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ADAM-GOD ... Whom therefore ye ignorantly worship, him declare I unto you...

Doctrines Of The Restorations Volume I by Craig L. Tholson Table of Contents Publishment P.O. Box 151 Payson, UT 84651-0151 Copyright 1991 by Craig L. Tholson

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Contents

Preface .......................................... Page ix Editing Notes / Terms Defined .................... Page xiii Abbreviations .................................... Page xv Chapter 1. Introduction .......................... Page 1 What Is Adam-God? Persecution To Be Expected Encounter With Confusion Professionalism The Truth & A Warning Part 1: The Historical Treatment Of The Adam-God Doctrine Chapter 2. The Genesis ........................... Page 13 The Grandfather Some Of The Precious Things George D. Watt Historic Discourse At Priesthood Session Of General Conference More About This? In The Mouths Of Two Or Three Witnesses The Day After Origin Of The Doctrine Chapter 3. A Careful History ..................... Page 23 Why Discredit Mormon History? The Force Of Reason False Doctrines Corrected

The Journal Of Discourses Carefully Edited The Journal Of Discourses: "standard works of the Church" Joseph Smith: an Elias Chapter 4. Truth And The First Principle ......... Page 33 Ignorance Retards The Church Too Wise To Be Taught Things Never Before Revealed The First Principle Salvation Through Knowledge Learning For Oneself Desire: The Seed Of Truth The State Of Those Who Reject Truth Alma's Formula [ii] Those Who Would Counsel The Lord The Prophet's Dilemma Line Upon Line Man's Search For Happiness Chapter 5. The October 8, 1854 Discourse ......... Page 51 Opinions Have No Power Over Truth Those Present The Discourse Others Who Were Present General Conference Credence Chapter 6. An Era Of Truth ....................... Page 69 Brigham Young Adam Not Made From Dust Of This Earth When Father Adam Came To Earth The Father Of Jesus Christ When You Have The Privilege Of Being An Adam Mother Eves Of One Species The Ancient Of Days The Grandfather Father, Son, And Grandson Did Adam Know Who He Was? Source Of Brigham's Light Knowledge Of Father Adam Will The Ignorant Receive The Truth? The Obligation Of The People Of God Chapter 7. Priesthood Utterances .................... Page 93 They Followed The Prophet Heber C. Kimball Zebedee Coltrin Orson Hyde Wilford Woodruff B. H. Roberts Heber Bennion Samuel W. Richards The London Missionary Conference of 1854 Franklin D. Richards Parley P. Pratt The School Of The Prophets George Q. Cannon Orson Pratt Edward Stevenson The Contributor

Joseph E. Taylor Orson F. Whitney Benjamin F. Johnson [iii]Samuel O. Bennion John M. Whitaker Chapter 8. Church Literature ....................... Page 121 How Widespread Was Adam-God? Orson F. Whitney Every knee Shall Bow, And Every Tongue Confess We Believe In Our God W. W. Phelps O My Father The Women Of Mormondom Eliza R. Snow Vilate M. Kimball Helen Mar Kimball Whitney Chapter 9. The St. George Endowment ............... Page 137 "that I may reveal mine ordinances" Temples In The West "Organize And Systematize" The Endowment Chapter 10. The Bunkerville Problem ............... Page 145 Bunkerville Doctrinal Controversy Edward Bunker, Senior First Presidency Requested Chapter 11. The Devolution Of A Doctrine ......... Page 159 To Devolve A Public Doctrine The Chain Of Authority A Sensitive Doctrine A Prominent Opponent Unbelief In The Minds Of The Latter-day Saints "Keep It To Yourselves" After Brigham's Passing Sacred Hymn Altered Doubts And Discouragement The Ephraim H. Nye Approach That's The Beauty Of It: It's A Mystery A New Era Charles W. Penrose He's Back: Edward Bunker, Jr. The Origin Of Man Ten Years Of Rhetoric The Rewriting Of Church Literature The Obligation Of The People Of God [iv] Part II: The Doctrinal Treatment Of The Adam-God Doctrine Chapter 12. Joseph And The First Vision ........... Page 197 Historical --vs-- Doctrinal Traditional Christianity The Vision Who Were They? A Redefinition Joseph's Reluctance Doctrinal Contribution

Chapter 13. Development Of The Mormon Doctrine Of Deity ................................................. Page 207 Sacred Cows Precept Upon Precept Early Teachings On Adam Joseph's Teachings On Jehovah Brigham's Teachings On Jehovah The Creation Gods Mine Only Begotten John Taylor's Teachings On Jehovah The New Theology On Jehovah Silent Advocacy Interpretation Of Scripture Guides Development Of Doctrine Jesus The Christ The New Doctrinal Synthesis Chapter 14. The King Follett Discourse .......... Page 223 Lorenzo Snow The King Follett Discourse Not Contained In The Bible No Eternal Life If Man Does Not Know God God Was Once A Man Like Us The Father Of Us All Dwelt On An Earth, The Same As Jesus Christ Himself Did Jesus Did What His Father Did You Have Got To Learn To Be Gods Yourselves It Is Not All To Be Comprehended In This World Chapter 15. Joseph's Last Sermon ................ Page 233 King Follett Discourse Questioned Those Who Reported The Discourse The RLDS Objection The Second Witness The Plurality Of Gods Where Was There Ever A Father Without First Being A Son? But To Us There Is But One God Joseph Withheld The Knowledge Of The God Of Heaven The Church Is Being Tested And Purged Men Are Damned For Unbelief Sealed With His Blood [v] Chapter 16. Scripture: The Restoration Perspective .. Page 247 What Is Scripture? Joseph's Work Jesus Speaks For The Godhead The Book Of Mormon: The Most Correct Book The Lesser Part Chapter 17. Prophets And Revelation ................. Page 257 What Is Revelation? To Whom Cometh Revelation? Can A Prophet Be Wrong? To Err In Doctrine Prophets And Doctrines Adam-God And Revelation Lacking Harmony Chapter 18. The Government Of Deity ................ Page 267

Eternal Law The Rights Of The Priesthood The Patriarchal Order Eternity Chapter 19. Names, Titles, And Offices Of Deity .... Page 271 Various Appellations Of Deity The Gods Of This Earth: in a nutshell Jehovah Father Creator Grandfather, Great-Grandfather, and so on Son Son Of Man Man Of Holiness Man Of Counsel Endless And Eternal Savior Messiah Christ Redeemer I AM Only Begotten Mine Only Begotten Firstborn Lord God Almighty Holy One Of Zion Ahman Holy One Of Israel The Most High God Jesus Christ As Spokesman For God Ancient Of Days, Michael, Adam, Archangel [vi] Elohim, El, Eloah Holy Ghost, Holy Spirit, Spirit Of God Chapter 20. The Doctrine Of Deity ............. Page 283 What Is The Doctrine Of Deity? Sacred And Privileged The Doctrine Part III: Opposition To The Adam-God Doctrine Chapter 21. Anti-Mormon Rhetoric .............. Page 291 Persecution A Natural Consequence The Adam-God Issue The State Of Those Who Reject God's Work Why Help The Enemy? Falsehood Has No Place In God's Church Chapter 22. Opposition From Within ............ Page 297 Present Day Folly An Overview Of The Devolution Discourses Of Brigham Young Evidences And Reconciliations Heber J. Grant Milton R. Hunter Doctrines Of Salvation Mormon Doctrine Priesthood Instruction Criticism Of Factions

Answers To Gospel Questions Our Own Liahona The Seven Deadly Heresies Mark E. Petersen Enemies Of The Church? An Honest Approach Follow Dead Prophets? Beyond The Understanding Of Some Leave The Mysteries Alone? No One But The President Of The Church Correct And Forgive Those Who Have Erred Chapter 23. ADAM Who Is He? .................. Page 323 ADAM Who Is He? The Official Response Our Certain Guide Michael The Archangel Jehovah-Christ Fallacy Is Alive And Well The Holy One [vii]President Of The Resurrection Michael And His Angels Brigham's Statements Have Been Misunderstood The Charles C. Rich Concoction Mine Only Begotten Redeeming Value? Failure To Address The Real Issue Chapter 24. Be Not Deceived .................. Page 335 Be Not Deceived Scriptural Folly Doctrine --vs-- Theory The Book Of Moses Chapter 25. Israel In The Wilderness ......... Page 343 Today The Wheat And The Tares Assimilation: The Religion Of The Tares Idolatry And Apostasy H. Verlan Andersen: "The Apostasy of the Latter Days" Ezra Taft Benson: "It Is From Within The Church That The Greatest Hindrance Comes" Beware Of Pride Fear Bringeth Torment Why Are Ye Ashamed To Take Upon You The Name Of Christ? What Course For The Faithful? "Defend Truth To The Last!" Suggested Reading ................................ Page 369 Bibliography ..................................... Page 371 [ix] Preface My wife and I were baptized into the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in March of 1981. My conversion resulted from many years of searching for purpose in life, but never finding. Then, at age twenty-four, humbling circumstances led me to read the New Testament. After reading the New Testament I experienced such a pronounced spiritual awakening, that my appetite for more

became insatiable. I believed Jesus' promise that whatsoever I would ask in his name, having faith, Father in Heaven would answer me. My greatest query after reading the New Testament was, "What happened to the Church Jesus Christ organized? Where are the Apostles? Where are the people of God today? Where can I go for answers to my sincere, burning questions?" Within days of finishing the New Testament I was given a copy of The Book of Mormon and a seminary text book called The Restored Church. As I read the historical account of The Restoration of the gospel and Church of Jesus Christ, the same spiritual witness which had accompanied my reading of the New Testament, now testified to my soul that a marvelous thing had occurred. My spiritual awakening expanded and I comprehended that God, after many centuries of darkness, had restored the Church of Jesus Christ to the earth. The same organization which Jesus had set up two thousand years ago was restored through a modern prophet, Joseph Smith. This began in the year 1820 with the visitation of "two Personages" to the young Joseph Smith. Revelations were received, Priesthood restored, ordinances were once again administered through legal holders of the Priesthood of God. Reading the New Testament had taught me that not just anyone could minister and officiate in the things of God: And no man taketh this honour unto himself [to minister in things pertaining to God], but he that is called of God, as was Aaron. (Hebrews 5:4,1) Authority was required. And once that authority had been lost, because of apostasy, it could only be restored to the earth by God's instrumentality. The Bible taught these principles. In the Bible men never took it upon themselves to minister in the things of God until they were "called of God." I looked around and saw a world of the religions of men, none of them instituted by God, none of them claiming divine revelation and a living prophet, except one. The "Mormon" Church satisfied the requirements which my spiritual awakening comprehended. My spiritual rebirth produced fertile ground in which the truths of the kingdom of God could flourish. My love and devotion to truth, knowledge, and charity could not be contained. I anxiously began to experience the promise of my Patriarchal Blessing wherein I was blessed: [x] "...with a strong desire to study the scriptures and the whole gospel plan, to come to an understanding of all truth." (17 July 1981) I found that I could not read, study, fast and pray enough about the gospel. This "strong desire" consumed me, and still does. I read all of the standard works: the Bible, The Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants, and the Pearl of Great Price. Although I still read the Bible, it is the "triple combination" (the other three) which is my "compass." I read the triple combination from cover to cover each year. I have felt myself draw nearer to Father as I have accepted the counsel of our prophets to study the scriptures continually. I have done this and am able to testify that these inspired writings are a gift to us from our Father in Heaven.

President Benson has testified that we are under condemnation if we fail to read and spread The Book of Mormon. Our family buys a box of 40 copies of The Book of Mormon every year and we have left them from New York to California. Since joining the Church I have obeyed the commandments, kept morally clean, paid an honest tithe, paid a generous fast offering, accepted all Church callings, held a current temple recommend, attended the temple often, completed my four generation genealogy and temple work, etc. I love the Lord's work. It is said that some members of the Church have gospel hobbies. I assume this means that they focus on one subject and ignore the rest of the gospel. I am different. My vocation is the gospel. To a disciple of the Master, the gospel must come first. A disciple of Jesus Christ is many things, including a disciple of truth. When I joined the Church I made a covenant to be honest and always tell the truth. I am interviewed each year as I speak with my bishop and stake president. I am asked, "Are you honest in all your dealings with your fellow man?" I answer, "Yes." I am very honest; Joseph Smith said that unless we are "strictly honest" we cannot get into the celestial kingdom. I want to go to the celestial kingdom. Therefore, I must be honest! If I had been taught by the missionaries that there would come a time when I would be expected to ignore dishonesty and injustice in the Church, then I would have been troubled indeed. But the missionaries did not teach me any such absurdity. They taught me that there was a promise which I could rely upon in all cases (Moroni 10:3-5) which would teach me "the truth of all things." I was also taught, and have come to know the truth of it, that the gospel of Jesus Christ and the Church of Jesus Christ would both stand up to any scrutiny which I could give them. I know this to be a true precept of Jesus Christ's Church: there is no question which cannot be asked and answered truthfully. I have not found any truth which could not fit into the gospel and the Church. Anybody who says otherwise is wrong. [xi] I joined the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints because the Spirit wrought upon me so powerfully that I could not do otherwise, and I have remained an active member ever since. Nothing is more important to me than our Father's work. I seek to know and do that which is Father's will. I do not seek to counsel Father, nor set bounds to that which He may reveal. I seek all which our Father possesses, and I realize that all my tradition may come in contact with revealed truth. I care not that this may be. Like Joseph Smith, when I see truth I want to hug it to my bosom and never let go. When I first encountered the Adam-God doctrine, the Spirit began to impress me greatly. I became impressed that it was only a matter of time before someone published a book on the subject that would be an expose', instead of a faith-promoting work. I was faced with the question: Do we want this type of information being dispensed to the public, devoid of the Spirit, which should rightly accompany such a work, or do we want this subject written

about from the spiritual perspective in which our prophets revealed it, where it can be illuminated and given the credence it deserves? The Holy Ghost wrought upon me and prompted me that the subject of Adam-God deserves an honest and spiritually sensitive treatment, without censorship. Only where the light of truth has dispelled the darkness of ignorance, prejudice, and unbelief, can our freedom to choose enjoy its full power. No man or woman is truly free to choose unless they are in possession of all the facts. May God bless you as you go where few have ventured -- toward Adam-God, Craig L. Tholson The Author [xiii] Editing Notes I have been very careful to preserve the original intent and meaning when quoting sources. Where it has been possible to improve reading and clarity by using modern spelling, I have done so. At no time have I changed the original meaning. An example of spelling changes include the following: crucifyed changed to crucified, Saviour changed to Savior, etc. Words and letters which appear inside [brackets] in a quote, I have added to clarify meaning. The readers may then judge for themselves if these words or letters belong. Some of the sermons, discourses, journal entries and other records of Church history quoted herein are kept in the Archives Division of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Historical Department at 50 East North Temple Street in Salt Lake City, Utah. Many of these have been republished in other works. Brigham Young's discourses can also be found faithfully reproduced in the following sources: Manuscript Addresses of Brigham Young, six volumes, edited by Eldon Watson The Teachings of President Brigham Young, seven volumes, edited by Fred Collier Terms Defined Sometimes in the English language we misunderstand terminology because of popular connotations attached to words. Such is the case with the word cult. The word cult has a negative connotation attached to it, even though its definition carries no such meaning. Cult is simply defined: cult -- 1. a particular system of religious worship (The American College Dictionary, 1947-1970) cult -- 3. a religion regarded as unorthodox (Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary, 1990) Two terms that need to be defined for the purpose of this study

are apostasy and patriarchal superior. For our purposes these terms shall be defined as follows: [xiv] apostasy - renunciation or abandonment of a previous loyalty. An apostate is one who has renounced or abandoned a previous loyalty. patriarchal superior - male progenitor who is above another in rank, station, or office. [xv] Abbreviations D&C Doctrine and Covenants DN Deseret News HC History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Ibid. This abbreviation refers back to the previously cited reference. JD Journal of Discourses MFP Messages of the First Presidency MS Millennial Star NIV New International Version of the Bible PoGP Pearl of Great Price TPJS Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith TS Times and Seasons WJS Words of Joseph Smith WWJ Wilford Woodruff Journal &c. et. cetera; and others; and so forth; and so on For complete publication information on these references see bibliography at end of book. [1] All I want is to get the simple, naked truth, and the whole truth. Joseph Smith, HC 6:476 Introduction What Is Adam-God? This book was written for every sincere seeker of truth who desires to have a closer relationship to our Father and God. Its sole purpose is to shed light and understanding upon that which has come to be known as the Adam-God doctrine. Adam-God is the two-word name given to the doctrine which places Adam at the head of this creation. As the name implies, Adam would be God, the God of this world and its inhabitants. The implications of this doctrine are many, and its corollaries affect virtually all other doctrines of the restored Church. But before we discuss the doctrinal aspects of Adam-God, we must first consider the historical birth and evolution of the Adam-God doctrine in this dispensation. The tenets of the Adam-God doctrine were first revealed by Joseph Smith and later taught in plainness in the early Salt Lake community of the Latter-day Saints. The doctrine was taught 1

internally for over forty years. But reluctance and unbelief caused it to disappear into obscurity. Also, around the turn of the century our critics began to malign the "unorthodox" Mormon doctrine of God. Especially were our missionary efforts thwarted, and persecution caused this Pearl of Great Price to be relegated to the status of mere speculation. This was an attempt to dispel antagonism toward the Church. To a great extent this subterfuge was successful. The majority of the members of the Church today are either convinced that the doctrine was never taught, or that it was only speculation on the part of Brigham Young, the Prophet thought to be responsible for advancing the [2] doctrine. But it was not intended that this doctrine be hidden from the Saints, just our enemies. Unfortunately, our enemies have not forgotten what we once taught about God. Now they have even more to fight us with. Not only do they ridicule what we once publicly taught in plainness, but they now call us ignorant of our own history and dishonest to conceal it. On these points they are correct; we are ignorant of our own history, and dishonest if we lie to conceal it. Because the early doctrinal teachings of the Church are now a matter of historical record, it is impossible to hide Adam-God. Persecution To Be Expected It is probably erroneous to believe that we have a problem just because we receive persecution from outside the Church. In fact, persecution of the Church of God on earth is a sign that it is indeed the Church of God, for the things of God have always been ridiculed and rejected by the world at large. Many of the Saints have been shunned by their mothers, fathers, brothers and sisters for embracing the Gospel of Jesus Christ. But the Savior said this would be a natural consequence of following him. He said the penalty for following him would be rejection: I am come to set a man at variance against his father, and the daughter against her mother, and the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law. And a man's foes shall be they of his own household. (Matthew 10:35-36) And: Ye shall be betrayed both by parents, and brethren, and kinsfolks, and friends; and some of you shall they cause to be put to death. And ye shall be hated of all men for my name's sake. (Luke 21:16-17) And because his followers are not of the world, they are hated: If the world hate you, ye know that it hated me before it hated you. If ye were of the world, the world would love his own: but because ye are not of the world, but I have chosen you out of the world, therefore the world hateth you.

Remember the word that I said unto you, The servant is not greater than his lord. If they have persecuted me, they will also persecute you; if they have kept my saying, they will keep yours also. [3] But all these things will they do unto you for my name's sake, because they know not him that sent me. (John 15:18-21) So we see that persecution is a normal condition under which the Church exists, and results from God making available His truths so that those who have ears to hear and eyes to see may embrace the truth. But persecution is not limited to sources outside the Church. Perhaps more importantly, today, many faithful Latter-day Saints are learning of the Adam-God doctrine, and are becoming quite confused. Too many of our brothers and sisters have left the Church over the contradictions they find. You see, converts usually join the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints because they have come to a point in their lives where the truth becomes more important than the false traditions of their upbringing. Those who have experienced a conversion to truth, have done so because they have put Moroni's promise to the test: Behold, I would exhort you that when ye shall read these things, if it be wisdom in God that ye should read them, that ye would remember how merciful the Lord hath been unto the children of men, from the creation of Adam even down unto the time that ye shall receive these things, and ponder it in your hearts. And when ye shall receive these things, I would exhort you that ye would ask God, the Eternal Father, in the name of Christ, if these things are not true; and if ye shall ask with a sincere heart, with real intent, having faith in Christ, he will manifest the truth of it unto you, by the power of the Holy Ghost. And by the power of the Holy Ghost ye may know the truth of all things. (Moroni 10:3-5) These sincere seekers of truth have asked God about the many aspects of The Restoration and have received personal revelation confirming their hopes. Then, upon applying the same promise to Adam-God, they learn a truth which, today, is denied at the highest levels of Mormondom. This denial began 150 years ago, and reached its peak in recent decades. Sadly, early Prophets and Church leaders have been the subject of ridicule and misunderstanding because of these things. Encounter With Confusion My first encounter with the Adam-God doctrine came in 1981, six months after joining the Church. My wife and I had sent several copies of The Book of Mormon to many of our old friends. Within days we received a number of anti-Mormon tracts from one of my wife's friends. Included in these was an expose of the Adam-God doctrine. The claim of this expose was that Brigham Young taught that Adam is our Heavenly Father and the Father [4] of Jesus

Christ (of both his spirit and his body), that Mormon prophets since Brigham have called the doctrine false, and that the doctrine is non-biblical. Although I had just joined the Church, my testimony was unshakable! I knew that The Restoration was wrought by the power of God, through His Prophet Joseph. It was my willingness to learn truth (regardless of what that truth may be) which had led me to the Church, and it was the fulfillment of Moroni's promise which I had learned to trust. Being a recent convert, I had just accepted what seemed like a million new truths, and if Adam-God were true, well, then it would just be another one of many new and marvelous truths to spend a life-time trying to understand. Armed with this attitude, I reasoned thus: * If Brigham Young did not teach this doctrine, and it has arisen from a twisted interpretation of history, then we may dismiss this issue now without further discussion. If, on the other hand, Brigham did teach this doctrine, as the anti-Mormon tracts claim, then the problems for the Church would be obvious since today the Church's official position on the Adam-God doctrine attributed to Brigham Young is that it is absolutely false. Therefore, if Brigham Young did teach Adam--God three possibilities arise: 1. Since Brigham was a prophet of God, some would conclude that he was a false prophet because he declared Adam-God to be a true doctrine of the gospel. If this were true, then some might conclude that an apostasy occurred with Brigham when he tried to lead the Church astray. The least which can be surmised is that a prophet's teachings can not be trusted. 2. Another possibility is that Brigham was a true prophet and that the Adam-God doctrine is true doctrine. But this implies that we have apostatized in our knowledge of God since we now teach that the Adam-God doctrine is false. The least which can be surmised here, is that today, we Latter-day Saints are deficient in the "first principle of the gospel" which Joseph Smith explained: "It is the first principle of the gospel to know for a certainty the character of God" (HC 6:305). 3. The other possibility, of course, is that Adam-God was only an opinion which Brigham had advanced, and which was incorrect, and is therefore of no significance. After all, we're all entitled to speculate about what might be true. Of course, these three possibilities presuppose that Brigham did indeed advance the doctrine. Having what I considered to be an authoritative source on the subject, I went directly to Bruce R. McConkie's Mormon Doctrine. Brother McConkie states: Cultists and other enemies of the restored truth, for their own peculiar purposes, sometimes try to make it appear that Latter-day Saints worship Adam as their Father in Heaven.

