLSM. The machine structure of the PMLSM is shown in Fig.2008. to the so-called matched uncertainties/disturbances. 7. 2. 2. From the two approaches. this is the ﬁrst work to combine a DTC method with the SMC method for implementing a position control for a realworld PMLSM. Further. The machine model of the PMLSM can be described in a synchronous rotating reference frame as follows [3. it is well known that the accuracy of PMLSM positioning control is easily affected by parameter variations and load disturbances. Vol. 15]. cs) axis. Note that ve represents the rotor electrical angular speed and ue represents an angle between d-axis and winding as.ietdl. Iss. that is supported at both ends. This DC component. and a full stroke (0 – 30 cm) mover. called ‘secondary’. which contains the core armature winding and Hall sensing elements.. In a linear motor. The simulation and experimental results are given in Section 4. An SMC is designed such that the system trajectories reach a sliding phase in ﬁnite time and tend to an equilibrium point along this surface [18]. Finally. For achieving highaccuracy tracking in a high-performance position control system. we attempt to solve the ﬂux estimation problems in a real PMLSM. IET Control Theory Appl.1 Mathematical model of PMLSMs The mathematical analysis of PMLSMs is a key factor in the development of motor control systems. the SMC has been widely used in the position/speed control of the motor drives [21–23]. bs. Q) axis. A modiﬁed ﬂux estimation algorithm of DTC for a PMLSM control system is proposed in Section 2. 1. The practical implementation and theoretical development of various SMC approaches have been investigated previously [17 – 20]. we have attempted to decrease the inﬂuence of the parameter variations and load disturbances. the more detailed information of the space relations is constructed in Fig.

2 DTC using space voltage vectors Fig. Iss. In DTC methods.0485 . Further.org Table 1 Necessary parameters of the PMLSM Item d – q voltages d – q currents phase winding resistance d – q inductances angular velocity electrical angular velocity permanent magnet ﬂux linkage external disturbance term Symbol ud and uq id and iq Rm Ld and Lq Item number of pole primary pairs linear velocity of the mover pole pitch electrical linear velocity electric frequency mover mass friction factor Symbol np v t ve F M D vr ve lF Figure 2 Relativity of stationary and rotating axes FL electromagnet thrust Fe lq ¼ Lq iq v e ¼ np v r Moreover (4) (5) 2.www. 2010. 3.e. 4. 326– 338 doi: 10. threshold values r1 and r2).. 3 shows a basic DTC block diagram. are also present. Ferr and lerr . Figure 3 PMLSM control block diagram using DTC policy 328 & The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2010 IET Control Theory Appl. the selection of an optimum voltage vector is very important. 3. It is noteworthy that the DTC method as a kind of subordinated control loop of electromagnetic thrust and the ﬂux magnitude. two errors. Vol.1049/iet-cta. respectively. Note that the two errors can be considered as input signals for the two blocks of the thrust dead zone and the ﬂux hysteresis controller (i. In Fig. pp.ietdl. The vr ¼ pv t (6) (7) ve ¼ np v ¼ 2tf For convenience.2008. the necessary parameters of the PMLSM are listed in Table 1. two input signals are shown: a thrust command (Fcmd) and a ﬂux linkage command (lcmd).