*

In support of their false assumptions, they quote such statements as that of President Brigham Young to the effect that Adam [5] is our father and our god and the only god with whom we have to do. This statement, and others of a similar nature, is perfectly consistent and rational, when viewed in full gospel perspective and understood in the light of the revelations relative to the patriarchal chain binding exalted beings together. Full and detailed explanations of all important teachings on these points are readily available. See Doctrines of Salvation, vol.1, pp. 96-106. (Mormon Doctrine 2nd edition, Bruce R. McConkie, pp. 18-9) Being a sincere seeker of truth, I followed Brother McConkie's direction to seek "Full and detailed explanations of all important teachings on these points" by further reading upon the subject of Adam-God. As Brother McConkie directed, I turned to volume one of Doctrines of Salvation seeking further light and knowledge upon the subject of Adam-God. Here, President Joseph Fielding Smith explains: SOURCE OF ADAM-GOD THEORY. President Brigham Young is quoted -- in all probability the sermon was erroneously transcribed! -- as having said: "Now hear it, O inhabitants of the earth, Jew and Gentile, saint and sinner! When our father Adam came into the Garden of Eden, he came into it with a celestial body, and brought Eve, one of his wives, with him. He helped to make and organize this world. He is Michael, the Archangel, the Ancient of Days, about whom holy men have written and spoken -- He is our father and our God, and the only God with whom we have to do. (Doctrines of Salvation, Joseph Fielding Smith, vol.1, p. 96) President Joseph Fielding Smith, after stating that Brigham Young's sermon was "in all probability ... erroneously transcribed," goes on to "prove" from the scriptures that "Adam was subordinate and obedient to Jesus Christ." President Smith does a fine job of "proving" that Brigham Young could not have taught the Adam-God doctrine because it is a "false" doctrine. After reading what Mormon Doctrine and Doctrines Of Salvation had to say about Adam-God, I was satisfied that Brigham never taught Adam-God, that he was misquoted, and that this doctrine was just another of many fabrications introduced by anti-Mormons to malign the Church. I have always possessed a zeal for missionary work which has brought me in close contact with people of many walks and faiths. As a result I have often been given objections to our beliefs. Thus, I encountered various anti-Mormon books, tapes, and pamphlets which mention the Adam-God doctrine. I learned to consider them all as misrepresentations of our true doctrines. Then, in 1986, I found a pamphlet in an LDS bookstore entitled, What About the Adam-God Theory?, by Van Hale. Brother Hale states: At the age of twenty, as a missionary for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, I first came in contact

with the so-called Adam-God theory in an anti-Mormon tract. I had read such literature before and knew that it frequently twisted and misinterpreted LDS sources. I therefore felt certain that [6] the purported quotation from Brigham Young's April 9, 1852 discourse -- that Adam is our father and our God -- either was taken from context or was an outright fabrication. After examining the evidence, however, I soon became convinced that on at least two occasions Brigham Young had taught a concept which generally has not been accepted by Mormons -- namely, that God the Father, the Father of our spirits and the Father of Jesus (of both his body and his spirit), came to this earth, took upon himself mortality, and was known as Adam, the progenitor of the human family. Simply stated, according to President Young, God the Father became Adam. (Journal of Discourses[JD] 1:50; Deseret News June 18, 1873). Later I found several references in which President Young hinted at this belief. Over the past fifteen years I have found many additional sources which confirm that this idea was taught for a period of time in the past century. They include sermon reports, private diary entries, minutes of meetings, letters, articles, and statements. Many of these are unpublished and have only come to light in the last several years. (What About The Adam-God Theory?, Van Hale, p. 1) After finding Brother Hale's pamphlet, I went to my Institute director where I was attending Institute while going to college in Southern California. After class one day I asked him what he knew about Adam-God. I expected him to reply with the usual wisdom I had come to associate with his teaching. Without hesitation, he told me, "Brigham Young didn't know what he was talking about!" "Brigham Young didn't know what he was talking about," I thought to myself? Obviously, my Institute Director had encountered this subject before, and knew that Brigham had taught Adam-God. But, I reasoned, Brigham was a prophet of God; if he didn't know what he was talking about, then who does? This is the point where I determined to do as Joseph Smith had done 165 years earlier, to ask of God. I have since learned that there is no other way to approach gospel knowledge! Two years later I ran into yet another work pretending to be the last word on Adam-God. Another well-intentioned member of the Church had encountered the teaching and felt the need to clarify the issue by publishing his book, Be Not Deceived, a scriptural refutation of the Adam-God theory. The author, Elwood G. Norris states: Most members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints have heard of the "Adam-God" Theory, even if they do not know exactly what it is. Some members of the Church have been approached by missionaries of the apostate splinter groups that teach it. In recent years, especially, there has arisen a sizeable number of these apostate factions, each claiming some special message or revelation. Practically all these groups embrace the Adam-God theory as part of their doctrine.

Brother Norris continues: This book is written to assist members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in recognizing the fallacious nature of this theory. It will first explain what the Adam-God theory is, then demonstrate that the theory does not conform to the true concept of God taught by the scriptures, by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, or by its founder, the Prophet Joseph Smith. (Be Not Deceived, Elwood G. Norris, p.15) [7] Since finding and reading Brother Norris' book, I have found that there are many other books which have been written on the subject of Adam-God, some friendly to the Church, and others not so friendly; some written to malign the integrity of Brigham Young, others written to malign the integrity of our contemporary prophets, some written to prove that Adam-God was taught, some written to prove that it was not, and some written to prove that Adam-God is not scripturally sound doctrine. Oddly enough, many of these works of enlightenment (and I use the term loosely) fail to address the historical realities associated with Adam-God. My purpose in writing this book is not to malign the beliefs or proselyting practices of any group, not even those that teach Adam-God or use the doctrine to further their purposes. For, this is their privilege; this is America! I love this country! I love freedom! I advocate freedom of religion in the same sense that Joseph Smith did: We claim the privilege of worshiping Almighty God according to the dictates of our own conscience, and allow all men the same privilege, let them worship how, where, or what they may. (Eleventh Article of Faith, Joseph Smith) Some people write books for money, others for notoriety, and still others to instruct or convince the reader. I have written this book because I love the truth. My heart-felt prayer is that the people of God will be edified from the pages that follow. They know who they are; they love the truth because it makes them free. I dedicate this work to them. Professionalism This book necessarily deals with history, and primarily with the teachings of Joseph Smith and Brigham Young, the two men who dominated Mormonism from 1820 to 1877, the first 57 years of The Restoration. A "professional" historian would protect his reputation in the realm of academia by referring to Joseph Smith and Brigham Young as Smith and Young. They would be careful not to admit any inclination toward belief or ideology. By this approach they preserve their objectivity and authority in their discipline, thus maintaining a certain respect and credence among their peers. My intention is to maintain no such image; I am first a Mormon! In lay terms, this is to say, I am first a disciple of truth! I maintain no objectivity with respect to the restored Gospel of Jesus Christ. I know Joseph Smith was the prophet through whom The Restoration came. I know Brigham was his successor to the keys and authority of the kingdom, approved of God. No persuasion on earth is capable of changing my

knowledge of these facts. I here promise that my professionalism is limited to telling the truth and exposing that which is not true. The fact that I refer to Joseph and Brigham on a first-name basis is expressive of my familiarity with their teachings and characters, and my love for and devotion to them for their faithfulness to our God and Father. [8] As above stated, one professionalism I will employ is the truth. I do not believe in protecting the reputations of men nor their erroneous theories at the cost of sacrificing truth. I am a firm believer that even great men sometimes advance incorrect opinions. I believe that great men who have died would be grateful to any one of us who were to correct falsehoods which were perpetuated by them while in mortality. Do we know a man who would not be grateful for such? Only pride would stand in the way of such illumination. And even if the truth contradicts that which has been espoused by men who are yet living, I would expect the same appreciation from them for their having been corrected. Please do not misunderstand. My style and intent has never been, and never will be, to malign the reputations of men. I do not glory in correcting the fallacies and errors of others. I desire that men would be sufficiently humble, and sincere in their quest for truth, that they would never speak upon a subject beyond their understanding, nor allow their unbelief to mar those truths which have been revealed by their predecessors. But when men, for whatever reason, corrupt the truth, this author will not stand for it! The Truth & A Warning After reading this book you will know that Brigham Young did teach that Adam, the first man, the man who walked in the Garden of Eden, is our Heavenly Father, that He came here to earth, fell from His celestial glory that man might be, and again took up His rightful place as God of this creation. You will marvel as this truth is unfolded to your soul, and be awestruck at the harmony of this truth with the Gospel of Jesus Christ as revealed through the Prophet Joseph and his successor, Brigham Young. You will also understand that it was Joseph, not Brigham, who revealed the doctrine which places Adam at the head of this creation. You will learn that it is Adam's divine right to be the God and Father of this creation. I warn the reader that this doctrine has caused dissension and apostasy to rage in the hearts of casual members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from the very beginning of this work. Many members have adopted the belief that nothing more is required of them than to follow the teachings of those men who lead the Church. This is certainly a casual approach to the gospel, and probably a dangerous one, to blindly follow without question. No course of action could be further from that which we have been encouraged to pursue. Our obligation is to try all things and Moroni has given the method by which we should do this: Behold, I would exhort you that when ye shall read these things, if it be wisdom in God that ye should [9] read them, that ye would remember how merciful the Lord hath been unto the children of men, from the creation of Adam

even down unto the time that ye shall receive these things, and ponder it in your hearts. And when ye shall receive these things, I would exhort you that ye would ask God, the Eternal Father, in the name of Christ, if these things are not true; and if ye shall ask with a sincere heart, with real intent, having faith in Christ, he will manifest the truth of it unto you, by the power of the Holy Ghost. And by the power of the Holy Ghost ye may know the truth of all things. (Moroni 10:3-5) Joseph understood this principle well; the man who has not understood the power of prayer will not comprehend the things of God: The best way to obtain truth and wisdom is not to ask it from books, but to go to God in prayer, and obtain divine teaching. (HC 4:425) It is now time in this dispensation of truth to set the record straight and correct the ignorance and prejudice of the Latter-day Saints. Your obligation to pray about this book and the truths it contains are paramount. I can not emphasize strongly enough the need for you to have the Spirit as your guide in the pursuit of truth. Please, put this book down now, and ask Father, in the name of Christ, to bless you with the gift of discernment that you may not be led astray and that you will recognize truth when you read it. Now, please put this book down and ask Father. Now we will sort through the labyrinth of facts and fallacies which have contributed to our current ignorance, prejudice, and misunderstanding toward the doctrine which has come to be known as Adam-God. [10] [11] (Blank page) Part 1: The Historical Treatment Of The Adam-God Doctrine The historian surrounds himself with mountains of facts, considers dozens of alternative methods of ordering his data, but remains acutely aware that he cannot record all he has learned and that by adopting any scheme of organization he automatically sacrifices the advantages of many other possible schemes. His problem is like that of a chef intent on creating a new dish. If he employs the wealth of spices and sauces in his kitchen cleverly he may achieve a gastronomic triumph, but if he blunders his concoction may turn out to be an indigestible disaster. This risk must be taken. The historian must strive for profundity and completeness; he cannot safely take refuge in shallow over-simplifications lest, like a cook who confines himself to frying ham and eggs, he quickly dulls his readers' taste for his wares and drives them to more daring and knowledgeable sources of information. (John A.

Garraty, Columbia University) [12] [13] (Blank page) For the fulness of mine intent is that I may persuade men to come unto the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, and be saved. Wherefore, the things which are pleasing unto the world I do not write, but the things which are pleasing unto God and unto those who are not of the world. 1 Nephi 6:4-5 The Genesis The Grandfather Perhaps the first public hint of Brigham's knowledge of Adam-God was given in a speech to the Joint Session of the Legislature of the Utah Territory on Thursday, February 5, 1852. Speaking in the capacity of governor of the territory, Brigham Young expressed his views on the subject of slavery. He said that Adam and Eve partook of the forbidden fruit and this made "slaves" of them. Said Brigham, This was the first introduction of slavery upon this Earth; and there has not been a son or daughter of Adam from that day to this but what were slaves in the true sense of the word. (Brigham Young, February 5, 1852, Church Archives) After introducing the subject of our mortal slavery, Brigham continued the story of the first family, and in describing the story of Cain and Abel he stated that Cain: ... took it into his heart to put Abel [out] of this mortal existence. After the deed was done, the Lord enquired for Abel, and made Cain own what he had done with him. Now, says the Grandfather, I will not destroy the seed of Michael and his wife, and Cain I will not kill you.... (Ibid.) Brigham's usage of "the Grandfather" to describe the God of Cain is probably puzzling to you if you have not studied the Adam-God doctrine prior to this time. Nevertheless, the distinction, "Grandfather," will become well-understood as we unfold the doctrine of Adam-God. [14] Some Of The Precious Things Two months after Brigham's aforementioned speech to the Joint Session of the Legislature, he, for the first time recorded, disclosed the basic tenets of what has come to be known as the Adam-God doctrine. This historic discourse was delivered to the Elders, during the Priesthood Session of the General Conference 2

of the Church, held in the Tabernacle at Salt Lake City, on Friday evening, April 9, 1852, at 6 P.M. In the April 17, 1852 Deseret News it was reported of the Priesthood Conference: 6 P.M. the Elders and brethren assembled in the Tabernacle, which was completely crowded. After the usual introductory exercises, President Young Preached several sermons on various subjects, the Holy Ghost resting upon him in great power, while he revealed some of the precious things of the kingdom. Choir sung a hymn. Benediction by Elder Sherwood. (Deseret News 2:46, #12) One naturally asks, what were these "precious things of the kingdom" which the Prophet Brigham "revealed" during this historic discourse at the Priesthood Session of General Conference? George D. Watt The next best thing to our having been there to have heard the Prophet Brigham's words is for us to read the stenographic account as recorded by George D. Watt, official scribe of the Church for 20 years, from 1851 to 1870. But first, let us examine the credentials of Brother Watt as stenographer: George D. Watt was the first convert baptized in England. He was baptized 30 July 1837. Having learned shorthand, which at the time was called phonography, George recorded the sermons of the leaders of the Church from 1851 to 1870... George D. Watt won a foot race to the river, which determined the honor of being the first to be baptized in England. (Church History in the Fulness of Times, p.175) George D. Watt was schooled in Pitman shorthand. Pitman shorthand, invented by Sir Isaac Pitman in 1837, was the first shorthand system capable of verbatim recording of human speech (See "Pitman, Sir Isaac," The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1986 Edition, 9:476). The Brethren were desirous to have all of their sermons and discourses recorded accurately. A good stenographer in their day was as valuable as tape recorders are today. Thus, we see the need for Brother Watt's training. The following tribute was publicly paid to Elder Watt in the Times and Seasons, on April 7, 1845: [15] Elder George D. Watt, whose valuable services to this church as Professor of Phonography, are highly appreciated; has taken down the speeches delivered on this occasion, and they will appear from time to time as circumstances will allow. (Times and Seasons, vol.6, pp. 869-871; also see HC 7:394) The First Presidency, wishing to certify the accuracy of Brother Watt's reporting of their sermons and discourses, wrote the following letter. The letter was addressed to the President of the European Mission, Samuel W. Richards, and the Saints abroad;

and it is indicative of the integrity of Brother Watt in reporting the talks of the authorities of the Church: Great Salt Lake City, Utah Territory, June 1, 1853. Elder Samuel W. Richards, and the Saints abroad. Dear Brethren -- It is well known to many of you, that Elder George D. Watt, by our counsel, spent much time in the midst of poverty and hardships to acquire the art of reporting in Phonography, which he has faithfully and fully accomplished; and he has been reporting the public Sermons, Discourses, Lectures, &c., delivered by the Presidency, the Twelve, and others in this city, for nearly two years, almost without fee or reward. Elder Watt now proposes to publish a Journal of these Reports, in England, for the benefit of the Saints at large, and to obtain means to enable him to sustain his highly useful position of Reporter. You will perceive at once that this will be a work of mutual benefit, and we cheerfully and warmly request your co-operation in the purchase and sale of the above-named Journal, and wish all the profits arising therefrom to be under the control of Elder Watt. First Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Brigham Young Heber C. Kimball Willard Richards. (Journal of Discourses 1:v; Mill. Star 15:730-731) This letter is no token gesture on the part of Brigham Young and his Counselors. Their sermons to the Saints had been recorded by Brother Watt for two years, and they here certify that Brother Watt had "faithfully and fully accomplished ... the art of reporting in Phonography." Now that we have established George D. Watt's credibility as stenographer, let us look at Brigham Young's great historic discourse on Adam-God. Historic Discourse At Priesthood Session Of General Conference This historic discourse on Adam-God, as recorded by George D. Watt and published in the Journal of Discourses, comprises eight pages. We begin on the first page quoting the Prophet Brigham Young. Brigham said all Saints, "from the first to the last of them," may "fall into error." But: [16] Here is the place for you to teach great mysteries to your brethren, because here are those who can correct you. This fault the Elders of Israel do not fall into in this Tabernacle, although they may in private houses and neighborhoods. When a man is capable of correcting you, and of giving you light, and true doctrine, do not get up an altercation, but submit to be taught like little children, and strive with all your might to understand. (JD 1:47) It is clear that President Young was here proclaiming the correctness of the teachings which the Saints receive over the pulpit of the Tabernacle, although these same men may speculate in private. "Here is the place for you to teach great mysteries," Brigham told them. In a moment we shall see that

Brigham was preparing the people of God to receive one of the greatest mysteries he would reveal during his 30 years as Prophet of the Lord's Church. We let the words of Brigham speak for themselves: My next sermon will be to both Saint and sinner. One thing has remained a mystery in this kingdom up to this day. It is in regard to the character of the well-beloved Son of God, upon which subject the Elders of Israel have conflicting views. Our God and Father in Heaven, is a being of tabernacle, or, in other words, He has a body, with parts the same as you and I have; and is capable of showing forth His works to organized beings, as, for instance, in the world in which we live, it is the result of the knowledge and infinite wisdom that dwell in His organized body. His son Jesus Christ has become a personage of tabernacle, and has a body like his father. The Holy Ghost is the Spirit of the Lord, and issues forth from Himself, and may properly be called God's minister to execute His will in immensity; being called to govern by His influence and power; but He is not a person of tabernacle as we are, and as our Father in Heaven and Jesus Christ are. The question has been, and is often, asked, who it was that begat the Son of the Virgin Mary. The infidel world have concluded that if what the Apostles wrote about his father and mother be true, and the present marriage discipline acknowledged by Christendom be correct, then Christians must believe that God is the father of an illegitimate son, in the person of Jesus Christ! The infidel fraternity teach that to their disciples. I will tell you how it is. Our Father in Heaven begat all the spirits that ever were, or ever will be, upon this earth; and they were born spirits in the eternal world. Then the Lord by His power and wisdom organized the mortal tabernacle of man. We were made first spiritual, and afterwards temporal. Now hear it, O inhabitants of the earth, Jew and Gentile, Saint and sinner! When our father Adam came into the garden of Eden, he came into it with a celestial body, and brought Eve, one of his wives, with him. He helped to make and organize this world. He is MICHAEL, the Archangel, the ANCIENT OF DAYS! about whom holy men have written and spoken -- HE is our FATHER and our GOD, and the only God with whom WE have to do. Every man upon the earth, professing Christians or nonprofessing, must hear it, and will know it sooner or later. They came here, organized the raw material, and arranged in their order the herbs of the field, the trees, the apple, the peach, the plum, the pear, and every other fruit that is desirable and good for man; the seed was brought from another sphere, and planted in this earth. The thistle, the thorn, the brier, and the obnoxious weed did not appear until after the earth was cursed. When Adam and Eve had eaten of the forbidden fruit, their bodies became mortal from its effects, and therefore their offspring were mortal. When the Virgin Mary conceived the child Jesus, the Father had begotten him in his own likeness. He was not begotten by the Holy Ghost. And who is the Father? He is the first of the human family, and when he took a tabernacle, it was begotten by his Father in heaven, after the same manner as the tabernacles of Cain,

Abel, and the rest of the sons and daughters of Adam and Eve; from the fruits of the earth, the first earthly tabernacles were originated by the Father, and so on in succession. I could tell you much more about this; but were I to tell you the whole truth, blasphemy would be nothing to it, in the estimation [17] of the superstitious and overrighteous of mankind. However, I have told you the truth as far as I have gone. I have heard men preach upon the divinity of Christ, and exhaust all the wisdom they possessed. All Scripturalists, and approved theologians who were considered exemplary for piety and education, have undertaken to expound on this subject, in every age of the Christian era; and after they have done all, they are obliged to conclude by exclaiming "great is the mystery of godliness," and tell nothing. It is true that the earth was organized by three distinct characters, namely, Eloheim, Yahovah, and Michael, these three forming a quorum, as in all heavenly bodies, and in organizing element, perfectly represented in the Deity, as Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Again, they will try to tell how the divinity of Jesus is joined to his humanity, and exhaust all their mental faculties, and wind up with this profound language, as describing the soul of man, "It is an immaterial substance!" What a learned idea! Jesus, our elder brother, was begotten in the flesh by the same character that was in the garden of Eden, and who is our Father in Heaven. Now, let all who may hear these doctrines, pause before they make light of them, or treat them with indifference, for they will prove their salvation or damnation. I have given you a few leading items upon this subject, but a great deal more remains to be told. Now, remember from this time forth, and for ever, that Jesus Christ was not begotten by the Holy Ghost. I will repeat a little anecdote. I was in conversation with a certain learned professor upon this subject, when I replied, to this idea -- "if the Son was begotten by the Holy Ghost, it would be very dangerous to baptize and confirm females, and give the Holy Ghost to them, lest he should beget children, to be palmed upon the Elders by the people, bringing the Elders into great difficulties. Treasure up these things in your hearts. In the Bible, you have read the things I have told you tonight; but you have not known what you did read. I have told you no more than you are conversant with; but what do the people in Christendom, with the Bible in their hands, know about this subject? Comparatively nothing. (JD 1:50-51, italics and CAPITALS in the original) Now, some have suggested that President Young didn't mean what he said, or that he was misquoted. As you will see, such is not the case. Firstly, Brigham qualified the subject of his sermon as something which: ... has remained a mystery in this kingdom up to this day. (Ibid.)