It can be seen that the end effect affects the thrust Figure 4 Basic inverter drive system 2. 326 – 338 doi: 10.2008. 26] ð ð (11) lm ¼ (um À Rm im ) d t ¼ em d t where um ¼ [uD uQ]T. im ¼ [iD iQ]T. . it can be said that the ﬂux linkages and thrusts can be controlled by the switching table. the thrust ripple can be reduced. pp. The ﬂux linkage amplitude and angular position can then be obtained by using the following equations jlm j ¼ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ l2 þ l2 D Q lQ u ¼ tanÀ1 lD (12) (13) where Vdc is the DC link voltage. Detailed information on the voltage vectors is listed in the switching table (i. from Table 2. . In this manner. 2010. there are two problems when the controller is used with the DTC method for PMLSM control systems: during the estimation of the ﬂux linkage..3 Modiﬁed ﬂux linkage estimation method The problem of ﬂux estimation is an important one for the implementation of a high-performance motor drive. The optimum voltage vector can be determined by using SF. V4 (011). Based on the experimental results. This is shown in greater detail in Fig. The phase voltages of the inverter output are as follows Van ¼ (2Sa À Sb À Sc )Vdc 3 (2Sb À Sa À Sc )Vdc Vbn ¼ 3 (2Sc À Sa À Sb )Vdc Vcn ¼ 3 ð8Þ ð9Þ ð10Þ where jlmj and u are the ﬂux linkage amplitude and angular position. The value of the ﬂux is then able to provide the data for the decoupling control [14]. Sl and Su listed in the switching table.. V5 (001) and V6 (101) – and two zero voltage vectors – V0 (000) and V7 (111) – have been considered. 4. lm¼ [lD lQ]T is the ﬂux linkage vector and em is the back emf. 3. In the voltage-based method. However. Vi ..org optimum voltage vector can provide a suitable voltage vector (in time) to the controlled motor system. V3 (010). Note that the PMLSM naturally suffers from ‘end effect’ because the length of the core is ﬁnite. Table 2). Further. the corresponding voltage vectors (e. 7) can be chosen from the switching table constructed for the improvement of the system performance. 4. In this paper. their effects on the ﬂux linkage and thrust vary with the resting positions of the motor. i ¼ 0. The non-zero vectors are apart from each other by 608. 1. Moreover. the DC drift is signiﬁcantly affected by the offset error. .ietdl. our motor-controlled system can obtain a thrust response in the minimum possible time. the voltage equation of a PMLSM in the stationary reference frame can be expressed as follows [4. 6. Sl ¼ 1 and SF ¼ 1. Further. Table 2 Switching table Sl "1 SF "1 0 # 21 #0 "1 0 # 21 S1 (230 to 308) S2 (30 – 908) S3 (90– 1508) V2 (110) V0 (111) V6 (101) V3 (010) V7 (000) V5 (001) V3 (010) V7 (000) V1 (100) V4 (011) V0 (111) V6 (101) V4 (011) V0 (111) V2 (110) V5 (001) V7 (000) V1 (100) S4 (150 – 1808) (2180 to 21508) V5 (001) V7 (000) V3 (010) V6 (101) V0 (111) V2 (110) S5 (2150 to 2908) V6 (101) V0 (111) V4 (011) V1 (100) V7 (000) V3 (010) S6 (290 to 2308) V1 (100) V7 (000) V5 (001) V2 (110) V0 (111) V4 (011) IET Control Theory Appl. Sb and Sc represent the states of the inverter switching.1049/iet-cta.g. Vol. six effective voltage vectors – V1 (100).e. It is noteworthy that the difference between any two close voltage vectors is only of one bit.0485 329 & The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2010 . respectively. These values of Sl and SF indicate that the controller has to increase its ﬂux linkage and thrust in sector Su . if the values of the actual ﬂux linkage (jlmj) and thrust (Fe) are smaller than the reference values. Moreover. and the variation in mover resistance causes errors [25]. V2 (110). For example. the changing voltage vector has a minimum switching frequency at which the voltage is called the optimal voltage vector [5]. Iss. Sa . On the other hand. Typically.www. this problem does not exist in rotating machines [5]. Therefore the switching table can increase/decrease the voltage vector by only changing one bit. the terminal voltage and terminal current are measured in order to obtain the ﬂux.