By this declaration we know that Brigham was about to reveal that which was heretofore unknown by the Saints, "a mystery in this kingdom up to this day." So, we can expect whatever follows to be previously unknown "in this kingdom," and we can expect it to clarify that which was once mysterious to the Saints. Brigham further clarified that what he was about to reveal: ... is in regard to the character of the well-beloved Son of God .... Our God and Father in heaven,...and the rest of the sons and daughters of Adam and Eve..., (JD 1:50) and their relationship to one another. Brigham explains: [18] The question has been, and is often, asked, who it was that begat the Son of the Virgin Mary ... I will tell you how it is. (JD 1:50) Brigham then starts at the beginning and teaches of the spiritual creation: Our Father in Heaven begat all the spirits that ever were, or ever will be, upon this earth; and they were born spirits in the eternal world. (JD 1:50) Now Brigham begins to unveil what he had earlier termed a "mystery:" Then the Lord by His power and wisdom organized the mortal tabernacle of man. We were made first spiritual, and afterwards temporal. Now hear it, O inhabitants of the earth, Jew and Gentile, Saint and sinner! When our father Adam came into the garden of Eden, he came into it with a celestial body, and brought Eve, one of his wives, with him. (JD 1:50) Wait just a minute, you say! If Adam came into the garden with a celestial body and brought one of his wives with him, then he would have been a resurrected being. You are absolutely correct if you made this connection. We are told that if we are faithful, our bodies will be resurrected to a celestial body: These are they whose bodies are celestial, whose glory is that of the sun, even the glory of God, the highest of all, whose glory the sun of the firmament is written of as being typical. (D&C: 76:70) We know from modern revelation that there is only one kind of being that can satisfy Brigham's description of Father Adam, one who has been resurrected and exalted: And again, verily I say unto you, if a man marry a wife by my word, which is my law, and by the new and everlasting covenant, and it is sealed unto them by the Holy Spirit of promise, by him who is anointed, unto whom I have appointed this power and the keys of this priesthood; and it shall be said unto them -- Ye shall come forth in the first resurrection; and if it be after the first resurrection, in the next resurrection; and shall inherit thrones, kingdoms,

principalities, and powers, dominions, all heights and depths -- then shall it be written in the Lamb's Book of Life, that he shall commit no murder whereby to shed innocent blood, and if ye abide in my covenant, and commit no murder whereby to shed innocent blood, it shall be done unto them in all things whatsoever my servant hath put upon them, in time, and through all eternity; and shall be of full force when they are out of the world; and they shall pass by the angels, and the gods, which are set there, to their exaltation and glory in all things, as hath been sealed upon their heads, which glory shall be a fulness and a continuation of the seeds forever and ever. (D&C 132:19) This promise of "a continuation of the seeds forever and ever," or the promise of eternal increase and exaltation to the celestial glory is made only to those who have faithfully fulfilled their mortal estate: [19] Then shall they be gods, because they have no end; therefore shall they be from everlasting to everlasting, because they continue; then shall they be above all, because all things are subject unto them. Then shall they be gods, because they have all power, and the angels are subject unto them. (D&C 132:20; see also D&C 132:28-39) Joseph revealed the kind of beings who are able to have "increase" in the worlds to come: In the celestial glory there are three heavens or degrees; and in order to obtain the highest, a man must enter into this order of the priesthood [meaning the new and everlasting covenant of marriage]; and if he does not, he cannot obtain it. He may enter into the other, but that is the end of his kingdom: he cannot have an increase. (HC 5:392; D&C 131:1-4) Since it is Brigham Young who said that Adam and Eve came into the garden of Eden with celestial bodies, it is only appropriate that we allow Brigham Young to define what he believes a "celestial body" to be: Mankind is composed of two distinct elements; the first is a spiritual organization in eternity, the second is a natural organization on this earth, formed out of the material of which this earth is composed. Man is first spiritual, then temporal. As it is written in the revelations of God to man, all things were first created spiritual, and secondly temporal. That is, spirits were begotten, born and educated in the celestial world, and were brought forth by celestial bodies. (JD 18:257-258) After Brigham has declared the celestial and resurrected nature of Adam, he then declares the distinctive majesty of Father Adam: He helped to make and organize this world. He is MICHAEL, the Archangel, the ANCIENT OF DAYS! about whom holy men have written and spoken-- (JD 1:50) Now, to those who still do not recognize the attributes of Adam,

nor His exalted relationship to mankind, the Prophet tells it in as plain English as he can: HE is our FATHER and our GOD, and the only God with whom WE have to do. (JD 1:50) Now, let us also restate Brigham's teachings concerning that being who fathered Jesus Christ in the flesh: When the Virgin Mary conceived the child Jesus, the Father had begotten him in his own likeness. He was not begotten by the Holy Ghost. And who is the Father? He is the first of the human family; and when he took a tabernacle, it was begotten by his Father in heaven... (JD 1:50) The teaching that Adam is the "first man" is clearly established in the scriptures (... The first man Adam..." 1 Cor. 15:45). The first man, or "first of the human family," as Brigham describes him, is Adam. Brigham here identifies Adam as the father who begat Jesus Christ in the flesh. The Prophet goes one step beyond to clarify that Adam "was begotten by his Father in heaven." Brigham chose to emphasize "his Father" to teach that Adam's [20] Father is not our Father. This would make Adam's Father our Grandfather, since Brigham clearly taught that Adam is our Father. Brigham did not believe these things to be mere speculation, nor were they to be trifled with. He declared them to be "doctrines" which would affect our eternal lives: Now, let all who may hear these doctrines, pause before they make light of them, or treat them with indifference, for they will prove their salvation or damnation. (JD 1:51) More About This? Brigham was only too aware of the unbelief of the Latter-day Saints. If the Spirit would have allowed, Brigham would have revealed even more concerning the doctrine. Said he: I could tell you much more about this; but were I to tell you the whole truth, blasphemy would be nothing to it, in the estimation of the superstitious and overrighteous of mankind. However, I have told you the truth as far as I have gone. (JD 1:51) And a little further on in his discourse, Brigham also mentioned that he had only revealed the tip of the iceberg, as it were: I have given you a few leading items upon this subject, but a great deal more remains to be told. (JD 1:51) How sad it is that we mortals, especially we mortals who profess a belief in the Lord's Prophet, are so very reluctant to accept the truths of God when our own prophet is the one who brings them to us! In The Mouths Of Two Or Three Witnesses Wouldn't it stand to reason that if Brigham really did teach the

Adam-God doctrine, that others who were present that night would have recorded as much? Certainly, this evidence would erase all doubt as to whether or not the Prophet Brigham was reported correctly. If only we could find recorded accounts of what Brigham taught that Priesthood body, on that April night in 1852, in the personal journals of brethren who were present. The Lord has given us a promise that he would provide witnesses to establish His truths: [21] ... and in the mouth of two or three witnesses shall every word be established. (D&C 6:28) The Lord, true to his promise, impressed a number of brethren, present at the Priesthood Session, to record the teachings of President Young that night in their journals. Wilford Woodruff was one of those who did so. Wilford Woodruff was perhaps the most faithful record keeper in the early Church. Of this, Truman G. Madsen has written: Wilford Woodruff is the man who wrote in a journal almost every day for sixty-three years, thereby producing perhaps the most important single historical treasure we have in the Church. Why did he keep the journal? Because the Prophet admonished him to. By my estimate, more than two-thirds of what we have of firsthand records of Joseph Smith's discourses and counsels to his brethren would have been lost had it not been for Wilford Woodruff's makeshift shorthand and then staying awake, often till past midnight, transcribing his notes into readable English. (Joseph Smith the Prophet, p.99) Of the discourse in question, Wilford Woodruff recorded the statements of Brigham Young in his journal as follows: Who begat the Son of God? Infidels say that Jesus was a bastard, but let me tell you the truth concerning that matter. Our Father begat all the spirits that were, before any tabernacles were made. When our Father came into the garden, He came with His celestial body and brought one of His wives with Him and ate of the fruit of the garden until He could beget a [mortal] tabernacle, and Adam is Michael or God and all the God that we have anything to do with. They eat of this fruit and formed the first tabernacle that was formed. And when the Virgin Mary was begotten with child, it was by the Father and in no other way, in no other way, only as we were begotten. I will tell you the truth as it is in God. The world don't know that Jesus Christ our elder brother was begotten by our Father in Heaven. Handle it as you please, it will either seal the damnation or salvation of man. He was begotten by the Father and not by the Holy Ghost. (Wilford Woodruff Journal, April 9, 1852) Wilford Woodruff only confirms everything we have already read in the George D. Watt report. Hosea Stout was another of the Elders present who recorded the meeting. His account was much more brief, but consistent all the same: Friday 9th April 1852. Stormy morning. Attended conference. House much crowded, did not stay in the house long.

Afternoon was not in because of the crowd. Another meeting this evening. President Brigham Young taught that Adam was the father of Jesus and the only God to us. That he came to this world in a resurrected body and etc. more hereafter. (Hosea Stout Journal, volume 2, p. 436, April 9, 1852) Samuel Holister Rogers was also there and recorded in his journal the following: April 16, 1852, Conference commenced on the 6 and continued until the 11, it was held in the new tabernacle, adjourned until the 6 of next October. We had the best Conference that I ever attended. During the time of the Conference, President Brigham Young said that our spirits were begotten before that Adam came to the Earth, and that Adam helped to make the Earth, that he had a Celestial body when he came to the Earth, and that he brought his wife or one of his wives with him, and that Eve was also a Celestial being, that they eat of the fruit of the ground until they begat children from the Earth. [22] He said that Adam was the only God that we would have, and that Christ was not begotten of the Holy Ghost, but of the Father Adam. that Christ, was our elder brother. (Samuel Holister Rogers Journal, volume 1, p. 179, April 16, 1852) Lorenzo Brown recorded: Meeting at 9 A.M. All male members met at 6 P.M. House full. President Young preached some new doctrine respecting Adam etc. Excellent discourse I thought. (Lorenzo Brown Journal, April 10, 1852, Church Archives) The Day After The next session of this General Conference of the Church was Saturday, the following morning, at 10:00, April 10, 1852. Conference opened as usual -- Prayer by Wilford Woodruff, President Heber C. Kimball called for Professor Albert Carrington, but made the following remarks: You have learned enough to know that the Spirit of God will be grieved at any folly manifest in the House of God. Angels are ministering spirits to those who are Heirs of Salvation, but when you do wrong the angels of the Lord will leave, and the angels of the Devil will take their place and keep their company. Then you are on dangerous ground and if you will not hear the prophets that God sends unto you, you would not hear the angels of God. Some have said that I was very presumptuous to say that Brother Brigham was my god and savior -- Brother Joseph was his god -- the one that gave Joseph the Keys of the Kingdom was his god, which was Peter. Jesus Christ was his god and the God and Father of Jesus Christ was Adam. (Deseret News 2:46, #12, April 17, 1852; Wilford Woodruff Journal 4:130-133)

Now we can add Heber C. Kimball's name to the list of prophets and apostles who believed and taught the Adam-God doctrine. Later in the book, we shall see that Heber taught this truth until his death, June 22, 1868. Origin Of The Doctrine? At this point one is inclined to ask whether or not Brigham's revelation to the Church was truly what comprises the genesis of the Adam-God doctrine. Next, we will see that Brigham had learned this truth from Joseph, and it had been confirmed to him by God. It is clear that we need no more commentary upon this discourse to show that President Young taught that Adam is Heavenly Father. We shall see that there is much more which was taught and believed by the early Latter-day Saints. [23] We believe all that God has revealed, all that He does now reveal, and we believe that He will yet reveal many great and important things pertaining to the Kingdom of God. Joseph Smith, 9th Article of Faith A Careful History Why Discredit Mormon History? There has been in this century the temptation to dismiss large parts of Mormon history as unreliable. This mentality has relegated the teachings of 50 years of Mormon Prophets to the realms of mythology and fiction. Ironically, it is not a question of accurate recordkeeping, but a disagreement with the doctrines taught by those prophets. Primarily, it is Brigham Young whose integrity as a prophet of God has been disputed. Why is this being done and who is behind it? The Prophet Brigham's doctrinal teaching that Adam is our Heavenly Father is at the heart of this calculating, and it is the unbelief of the Latter-day Saints which has taken Brigham from his calling as Prophet of God, and demoted him to a bungling fool. Simply stated, today we are led to believe that Brigham was misquoted, or only expressing his opinion, and we are taught that the Adam-God doctrine is false. However, a more careful consideration of history reveals that it was Joseph Smith, not Brigham Young, who unveiled the Adam-God doctrine. Brigham was merely being faithful to that which was given him through Joseph. [24] The Force Of Reason It is untenable, unthinkable, to believe that prophets of God, at any time during this dispensation, would allow their words to 3

be recorded by their personal scribes, published in Church-owned and Church-controlled literature, and sent out to the world without first verifying their accuracy, especially when published under the direction of the First Presidency of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Are we to believe that the discourses and sermons of the prophets during the early Utah period were recklessly compiled and published, and thus corrupted to the extent that these writings, as preserved and handed down, cannot be trusted? To believe that such is the case would be to call into question the entire record of The Restoration. We accept free from error the published works of Joseph Smith. We would never believe that Joseph did not choose, review, edit, and modify his published words before allowing them to go forth to the world. It is offensive to a disciple of The Restoration to be taught anything contrary to this. The Journal of Discourses were published for the specific intent of disseminating the teachings of the prophets to the Saints abroad. In 1850, there were actually more members of the Church in Britain than there were in North America. An estimated 11,380 Church members were living in Utah and another 15,531 in other locations in North America. At the same time there were 30,747 members in the British Mission (see Truth Will Prevail, p. 202). It goes without saying that the Brethren went to great lengths and felt a great need to ensure that true doctrine and teachings reached these sheep. The force of reason will not allow us to believe that our prophets had neglected their sacred duty to propagate only that which is true. Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Wilford Woodruff, John Taylor, George Q. Cannon, Orson Pratt, Franklin D. Richards and many others had the Journal of Discourses in their libraries, and is it not odd that at no time in any public or written discourse, and not in any personal journal of those leaders of the Church, is it ever reported by them that they were misquoted or paraphrased inaccurately in the Journal of Discourses? Of course it is not odd to us! These Brethren reviewed and corrected all of their printed discourses, as any member in a position of influence would. In fact, we have recorded testimony, by those who are therein recorded, that their sermons and discourses were published correctly! The historic discourse of April 9, 1852 (discussed in chapter 2) was published in the Journal of Discourses, under the supervision of Brigham Young, and was republished in the Millennial Star on November 26, 1853, over eighteen months later. This gave President Young sufficient time to correct any errors in reporting. Who of us would be foolish enough to believe that Brigham Young, who lived 25 years after he first revealed the Adam-God doctrine, would have allowed the Journal of Discourses to continue to be published, under his direction, without correcting any errors recorded in his sermons and [25] discourses, especially doctrinal errors of this magnitude. False Doctrines Corrected Today some people may speculate that corrections just did not happen in those days, for whatever reason. Such is not the case. In two works published by Orson Pratt, he advanced "incorrect and unsound doctrines" concerning the nature of God and the

"Great First Cause." These were published in the "Life of Joseph Smith, by Lucy Smith," and in the "Seer." The First Presidency and Quorum of Twelve corrected Orson's false teachings with a public reprimand published in the Millennial Star, vol. 27, pp. 657-63, dated October 21, 1865. Their purpose in publishing the criticisms of their fellow Apostle is given as follows: We do not wish incorrect and unsound doctrines to be handed down to posterity under the sanction of great names, to be received and valued by future generations as authentic and reliable, creating labor and difficulties for our successors to perform and contend with, which we ought not to transmit to them. The interests of posterity are, to a certain extent in our hands. Errors in history and in doctrine, if left uncorrected by us who are conversant with the events, and who are in a position to judge of the truth or falsity of the doctrines, would go to our children as though we had sanctioned and endorsed them. Such a construction could be put upon our silence respecting them, and would tend to perplex and mislead posterity, and make the labor of correction an exceedingly difficult one for them. We know what sanctity there is always attached to the writing of men who have passed away, especially to the writings of Apostles, when none of their contemporaries are left, and we, therefore, feel the necessity of being watchful upon these points. Personal feelings and friendships and associations ought to sink into comparative insignificance, and have no weight in view of consequences so momentous to the people and kingdom of God as these. (Millennial Star 27:659) Since the First Presidency and Quorum of Twelve felt it necessary to publicly reprove Orson Pratt for disseminating false doctrine, how much more important would it be to them that the doctrinal teachings of the Prophet of God be in strict harmony with The Restoration of the Gospel of Jesus Christ? It has always been the duty of those who hold the Priesthood of God to ensure that heresy doesn't creep into the beliefs of the Church. It is the obligation of the Priesthood to make sure that no doctrine go unchallenged which would cause the Saints to go astray. It is easy for us to see that these were indeed the intentions and actions of Brigham's Presidency and the Twelve. Obviously, this was not a Priesthood administration inclined to speculate about such things as Adam-God over the pulpit or anywhere else, for that matter. Only that which was known to be true would be promulgated by Brigham's administration. And if President Young's words had been misquoted in such a way as to mislead the Saints, steps would have been taken to correct the error. In such a situation, one would expect the same public correction as that which reprimanded Orson Pratt for disseminating false doctrine. And, if Adam-God had been [26] a misquote, then it stands to reason that the Prophet Brigham would have been very careful not to make any ambiguous statements upon the subject, but would have clearly corrected any misconceptions caused by the publication in error. But in no place in all the literature of the Church published subsequent to Brigham's discourse on Adam-God is there any refutation or correction of the doctrine. In fact, there are literally hundreds of statements from Brigham and his contemporaries elaborating upon and validating the doctrine which has come to

be called Adam-God. The Journal Of Discourses Carefully Edited The Journal of Discourses were more than just sermons and discourses that were recorded correctly; they were that part of the sermons and discourses which the prophet wanted published. In evidence of this fact, Brigham Young, in closing the account of his November 2, 1856 discourse, recorded the following in the Deseret News dated November 12, 1856: The above is all of the remarks made at that time, that I deem proper to print at present. B.Y. Obviously, the President felt that some of the remarks made in his November 2, 1856 discourse were not "proper to print." When the same discourse was later printed in the Journal of Discourses (4:66-70), it appeared without the editing footnote which President Young had printed in the Deseret News to explain why he edited his talk. This clearly shows how carefully sermons and discourses were edited before publication. Brigham was well aware that the words recorded in the Journal of Discourses were available to and had by the world. As Prophet of God's Church, he was careful to allow only that which was true and appropriate to be published therein. Speaking of his care not to reveal too much to the Saints, and the world, because of their weakness in understanding, Brigham said: Brother Heber says that the music is taken out of his sermons when Brother Carrington clips out words here and there; and I have taken out the music from mine, for I know the traditions and false notions of the people. Our sermons are read by tens of thousands outside of Utah. Members of the British Parliament have those Journals of Discourses, published by Brother Watt; they have them locked up, they secrete them, and go to their rooms and study them, and they know all about us. They may, perhaps, keep them from the Queen, for fear that she would believe and be converted. I know that I have seen the day when, let men use language like Brother Heber has today, and many would apostatize from the true faith. In printing my remarks, I often omit the sharp words, though they are perfectly understood and applicable here; for I do not wish to spoil the good I desire to do. Let my remarks go to the world in a way the prejudices of the people can bear, that they may read them, and ponder them, and ask God whether they are true. (JD 5:99-100) [27] President Wilford Woodruff has left his testimony certifying the fact that the discourses found in the Journal of Discourses "are considered correct:" I have read the sermons Brigham Young published in the Journal of Discourses -- some of them -- they are in my library, and I presume are considered correct as published. They are published by the church of which I am President.