e. Hence. 2v0 . the correction coefﬁcient is taken as p/4 in this paper. The proposed estimator plays the role of an LP ﬁlter to reject the higher-order harmonics components. In the estimations of the ﬂux and thrust. The estimator structure consists of a LP ﬁlter and a signal feedback block. vc . we can conclude that the new modiﬁed integrator will perform better than integrator proposed in the prior research [27] if a proper compensator is designed. However. a high-performance motor control system requires a highly accurate estimation of the thrust value. the block diagram can be regarded as a pure integrator. To overcome these drawbacks. Moreover. Further. In (11). It is well known that the level of non-linear distortion produced by the saturation element can be reduced at the output of the feedback loop. the proposed estimator structure consists of an LP ﬁlter and a feedback signal [i. This is mainly because a linear controlled system could be more expensive than a non-linear one. a voltage-based ﬂux estimator has been proposed previously [27]. the constant. In (15). Hence. the correction coefﬁcient (kw)]. the ﬂux can be directly obtained from its back emf using an integrator. achieved by using 20 kHz in this paper). Once the input signal is large. In general. Nevertheless. On the other hand. it is still a hard task to implement an integrator for the motor ﬂux estimation. kF is deﬁned as follows [5] kF ¼ FMaxwell (3=2)(p=t)np (lD iQ À lQ iD ) (15) where FMaxwell is the thrust value computed by the Maxwell stress tensor method (without kF). the saturation element is retained in our control system.0485 Figure 5 New modiﬁed integrator block diagram based on [27] 330 & The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2010 . Hence. Hence. this paper does not consider this problem since this feedback loop is essentially an LP ﬁlter. all the values are results obtained from the ﬁnite element analysis. the developed electromagnetic thrust can be written as Fe ¼ 3p k n (l i À lQ iD ) 2t F p DQ (14) estimator are a train of voltage pulses. Note that a typical input – output characteristic curve with saturation non-linearity is included in the block diagram (i. It is found that the gain of the feedback loop is close to zero when the frequency em of the input signals is considerably larger than the cutoff frequency (vc). the input signals can be expressed as a Fourier series [28] 4A0 1 1 sin v0 t þ sin 3v0 t þ sin 5v0 t þ Á Á Á p 3 5 (16) where kF is the end-effect correction coefﬁcient of the linear motor thrust. 0. For this purpose. Some papers have provided the related issues and shortcomings [14– 16]. the cutoff frequency of the LP ﬁlter is chosen as v0 . the main objective of this estimator is to obtain the amplitude of the ﬂux linkage and the angular position. However. the output will not increase proportionally. 2010. see Fig. A new modiﬁed block diagram is shown in Fig. Our estimator has a correction coefﬁcient (kw) in the ﬂux estimation algorithm. the functions of the feedback loop can be used to eliminate the DC drift and ﬂux saturation. the actual ﬂux amplitude should have the value L. The output signals are sine waves having only the fundamental frequency. According to waveform theory. 4.ietdl. the large input signal should be regarded as a constant output.www. The thrust correction coefﬁcient can be obtained by comparing the starting thrust computed by the Maxwell stress tensor method with that given in (14) when kF is not used. Iss. Hence. In this paper. pp. 326– 338 doi: 10.g. It is noteworthy that the modiﬁed ﬂux linkage estimator proposed in this paper is based on [27]. we do not force the controlled system to become a linear one. In fact.2008. Therefore a thrust correction coefﬁcient is required to compensate the end effect. the integration of (11) – (14) are the key factors.9 [5]) can then be determined. Even though predicting the behaviour of non-linear systems is always difﬁcult. is equal to L. we can expect the inherent problems of the system also to be eliminated.1049/iet-cta. the amplitude of the correction factor is between that of the pulse wave and the sine wave. Note that the DC drift is generated by the pure integrator while the ﬂux saturation is inherent in the system. From waveform theory..e. the performance of the original system will be distorted if the non-linear system is changed into a linear one. a value of the ﬂux can be obtained from um using an integrator. The thrust correction coefﬁcient kF (i. called limiting level. Furthermore. this does not seem to solve the problem completely.e. 5).org characteristics of the PMLSM. IET Control Theory Appl. The train of voltage pulses is combined with a sine wave having a fundamental frequency and higher-order harmonics. We will now discuss the experimental performances of the different control systems in detail. In other words. 3. the output of a saturation element is proportional to the input. the phase winding resistance (Rm) can be neglected if the switching time interval of the voltage vectors is sufﬁciently short (e. Furthermore. Hence. As a result. Vol. Moreover. 5. For small input signals. Note that the input signals of the where A0 is the amplitude value and v0 is the fundamental frequency.