They are correct in so far as every man had a chance to correct his own discourses, or should do so if he has a chance. Sermons reported by G. D. Watt, one of the official reporters, were considered reported correctly, and when they are found in the Journal of Discourses, they are considered correct. Some of my own sermons are published there, and they are correct. (Complainant's Abstract of Pleading and Evidence, Temple Lot Case, p. 309) Wilford Woodruff was a contemporary of Joseph Smith. He was a contemporary of Brigham Young. He was a contemporary with George D. Watt during the twenty year period in which Brother Watt reported and published the Journal of Discourses. Wilford Woodruff knew better than anybody the credibility of the Journal of Discourses. President Woodruff testified: Sermons reported by G. D. Watt, one of the official reporters, were considered reported correctly, and when they are found in the Journal of Discourses, they are considered correct. (Ibid.) Can any other human witness be more qualified to testify as to the credibility of the Journal of Discourses than Wilford Woodruff? Obviously, President Woodruff's is the last word. Of course, it is the historic Discourse of April 9, 1852, already examined in chapter two, which is responsible for most of the criticism levied against the Journal of Discourses. The correctness of that discourse was validated by Elder Samuel W. Richards, the editor of the Millennial Star: OUR FATHER ADAM. -- The extract from the Journal of Discourses (J.D. 1:50, 51) may startle some of our readers, but we would wish them to recollect that in this last dispensation God will send forth, by His servants, things new as well as old, until man is perfected in the truth. (Millennial Star 15:780) Further evidence that Brigham Young's utterances were faithfully and fully preserved, comes from John A. Widtsoe. In the preface to the book, Discourses of Brigham Young, Elder Widtsoe declares: This book [Discourses of Brigham Young] was made possible because Brigham Young secured stenographic reports of his addresses. As he traveled among the people, reporters accompanied him. All that he said was recorded. Practically all of these discourses (from December 16, 1851 to August 19, 1877) were published in the Journal of Discourses, which was widely distributed. The public utterances of few great historical figures have been so faithfully and fully preserved. (Discourses of Brigham Young, p. vi) Rodney Turner, Brigham Young University professor of religion, has said concerning the [28] faithfulness of the recording of Brigham's remarks: Was Brigham Young misquoted? It is the writer's opinion that the answer to this question is a categorical no. There is not the slightest evidence from Brigham Young, or any

other source, that either his original remarks on April 9, 1852, or any of his subsequent statements were ever misquoted in the official publications of the Church. (The Position of Adam in Latter-day Saint Scripture and Theology, p. 45) "There is not the slightest evidence from Brigham Young, or any other source, that either his original remarks on April 9, 1852, or any of his subsequent statements were ever misquoted in the official publications of the Church!" This author must agree with Brother Turner. Why? I must agree with his assessment because it is the truth, plain and simple. The Journal Of Discourses: "standard works of the Church" The Journal of Discourses was published under the direction of the First Presidency of the Church. George Q. Cannon edited and published volume eight of the Journal of Discourses, and in the Preface to this volume, printed: The Journal of Discourses deservedly ranks as one of the standard works of the Church, and every right minded Saint will certainly welcome with joy every Number as it comes forth from the press as an additional reflector of "the light that shines from Zion's hill." (JD 8:Preface) Of course, our willingness to accept the Journal of Discourses as "standard works of the Church" is dependent upon whether we accept the content of the Journals. Like The Book of Mormon, and Doctrine and Covenants, if we are offended by what is contained therein, then we will likely reject them as being true. It appears to be a simple matter before us: we have the testimony of the prophets and Apostles of God whose words are published in the Journal of Discourses that their statements published therein "deservedly rank...as...standard works of the Church," and that their sermons were "faithfully and fully preserved," and "when they are found in the Journal of Discourses, they are considered correct." Now, we have the testimony of the prophets and Apostles, and we have our free agency. The rest is up to us. It has been claimed by some that, Brigham Young had, on numerous occasions, taught that which contradicted the Adam-God doctrine. They use this pretext to attempt to show that Brigham Young could not possibly have taught that Adam is our God. In other words, they think that if they can show that Brigham, on other occasions, taught doctrine which could not possibly allow Adam to be Heavenly Father, then they would have discredited the quotation attributed to Brigham in that Priesthood Session of General Conference on April 9, 1852. Unfortunately for them, this claim is without merit. Later in the book we shall [29] investigate why critics believe Brigham contradicted the Adam-God doctrine. We shall also see that Brigham taught the Adam-God doctrine throughout his 30-years as Prophet of God, and so did most of his contemporaries. Joseph Smith: an Elias Joseph's calling as prophet of God cannot be over-emphasized. He was the instrument through whom God restored the Gospel of Jesus Christ to the earth in these latter days. The Lord designated

Joseph as a revelator who alone would reveal god's word to this generation: But this generation shall have my word through you. (D&C 5:10) And, indeed, it is to Joseph Smith that Brigham attributes the doctrine that Adam is Heavenly Father: Is there in the heaven of heavens a leader? Yes, and we cannot do without one and that being the case, whoever [t]his is may be called God. Joseph said that Adam was our Father and God. (Brigham Young, May 14, 1876, Journal History, Church Archives) On another occasion, President Young taught that it was Joseph, not himself, who revealed that Adam is our God and Father. Adam is Michael the Archangel and he is the Father of Jesus Christ and is our God and Joseph taught this principle. (Brigham Young, December 16, 1867, Wilford Woodruff Journal) Before Joseph Smith came on the scene, the Bible was about the extent of what was left of Christ's Church upon the earth. Mankind had no prophets, nor was there any communication from God since the time of Christ's Apostles. Thus, men had to rely upon the Bible for their understanding of God and the Gospel. Joseph Smith was the first man in modern history to teach that Adam was Michael, the Archangel, the Ancient of Days. Protestant scholars for centuries have recognized that the Ancient of Days is the name of God. This recognition is based upon Daniel's vision (Daniel chapter 7) in which he was shown the supreme authority of the Ancient of Days. One Christian writer has recently said: In vision Daniel witnessed the enactment of a drama of magnificent splendor as the mighty God, to whom the title of the Ancient of Days is given, presents to His Son, Jesus Christ, a kingdom so that all people, nations and languages may serve Him. "The Ancient of Days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head was like the pure wool: his throne was like the fiery flame, and his wheels like the burning fire." (Dan. 7:9) [30] Continuing to recount the happenings of the awe-inspiring scene he saw, the prophet speaks of the thousand times ten thousands who minister unto Him -- the heavenly hosts who do His bidding. He then sees the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven and presenting Himself before the Ancient of Days to receive His Kingdom: "And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all nations, and languages, shall serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed." (Dan. 7:14) The Ancient of Days is now taking His seat in judgement and aspects of His wrath are beginning to manifest themselves

on the earth. Soon His Son Jesus Christ will return in the clouds of heaven and in righteousness He will judge and make war against all evil. (Destiny Magazine, Dec. 1953, vol. 24 #12) So, it is a Christian tradition that the Ancient of Days (whom Joseph said was Adam or Michael), is God, the Father of Jesus Christ. If we look in any dictionary under the "Ancient of Days," we find such definitions as: Ancient of Days. The Deity; -- a Biblical title. (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1916) Ancient of Days, the Supreme Being; God. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1975) Let us now quote Daniel's vision and then see what Joseph had to say about Daniel's vision of Deity: I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool: his throne was like the fiery flame, and his wheels as burning fire. A fiery stream issued and came forth from before him: thousand thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him: the judgment was set, and the books were opened. I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him. And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed. (Daniel 7:9,10,13,14) Joseph Smith explains Daniel's vision: Daniel in his seventh chapter speaks of the Ancient of Days; he means the oldest man, our Father Adam, Michael, he will call his children together and hold a council with them to prepare them for the coming of the Son of Man. He (Adam) is the father of the human family, and presides over the spirits of all men, and all that have had the keys must stand before him in this grand council. This may take place before some of us leave this stage of action. The Son of Man stands before him, and there is given him glory and dominion. Adam delivers up his stewardship to Christ, that which was delivered to him as holding the keys of the universe, but retains his standing as head of the human family. (HC 3:386-387) [31] So Joseph informs us that "Adam presides over the spirits of all men." Not only does He preside over us, but it is Adam whom the Son of Man will stand before to be given his "glory and dominion." Now, we ask who it is that Christ will receive all

things from. Jesus has said that: All that the Father giveth me shall come to me... (John 6:37) And in another place he has said: The Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things into his hand. (John 3:35) Joseph then, is describing this very event: Adam delivers up his stewardship to Christ, that which was delivered to him as holding the keys of the universe, but [Adam] retains his standing as head of the human family. (HC 3:387) Joseph further explains Adam's exalted relationship to us: Our Savior speaks of children and says, Their angels always stand before my Father. The Father called all spirits before him at the creation of man, and organized them. He (Adam) is the head, and was told to multiply. The keys were first given to him, and by him to others .... The keys have to be brought from heaven whenever the Gospel is sent. When they are revealed from heaven, it is by Adam's authority. (HC 3:387, 386) Joseph leaves little doubt as to what he meant. Says he: "The Father called all spirits before him at the creation of man, and organized them. He is the head, and was told to multiply." And just in case we miss this connection of the Father being told to multiply, Joseph purposely inserted Adam in parentheses, identifying "He," the "Father," as Adam. B.H. Roberts, Assistant Church Historian and compiler of the Documentary History of the Church (HC), explains: It is generally supposed that Brigham Young was the author of the doctrine which places Adam as the patriarchal head of the human race, and ascribes to him the dignity of future presidency over this earth and its inhabitants, when the work of redemption shall have been completed. Those who read the Prophet's treatise on the Priesthood in the text above will have their opinions corrected upon this subject; for clearly it is the word of the Lord through the prophet Joseph Smith which establishes that doctrine. The utterances of President Brigham Young but repeat and expound the doctrine which the Prophet here sets forth. (HC 3:388) Now, we can add the testimony of Apostle B. H. Roberts to the list of those who knew that Adam-God was a doctrine inseparably connected to The Restoration of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, accomplished through Joseph Smith. [32] Joseph also taught that it is through the authority of Adam that Christ is revealed:

Commencing with Adam, who was the first man, who is spoken of in Daniel as being the "Ancient of Days," or in other words, the first and oldest of all, the great, grand progenitor of whom it is said in another place he is Michael, because he was the first and father of all, not only by progeny, but the first to hold the spiritual blessings, to whom was made known the plan of ordinances for the salvation of his posterity unto the end, and to whom Christ was first revealed, and through whom Christ has been revealed from heaven, and will continue to be revealed from henceforth. Adam holds the keys of the dispensation of the fullness of times; i.e., the dispensation of all the times have been and will be revealed through him from the beginning to Christ, and from Christ to the end of all the dispensations that are to be revealed. "Having made known unto us the mystery of His will, according to his good pleasure which He hath purposed in Himself: that in the dispensation of the fullness of times He might gather together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth; even in him." (HC 4:207-208) Not only does Joseph tell us that it is by Adam's authority that Christ has been and will be revealed, but: Adam holds the keys of the dispensation of the fullness of times; i.e., the dispensation of all the times have been and will be revealed through him from the beginning to Christ, and from Christ to the end of all the dispensations that are to be revealed. (Ibid.) Adam holds the keys of this and all other dispensations; it is His authority which dispenses and governs salvation through Christ. Joseph also informs us that Adam is the: ... grand progenitor of whom it is said in another place he is Michael, because he was the first and father of all, not only by progeny, but the first to hold the spiritual blessings... (Ibid.) So according to the Prophet Joseph Smith, Adam is not only the father of all "by progeny, but the first to hold the spiritual blessings" too. Here, Joseph certainly allows room for Brigham's revelation on Adam-God. Now we have something all together different to deal with. It is Joseph who introduced the new doctrine on Adam and Brigham was only being faithful to that with which Joseph had entrusted him. It will be necessary, from this point forward, to consider Joseph as the source of this doctrinal teaching, and to consider the Adam-God doctrine inseparable from the calling of the Prophet Joseph Smith. It is a well-documented fact of Church History that Joseph Smith had a great deal of difficulty trying to teach the Latter-day Saints anything which went against their traditions or preconceptions. We will next look at the difficulty this caused and the resultant subterfuge which the Prophet was forced to adopt, with respect to much of what he was entrusted to restore to the earth in these last days.

[33]

When God offers a blessing or knowledge to a man, and he refuses to receive it, he will be damned. Joseph Smith, HC 5:555

Truth And The First Principle 4 Ignorance Retards The Church We tend to believe that the remarkable experiences which Joseph Smith had were unique to him and somehow beyond our own. But Joseph taught otherwise. He said: God hath not revealed anything to Joseph [calling himself by name], but what He will make known unto the Twelve, and even the least Saint may know all things as fast as he is able to bear them. (HC 3:380) Although Joseph taught and believed this principle with all his being, he nevertheless was aware of the reality of men's unwillingness to learn as he had learned, line upon line. Not only must one be patient, but one must be humble, not puffed up with learning. For, much of what God would reveal in this dispensation was new, never having been known to the inhabitants of this earth. Joseph attributed much of the unbelief of the Saints (and mankind in general) to the false traditions of men: I have tried for a number of years to get the minds of the Saints prepared to receive the things of God; but we frequently see some of them, after suffering all that they have for the work of God, will fly to pieces like glass as soon as anything comes that is contrary to their traditions: they cannot stand the fire at all. How many will be able to abide a celestial law, and go through and receive their exaltation, I am unable to say, as many are called, but few are chosen. (HC 6:185) On numerous occasions Joseph indicated the sensitive nature of the things of God (sensitive [34] in the respect that they often appear offensive to mankind). So sensitive are they, that Joseph said, not a man would stay with him if he were to reveal all that God had revealed to him. Brigham Young once remarked: The Prophet said to me [Brigham Young] about sixteen years ago [at Kirtland], "If I was to show the Latter-day Saints all the revelations that the Lord has shown unto me, there is scarce a man that would stay with me, they could not bear it." (Millennial Star 13:257) Again, the Prophet was only too aware of the Saints' difficulty in grasping the things of God. On one occasion he warned: If the Church knew all the commandments, one-half they would condemn through prejudice and ignorance. (HC 2:477)

In an attempt to rectify this deficiency among the Saints, Joseph would actually go out of his way at times just to offend the false and useless traditions of the people. Said he on one occasion: I do many things to break down superstition. (HC 4:445) Parley P. Pratt recalled the time that Joseph addressed a group in which he and Brigham were present: Brethren, if I were to tell you all I know of the Kingdom of God, I do know that you would rise up and kill me. (Millennial Star 55:585) Parley says that upon hearing this, Brigham arose and said: Don't tell me anything that I can't bear, for I don't want to apostatize. (Ibid.) Five months before his death, Joseph lamented: But there has been a great difficulty in getting anything into the heads of this generation. It has been like splitting hemlock knots with a corn-dodger for a wedge, and a pumpkin for a beetle. Even the Saints are slow to understand. (HC 6:185) Commenting upon the magnitude of this exclamation of the Prophet, Truman G. Madsen says: Now, that's nineteenth century! Hemlock knots are tough. If you had a wedge made of cornmeal like a pancake, and if you tried to drive it in with a pumpkin, you know how well you might do at splitting hemlock knots. That's how effective he felt his teaching sometimes was. And yet the Lord did reveal and unfold line by line the whole plan. "I have the whole plan of the kingdom before me," he said, "and no other person has." (Joseph Smith the Prophet, p. 43) Concerning the effects of ignorance upon the Church, the Prophet Joseph said: [35] But I beg leave to say unto you, brethren, that ignorance, superstition and bigotry placing itself where it ought not, is oftentimes in the way of the prosperity of this Church; like the torrent of rain from the mountains, that floods the most pure and crystal stream with mire, and dirt, and filthiness, and obscures everything that was clear before. (HC 3:296-297) It would doubtless be an understatement to conclude that Joseph was concerned about the future "prosperity of this Church." O, we would exclaim today, The Church is well-off; just look at how much we have prospered since Joseph's day! But this is not the kind of prosperity of which Joseph was concerned. His concern was that the Saints would reject truth, instead choosing to cling to the age-old traditions of Christendom. This will become clearer as we continue to unfold the Adam-God doctrine. Commenting in 1863 about the difficulty Joseph experienced in

revealing truth to the Saints, Heber C. Kimball said: I will also remark that I am sensible that no man can speak to a congregation of people upon any subject, only according to the intelligence that is in the people. There are quite a number of this congregation who knew Joseph Smith the Prophet, and he used to say in Nauvoo that when he came before the people he felt as though he were enclosed in an iron case, his mind was closed by the influences that were thrown around him; he was curtailed in his wishes and desires to do good; there was no room for him to expand, hence he could not make use of the revelations of God as he would have done; there was no room in the hearts of the people to receive the glorious truths of the Gospel that God revealed to him. (JD 10:233-234, June 27, 1863) Too Wise To Be Taught One truth which must be recognized before one can hope to learn the things of God is that sincerity of belief in no way establishes the correctness of that belief. Truth, absolute truth, exists in that sphere where the opinions of mankind are powerless to change it. However, this inability of mankind to change truth to fit their notions has not stopped them from trying. In fact, theories are proposed for this very reason: so that man can explain the phenomena associated with his existence in a way which is agreeable with his notions. Many men will exhaust themselves in learning the mysteries of our existence. And if they do so without the benefit of the Spirit of God, which is the source of all truth, then they are deserving of the observation by Paul, in which he said they are: Ever learning, and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth. (2 Timothy 3:7) Paul was very much aware of the power of philosophy to cause men to insist upon making the gospel conform to the devices of logic: [36] Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the rudiments of the world, and not after Christ. (Colossians 2:8) Paul compares philosophy and the traditions of men to worthless deceit and the rudiments of the world, when it comes to comprehending God. The word rudiment implies an infantile stage, or an incompleteness. In other words, philosophy does not possess the power necessary to discern or interpret the things of God. Philosophy and logic are powerful tools and this author has a fond appreciation toward any discipline which espouses truth and the tools of obtaining such. But these tools, apart from the Spirit, do not possess the capacity to comprehend the things of God. Of course, we who study the scriptures cannot be accused of "ever learning and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth." (2 Tim.3:7) Right? Not necessarily! The Savior taught that it is a weakness of the student of the scriptures to believe that he has the last word of authority in the

scriptures. This belief ignores the source and nature of the scriptures, and especially does it ignore the need for revelation in our pursuit of knowledge. Speaking of those who knew the scriptures, yet rejected him, of whom they testified, Jesus counseled: Search the scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life. (John 5:39) Thus, knowing the scriptures intellectually, they damned themselves by failing to seek inspiration from God. It is a great temptation for all who are students of the scriptures to prove all things from them. But the Savior gives us the sure word upon this subject; if you insist on making the scriptures your authority, or your intermediary with God, then you are misguided, "for in them ye think ye have eternal life." The Prophet Joseph, as we have already seen, was concerned with the ignorance and prejudice of the Saints. He was also concerned with those who were too wise to be taught: There are a great many wise men and women too in our midst who are too wise to be taught; therefore they must die in their ignorance, and in the resurrection they will find their mistake. Many seal up the door of heaven by saying, So far God may reveal and I will believe. (HC 5:424) In other words, people will say, "So far I will believe, but if anything goes contrary to my notions then I will not believe!" [37] Things Never Before Revealed A little known and very misunderstood reality of The Restoration of the Gospel of Jesus Christ is the inseparable fact that in this, the last dispensation, many things would be revealed which have never been had among the children of men. The Lord has made this fact clear: For I deign to reveal unto my church things which have been kept hid from before the foundation of the world, things that pertain to the dispensation of the fulness of times. (D&C 124:41) At first reading this we may not understand the full implication. If, as the Lord says, He will reveal unto His Church "..things which have been kept hid from before the foundation of the world," then the canon of scripture must be silent concerning these things. After all, these things which are to be revealed have been kept hid from before the foundation of the world. Joseph reaffirmed the truth of this principle many times. On one occasion he said: There are many things which belong to the powers of the Priesthood and the keys thereof, that have been kept hid from before the foundation of the world; they are hid from the wise and prudent to be revealed in the last times. (HC 4:209-210)

While in Liberty jail, March 20, 1839, Joseph proclaimed that the knowledge he possessed would be revealed to the faithful: God shall give unto you knowledge by his Holy Spirit, yea, by the unspeakable gift of the Holy Ghost, that has not been revealed since the world was until now; Which our forefathers have awaited with anxious expectation to be revealed in the last times, which their minds were pointed to by the angels, as held in reserve for the fulness of their glory; A time to come in the which nothing shall be withheld, whether there be one God or many gods, they shall be manifest. (D&C 121:26-28) Elder Franklin D. Richards, a member of the quorum of Twelve, and Church Historian, understood well this principle of The Restoration and its application to the Adam-God doctrine: Concerning the item of doctrine alluded to by Elder Caffall and others, viz., that Adam is our Father and God, I have to say do not trouble yourselves, neither let the Saints be troubled about the matter. The Lord has told us in a revelation which he gave through the Prophet Joseph, January 19, 1841 -- I deign to reveal unto my Church things which have been kept hid from before the foundation of the world, things that pertain to the dispensation of the fulness of times." (D&C Sec. 124:41) I would like to know where you will find Scripture to prove those things by, which have never before been revealed. Some seem to feel it their bounden duty to prove everything which belongs to our faith from the Bible, but I do not, and I will excuse you from all obligation to prove this from the old Scriptures, for you cannot, if you try. You may bring much collateral evidence from the Bible and other revelations that [38] will dissipate objections, and serve to strengthen the position, but to directly and substantially prove it, as the world require, and as we can do the first principles, it will puzzle you to do it, and from henceforth we may expect more and more of the word of the Lord giving us instructions which are nowhere written in the old Scriptures. If we feel ourselves, or teach the Saints or the people generally, that we are only to believe that which can be proved from the Scripture, we shall never know much of the Lord ourselves, nor be able to teach the children of men to any very considerable extent. If, as Elder Caffall remarked, there are those who are waiting at the door of the Church for this objection to be removed, tell such, the Prophet and Apostle Brigham has declared it, and that it is the word of the Lord. That is vastly stronger proof than Christendom can give for much that they profess to believe. Tell the Saints that if this stone does not seem to fit into the great building of their faith just now, to roll it aside. You can help them to roll it aside out of their way, so that they will not stumble against it while at their daily duties, and it will be but a very short time till they will find a place in their building where no other stone will fit, then it will be on hand all right, and will come into its place in the building without

the sound of hammer or chisel. (Millennial Star 16:534-535) Ironically, most of the learned Saints whom I have encountered in the Church "..feel it their bounden duty to prove everything which belongs to our faith..." from the scriptures. Why do we, as a Church, elevate the canon of scripture above the word of our modern prophet? Clearly, anyone who would question the declarations of the Prophet because his declarations were not scriptural, has misunderstood the gospel plan. As Elder Richards correctly perceived God's ways, "..I will excuse you from all obligation to prove this (Adam-God) from the old Scriptures, for you cannot, if you try." So, it becomes quite clear to us that we cannot expect to prove all the things of God out of the scriptures. In fact, every good Latter-day Saint should know that there is only one source of truth. What is the source? God. How do we get it? Revelation. Joseph informed the early Saints that there was no limit to what God would reveal to us in this dispensation. Joseph also set forth the manner and power by which God would reveal these things: And now, brethren, after your tribulations, if you do these things, and exercise fervent prayer and faith in the sight of God always, [He shall give unto you knowledge by His Holy Spirit, yea by the unspeakable gift of the Holy Ghost, that has not been revealed since the world was until now; which our forefathers have waited with anxious expectation to be revealed in the last times, which their minds were pointed to by the angels, as held in reserve for the fulness of their glory; a time to come in the which nothing shall be withheld, whether there be one God or many Gods, they shall be manifest; all thrones and dominions, principalities and powers, shall be revealed and set forth upon all who have endured valiantly for the Gospel of Jesus Christ...] (HC 3:296) How ironic it is that we belong to the Church of Jesus Christ in these last days, accepting prophets as the Lord's mouthpieces upon the earth, believing that it is the living prophets which set our Church apart from the rest of Christendom, and yet, when a prophet has revealed that which Joseph says: ... has not been revealed since the world was until now.... (Ibid.) [39] we insist on proving the revelation from the scriptures, for in them we think we have eternal life! Why is it that we forget that scripture is the recorded teachings of prophets? Jesus walked among a people who placed great value in the scripture they possessed. Yet, said Jesus, those same people would reject the very prophets they revered, were those prophets to come back from the dead (Luke 16:30-31). When our Prophet declares something to be "true doctrine," shouldn't we first accept it as the word of God, and strive with all our being to understand it through study, fasting, and prayer? If we place the canon of scripture above the calling and authority of Prophet of God, then we'd make good apostates, and

we might as well leave the living Church and go join a dead one! The First Principle The question must be asked, just how important is the Adam-God doctrine? Obviously, the Church has survived without it. But Joseph and Brigham both shared, what appears to us, an unusual amount of concern about who God is and how he came to be God. Joseph, giving preeminence to such knowledge, said: It is the first principle of the gospel to know for a certainty the character of God, and to know that we may converse with Him as one man converses with another. (HC 6:305) In reference to this statement by Joseph, Truman Madsen has observed: That is more than saying it is the first principle to know that God exists. He doesn't use the word existence at all in this context. (Joseph Smith the Prophet, p. 15) No, Joseph said a man must know for a certainty the character of God. This knowledge will prove crucial to each of us as we journey toward eternal life. Said Joseph: A man is saved no faster than he gets knowledge, for if he does not get knowledge, he will be brought into captivity by some evil power in the other world, as evil spirits will have more knowledge, and consequently more power than many men who are on the earth. Hence it needs revelation to assist us, and give us knowledge of the things of God. (HC 4:588) So, at least our salvation will be determined by the degree of knowledge we gain in this world. From the teachings of Joseph Smith we are informed that a knowledge of God's true identity and character is requisite to a meaningful exercise of faith in Him. In the Kirtland School of the Prophets they taught: [40] It was shown that correct ideas of the character of God are necessary in order to exercise faith in him unto life and salvation; and that without correct ideas of his character, men could not have power to exercise faith in him unto life and salvation, but that correct ideas of his character, as far as his character is concerned in the exercise of faith in him, lay a sure foundation for the exercise of it. (Lectures on Faith, Lecture Fourth) Harold B. Lee understood this principle well. He knew that if we did not understand "the personality and the nature of God and his Son," then we would not be numbered among those who would be prepared for the coming of the Lord: Now, I have asked myself, this being the time to prepare for the millennial reign, how shall we set about to prepare a people to receive the coming of the Lord? As I have thought seriously about that matter, I have reached two or three sure conclusions in my own thinking. This preparation demands first that a people, to receive the coming of the

Lord, must be taught the personality and the nature of God and his Son, Jesus Christ. Someone has said this: the demand of our modern age is not "for a God who once was, but for a God who now is." As I read that, I thought, how can one meet a person whose identity is unknown? How can one be prepared to meet a person about whom he has no knowledge? How can one be prepared to meet a being whose personality he cannot comprehend? (Conference Report of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, October 6, 1956, p.61; bold added for emphasis) Well might we ask ourselves, "How can one meet a person whose identity is unknown? How can one be prepared to meet a person about whom he has no knowledge? How can one be prepared to meet a being whose personality he cannot comprehend?" (Ibid.) If we fail to comprehend the nature and character of our God, then we cannot fully comprehend and embrace any other principle of the gospel. For, Joseph said this knowledge was "the first principle." In other words, true knowledge of and about God is requisite to a true understanding of any other principle of the gospel. This prerequisite applies to faith, repentance, and baptism as well. After all, how can one exercise faith in that which one doesn't understand? This is the message of Joseph Smith: you must know who God is and how he came to be God in order to exercise faith in Him. To exercise faith in an unknown God is the religion of the world. When asked by one of the Pharisees, "Master, which is the great commandment in the law?" Jesus said unto him, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind. This is the first and great commandment. And the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets. (Matthew 22:37-40) [41] If the greatest commandment is to "love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind," then how can we possibly expect to fulfill this commandment if we do not know who our God is? How can we "love" a Being we do not know? To express love for an unknown God is the religion of the world! We see why Joseph felt so very strongly "...that correct ideas of the character of God are necessary in order to exercise faith in him unto life and salvation." (Lectures on Faith) Without these "correct ideas," our religion is powerless; our faith is powerless; our love is powerless. Adam-God now shines in a different light. It is knowledge which

we all must eventually assimilate in order to progress. Salvation Through Knowledge Joseph taught the Saints that knowledge is the principle of salvation. Only by acquiring knowledge may we be enabled to return back to our Father in Heaven. This is not to say that knowledge alone is enough. The knowledge of God cannot be learned from books or study alone, although the study of books is a necessary part of learning. We must seek spiritual enlightenment, understanding and insight. Only by the power of God may we discern and comprehend the truthfulness of the many theories and ideas extant. Even though the knowledge of God may be told us, it is only the faithful and diligent who can comprehend such things. On Sunday, May 14, 1843, Joseph delivered a sermon in which he said: It is not wisdom that we should have all knowledge at once presented before us; but that we should have a little at a time; then we can comprehend it... Add to your faith knowledge, &c. The principle of knowledge is the principle of salvation. This principle can be comprehended by the faithful and diligent; and every one that does not obtain knowledge sufficient to be saved will be condemned. The principle of salvation is given us through the knowledge of Jesus Christ. Salvation is nothing more nor less than to triumph over all our enemies and put them under our feet. And when we have power to put all enemies under our feet in this world, and a knowledge to triumph over all evil spirits in the world to come, then we are saved ... (HC 5:387) Was it not Joseph Smith who taught us that knowledge is a means of eternal progress? We attribute such statements as the following to him: [42] It is impossible for a man to be saved in ignorance. (HC 5:392; D&C 131:6) A man is saved no faster than he gets knowledge, for if he does not get knowledge, he will be brought into captivity by some evil power in the other world, as evil spirits will have more knowledge, and consequently more power than many men who are on the earth. Hence it needs revelation to assist us and give us knowledge of the things of God. (HC 4:588) The glory of God is intelligence. (D&C 93:36) Whatever principle of intelligence we attain unto in this life, it will rise with us in the resurrection. (D&C 130:18) If a person gains more knowledge and intelligence in this life through his diligence and obedience than another, he will have so much the advantage in the world to come. (D&C 130:19)

Knowledge saves a man; and in the world of spirits no man can be exalted but by knowledge. (HC 6:314) Knowledge is the power of salvation. (HC 5:403) Learning For Oneself Our fear of learning that which is new is not unusual. We humans develop a sense of security with our familiar environment. To move into a new house, or change jobs, to part with an old relic, to paint our house a different color, etc., all take some getting used to. Some of us even become very uncomfortable with such changes. Our beliefs are even more critical to our state of well-being; for beliefs are personal; they make up who we are and who we have chosen to be. It is people who are happy, or completely satisfied, with what they believe, who are prone not to change their beliefs. But those who are uncertain, those who can admit they don't know all there is to know about their beliefs and dogmas; it is they who are able to learn new truths. It is they who possess humility sufficient to grow and progress in the things of God. Those who know what they believe and have no more to learn will say, "I have my beliefs, leave me alone!" The quality of humility demands that we be open to all that may come our way. To believe we know all there is to know about a subject is to bar further revelation upon the subject. Obviously, a crucial component of a true testimony of God is to know that you still have more to learn about Him. In the Church video, "Man's Search For Happiness," an eternal principle is set forth: Only if you are unafraid of truth, can you find it. (Man's Search For Happiness) Alma has related to us that it is only when we "harden" our hearts that we shut out further light and knowledge from God: [43] And therefore, he that will harden his heart, the same receiveth the lesser portion of the word; and he that will not harden his heart, to him is given the greater portion of the word, until it is given unto him to know the mysteries of God until he know them in full. And they that will harden their hearts, to them is given the lesser portion of the word until they know nothing concerning his mysteries; and then they are taken captive by the devil, and led by his will down to destruction. Now this is what is meant by the chains of hell. (Alma 12:10-11) Most of us will rationalize that, "These things don't apply to me; I will not harden my heart." Joseph believed otherwise; as he said, "many are called, but few are chosen." Speaking of the things of God which were to be revealed, Joseph said: Many men will say, "I will never forsake you, but will stand by you at all times." But the moment you teach them some of the mysteries of the kingdom of God that are retained in the heavens and are to be revealed to the children of men when they are prepared for them they will

be the first to stone you and put you to death. It was this same principle that crucified the Lord Jesus Christ, and will cause the people to kill the prophets in this generation. (HC 5:424) Desire: The Seed Of Truth As all souls who have experienced the conversion process can attest, it is rarely the first time that one hears the truth that it becomes meaningful and understood. The full significance of the doctrine of Adam-God can only be appreciated as one asks Father for further light and knowledge and the Spirit testifies of its truthfulness. Considering the fact that Joseph and Brigham were the source of the Adam-God doctrine in this last dispensation, should we not feel obligated, as disciples of truth, to discern the truthfulness of this teaching? Elder LeGrand R. Curtis, in the Fall 1990 General Conference of the Church, has said: Absolute truth should abide in our homes, and we should sincerely try to answer any question in honesty. Honesty is the companion of truth, and dishonesty of falsehood. We should expect complete honesty from our children as well as from us as parents. (November 1990 Ensign, p.13) Does this principle of truth apply to the doctrines of The Restoration as well? Certainly! Truth belongs to God, and we can only go where He is if we believe His truths. The truth? The truth is that the doctrine which places Adam at the head of this creation was taught and believed by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints for many decades after The Restoration. The truth? Adam really is our Father and God. [44] The State Of Those Who Reject Truth If, as has been the case for many, we have difficulty accepting the word of God as revealed through His servants Joseph and Brigham (and many others as we shall see in the coming chapters), then perhaps we should look into our own hearts, for Nephi has discerned that it is the guilty who: ... taketh the truth to be hard, for it cutteth them to the very center. And now my brethren, if ye were righteous and willing to hearken to the truth, and give heed unto it, that ye might walk uprightly before God, then ye would not murmur because of the truth. (1 Nephi 16:2-3) I know that the words of truth are hard against all uncleanness; but the righteous fear them not, for they love the truth and are not shaken. (2 Nephi 9:40) Implicit in Nephi's words is the transcendent quality which truth possesses to divide the righteous from the wicked. And the price we pay for rejecting the truth is that we shall forfeit even that which we have. Said Nephi: And in fine, wo unto all those who tremble, and are angry because of the truth of God! For behold, he that is built

upon the rock receiveth it with gladness; and he that is built upon a sandy foundation trembleth lest he shall fall. Wo be unto him that shall say: We have received the word of God, and we need no more of the word of God, for we have enough! For behold, thus saith the Lord God: I will give unto the children of men line upon line, precept upon precept, here a little and there a little; and blessed are those who hearken unto my precepts, and lend an ear unto my counsel, for they shall learn wisdom; for unto him that receiveth I will give more; and from them that shall say, We have enough, from them shall be taken away even that which they have. (2 Nephi 28:28-30) Heber C. Kimball taught that if we do not accept truth when it comes to us, then that which we have will be taken away and given "to him that is more worthy and more desirous to improve upon it." It is just profess to in reality principles so with many of the Elders in this Church; they understand the order and government of God, when they have great need to be taught the first of the doctrine of Christ...

The Lord will take from him that hath not that which he seemeth to have, and he will give it to him that is more worthy and more desirous to improve upon it... If you do not listen to the counsel that is given, and get within you the good word of God, drawing wine from the pure fountain, you will soon be in the dark. Then, when a man undertakes to disseminate the truth, you will shut up your ears, and refuse to drink of the waters of life. I can tell you that such a person will not advance in the knowledge of God any more than the limb of a tree will grow after it is severed from the main trunk. (JD 9:40-42) [45] Joseph knew and taught the consequences of rejecting that which comes from God: The moment we revolt at anything which comes from God, the devil takes power. (TPJS, p.181) George Q. Cannon felt that there would be severe consequences for the Latter-day Saints' rebellion at the counsels given them: I feel that if we do not listen to the counsels that are given to us, God has a scourge in store for the Latter-day Saints. (Elder George Q. Cannon, discourse in the Tabernacle, Oct. 7, 1868; also quoted in Church News, Oct. 20, 1990) Alma's Formula Alma was a man of great faith. He understood how to know of the things of God and he blessed us by recording the sure way to know if a thing is of God or not:

Now, as I said concerning faith -- that it was not a perfect knowledge -- even so it is with my words. Ye cannot know of their surety at first, unto perfection, any more than faith is a perfect knowledge. But behold, if ye will awake and arouse your faculties, even to an experiment upon my words, and exercise a particle of faith, yea, even if ye can no more than desire to believe, let this desire work in you, even until ye believe in a manner that ye can give place for a portion of my words. Now, we will compare the word unto a seed. Now, if ye give place, that a seed may be planted in your heart, behold, if it be a true seed, or a good seed, if ye do not cast it out by your unbelief, that ye will resist the Spirit of the Lord, behold, it will begin to swell within your breasts; and when you feel these swelling motions, ye will begin to say within yourselves -- It must needs be that this is a good seed, or that the word is good, for it beginneth to enlarge my soul; yea, it beginneth to enlighten my understanding, yea, it beginneth to be delicious to me. Now behold, would not this increase your faith? I say unto you, Yea; nevertheless it hath not grown up to a perfect knowledge. But behold, as the seed swelleth, and sprouteth, and beginneth to grow, then you must needs say that the seed is good; for behold it swelleth, and sprouteth, and beginneth to grow. And now behold, will not this strengthen your faith? Yea, it will strengthen your faith: for ye will say I know that this is a good seed; for behold it sprouteth and beginneth to grow. And now, behold, are ye sure that this is a good seed? I say unto you, Yea; for every seed bringeth forth unto its own likeness. Therefore, if a seed groweth it is good, but if it groweth not, behold it is not good, therefore it is cast away. [46] And now, behold, because ye have tried the experiment, and planted the seed, and it swelleth and sprouteth, and beginneth to grow, ye must needs know that the seed is good. And now, behold, is your knowledge perfect? Yea, your knowledge is perfect in that thing, and your faith is dormant; and this because ye know, for ye know that the word hath swelled your souls, and ye also know that it hath sprouted up, that your understanding doth begin to be enlightened, and your mind doth begin to expand. O then, is not this real? I say unto you, Yea, because it is light; and whatsoever is light, is good, because it is discernible, therefore ye must know that it is good; and now behold, after ye have tasted this light is your knowledge perfect?

Behold I say unto you, Nay; neither must ye lay aside your faith, for ye have only exercised your faith to plant the seed that ye might try the experiment to know if the seed was good. And behold, as the tree beginneth to grow, us nourish it with great care, that it may it may grow up, and bring forth fruit unto behold, if ye nourish it with much care it and grow up, and bring forth fruit. ye will say: Let get root, that us. And now will get root,

But if ye neglect the tree, and take no thought for its nourishment, behold it will not get any root; and when the heat of the sun cometh and scorcheth it, because it hath no root it withers away, and ye pluck it up and cast it out. Now, this is not because the seed was not good, neither is it because the fruit thereof would not be desirable; but it is because your ground is barren, and ye will not nourish the tree, therefore ye cannot have the fruit thereof. And thus, if ye will not nourish the word, looking forward with an eye of faith to the fruit thereof, ye can never pluck of the fruit of the tree of fife. But if ye will nourish the word, yea, nourish the tree as it beginneth to grow, by your faith with great diligence, and with patience, looking forward to the fruit thereof, it shall take root; and behold it shall be a tree springing up unto everlasting life. And because of your diligence and your faith and your patience with the word in nourishing it, that it may take root in you, behold, by and by ye shall pluck the fruit thereof, which is most precious, which is sweet above all that is sweet, and which is white above all that is white, yea, and pure above all that is pure; and ye shall feast upon this fruit even until ye are filled, that ye hunger not, neither shall ye thirst. Then, my brethren, ye shall reap the rewards of your faith, and your diligence, and patience, and long-suffering, waiting for the tree to bring forth fruit unto you. (Alma 32:26-43) Our Father in Heaven has designed our earth life after an eternal pattern. We are going through the same test and experience which has schooled countless generations of beings such as ourselves before. This veiled existence requires much effort on our part to learn the things of God. Alma has just provided us with the eternal formula for learning of the things of God, or the things which have been veiled from our understanding. Is your desire [47] sufficient to put Adam-God to the test? Are you willing to plant the Adam-God "seed" and nurture it, as is required in order to discern its fruit? Those Who Would Counsel The Lord In our pursuit of happiness, remember that it is only possible to learn of the things of God if we are in communication with Him. If we do not include Father, but instead choose to trust in

our own wisdom, then we are obedient to the will of the evil one: ... for the evil spirit teacheth not a man to pray, but teacheth him that he must not pray. But behold, I say unto you that ye must pray always, and not faint; that ye must not perform any thing unto the Lord save in the first place ye shall pray unto the Father in the name of Christ, that he win consecrate thy performance unto thee, that thy performance may be for the welfare of thy soul. (2 Nephi 32:8-9) Only if we possess humility before God, can we begin to receive inspiration from him. If we read the scriptures, or the teachings of the prophets, and interpret their meanings to conform to our notions, then we have perverted that which God has given us. We should assume nothing in our search for truth and be receptive to an which may be granted unto our understanding. We should let the scriptures teach us their message, not derive messages which will support our theories. The Prophet's Dilemma In 1857 Wilford Woodruff spoke of the knowledge God reveals through His Prophet: I have seen men in the days of Joseph bring up principles, and read, and teach, and advocate theories, when the Prophet would say, "It is not right to do so: they are not true." Those men would still argue, maintain their position, and they would write in defense of their theories when the Prophet condemned them, and they would say, "We have no faith in your theory, nor in the system you present." The very moment a man does that, he crosses the path of the servant of God who is set to lead the way to life and salvation. This is one thing that the Elders should carefully avoid. The fact is, there are a great many things taught in the building up of this kingdom which seem strange to us, being contrary to our traditions, and are calculated to try men. Brother Joseph used a great many methods of testing the integrity of men; and he taught a great many things which, in consequence of tradition, required prayer, faith, and a testimony from the Lord, before they could be believed by many of the Saints. His mind was opened by the visions of the Almighty, and the Lord taught him many things by vision and revelation [48] that were never taught publicly in his days; for the people could not bear the flood of intelligence which God poured into his mind. How was it in that day in reference to many things that were taught and practiced? All was not revealed at once, but the Lord showed the Prophet a principle, and the people acted upon it according to the light which they had. All the perfection and glory of it was not revealed at first; but, as fast as it was revealed, the people endeavored to obey... You will see an advance in a great many things; for the