As a result. As soon as the properly designed sliding function becomes equal to zero.1049/iet-cta. the normalised position output (xp) is (xp/6. x) [ RnÂ1 such that f (t..096 cm). ultimate accuracy and ﬁnite time reaching of the transient. Deﬁnition 1(matching conditions [31. 6a and b show the system performances of the old control method [27] and our method. x). In addition. Note that both performances are shown with the same position input – a triangular signal moving 6 cm with a velocity of 6 cm/s. The main features of the sliding mode include its insensitivity to external and internal disturbances. which can be properly chosen by the designer [29.ietdl. angle theta is (u/180 degrees) and the ﬂux linkage ﬂux D is (lD/0. If there exists g(t. The SMC design approach consists of two components.0485 & The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2010 . the sliding manifold is established. the unsuitable voltage vectors increase the errors. (17) meets the demands of matching conditions. whereas the latter does. xp is the position output and kFLk external uncertainties and disturbance term that may 331 IET Control Theory Appl. all the experimental results of the motor controlled system are normalised.org Figs. 30]. Based on the experimental results. The design process for matching the conditions in a real linear motor control system is now introduced.www. Vol. Fig. B [ RnÂm and u [ RmÂ1 are the control inputs and f (t. A [ RnÂn . 32]): Consider the system x ¼ Ax þ Bu þ f (t. This makes the sliding manifold attractive to the system state in the presence of external and internal disturbances/uncertainties.425 Wb). which is matched by control. the position-tracking performance of the new method is better than that of the old one. and the new ﬂux linkage lD has less distortion than the old one. we conclude that the conventional method cannot estimate both the amplitude and the angular position of the ﬂux linkage. Consider the mover dynamic equation of the PMLSM € x Fe ¼ M xp þ D_ p þ FL Figure 6 Comparison between the old and new algorithms a System performance of the old ﬂux estimate algorithm [27] b Performance of a new ﬂux estimate algorithm (18) F is the bounded Here. m and B has the full rank. 7.2008. 6a reveals the disadvantages of the conventional method [27]. This suggests that the correct voltage vectors cannot be provided (in time) by the switching table for the motor controlled system. For convenience. Nevertheless. it can be said that the new angular position u is more linear. the former does not use the correction coefﬁcient kw . From our experimental results. thereby making the system unstable. The proper design of the sliding function yields a suitable closed-loop system performance while the system’s trajectories belong to the sliding manifold. Iss. 3 Sliding mode controller design The concept of SMC is based on the introduction of a ‘customised’ function named the sliding function. x) [ RnÂ1 is the disturbance term. For example. pp. 4. 2010. 6b shows that the problem of ﬂux linkage is improved by the correction factor. 3. x) ¼ Bg(t. Fig. The mover electromagnetic thrust of the PMLSM can be described in Fig. we conclude that the performance of our control method is better than that proposed in the prior work [27]. The amplitude and angular position of the ﬂux linkage can be obtained correctly by using our modiﬁed ﬂux linkage estimator. SMC aims to steer the system trajectory to the properly chosen sliding manifold and then maintain subsequent motions on the surface by means of control. n . 326 – 338 doi: 10. The ﬁrst involves the design of a sliding function so that the system motion on the sliding manifold (termed the sliding phase) satisﬁes the design speciﬁcations. The second is concerned with the selection of a control law. x) _ (17) where x [ Rn is the state vector. The main reason for this is the absence of the correction factor. respectively.

(F =M). the state variables can be retained in the sliding manifold even if the bounded disturbance exists D D _ e þ 1 sign(s) þ ks (27) u ¼ M r1 þ r1 þ c À € M M 2 This control law gives two different rates of change for s (i. Equation (18) can then be written in the state-space form [_ ] ¼ x x1 _ x2 _ ¼ " 0 0 1 D À M # x1 þ x2 " 0 1 (u À FL ) (19) M # _ A global reaching condition is given by V (s). it drives the system states to reach the sliding manifold in inﬁnite time. the natural selection of 332 & The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2010 . the _ derivative of the Lyapunov function V (s) can be chosen as F _ V (s) ¼ s À1 sign(s) À ks þ L M (26) (24) where x1 ¼ xp is the actual position signal and u ¼ Fe is the control input. and s(e). which can be determined from (25) and (26). the control u can drive the state variables V (i. The parameter 1 indicates the speed of the system reaching the sliding manifold. c. 4. 326– 338 doi: 10. V (0) ¼ 0 and V (s) . 0. 3.org Lyapunov function candidate has the form V (s) ¼ 0:5s2 The derivative of the Lyapunov function is then _ V (s) ¼ ss ¼ s(_2 þ c_1 ) _ e e (25) 1 1 r € ¼ s r 1 þ (B_ 1 À Be2 þ FL ) À ut þ ce2 M M Figure 7 Mover electromagnetic thrust of the PMLSM comprise dry and viscous friction as well as any other unknown forces. _ (0) ¼ 0.0485 where r1 (r2) is the position (velocity) reference signal. it cannot be guaranteed that the reaching phase will be achieved in a ﬁnite time. Here. Hence. pp. e1 and e2) to the sliding manifold (s ¼ 0) in ﬁnite time. The system response also generates chattering at higher frequencies. s ¼ e2 þ ce1 (23) where G ¼ [c 1]. Moreover. It is well known that the presence of chattering because of the discontinuous control is one of the drawbacks of SMC.e. Vol. Deﬁne the position-tracking error e1 ¼ r1 – x1 . In short. s ¼ À1 sign(s) À ks þ FL =M): one is the equal _ velocity trending term [– 1 sign(s)] and the other is an exponential trending term ( – ks)..ietdl. The exponential term not only shortens the reaching time but also reduces the chattering. 0 when s = 0. By using our new control method. 2010. the asymptotic stability of solution (21) and (22) will be _ guaranteed since V(s) . the state vector e T ¼ [e1 e2]. a positive constant that represents the slope of the sliding manifold. For singleinput – single-output systems that are required to have motion in a sliding manifold. e. the new method gives a good dynamic performance if the parameters (k and 1) are carefully selected.e. we have attempted to combine the constant value term and the exponential term to solve these problems. Based on the experimental results. the convergence of the position error will be guaranteed in a ﬁnite time.1049/iet-cta. r1 ¼ xpcmd and compute its dynamics as _ _ e 1 ¼ r 1 À x1 ¼ r2 À x2 ¼ e2 _ (20) where 1 and k are positive constants such that j1 þ kjsjj . Choosing different time derivatives of the Lyapunov function _ V (s) leads to different rates of change for s. if the control law is chosen as (27). Note that the uncertainties and disturbance terms have to be assumed for the control scheme. Furthermore. In this paper. 0. However. Iss. The derivation of the control law begins with the selection of the Lyapunov function V(s) and an appropriate form of _ the derivative of the Lyapunov function V (s). Hence. the sliding function. This seems to suggest that the sliding phase does not exist. Higher 1 implies greater speed. The error-model state equation corresponding to (19) can be described as e 1 ¼ e2 _ € _ e2 ¼ r 1 À x2 _ ¼ r1 þ € D 1 (_ 1 À e2 ) À (u À FL ) r M M (22) (21) The goal of the SMC method is to derive the control u such that the motion of the system is restricted to belong to the sliding manifold S S ¼ {e : s(e) ¼ Ge ¼ 0}.2008. the values of the terms are bounded and satisfy the matching conditions. The sign function is the main contributor to the existence of chattering.www. the sliding manifold can be reached in ﬁnite time. The introduction of a boundary layer can improve the performance but at the cost of IET Control Theory Appl. Here.

Further.org Table 3 Related parameters of the DTC controller Parameter thrust threshold value r1 cutoff frequency vc Value (unit) 0. The sat function is deﬁned as ( sat(s. Table 4 Parameter values of the PMLSM Parameter mover mass Value (unit) 1. an optimisation method based on gradient descent algorithm is introduced to determine the parameters of the SMC controller.4 (Wb) lower steady-state precision and reduced robustness properties. Vol. 4.2008. no simple method exists to obtain the parameters for the SMC.1049/iet-cta. which provides a 333 IET Control Theory Appl. Simulations have to be conducted and examined to judge whether the intended aims are achieved. d (28) where d is a small positive constant that deﬁnes a boundary layer. Hence. d ) ¼ sign(s). hence. a trial-and-error method has been used to select the parameters of a motor control system. Conventionally.0485 & The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2010 .www. 3. we substitute the sign function with a sat function to weaken the chattering. a long time is wasted in many attempts. A large boundary layer leads to a larger steady-state error whereas a too small boundary layer leads to highfrequency switching. Unfortunately. In this paper. pp. k.5 100 (Hz) Parameter ﬂux hysteretic value r2 ﬂux linkage command (lcmd) Value (unit) 0.06096 (m) 4 Simulation and experimental results 280 (V) The non-linear control design (NCD) toolbox was investigated by using Matlab/Simulink.8/3(mH) 1 a Simulation results of the SMC and PI (xp) b Simulation results of the SMC and PI (e1) c Simulation result of the error state phase trajectory (s) friction factor permanent magnet ﬂux linkage pole pitch 5. the selection of the parameters complicates the controller design.2982 (N/(m/s) 0. 326 – 338 doi: 10. c. Therefore methods to ﬁnd a parameter vector P ¼ [1.ietdl. Iss. In the next section.8/3 (V) Figure 8 Simulation results of the system position response 4.4849 (Wb) 0. 2010. the designer ﬁnds it difﬁcult to obtain precise parameters. d ] such that the sliding mode controller with a better performance can be obtained is an important issue.97 (kg) Parameter phase winding resistance inductance number of pole pairs DC voltage Vdc Value (unit) 11. s .025 0.. d js j ! d js j . Therefore the designer must select the value of d carefully.