Lord will open the mind of brother Brigham and lead him into many principles that pertain to the salvation of this people; and we cannot close up our minds and say that we will go so far and no farther. This we cannot do without jeopardizing our standing before God. With regard to crossing the path of any man who may be appointed to lead us, I will say we never should do it; and I do not care what our feelings and views may be upon the subject as far as our traditions and education are concerned. If God has anything to reveal, he will reveal it to that man who stands at the head. Now, here is the quorum of the Twelve Apostles: we cannot bring forth a new revelation for the guidance of this people while the First Presidency are here; for there is no other plan, no other system by which to guide and govern men in this kingdom, only that which has been established by the revelations of God in the order of His church and kingdom; and that is, for the head to lead, counsel, and govern in all dispensations in which the will of God is revealed to man. (JD 5:83-85) Wilford Woodruff here informs us that in Joseph's day men would not humble themselves before the Prophet of God and accept his revelations, but instead, "those men would still argue," insisting that they knew better than the Prophet. And there was only one way to know the things that the Prophet revealed: "he taught a great many things which, in consequence of tradition, required prayer, faith, and a testimony from the Lord, before they could be believed by many of the Saints." Some members of the Church, today, assert their opinion that Joseph never taught things in secret, and that he revealed all doctrines publicly. They will take the Prophet Joseph's words out of context and quote such statements as the following to support their claim: I am bold to declare I have taught all the strong doctrines publicly, and always teach stronger doctrines in public than in private. (HC 6:474) Unfortunately for those who misuse this quote, Joseph was referring to his teaching on the plurality of Gods, and was emphasizing that he had always taught a plurality of Gods. But many of the Saints had not understood Joseph's beliefs on the plurality of Gods until he plainly taught them in the last eleven weeks of his life (we will fully examine these teachings in chapters twelve through fifteen). Wilford Woodruff also discredited this erroneous idea that Joseph withheld nothing: "the Lord taught him many things by vision and revelation that were never taught publicly in his days: for the people could not bear the flood of intelligence which God poured into his mind." And finally, Wilford Woodruff testified that under no condition are we justified in going against the prophet of God: [49] With regard to crossing the path of any man who may be appointed to lead us, I will say we never should do it; and I do not care what our feelings and views may be upon the subject as far as our traditions and education are concerned. If God has anything to reveal, he will reveal it to that man who stands at the head. Now, here is the quorum of the Twelve Apostles: we cannot bring forth a new

revelation for the guidance of this people while the First Presidency are here. (JD 5:85) If God has anything to reveal, he will reveal it to that man who stands at the head! Wilford Woodruff said that not even the Quorum of Twelve can dispute the revelations of the prophet, "for there is no other plan!" Line Upon Line Fundamental to The Restoration of the Gospel of Jesus Christ is the fact that Joseph, the instrument through whom this generation would have God's word, was continually learning, from his first vision until the day of his martyrdom. Joseph did not leave the sacred grove knowing all. Doctrines Joseph taught in the early 1830s underwent a refining and in some cases a redefining. Especially did this development emerge during the Nauvoo era. The fact that Joseph's understanding of truth underwent growth, will add a dimensionality to our understanding which will better allow Adam-God to fit within the Gospel of Jesus Christ. As we will see, the Mormon doctrine of Deity has undergone much change since the early days of the Church. We will also see that a significant amount of this change has been designed to relegate the Adam-God doctrine to the realms of obscurity, where it is out of sight and out of mind. Man's Search For Happiness It is not enough just to believe in Jesus Christ; you must work and learn, search and pray, repent and improve, know his laws, and live them. This is the way to peace and happiness, and the fulness of everlasting life. It is your Heavenly Father's way. We invite you to explore it, to test it, to pray and search, and seriously consider. Prove all things. Hold fast that which is good. Only if you are unafraid of truth can you find it. (the Church video, Man's Search For Happiness) [50] [51] (Blank page) I never hear of a man being damned for believing too much; but they are damned for unbelief. Joseph Smith, HC 6:477 The October 8, 1854 Discourse 5 Opinions Have No Power Over Truth Many have tried to further their opinion that Brigham Young was misquoted when he delivered the April 9, 1852 discourse in the Priesthood Session of General Conference. We have shown this opinion to be in error. Others have insisted that Brigham misunderstood the doctrine advanced by Joseph, and that he

taught a doctrine which was inconsistent with the doctrines of The Restoration. This opinion was also shown to be in error because Brigham testified that he learned the doctrine from Joseph. We will also see that Brigham's Adam-God doctrine is the only truth which will fully satisfy Joseph's teachings on the plurality of Gods. An abundance of evidence yet remains to confirm that Adam-God was taught and believed by the first prophets of this dispensation. But first, let us dispense with another erroneous opinion: that the historic discourse delivered April 9, 1852 was an isolated incident which finds no support from later teachings of Brigham Young. Quite to the contrary, Brigham expounded and elaborated upon the doctrine of Adam-God for over 25 years, until his death on August 29, 1877. Throughout the remainder of this book we will show that on numerous occasions President Young and his contemporaries taught Adam-God, and left their testimony affirming the authenticity of the doctrine. Perhaps the finest public discourse of his life, and the most efficacious at publishing the doctrine of Adam-God, was delivered by Brigham in his October 8, 1854 discourse. [52] Those Present This discourse was delivered by President Young at the General Conference of the Church, at Salt Lake City, on a Sunday afternoon. It was reported by a number of the brethren present. Wilford Woodruff reported: President Young preached to a congregation of several thousand, out of doors and I believe that he preached the greatest sermon that ever was delivered to the Latter Day Saints since they have been a people. Elder Watt reported. I also took minutes. (Wilford Woodruff Journal 4:290) This is a powerful claim by Wilford Woodruff to say, "I believe that he [Brigham] preached the greatest sermon that ever was delivered to the Latter Day Saints since they have been a people." The "greatest sermon" we would expect to be good indeed! Thomas D. Brown reported the sermon, for the Journal Of The Southern Indian Mission, as: a discourse equaled by none. (Journal of the Southern Indian Mission, pp. 88-89) Deseret News reported for this session of the General Conference: While the emblems were being passed, President Brigham Young delivered a highly interesting discourse, which held the vast audience as it were spellbound. (Deseret News 4:112 #31, Oct. 12, 1854) What kind of a sermon could it have been that received the accolades given it: the greatest sermon, equaled by none, which held the vast audience as it were spellbound? Many have speculated that Brigham Young was a great organizer, a great leader, a great businessman, and perhaps the greatest colonizer of frontier America, or in other words, his greatness with

people and the things of the world is unmatched in modern times, but they believe he fell short as an inspired man of God, that he did not understand the deep mysteries and doctrines, that he would have done best to leave those things alone. The truth? Brigham Young was a giant among the people of God. His insight and understanding is unsurpassed. This will be born out in this discourse. The Discourse Now, we present a large part of the discourse, as reported by Elder George D. Watt, official stenographer for the Church: I purpose to speak upon a subject that does not immediately concern yours or my welfare. I expect in my remarks I shall allude to things that you search after as being absolutely necessary for your salvation in the kingdom of God. It is true if you are faithful, and diligent they are things that will be fully made known unto you in due time -- at the proper time, according to the will of the Lord. But [53] so many among us are preaching, lecturing, contemplating upon, and conversing about things away beyond our reach, sometimes I wish to gratify the people by speaking upon these subjects; for I think upon them as well as you; I meditate upon the future and the past as well as you, and I now gratify myself by gratifying the people. In the first place, I wish to say to all men and women who believe in the Lord Jesus Christ, in the Holy Bible, and in the revelations that have been given at sundry times from the days of Adam to the present, I request that I may have your faith and prayers united with mine that whatever the Lord is pleased to give to the Latter-day Saints through your humble servant this afternoon, He may give it, and that He does not wish to give He may retain, and keep from you. I make this request of the Saints for this reason; I know by my experience, by the visions of eternity that God reveals things to individuals that does not belong to the Church at large at present, or that does not yet belong to the Mass. That I know. It is natural for the people to desire that which is not beneficial to them. It is so in temporal things, and it is so in things that are spiritual. That I know. Again, the Lord blesses His people with temporal things in abundance, and wishes to bless them with knowledge and understanding that is not for the world of mankind who do not believe in Him. That I also know. I may say things this afternoon that does not belong to the world. What if I do? I know the Lord is able to close up every person's mind who have eyes but see not, hearts but do not understand, so I may say what I please with regard to the Kingdom of God on the Earth, for there is a veil over the wicked that they cannot understand the things which are for their peace.

Jesus said at one time, "It is not meet to take the children's bread and give it to the dogs." This saying applies to all the dispensations that has been brought forth to the children of men from the days of Adam until now. I wish the congregation to understand in connection with my sayings thus far, that the Latter-day Saints believe in God the Father, in Jesus Christ His son, in the Holy Ghost, God's minister, and in the Celestial Law, or, in other words, the ordinances of the House of God, which, if obeyed, are calculated to save intelligent beings, exalt them, and bring them back into the presence of their God. I will tell you what I believe still further than this; though I do not pretend to say that the items of doctrine, and ideas I shall advance are necessary for the people to know, or that they should give themselves any trouble about them whatever. I believe in the eternities of worlds, saints, angels, kingdoms, and gods: In eternity without beginning. I believe the gods never had a beginning, neither the formation of matter, and it is without end; it will endure in one eternal round, swimming in space, basking, living, and moving in the midst of eternity. All the creations are in the midst of eternity, and that is one eternity, so they move in one eternal round. Consequently, when you hear philosophers argue the point how the first god came, how intelligence came, they are talking about that which is beyond their conception; about that which never was, and never will be worlds without end. It manifests their folly. It shows they know nothing of such matters; and if they do know some things they have a right to know, there are things they have no right to know. [54] This applies to all classes of mankind. These are my views with regard to the gods, and eternities. Do you wish I should particularize? Then, can you by any process of reasoning or argument, tell whether it was an apple that bore the first seed of an apple, or an apple seed that made the first apple? Or, whether it was the seed of a squash that made the first squash, or a squash that bore the first squash seed? Such abstruse questions belong to the philosophy of the world; in reality there never was and never will be a time when there was not both the apple and the apple seed. (You must be patient with me, as I am not well enough to preach to such a large congregation in the open air, and labor onward without cessation; you must allow me to take my own time.) I will proceed a little further with my preliminaries before I commence my subject. Inasmuch as I have taken the ground that there never was a beginning, nor end -- I wish to say further; there is an eternity of elements, and an eternity of space and there is no space without a kingdom; neither is there any kingdom without a space. Were the best mathematician to multiply figures from the time he first commenced to learn at five or ten years of age, until he is one hundred years old, or until he has

exhausted the capacity of figures known to man, he can then tell no more about the number of the creations of God in comparison than a child who knows nothing whatever of figures. There is no beginning, no end; there is no bounds, no time, when the elements will cease to be organized into bodies with all the variety you have a faint specimen of on this Earth. There are philosophers who believe that this Earth upon which we stand has been in existence for millions of ages. I wish to advance a few items that will open the minds of these philosophers, that they may be like well instructed scribes who treasure up in their hearts the mysteries of the Kingdom of God, the Principles of Eternity. Those who wish to be taught eternal principles, and become true philosophers, their minds can reach forth into the unlimited fields of eternity and still discover no end to the boundless expanse, and to its fullness. There is no necessity of creating a world like this and keeping it in one unalterable state or condition for the express purpose of bringing intelligent beings upon it, while there is an eternity of matter yet to be organized; and when we have lived as long as the best mathematicians among you can figure by millions, billions, trillions, etc., when [you have] exhausted all your wisdom and knowledge, and figures, you are then in the midst of eternity where you began. A true philosopher wishes to grow, and increase continually; he wishes his mind to expand and reach forth, until he can think as God think ; as angels think, and behold things as God beholds them. You recollect I told you in the commencement, I should talk about things that did not particularly concern you and me; but the people want to hear something in advance of their present knowledge; they want to find out if there is anything else for us to learn. When you have lived through eternities to come, learning continually, you may then inquire, "Brother Brigham, is there anything more for me to learn?" My reply to such an inquiry would be, yes there is an eternity of knowledge yet to learn. Search after wisdom, get knowledge, and understanding, and forget it not; and be not like the fool whose eyes are in the ends of the Earth, or like the misers who are around us here; they are so craving, and anxious after property, that if they saw a picayune on the wall opposite to me there, they would run over forty dollars to secure that picayune; their eyes are on earthly riches to the neglect of riches that are more enduring. [55] There are a great many persons who are so anxious to learn about eternity, gods, angels, heavens, and hells, that they neglect to learn the first lessons preparatory to learning the things they are reaching after. They will come short of them. I wish to speak a few words about the Bible as I have

hinted at it. The Ordinances of the Kingdom of God on the Earth are the same to the children of Adam from the commencement to the end of his posterity pertaining to the carnal state on this Earth, and the winding up scene of this mortality. With regard to the Bible, we frequently say, we believe the Bible, but circumstances alters cases, for what is now required of the people may not be required of a people that may live a hundred years hence. But I wish you to understand, with regard to the Ordinances of God's House to save the people in Celestial Kingdom of our God, there is no change from the days of Adam to the present time, neither will there be until the last of his posterity is gathered into the Kingdom of God. Those who are not acquainted with our doctrine are astonished, and say, "That is strange indeed; we thought no such thing as preaching Faith, Repentance, and Baptism was practiced in ancient, or Old Testament times. I can tell you that no man from the days of Adam, no woman from the days of Eye to this day, who have lived and who are now living upon the Earth will go into the Kingdom of their Father and God, to be crowned with Jesus Christ, without passing through the same Ordinances of the House of God, you and I have obeyed. I wish you distinctly to understand that. There are many duties, and callings spoken of in the scriptures, and there are many not written, those for instance which are handed out to you by your President as circumstances require. Those imposed by the President of the Church of God, or by the president of any portion of it, are duties as necessary to be observed as though they were written in the Bible; but these requirements, duties, callings etc. change with the circumstances that surround the people of God. But when you speak of the system of Salvation to bring back the children of Adam and Eve into the presence of our Father and God, it is the same in all ages, among all people, and under all circumstances worlds without end Amen. I think these preliminaries will satisfy me, and I feel prepared to take my text; it is the words of Jesus Christ, but where they are in the Bible I cannot tell you now, for I have not taken pains to look at them. I have had so much to do, that I have not read the Bible for many years. I used to be a Bible student; I used to read and study it, but did not understand the spirit and meaning of it; I knew well enough how it read. I have read the Book of Mormon, the book of Doctrine [and] Covenants, and other revelations of God which [He] has given to his people in latter times; I look at them, and contrast the spirit and power of them with my faithfulness. My clerks know how much time I have to read, it is difficult for me to snatch time enough even to eat my breakfast and supper, to say nothing of reading. I tell you my text is in the Bible and reads as follows. "And this is Life Eternal, that they might know Thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent." I will now put another text with this and then offer a few remarks, it is one of the sayings of the Apostle Paul. "For though there be that are called gods, whether in Heaven, or

in Earth (as there be gods many and lords many) but to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in Him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by him." This God is the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ and the Father of our Spirits. I feel inclined here to make a little scripture. (Were I under the necessity of making scripture extensively I should get Brother Heber C. Kimball to make it, and then I would quote it. I have seen him do this when any of the Elders have been pressed by their opponents, and were a little at a loss; he would make a scripture for them to suite the case, that never was in the Bible, though none the less true, and make their opponents swallow it as the words of an Apostle, or one of the Prophets. The Elder would then say, "Please turn to that scripture, gentlemen and read it for yourselves." No they [56] could not turn to it but they recollected it like the Devil for fear of being caught.) I will venture to make a little [scripture]. This God is the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ precisely as He is our Father varying from mortality to immortality, from corruptible to incorruptible, and that is all the difference. He is the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, both body and spirit; and He is the Father of our spirits, and the Father of our flesh in the beginning. You will not dispute the words of the Apostle, that He is actually the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the Father of our spirits. You may add these words to it, or let it alone, it is all the same to me, that He is not only the Father of our spirits, but also of our flesh, He being the founder of that natural machinery through which we have all obtained our bodies. Do you wish me to simplify it? Could you have a father without having a grandfather; or a grandfather without having a great grandfather? I never heard of [but] one circumstance that varied from this rule, and that was a son of the Emerald Isle who said he was born of one of his aunts. Does this unlock to your understandings how the Lord Almighty is our natural Father; He set the great machine to working. If you cannot see this truth now, you will if you are faithful, and patient. I will now quote another scripture. "And hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the Earth, and hath determined the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitations." From these words we understand that God has made of one blood all the inhabitants that are upon the Earth, that has been, and that will be in the future will be of the same blood as those that have been. Do you believe that scripture? I do with all my heart. I believe we are all of one flesh, blood, and bones. We are made of the same matter, the same elements, we have sprung from one mother, Earth. Matter was brought together from the vast eternity of it that exists, and this terra firma upon which we stand was organized, then comes the world of mankind, the beasts, fishes, fowls, and every living thing to dwell upon the Earth after its kind; and vegetation of every kind to support the animal life upon it, until the organization of this world was perfected in all its variety; being brought from the

eternity of matter, and prepared for intelligent beings to dwell upon, wherein to prepare themselves to dwell eternally in the presence of their Father and God. Those who keep this their second estate, and do honor to their being, and answer the design of their creation, shall be exalted to inhabit the Earth, and live upon it when it shall be Celestial, and brought back into the presence of God, there to dwell forever and ever. Before I proceed any further, I will ask a question. And I would like you men, and women of intelligence, to understand and watch well, to see if I keep the thread of truth, whether I preach to you according to the law, and the testimony, according to the words of the Prophets, of Jesus Christ and his Apostles, and according to the words of angels. Mark ye well my sayings, and see if you can pick any flaw in them. If you think you can so do, when you come to the proper place to be corrected, you may then receive instructions that will do you good. The question I wish to ask is simply this; and I put it to all the Elders of Israel, and to all the men and women of intelligence in Israel which pertains to the Kingdom of God on Earth; and if the whole world were before me I would ask them the same question. Can any man, or set of men officiate in dispensing the laws, and administering the ordinances of the Kingdom of God, or of the kingdoms and governments of the world legally, without first obeying those laws, and submitting to those ordinances themselves. Do you understand me? If a foreigner wishes to become a citizen of the United States he must first become subject to this government; must you not first acknowledge and obey the laws of this government? Certainly you must. Then, to apply this to the Kingdom of God on Earth, and ask yourselves if any man has the power, the influence, the right, the authority, to go forth and preach this gospel, and baptize for the remission of sins unless he himself has, in the first place, been baptized, ordained and legally called to that office? [57] What would the Elders of Israel and every other sensible man say to this? They would all decide at once with me, that no man can lawfully officiate in any office in the Kingdom of God, or in the governments of men, he has not been called to, and the authority of which has not been bestowed upon him. I am not going to talk a thousand things to you, but I wish to tell you a few, and desire you to understand them, and connect them together. There are a few more questions I would like to ask, for the simple reason of bringing the minds of the people to bear upon certain items of principle, and the philosophy of the Kingdom of God on Earth, that they may know how heavenly things are. But I will pass on, and notice some of the texts I have quoted. Before I proceed however, I will put one more question, at the same time I wish you [to] bear in mind the one I have just asked, do not forget th[at] no man has authority to officiate in the ordinances of heavenly or earthly governments only so far as he has obeyed them himself. Now to know the only wise God and Jesus Christ

whom He has sent, will put the man, woman, congregation, or nation in possession of Eternal Life. Are the hearts of the Latter-day Saints prepared to have Eternal life given to them enmass, and say there shall be no more apostasy, but bring them all up that they may know and understand the Gods, Eternities, Creations, Heavens, Hells, Kingdoms, Thrones, Principalities and Powers? It cannot be done. The sheep and goats are together, the wheat and the tares are growing together; the good and the bad are mixed; and they must so remain until the time when Jesus Christ will say, "gather my sheep into my fold; gather my wheat into my garner, and let the tares, and chaff, and stubble be burned." That is not yet. Now if you believe what you have heard me say you will believe there is lords many, and gods many; and you will believe that unto us, the inhabitants of this Earth there is but one God with whom we have to do; and according to the tenor of the Bible, we believe there are many, very many who have entered into Power, Glory, Might and Dominion, and are gathering around them Thrones, and have power to organize elements, and make worlds, and bring into existence intelligent beings in all their variety, who if they are faithful and obedient to their calling and creation will in their turn be exalted in Eternal Kingdoms of the Gods. Do you believe that? You and I have only one God to whom we are accountable, so we will let the rest alone, and search after the one we have to do with; let us seek diligently after Him, the very being who commenced this creation. (asked blessing on bread) We will now make our inquiries with regard to our position with the God with whom we have to do. You will please recollect all ye Elders in Israel, for I want you to be instructed, by my remarks, that you may not fall into errors, that you have tested the question in your own minds with regard to the rights of officiating in ordinances. Now I wish to ask you if you have any conception or idea as to the creation of the world? "Oh yes," you reply, "A great many of us have a tolerable idea of it, but still there are mysteries we do not understand; there are some things in the Bible about the creation that seem to be dark: we have learned some things in this Kingdom we do not understand, and that do not correspond with the reading of the Bible." Let me open the eyes of your understanding. There has never been a time when the creations of worlds commenced, they are from eternity to eternity in their creations and redemption. After they are organized they experience the good and the evil; the fight, and the dark, the bitter and the sweet, as you and I do. There never was a time when there were not worlds in existence as this world is, and they pass through similar changes in abiding their creation preparatory to exaltation. Worlds have always been in progress, and eternally will be. Every world has had an Adam, and an Eve: named so, simply because the first man is always called Adam, and the first woman Eve, and the Oldest Son has always had the privilege of being Ordained, [58] Appointed and Called to be the Heir

of the Family, if he does not rebel against the Father, and he is the Saviour of the family. Every world that has been created, has been created upon the same principle. They may vary in their varieties, yet the eternity is one; it is one eternal round. These are things that scarcely belong to the best of this congregation. There are items of doctrine, and principles, in the bosom of eternity that the best of the Latter-day Saints are unworthy to receive. If the visions of their minds were open to look into the vast creations, and gaze upon the Power, and Glory, and Goodness, and Exaltation of the Gods they would exclaim; "Wo is me, I am undone, I am of unclean lips." But we will look at it a little. Do any of you know anything about the creation of this world? "Oh yes, we understand a good deal about it from the account given in the Bible." So you read in the Bible of there being three persons in one god; many religionists in the world believe in a three [in] one god, however, I do not wish to spend time to deliberate upon the notions adopted by the sectarians, the world is full of them. There are lords many and gods many according to the Bible; it does not contradict the doctrine, neither can you find a single passage that does away with that idea. But let us turn our attention to the God with which we have to do. I tell you simply, He is our Father; the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the Father of our spirits. Can that be possible? Yes, it is possible, He is the Father of all the spirits of the human family. All things are first made spiritual, and brought forth into His kingdom. The spirits of all the human family were begotten by one Father. Now be watchful, for if I have time, and feel able, I shall communicate something in connection with this you are not expecting. Yes, every son and daughter of Adam according to the flesh can claim one parentage; the Heathen, and the Christian, the Jew and the Gentile, the high and the low, the king and the beggar, the black and the white, all who have sprung from Adam and Eve have one father. "Then you make it out we are brethren and sisters." Certainly for the whole human family are made of one blood of the same material; they are all begotten and brought forth by one parentage, and from one generation to another they are of one flesh and blood, and of one kindred. The God and Father [of] our Lord Jesus Christ is the Father of our spirits. I began at the end, and shall probably finish at the beginning of my discourse; but it is no matter which end a man begins at, for the first shall be last, and the last first; which proves it is one eternal round; it is one eternity. Eloheim looks round upon the eternity of matter and said to His associates and those that He was pleased to call upon at the time for His counselors, with regard to the Elements, Worlds, Planets, Kingdoms, and Thrones; said He, "Yahovah Michael, see that Eternal Matter on all sides, this way and that way; we have already created Worlds upon Worlds, shall we create another World? Yes, go and organize the elements yonder in space"; not empty space for there is

no such thing, once in a while, earth quakes, and the extensive destruction of combustible matter by fire will come nigh making empty space for perhaps the millionth part of a second. "Yahovah Michael go and create a world, make it, organize it, form it; and then put upon it everything in all the variety that you have see[n], that you have been in the habit of being associated with in other worlds, of beasts, birds, fowls, fish, and every insect, and creeping thing, and finally, the whole eternity of element is full of life, bring it together and make of it living creatures." Yahovah Michael goes down and does as he is told. What I am now going to tell you, will no doubt astonish the whole of you. When Yahovah Michael had organized the world, and brought from another kingdom the beasts, fish, fowl, and insects, and every tree, and plant with which we are acquainted, and thousands that we never saw, when He had filled the Earth with animal and vegetable life, Michael or Adam goes down to the new made world, and there he stays. [59] Do you suppose he went there alone? Moses made the Bible to say his wife was taken out of his side, was made of one of his ribs. I do not know anything to the contrary of my ribs being equal on both sides. The Lord knows if I had lost a rib for each wife I have, I should have had none left long ago. Some try to say how many wives the Governor of Utah has, but if they can tell, they can tell more than I can, for I do not know how many I have; I have not counted them up for many years. I did not know how many I had before I left the United States I had so many. I heard that I had ninety. Why bless your souls, ninety is not a beginning. You might ask me if I have ever seen them all; I answer no; I see a few of them I pick up myself here. I have lots, and scores I never see nor shall not until the morning of the resurrection. Now about the rib. As for the Lord taking a rib out of Adam's side to make a woman of, he took one out of my side just as much. "But, Brother Brigham, would you make it appear that Moses did not tell the truth?" No not a particle more than I would that your mother did not tell the truth, when she told you that little Billy came from a hollow toad stool. I would not accuse your mother of lying, any more than I would Moses; the people in the days of Moses wanted to know things that was not for them, the same as your children do, when they want to know where their little brother came from, and he answered them according to their folly, the same as you did your children. Now some will be ready to say, "We always heard these Mormons did not believe the Bible." I believe all the truth that is there and that is enough for me, and for you to believe. "Then the Lord did not make Adam out of the dust of the earth?"