The problem then needs to be solved using a state-of-the-art optimisation theory. Vol. 4.g s:t: g(x) À wg 0 xl x xu (29) Figure 9 Simulation results of the DTC and FOC time-domain-based optimisation approach to control system design [33]. This method can attain the where x is a vector of the tunable variables. The constraint error is deﬁned as the difference between the constraint boundary and simulated output. which uses gradient methods to adjust tunable parameters to meet the constraint objectives (i. one can automatically convert timedomain speciﬁcations into a problem of constrained optimisation. Hence. 326– 338 doi: 10.1049/iet-cta. g(x). and w.org performance objectives and optimising tunable parameters intuitively. The optimisation problem is as follows min g x.e. The scalar g imposes an element of slackness into the problem. Iss. 3. This tool is able to automatically tune system parameters on the basis of user-deﬁned time-domain performance constraints. g attempts to minimise the maximum (weighted) constraint error. vectors of the lower and upper bounds on the tunable variables. xl and xu .. which otherwise imposes that the goals be rigidly met. 2010.www. The NCD toolbox transforms the constraints and the simulated system into an optimisation problem. This type of optimisation problem is solved using the sequential Figure 10 Three kinds of different wave input simulation results a b c d Simulation result of square wave input (xp) Simulation result of trapezoid wave input (xp) Simulation result of square wave input (xp) Simulation result of square wave input (e1) 334 & The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2010 IET Control Theory Appl. optimisation criteria).0485 . a vector of the weightings on the constraints.ietdl. Basically. a vector of the constraint bound error.2008. pp.

. Note that the input-position-command tracking performance of the controlled system can be reached in 0. the uncertain parameters of the control motor are allowed to have variations within a range of +20%. SMC and PI) based on the DTC method. 8a and b. we give the same time-domain speciﬁcation to both the controllers.06 s by the DTC and FOC methods. Finally. we ﬁnd the system performance of our DTC method to be better than that of the old one.e. 500. Hence. 9. we tune parameters P to meet time-domain performance requirements under a unit step signal input that is deﬁned as follows: the rise-time tr 0. In this method. 0] and [500.e. For enhancing the system performance of the robust control method. the routine updates an estimate of the Hessian of the Lagrangian [35. This reference model employs a PI controller and a DTC method. Fig.2008.5 s and the overshoot that the parameter vector P ¼ [1. k. For this simulation. 0. respectively. The SMC parameters are obtained by NCD and the information on the PMLSM parameters are given in Tables 3 and 4. In addition.org quadratic programming (SQP) method [33.2 s. 4. 3. Therefore the sum of square error (SSE). a quadratic programming (QP) problem is solved at each iteration. In this study. This indicates that the system response of the DTC method is faster than that of the FOC method. respectively. The simulated results of the motor system with a triangularwave input signal (slope of the rising ramp ¼ 6 and the descending ramp ¼ –6) are shown in Figs. For a comparison of the system performance. 1.www. optimisation criterion). which has been proposed in [38]. 1. other parameters of uncertainty bounds can be used.1 Simulation results The performance of the proposed integration algorithms is investigated by using Matlab/Simulink. The total mass (M ) is acceptable if it lies between the nominal mass and ﬁve times the nominal mass. We hope settle-time ts 0. In addition. In summary.01]. controller data are required. Vol. 3.ietdl. for this purpose. which is P 2 deﬁned as e1 .e. the criterion of the desired system can be met by the suitable parameter vector P ¼ [13. a NCD toolbox is used to obtain the vector P ¼ [1. the 5%. pp. 500. 326 – 338 doi: 10. 121. 8 shows this in detail.1]). two PI controllers were used to serve the position and velocity control. 36]. a reference model based on the FOC policy for a PMLSM [37] is used.015 and 0. c. 35]. 2010. Figure 11 Computer controlled PMLSM servo drive system 4.72.5. the NCD toolbox is able to provide a graphical user interface (GUI) to assist in time-domain-based control design. is selected by us as a performance index.0485 Figure 12 Experimental results of position response with different loadings a Experimental results of position response at nominal mass (xp) b Experimental results of position response at ﬁve times nominal mass (xp) 335 & The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2010 . in this paper. Iss.1049/iet-cta. The simulated results of the motor systems under the ramp input signal with slope 1 cm/0. 0. from the simulations. d] will settle between the lower and upper bounds (i. k. [1. we have compared the two control methods (i. Under the NCD environment. The PI parameters are obtained by a simple genetic algorithm (GA) to minimise the performance index (i. The position-tracking error is obviously less than 20 mm IET Control Theory Appl. c. In the simulation. As a result.1 s are shown in Fig. d] for the SMC controller.