Yes he did, but I have not got to that part of my discourse yet. Adam was made of the dust of the earth. "Was he made of the dust of this earth?" No, but of the dust of the earth where he was born in the flesh; that is the way he was made; he was made of dust. "Did the Lord put into him his spirit?" Yes, as the Lord put into you your spirit, he was begotten of a father, and brought forth as you and I were; and so are all intelligent beings brought forth from eternity to eternity. Man was not mad[e] the same as you make an adobe to put in a wall. Moses said Adam was made of the dust of the ground, but he did not say of what ground. I say he was not made of the dust of the ground of this Earth, but he was made of the dust of the earth where he lived, where he honored his calling, believed in his Saviour, or Elder Brother, and by his faithfulness, was redeemed, and got a Glorious Resurrection. All creatures that dwell upon this Earth are made of the elements that compose it; which are organized to see if they will abide their creation, and be counted worthy to receive a resurrection. "What, every flesh?" Yes every flesh, for all flesh pertaining to this world is made of the dust of this Earth, it is all made from the same material, according to the will and pleasure of Him who dictates all things. Our bodies are [60] composed of the same material that composes this Earth; they are composed of the water, air, and solid earth, either of which will resolve back to their native fountain. How many elements are there I do not know any more than you. They have never all been classified by science, though scientific gentlemen have tried to do it. I tell you more, Adam is the Father of our spirits. He lived upon an earth, he did abide his creation and did honor to his calling and Priesthood; and obeyed his Master or Lord, and probably many of his wives did the same, and they lived, and died upon an earth, and then were resurrected again to Immortality and Eternal Life. "Did he resurrect himself" you inquire? I want to throw out a few hints upon the resurrection as it seems to come within the circuit of my ideas whether it ought to come within the circuit of my remarks or not. I believe we have already acknowledged the truth established that no person can officiate in any office he has not been subject to himself and been legally appointed to fill. That no person in this Kingdom can officiate in go ordinance he himself has not obeyed, consequently no being who has not been resurrected possesses the Keys of the Power of Resurrection. That you have been told often. Adam therefore was resurrected by someone who had been resurrected. I will go a little further with this lest some of you will be querying, doubting, and philosophizing this away. It is

true, Jesus said, "I lay down my life that I might take it again. No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again." I do not doubt the power of Christ; but did he prove that in his resurrection? No. But it is proved that an angel came and rolled away the stone from the door of the sepulchre, and did resurrect the body of the Son of God. "What angel was this?" It is not for me to say. I do not know him. If I ever did know him it is so long since I have entirely forgotten who it was. That Jesus had power to lay down his life, and power to take it up again I do not dispute. Neither do I dispute, but what an angel came, that was sent by the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, to roll away the stone from the sepulchre, and resurrect the Son of God. Suffice it to say that he was some character who had himself been resurrected. "Is there any further proof with regard to this sacred order of the Kingdom of God on the Earth?" Oh yes, you can find it in all the scriptures. For instance when the Saviour appeared to Paul of Tarsus, on the road, in answer to the question, "Lord what wilt thou have me do," he was told to go into the city of Damascus, and it should be told him there what to do. In the mean [time] one Ananias was sent to him, who Baptized and Ordained him. Jesus would not do this, because he had servants on Earth whose special duty it was to administer these ordinances. Again the angel that appeared to Cornelius would not operate in the ordinances of the Gospel, but told him to send men to Joppa to the house of one Simon the Tanner, and call for one Peter etc. whose duty it was to do it, he being called and ordained to that power. Many more instances of this kind might be quoted but the above will suffice to illustrate the principle. Now, many inquiries will be made about the Saviour, such as, "Who is he? Is he the Father of Adam? Is he the God of Adam? When Christ has finished his labor and presented it to his father, then he, [61] Adam, will receive a fullness." That is all easily understood by me. He cannot receive a fullness of the kingdoms He has organized until they are completed. If He sends His servants off to the right and to the left to perform a certain labor, His kingdom is not complete, until His ministers have accomplished everything to make His kingdom complete and returned home again. Many inquire, who is this Saviour? I will tell you what I think about it, and as the say I reckon, and as the Yankees say I guess; but I will tell you what I reckon. I reckon that Father Adam was a resurrected being with his wives and posterity and in the Celestial kingdom they were crowned with Glory, Immortality and Eternal Lives, with Thrones, Principalities and Powers: and it was said to him "It is

your right to organize the elements: and to your Creations and posterity there shall be no end, but you shall add Kingdom to Kingdom and Throne to Throne; and still behold the vast eternity of unorganized matter." Adam then was a resurrected being. Our spirits and the spirits of all the human family were begotten by Adam, and born of Eve. "How are we going to know this?" I reckon it. And I reckon that Adam came into the Garden of Eden, and did actually eat of the fruit that he himself planted; and I reckon there was a previous understanding, and the whole plan was previously calculated, before the Garden of Eden was made, that he would reduce his posterity to sin, misery, darkness, wickedness, wretchedness, and to the power of the Devil, that they might be prepared for an Exaltation, for without this they could not receive one. I reckon that all things were first made spiritual preparatory to the natural organization. "What was the use of all this, could not spirits be happy?" Yes as far as they could. These Indians that roam upon the plains, and upon the mountains are comparatively happy in their degraded condition, because they do not know the comforts of civilized life. They can lay upon the ground; pull up sage brush to form a temporary shield against the cold, and get plenty of lizards, and crickets to eat, and they are happy. We would want a comfortable house to live in and something comfortable to eat; something that is suited to our nature, ability, taste, and appetite. We would not be happy and satisfied short of that. So our spirits are as happy as they know how to be. Were you now to live without a house you could not be happy; neither could the spirit be happy without a tabernacle which is the house of the spirit. Whe[n] the spirit enters the body it is pure, and good, and if the body would be subject to the spirit it would always be taught to do the will of the Father in Heaven. But the spirit is interwoven with the flesh and blood; it is subjected to the body, consequently Satan has power over both. I reckon the Father has been through all this. Do you recollect what I told the brethren who came across the plains this season, when they were perplexed by their oxen; and were calling upon God to give you grace to perform the labor which lay before you, He could not sympathize with you, or know the nature of your trials if He had not passed through the same Himself. He knew just as much about crossing the plains, and the trials connected with it as any of us. The inquiry will arise, among those who are strenuous, and tenacious for the account given by Moses, as to Adam. "Did not Adam die?" [62] Yes he died.

"Does not the Bible say he died?" I do not know nor care, but I think it would be hard to find where he died; or where Moses died (Reporter's note: see Genesis 5:5; Deuteronomy 34:5), though I have no doubt Moses died, and Adam also; how? Just as you and I have to die, and be laid away in the bowels of Mother Earth; that, however, Moses did not see fit to tell us. Adam planted the Garden of Eden, and he with his wife Eve partook of the fruit of this Earth until their systems were charged with the nature of Earth, and then they could beget bodies, for their spiritual children. If the spirit does not enter into the embryo man that is forming in the womb of woman, the result will be false conception, a living, intelligent being cannot be produced. Adam and Eve begat the first mortal bodies on this Earth, and from that commencement every spirit that was begotten in eternity for this Earth will enter bodies thus prepared for them here, until the winding up scene, and that will not be until the last of these spirits enters an earthly tabernacle. Then I reckon that the children of Adam and Eve married each other; this is speaking to the point. I believe in sisters marrying brothers, and brothers having their sisters for wives. Why? Because we cannot do otherwise. There are none others for me to marry but my sisters. "But yo[u] [would] not pretend to say you would marry your father and mother's daughter." If I did not I would marry another of my sisters that lives over in another garden; the material of which they are organized is just the same; there is no difference between them, and those who live in this garden. Our spirits are all brothers and sisters, and so are our bodies; and the opposite idea to this has resulted from the ignorant, and foolish traditions of the nations of the Earth. They have corrupted themselves with each other, and I want them to understand that they have corrupted their own flesh, blood, and bones, as all the family of the Earth. I am approaching the subject of our marriage relations Brother Hyde lectured upon, but I shall not have time, or strength to say much about this. But, I reckon that Father Adam, and Mother Eve had the children of the human family prepared to come here and take bodies; and when they come to take bodies, they enter into the bodies prepared for them, and that body gets an exaltation with the spirit, when they are prepared to be crowned in Father's Kingdom. "What, into Adam's Kingdom?" Yes. As to my talking what I want to say at this time I shall not do it. I am exhausting myself; I have to speak loud, and it is hard labor. I tell you, when you see your Father in the Heavens, you will see Adam; when you see your Mother that bore your

spirit, you will see Mother Eve. And when you see yourselves there you have gained your Exaltation; you have honored your calling here on the Earth; your body has returned to its mother Earth; and somebody has broken the chains of death that bound you, and given you a resurrection. How are you going to get your resurrection? You will get it by the President of the Resurrection [63] pertaining to this generation, and that is Joseph Smith Junior. Hear it all ye ends of the Earth; if ever you enter into the Kingdom of God it is because Joseph Smith let you go there. This will apply to Jews and Gentiles, to the bond, and free; to friends and foes; no man or woman in this generation will get a resurrection and be crowned without Joseph Smith says so. The man who was martyred in Carthage Jail State of Illinois holds the Keys of Life and Death to this generation. He is the president of the Resurrection in this dispensation and he will be the first to rise from the dead. When he has passed through it, then I reckon the Keys of the Resurrection will be committed to him. Then he will call up his Apostles. You know I told you last conference I was an Apostle of Joseph Smith; and if faithful enough I expect Joseph will resurrect the Apostles; and when they have passed through the change, and received their blessings, I expect he will commit to them the Keys of the Resurrection, and they will go on resurrecting the Saints, every man in his own order. I want to say a little more about marriage relations, so that you may understand what my views are. When you get your resurrection, you are not yet exalted; but by and by, the Lord Jesus Christ, our Elder Brother, the Saviour of the world, the Heir of the Family; when he has put down Satan, and destroyed death; then he will say, come let us go home into the presence of the Father. What will become of the world then? It will be baptized with fire. I[t] has been baptized with water, and it will then be cleansed by fire, and become like a sea of glass, and be made Celestial; and Jesus Christ our Elder Brother will take the whole Earth, with all the Saints and go with them to the Father even to Adam; and you will continue to receive more and more Intelligence, Glory, Exaltation, and Power. I want to tell you a thing with regard to parents, wives, brothers and sisters etc. The time will come when it will be told where this man, and that woman shall be placed; The real blood of Joseph will be selected out from among the tribes of Israel, and every man, and woman will be put in their places, and stand in their order where the Lord designs them to be. When you get back into the presence of God, and the Lord should say, "Who have you brought with you?" Your reply would be, "My wife and children;" but in reality you have only with you your brothers and sisters. The Father would say, "These are my children." When you meet your Father in Heaven you will know Him, and realize that you lived with Him, and rested in His bosom for ages gone passed, and He will hail you as His sons and

daughters, and embrace you, and you will embrace Him, and "Hallelujah, thank God I have come to Father again, I have got back home" will resound through the Heavens. There are ten thousand things connected with these ideas. You see the human family of every shade of color between black and white. I could stand here and tell you what I reckon but it would take an age for me to tell you all there is about it. We have all come from one father even Adam, both the black and the white, the grizzled and the gray; the noble, and the ignoble; and the time will come, when they will all come back again into His presence. When they have behaved themselves, and proved faithful to their calling, and to their God the curse will be removed, from every class, and nation of men that desires to work the work of God. This [has] been told you, that saviours would come upon Mount Zion, and judge the mount of Esau. Let me read it for you, "There shall saviours come upon Mount Zion, and save the Mount of Esau." What does gentile signify? Disobedience. What does Israel signify? Obedience. What is the name of the first man? Adam, which signifies first man, and Eve signifies first woman. And when Michael the Archangel shall sound his trump and the Ancient of Days shall come, all things that we have once been familiar with will come back again to our memory. [64] President Brigham Young then spoke for a few minutes on the subject of our marriage relations, and closed his discourse with the following remarks: I wish you to understand well the position I have taken, and the nature of the remarks I have made. Profit by them, both saints and sinners. You have had things laid before you that does not belong to the world, nor to men and women, who calculate to apostatize. They belong to the wise; to those who are serving God with all their hearts. Now let me say to the wicked in heart, you cannot remember a word of this discourse unless you remember it in the Lord. I might reveal all there is in eternity, and those who have not their hearts on righteousness would know nothing about it, nor be in the least instructed. I commenced with Father Adam in his resurrected state, and noticed our spiritual state, then our temporal, or mortal state, and traveled until I got back to Father Adam again. After considering all this, what have you seen that make[s] it appear we are not brethren and sisters? Does it appear that we are not because we are commanded to multiply and replenish the Earth? You think when you run into grand children and great grand children etc. that by and by there will be no connection. They are just as much connected in spirit and body, in flesh, blood, and bone, as your children are that you bear off your own body. This is something pertaining to our marriage relation. The whole world will think what an awful thing it is. What an awful thing it would be if the Mormons should just say we believe in marrying brothers and sisters. Well we shall be under the necessity of doing it, because we cannot find

anybody else to marry. The whole world are at the same thing, and will be as long as man exists upon the Earth. I feel as though I had said enough. I have talked long enough for my own good; and we shall bring our Conference to a close.... I would bless you all so that you would be saved if I had the power -- I have the power to bless all the faithful and I do bless you in the name of Jesus Christ. Amen. (Brigham Young, Oct. 8, 1854, Afternoon Session of the General Conference of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Church Archives) Before we examine the diary accounts of some of the Elders present at the discourse, let us review some of what Brigham had to say concerning Adam-God. It is beautiful to hear the words of a Prophet of God as he reveals to us the Father and God of us all: Every world has had an Adam, and an Eve: named so, simply because the first man is always called Adam, and the first woman Eve; and the Oldest Son has always had the privilege of being Ordained, Appointed and Called to be the Heir of the Family, if he does not rebel against the Father, and he is the Savior of the family. Every world that has been created, has been created upon the same principle... There are Lords many and Gods many according to the Bible; it does not contradict the doctrine, neither can you find a single passage that does away with that idea. But let us turn our attention to the God with which we have to do. I tell you simply, He is our Father; the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the Father of our spirits. Can that be possible? Yes, it is possible, He is the Father of all the spirits of the human family... Yahovah Michael goes down and does as he is told. What I am now going to tell you will no doubt astonish the whole of you. When Yahovah Michael had organized the world, and brought from another [65] kingdom the beasts, fish, fowl, and insects, and every tree, and plant with which we are acquainted, and thousands that we never saw, when He had filled the Earth with animal and vegetable life, Michael or Adam goes down to the new made world, and there he stays... I tell you more, Adam is the Father of our spirits. He lived upon an earth; he did abide his creation, and did honor to his calling and Priesthood; and obeyed his Master or Lord, and probably many of his wives did the same, and they lived, and died upon an earth, and then were resurrected again to Immortality and Eternal Life... Now, many inquiries will be made about the Saviour, such as, "Who is he? Is he the Father of Adam? Is he the God of Adam? When Christ has finished his labor and presented it to his father, then he, Adam, will receive a fullness..." Adam planted the Garden of Eden, and he with his wife Eve partook of the fruit of this Earth, until their systems

were charged with the nature of Earth, and then they could beget bodies, for their spiritual children... I tell you, when you see your Father in the Heavens, you will see Adam; when you see your Mother that bore your spirit, you will see Mother Eve. (Ibid.) Adam and Eve, then, are not the names of our first parents, but rather the titles or offices of the first parents on every earth that has ever been or ever will be. And we also learn from Brigham that the name Jehovah (or Yahovah, as Brigham correctly pronounced the name -- there is no "J"-sound in the Hebrew language; Jehovah is a German derivation), is not a proper name of a single individual, but an appellation for deity. We shall look at these aspects of the names and titles of deity later in the Doctrinal Treatment of Adam-God. Others Who Were Present John Pulsipher recorded in his journal the proceedings of the General Conference on October 8, 1854. Here's what he wrote that day concerning Adam-God: 10 o'clock A.M. Orson Hyde preached in the house and George A. Smith outside -- Judge Phelps spoke of the text of knowing God and Jesus whom he has sent -- also that a ship load of officers and soldiers converted and are in the Russian war -- Mormons on the Black Sea. 2 o'clock P.M. Meeting out doors -- President Young said: We believe in God the Eternal Father, Jesus Christ his Son and the Holy Ghost, God's minister. The Gods are Eternal, there never was a beginning. They always existed. Philosophers have tried to study out how the first Gods came. I want to ask them a question: Which was first, a squash or apple that produced the seed -- or was it the seed that produced the squash or apple? Which was first? They can't tell -- So they need not rack their brain with it -- there never [66] was a time but what both existed. No man from the days of Adam to the end of the world will ever be saved unless they go through the same ordeal that we do -- There never was any other way to salvation. Text was: to know the only true and wise God is Eternal Life -- To know this a person must have Eternal Life. God is the father of all the spirits of all the people of this world -- he is the father of the bodies also of the first inhabitance of the Earth also the father of the body of Jesus Christ. The first people of the Earth was no more made of the dust, than we are -- I would not make out that Moses lied, by no means. But we are made of dust as much as Adam was. So are our cattle. They are formed or created from the elements all of which are necessary to produce animal or vegetable life, as the dust of the Earth will produce grass, and cattle will cat grass and increase.