0485 . 326– 338 doi: 10. Its simulation results under a nominal mass are given in Figs. The adopted PMLSM is the 220 V 5. The simulation result is given in Fig.0 A 475 N type.ietdl. the error states trajectory maintain motion on the sliding phase. a small signal of a square wave with 1 mm is considered as the reference input. pp. In the next section.e. a personal computer (Pentium II 300 MHz with 512 MB RAM) and a PMLSM (LM210-2A-WD3). Based on the simulation results. called the Figure 13 Comparison with the tracing performance under different control methods a b c d Experimental results of position response at nominal mass (xp) Experimental results of position error at nominal mass (e1) Experimental results of position response at three times nominal mass (xp) Experimental results of position error at three times nominal mass (e1) 336 & The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2010 IET Control Theory Appl. However. 10b. Vol. a fast response and good trace ability) to meet the designer requirements. The former case. From a comparison of the results. In addition. the same equations and parameters as above will be used. 2010. Furthermore.org with the SMC method. Furthermore. it can be seen that the accuracy of the position control can be effectively improved by our control method. a practical PMLSM control system is presented. To demonstrate the system performance. the PMLSM control system consists of a PCI card. From these results.2008. we think that our controller can provide two brilliant performances (i. Fig. For comparing the simulation results with the corresponding experimental results.2 Experimental results The structure of a practical PMLSM control system using the current-controlled technique is shown in Fig. 11.www. called the parameter variation case. 4. 10c and d. 8c shows the simulation result of the phase trajectory of the error states (e1 and e2). it can be concluded that the performance of our control method is suitable for applications to practical PMLSM systems. 10a.1049/iet-cta.. two cases have been used in the experimental study – with and without loading. the system performance is shown in Fig. implies loading a weight (about 8 kg) on the mover. a DSP servo card (TMS320LF2400). 10a shows that the system response does not have overshoots and oscillations. it can be seen that the reaching phase can be achieved irrespective of the initial condition. Iss. the error reaches almost 500 mm with the PI method. Moreover. we have tried to use a trapezoid wave as the reference input. 3. Fig. 4. we have also attempted to employ a square wave as the reference input in the proposed control systems. The latter case. Some experimental results have been provided to demonstrate the system performance of the proposed control system. a linear synchronous motor drive (UTP10).

In Case I. 12a shows that the entire system response almost meets the simulation result. 13a–d. From the simulation and experimental results.. October 2006. 2010.ietdl. 6 Acknowledgment This work was supported by the National Science Council of Taiwan. on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications. Note that the weight of the mover is 1. the control system is robust with regard to parameter variations and load disturbances. This suggests that a suitable voltage vector cannot be provided correctly by the switch table for the drive system in the initial state.E.H. 2007. 2008.Y. pp. Appl. IEEE Trans. Based on this experimental result. Ischia. Electron.S.. the SMC method is more robust than the PI method. on Power Electron.org nominal case.. Ind. 2.J. 1054 – 1061 [11] TAKAHASHI I. J. a modiﬁed integrator has been proposed. 572 – 576 [3] LIN F. Drives Autom. the steady-state errors for the two cases with the SMC method are both less than 25 mm.D. respectively. Appl. Syst. 9. which is an improvement of a prior work [27]. 1011– 1022 [5] KWON B. 1239 – 1241 [10] SCHAUDER C. LIN C. Vol. 12a and b show the system responses of the nominal case and the parameter variation case.www. implies not loading any weight on the mover. 2005.97 kg. the total mass (about 9. a mass (about 4 kg) is added to the mass of the mover. JUNZHU W. 2007. It is found that the transient state errors for the two cases with the SMC method have maximum values of 0. 13a and c show the system responses of both cases. LILI J. Nevertheless. In addition.F.: ‘Decoupling control of thrust and attractive force of a LIM using space vector controlled inverter’.: ‘Direct torque control of PWM inverter-fed AC motors – a survey’. pp. KIM S. J. Note that loading with mass of 8 kg cannot work well in our system if only the PI method is used. 326 – 338 doi: 10. Fig. KUNG Y. 11– 13 June 2008. Considering the comparison results.S. 151– 167 [4] LIN F.S. WOO K. CHO Y..K. 2482– 2490 [9] KASMIEH T. under Grant NSC 97-2221-E-606-018. 8 kg is the full load condition in our motor system. The system performance of the SMC method and the PI method [39] is discussed in this paper. 2002. Sci.: ‘Magnetic ﬁeld and performance analysis of a tubular permanent magnet linear synchronous motor applied in elevator door system’. Proc. Ind.: ‘Adaptive speed identiﬁcation for vector control of induction motors without rational transducers’.1049/iet-cta.. MOON J. Figs.. pp.. JIEFAN C.18 cm. our proposed approach can thus be applied to real motor systems. Fig. Furthermore. pp. 2008. Symp.. 1306 – 1309 [6] LIJUN Z. the trace of the output response almost meets the input command. 1999.. Aerosp. 12b shows that the entire system response when loaded is four times the nominal mass case. Our method gives a fast response and more accurate performance. pp. IET Control Theory Appl. the steady-state errors of the PI method almost reach 80 mm. 744 – 757 [8] BONNET F. two cases have been considered in the experimental studies. Int. Appl. Electromagn. Mech. A.. 132–136 [7] BUJA G. (5).. a DTC method and a real PMLSM control system. CHOU P. IEEE Trans..H. 35. the transient state errors for the two cases with the PI method have maximum values of 0. (2).: ‘Adaptive stator ﬂux estimator for the induction machine direct torque control’.. The advantage of the proposed approach is that the system behaviour can be tracked easily.: ‘Incremental motion control of linear synchronous motor’. Electron. Iss. pp.: ‘Research on the parameters identiﬁcation of direct thrust control system using wavelet transform’. Int. SHYU K.W.. Hence. It is noteworthy that our method also solves for the inherent ﬂux linkage problems. Zhejiang Univ. pp. Figs. our system performance appears to demonstrate more robustness than the one in the previous work [4].: ‘Dual direct torque control of doubly fed induction machine’. Motion. Electr.. Obviously. 28. a large positiontracking error still exists in the transient state irrespective of the control method. pp. Electron. 7 References [1] ZHU Y. For obtaining the actual thrust. ZHENG Z.97 kg) is more than ﬁve times the nominal mass..H. However. Finally. (4).... HEMIN W. 28.J... Conf..14 and 0. 29. 38. VIDAL P. pp. (3). MARIA P. 283–289 [2] LIU X.. that is the parameter variation case. Italy. For convenience. in summary.. Moreover. Note that the transient state suffers very slight disturbance when the parameter variation is drastic. 1992. Case II is the nominal case. pp. The detailed experimental results are shown in Figs. R. Magn..P. 51.0485 & The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2010 . 161 – 167 337 5 Conclusions This paper presents an NCD-based SMC controller.: ‘Robust fuzzy neural network controller with nonlinear disturbance observer for two-axis motion control system’. LU Q. 2008. respectively. IEEE Trans. pp. 54. Figs.18 cm. that is without any loading.2008.. 13b and d focus on the position-tracking error performance of the two cases.O. KAZMIERKOWSKI M. IET Control Theory Appl. pp. It has been experimentally demonstrated that the performance of the new method is better than that of the previously proposed one [27].. 3.: ‘Analysis of permanent magnet linear synchronous motor for advanced control’.. it can be concluded that our approach can be applied to position tracking in an actual PMLSM. Ind.. Ind. respectively. YE Y.W. IEEE Trans.C. IEEE Trans. In fact.68 and 1. In contrast. Int. KIM D. IEEE Trans. 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