Every person must have a father and mother or they could not be. So we had a grandfather or we would have had no father, and our grandfather had a father and grandfather and great-great-great-great greatgrandfather so far back there is no beginning -- They always existed on some world -- and when this world was made -- our God who is Adam came and commenced the peopling of it. Though He is God and had lived and died and been resurrected on some other planet -and obtained his exaltation and begat the Spirits of children enough [to] people this world he came down -- and brought some of the animal and vegetable productions of some other world so that they might grow and increase here -- He by eating the mortal fruits of the Earth, produced mortal children or commenced the increase of men on the Earth which is the bodies for the Spirits to live in. There never was a time when worlds were not created -- The work of creation was always in progress. An Adam and Eve is necessary for every world. The oldest Son, if faithful, is the Saviour of the family -- There are Lords many and Gods many but the God that we have to account to, is the father of our spirits -- Adam -- All the inhabitants of the Earth are made of one flesh -- whether they are black white -- blue or streaked .... (John Pulsipher Journal, Oct. 8, 1854, BYU Library) Thomas D. Brown recorded the following: Sunday afternoon: President Brigham Young delivered a discourse, equaled by none that I have ever listened to on "Space -- the Eternities -- of matter of duration. The Gods -- Gentile Seductions and Mormon Saviors of the innocent betrayed." The following is the essence of his discourse: I believe in one Eternity -- no beginning no end to anything -- Gods -- Angels and [Kingdoms] never had a beginning and never will have an end: "No beginning no end to space -- no end -- no bounds -- no place in time or eternity will end their formation -- no end to matter -There is an eternity of matter yet to be organized: no true philosopher can count the millions of eternities yet to be made: we shall learn in all time and in all eternities: The Bible and the ordinances are the same from Adam to the end, there will be no change till the last of Adam's race is saved -- the ordinances are the same duties and callings vary as do the circumstances, but the ordinances are the same for salvation in worlds without end. Text "This is eternal life to know the only wise and true God and His Son Jesus Christ whom He has sent" -- "There are Lords many and there are Gods many, and the Father of our Spirits is the Father of Jesus Christ: He is the Father of Jesus Christ, Spirit and Body and he is the beginner of the bodies of all men: neither can you have a Father, without having a Grandfather: God hath made of one flesh, all the dwellers, or inhabitants on the whole earth, we are all formed of the same materials, from the mother Earth; those who keep their second estate will be celestialized and brought back to [67] dwell with the Father. Can any individual officiate in any ordinances of any nature, before obeying the same and

honoring them? Can any man officiate in this kingdom without first becoming a subject in the same? We'll let the numerous Gods alone, and take the one we have to do with. There is no time when worlds have not been created and exalted; there have always been an Adam and an Eve -- the first man and woman, and their oldest son is heir, and should be our Savior. We have one Father and we all are brethren." Eloheim spoke, "Yehovah, Michael -- see matter all around, go and organize a world." Yehovah Michael went and carried material: Then Michael came down with his wife, and began to people it. Michael had his body from the dust of the planet he was begotten on, he obeyed his Lord, was faithful and obedient, died and was resurrected, he did not resurrect himself. An angel resurrected Jesus what Angel? I know not. When Jesus has completed his work, Adam shall have a fulness: Adam's descent was to organize people and redeem a world, by his wife he peopled it, by his first born he redeems. Our Spirits were happy before they had a body. An allusion to the Indians -- Father Adam knew all about oxen and cattle. Adam died and was buried, where he was interred is not said. Physicians will tell you, men's efforts to beget will be abortive, without the spirit put in by the Father. Adam and Eve had children in the spirit -- and their children married -- brother and sister -- then the bodies followed. (Journal of the Southern Indian Mission, pp. 88, 89) Joseph Lee Robinson recorded in his journal those things which he heard the Prophet say: Attended conference, a very interesting conference, for at this meeting President Brigham Young said thus: That Adam and Eve were the names of the first man and woman of every earth that was ever organized and that Adam and Eve were the natural Father and Mother of every spirit that comes to this planet, or that receives tabernacles on this planet, consequently we are brothers and sisters, and that Adam was God, our Eternal Father. This as Brother Heber remarked, was letting the cat out of the bag, and it came to pass, I believed every word, for I remembered saying to the Brethren at a meeting of High Priests in Nauvoo, while I was speaking to them under the influence of the spirit, I remarked thus, that our Father Adam had many wives, and that Eve was only one of them, and that she was our mother, and that she was the mother of the inhabitants of this earth, and I believe that also, but behold yea there were some that did not believe these sayings of the Prophet Brigham, even our beloved Brother Orson Pratt told me he did not believe it. He said he could prove by the scriptures it was not correct. I felt very sorry to hear Professor Orson Pratt say that. I feared lest he should apostatize, but I prayed for him that he might endure to the end, for I knew verily that it was possible that great men might fall. (Joseph Lee Robinson Diary, Oct. 8, 1854, typescript, Utah State Historical Society)

General Conference Credence Remember, this discourse and the historic discourse of April 9, 1852 were both delivered at sessions of the General Conference of the Church. How can we pretend that the words of the Prophet Brigham delivered across the pulpit during General Conference were any less true than the words we hear today at General Conference? Can we reject the teachings of Brigham Young as Orson Pratt apparently did? What obligation are we under to accept [68] the teachings of the Prophets Joseph and Brigham? How much of what they taught can be rejected and still leave us in good standing with Father? How much can we pretend was never taught and still lay claim to being the guardians of The Restoration? When we reject truth as it is revealed by our prophets, what can we expect to be the result? And in fine, wo unto all those who tremble, and are angry because of the truth of God! For behold, he that is built upon the rock receiveth it with gladness; and he that is built upon a sandy foundation trembleth lest he shall fall. Wo be unto him that shall say: We have received the word of God, and we need no more of the word of God, for we have enough! For behold, thus saith the Lord God: I will give unto the children of men line upon line, precept upon precept, here a little and there a little; and blessed are those who hearken unto my precepts, and lend an car unto my counsel, for they shall learn wisdom; for unto him that receiveth I will give more; and from them that shall say, We have enough, from them shall be taken away even that which they have. (2 Nephi 28:28-30) [69] Will the ignorant receive the truth when they hear it? No, they will not, and this is their condemnation, that light has come into the world, and they choose darkness rather than light, because their deeds are evil. Brigham Young, DN 22:308 An Era Of Truth Brigham Young Those not familiar with Church History might fail to understand the relationship between Joseph and Brigham. Joseph knew what the future held for the Latter-day Saints, and he knew that Brigham Young would lead the Church after he was gone. It would not be inaccurate to say that Brigham was groomed by Joseph for leading the Church. Brigham once commented upon a promise which Joseph had made to him: My name is had for good and evil upon the whole earth, as 6

promised to me. Thirty years ago brother Joseph, in a lecture to the Twelve, said to me, "your name shall be known for good and evil throughout the world," and it is so. The good love me, weak and humble as I am, and the wicked hate me; but there is no individual on the earth but what I would lead to salvation, if he would let me. (JD 10:297) Joseph could have used no more powerful words than these to teach Brigham of the magnitude of his future role as President of the Church. Joseph had been haunted by those words of Moroni spoken to him on the night of September 21, 1823: He called me by name, and said unto me that he was a messenger sent from the presence of God to [70] me, and that his name was Moroni; that God had a work for me to do; and that my name should be had for good and evil among all nations, kindreds, and tongues, or that it should be both good and evil spoken of among all people. (Joseph Smith-History 1:33) Joseph's name had been had for good and evil among all people. People either loved him or hated him, and his promise to Brigham was that he, too, would be loved and hated for doing the Lord's work. It has always been so, and it will always be. Even in the Church is Brigham spoken evil of. I have personally heard leaders and teachers in the Church malign Brigham Young because, as they say, "Brigham Young didn't know what he was talking about!" Or, "Brigham Young was an uneducated carpenter who should have left doctrine alone." Or, "If Brigham would have just read the scriptures, then he would have known that he was wrong about Adam-God." Joseph, knowing the mantle of authority would fall on Brigham, and he did know this beyond a shadow of doubt, prepared Brigham to preside over the Church: Arriving in Kirtland, Brigham Young and his companions met the Prophet Joseph with four of his brothers in a grove of trees chopping wood. "Here my joy was full," said Brigham Young, "at the privilege of shaking the hand of the Prophet of God, and receiving the sure testimony, by the spirit of prophecy, that he was all that any man could believe him to be as a true prophet." That evening a few of the brethren met in the Prophet's home and discussed the restored kingdom of God. The Prophet invited Brigham Young to pray. During the prayer he spoke in tongues. Several of the brethren asked Joseph Smith to give his opinion of this gift of tongues. The Prophet informed them it was the pure Adamic language and was from God. This was the first time the Prophet had heard the gift of tongues. When the carpenter from Mendon [Brigham] left the room Joseph Smith informed those remaining, "One day Brigham Young will preside over this Church." (Joseph Smith and the Restoration, Ivan J. Barrett, p. 211; see also Millennial Star 25:439) In 1857 Brigham recalled the words of Joseph spoken 13 years prior:

I said to Brother Joseph, the spring before he "You are laying out work for twenty years." He "You have as yet scarcely began to work; but I enough to last you during your lives, for I am rest." (JD 5:331)

was killed, replied, will set you going to

The transition wherein Brigham succeeded Joseph as Prophet of God's Church is of significance. We have the testimonies of several of the Brethren who were contemporaries of both Joseph and Brigham, that Brigham Young was indeed called of God. On October 7, 1860, Elder Orson Hyde, ordained an Apostle seven days after Brigham (15 February 1835), testified to the fact of Brigham being called of God: In the month of February, 1848, the Twelve Apostles met at Hyde Park, Pottawattamie County, Iowa, where a small Branch of the Church was established;... We were in prayer and council, communing together; and what took place on that occasion? The voice of God came from on high, and spake to the Council. Every latent feeling was aroused, and every heart melted. What did it say unto us? "Let my servant Brigham step forth and receive the full power of the presiding Priesthood in my Church and [71] kingdom." This was the voice of the Almighty unto us at Council Bluffs, before I removed to what was called Kanesville. It has been said by some that Brigham was appointed by the people, and not by the voice of God. I do not know that this testimony has often, if ever, been given to the masses of the people before; but I am one that was present, and there are others here that were also present on that occasion, and did hear and feel the voice from heaven, and we were filled with the power of God. This is my testimony; these are my declarations unto the Saints -- unto the members of the Kingdom of God in the last days, and to all people. We said nothing about the matter in those times, but kept it still. [After seating myself in the stand, I was reminded of one circumstance that occurred, which I omitted in my discourse. Men, women, and children came running together where we were, and asked us what was the matter. They said that their houses shook, and the ground trembled, and they did not know but that there was an earthquake. We told them that there was nothing the matter -- not to be alarmed; the Lord was only whispering to us a little, and that he was probably not very far off. We felt no shaking of the earth or of the house, but were filled with the exceeding power and goodness of God.] We knew and realized that we had the testimony of God within us. On the 6th day of April following, at our Annual Conference, held in the Log Tabernacle at Kanesville, the propriety of choosing a man to preside over the Church was investigated. In a very few minutes it was agreed to, and Brigham Young was chosen to fill that place without a dissenting voice, the people not knowing that there had been any revelation touching the matter. They ignorantly seconded the voice of the Lord from on high in his appointment. (Voice from the stand: "That is Vox Dei, vox populi.") Yes, the voice of God was the voice of the people. Brigham went right ahead, silently, to do the work of the Lord, and to feed his sheep, and take care

of them like a faithful shepherd, leaving all vain aspirants to quarrel and contend about lineal descent, right, power, and authority. Some persons say that Brigham does not give revelations as did Joseph Smith. But let me tell you, that Brigham's voice has been the voice of God from the time he was chosen to preside, and even before. (Apostle Orson Hyde, JD 8:233-234) So, Brigham Young was not a shoe-in for the Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. No assumption was made on the part of Brigham that he was to take control of the Church. It was the Twelve who led the Church for three and a half years with Brigham the President of that body. Only the voice of God would bring this humble man to fill the office of his beloved Prophet, Joseph. We actually have the testimony of Apostle Orson Hyde that the voice of God, an audible voice that shook the region round about, a voice not unlike the one which was heard at the baptism of Jesus Christ; the voice of God called Brigham Young to succeed Joseph to the calling of Prophet of God. The voice came and proclaimed the will of the Father: Let my servant Brigham step forth and receive the full power of the presiding Priesthood in my Church and kingdom. (Ibid.) Now, let us look at the teachings which were promulgated during those years in which the Saints were allowed to live their religion unmolested, in the isolation of the Great Basin. [72] Adam Not Made From Dust Of This Earth It is ironic that Joseph and Brigham would reveal so very many precious truths to the Church, and yet today, we find a large variety of sectarian notions intermixed with scriptural interpretations which are given more credence than the words of the first prophets of The Restoration. In some respects, we the Church, have chosen to selectively remove teachings which, for whatever reason, we disapprove of. Physical and biological evolution have forced their way into the thinking of many enlightened members of the Church today. Brigham Young, however, left no doubt as to the origin of man. On October 23, 1853, from the Tabernacle, he said: You believe Adam was made of the dust of this earth [this is what we, today, call biological evolution]. This I do not believe, though it is supposed that it is so written in the Bible; but it is not, to my understanding. You can write that information to the States, if you please -- that I have publicly declared that I do not believe that portion of the Bible as the Christian world do. I never did, and I never want to. What is the reason I do not? Because I have come to understanding, and banished from my mind all the baby stories my mother taught me when I was a child. (JD 2:6) Brigham, then, did not believe the creation story of the Bible to be literally true, but an allegory, not unlike a "baby story"

a parent teaches a child. If Adam was not made from the dust of this earth, then where did he come from and how was he made? Again from the Tabernacle, on April 20, 1856, Brigham declared: Though we have it in history that our father Adam was made of the dust of this earth, and that he knew nothing about his God previous to being made here, yet it is not so; and when we learn the truth we shall see and understand that he helped to make this world and was the chief manager in that operation. He was the person who brought the animals and the seeds from other planets to this world, and brought a wife with him and stayed here. You may read and believe what you please as to what is found written in the Bible. Adam was made from the dust of an earth, but not from the dust of this earth. He was made as you and I are made, and no person was ever made upon any other principle. Do you not suppose that he was acquainted with his associates, who came and helped to make this earth? Yes, they were just as familiar with each other as we are with our children and parents. (JD 3:319) And in the Tabernacle, on October 9, 1859, Brigham said: When people have secured to themselves eternal life, they are where they can understand the true character of their Father and God, and the object of the creation, fall, and redemption of man after the creation of this world... When you tell me that father Adam was made as we make adobes from the earth, you tell me what I deem an idle tale. When you tell me that the beasts of the field were produced in that manner, you are speaking idle words devoid of meaning. There is no such thing in all the eternities where the Gods dwell. Mankind are here because they are the offspring of parents who were first brought here from [73] another planet, and power was given them to propagate their species, and they were commanded to multiply and replenish the earth. The offspring of Adam and Eve are commanded to take the rude elements, and, by the knowledge God has given, to convert them into everything required for their life, health, adornment, wealth, comfort, and consolation. Have we the knowledge to do this? We have. Who gave us this knowledge? Our Father who made us; for he is the only wise God, and to him we owe allegiance; to him we owe our lives. He has brought us forth and taught us all we know. We are not indebted to any other power or God for all our great blessings... The Being whom we call Father was the Father of the spirit of the Lord Jesus Christ, and he was also his Father pertaining to the flesh... God has created of one blood all the nations and kingdoms of men that dwell upon all the face of the earth: black, white, copper-colored, or whatever their color, customs, or religion, they have all sprung from the same origin; the blood of all is from the same element. Adam and Eve are the

parents of all pertaining to the flesh, and I would not say that they are not also the parents of our spirits. (JD 7:285-286, 290) Concerning the mode of creation of man, Brigham quoted the following from Genesis: And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them. (Genesis 1:26-27) After quoting these verses, Brigham said: I believe that the declaration made in these two scriptures is literally true. God has made His children like Himself to stand erect, and has endowed them with intelligence and power and dominion over all His works, and given them the same attributes which He Himself possesses. He created man, as we create our children; for there is no other process of creation in heaven, on the earth, in the earth, or under the earth, or in all the eternities, that is, that were, or ever will be. (JD 11:122) From the journal of Samuel W. Richards we find more of the teachings of Brigham about our first parents: Sunday, March 25, 1855, P.M. Pres. Brigham Young spoke in a very interesting manner...Priesthood is the principle by which all beings have become Gods, or will become Gods; they must follow the principles of government as revealed in the Priesthood. Adam and Eve were made of the dust of the earth from which they came -- they brought their bodies with them. They had lived and died and been resurrected before they came here and they came with immortal bodies, and had to partake of the fruit of this earth in order to bring forth mortal bodies, or natural bodies, that their seed might be of the dust of this earth as they were from the dust of the earth from which they came. (Journal of Samuel W. Richards, Book 2, Journal 1, pp. 63-64) [74] When Father Adam Came To Earth In Paris, Idaho on August 31, 1873 Brigham Young gave a discourse in which he said: When Father Adam came to assist in organizing the earth out of the crude material that was found, an earth was made upon which the children of men could live. After the earth was prepared Father Adam came and stayed here, and there was a woman brought to him. Now I am telling you something that many of you know, it has been told to you, and the brethren and sisters should understand it. There was a certain woman brought to Father Adam whose name was Eve,

because she was the first woman, and she was given to him to be his wife; I am not disposed to give any further knowledge concerning her at present. There is no doubt but that he left many companions. The great and glorious doctrine that pertains to this I have not time to dwell upon; neither should I at present if I had time. He understood this whole machinery or system before he came to this earth; and I hope my brethren and sisters will profit by what I have told them. (JD 16:167) When our Father Adam came to earth to commence begetting bodies for His children, He kept a genealogy, and this genealogy was correctly called the genealogy of the children of God. For Adam is our God: ... and a genealogy was kept of the children of God. And this was the book of the generations of Adam. (Moses 6:8) Brigham gave a discourse in 1867, in the Provo Bowery, in which he taught concerning Adam and Eve's wedding: While Brother Orson Pratt was telling you a good deal about this great holy wedding, the first that was ever celebrated, I thought about father Adam; he helped to make the world, to organize this earth, which was organized expressly for him. He is the king and Lord of this earth; when he came here he came with an understanding that he would do just as you and I do. He would go to sleep and dream for 6 hours. What we call dreaming are the reflections of the mind in sleep that cannot be remembered at all times when in a state of wakefulness. We come to this world, forget the past and commence anew. When the people are prepared to profit by the knowledge which the Lord has revealed there is much to be told them, but I will say this to you, every spirit that is prepared to occupy a body on this earth has been born of parents in heaven, and that which is born of Spirit is spirit. When father Adam and mother Eve became mortal by eating of the fruits of this earth they were then prepared [to organize] the mortal tabernacle, and they were prepared to organize and form living spirits long before that, now they are prepared to form mortal bodies for their spiritual children to dwell in. His former works and experience Adam had forgotten a great deal of, but he once knew it all beforehand. As to the great wedding bro. Orson has been telling us about is nothing more or less than this, Adam's father came to him, saying here is the wife you have had so long, now you are going to have one wife to take with you to yonder earth, and if any of your other wives ever go to an earth to become the mother of all living, to become an Eve, it will be to another earth, not to that one. She is called Eve because she is the mother of all living, and she is the queen of that earth. Adam is the Lord of the earth and the father of all living on this earth, as Eve is the mother of all living on this earth. (Brigham Young, August 25, 1867, Church Archives) [75] The Father Of Jesus Christ

Brigham left no doubt as to who the Father of Jesus Christ is. On one occasion he spoke from the Tabernacle in Salt Lake City, on Sunday morning, February 19, 1854. George D. Watt recorded: Who was it that spoke from the heavens and said, "This is my beloved Son, hear ye him"? Was it God the Father? It was. The Apostles bear testimony that such a voice was actually heard, "This is my beloved Son"...Who did beget him? His Father, and his Father is our God, and the Father of our spirits, and he is the framer of the body. The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ -- Who is He? He is Father Adam -- Michael -- the Ancient of Days. Has he (Jesus) a Father? He has! Has he a Mother? He has! (Brigham Young, February 19, 1854, Church Archives) Wilford Woodruff was present at this sermon, and recorded in his journal for that day: ... He said that our GOD was Father Adam. He was the Father of the Savior Jesus Christ. Our God was no more or less than ADAM, Michael the Archangel. (Wilford Woodruff Journal, February 19, 1854) Plain and simple, the being who fell to become Adam is the God and Father of us all, Jesus Christ included. When You Have The Privilege Of Being An Adam All men who are faithful will receive an exaltation and then be privileged to be an Adam on their created earth. On March 8, 1857 Brigham said: If you look at things spiritually, and then naturally, and see how they appear together, you will understand that when you have the privilege of commencing the work that Adam commenced on this earth, you will have all your children come and report to you of their sayings and acts; and you will hold every son and daughter of yours responsible when you get the privilege of being an Adam on earth. (JD 4:271) On October 18, 1876, at the General Conference of the Church, Brigham spoke of how we will multiply our own worlds, if exalted: Having fought the good fight we then shall be prepared to lay our bodies down to rest to await the morning of the resurrection when they will come forth and be reunited with the spirits; the faithful, as it is said, receiving crowns, glory, immortality and eternal lives, even a fullness with the Father, when Jesus shall present his work to the Father, saying, "Father, here is the work thou gavest me to do." Then will they become gods, even the sons of God; then will they become eternal fathers, eternal mothers, eternal sons and eternal daughters; being eternal in their organization, they go from glory to [76] glory, from power to power; they will never cease to increase and to multiply worlds without end. When they receive their crowns, their dominions, they then will be prepared to frame earths like unto ours and to people them in the same manner as we have

been brought forth by our parents, by our Father and God. (JD 18:259) Thus, if faithful, we will become Gods, even as our Father Adam and Mother Eve. Mother Eves Brigham places faithful women in their proper exalted positions as Mother Eves of entire creations: When our Father Adam came into the garden of Eden, he came into it with a celestial body, and brought Eve, one of his wives, with him. (JD 1:50) On October 14, 1860 President Brigham Young promised the sisters that their faithfulness would be rewarded: Many of the sisters grieve because they are not blessed with offspring. You will see the time when you will have millions of children around you. If you are faithful to your covenants, you will become mothers of nations. You will become Eves to earths like this; and when you have assisted in peopling one earth, there are millions of earths still in the course of creation. And when they have endured a thousand million times longer than this earth, it is only as it were the beginning of your creations. Be faithful, and if you are not blessed with children in this time, you will be hereafter. But I would not dare tell you all I know about these matters. (JD 8:208) All women are potential future Mother Eves. The only requirement of them is to be faithful to their covenants and obey the commandments. Said Brigham: I ask this question of you, mother Eves, every one of you. If you are not sanctified and prepared, you ought to be sanctifying and preparing yourselves for the blessings in store for you when it will be said of you, this is Eve. Why? Because you are the mother of all living. You might as well prepare first as last. If you wish to be Eves and mothers of human families you ought to bear the burden. (JD 12:97) Of One Species Perhaps the most difficult aspect of Adam-God is to comprehend that there are generations of Gods who multiply and replenish the universe, and that we are their offspring just as we are the offspring of earthly parents. We all are sons and daughters of Father Adam and Mother Eve, spiritually and temporally. On May 7, 1871 Brigham said: [77] Do you not all know that you are the sons and daughters of the Almighty? If you do not I will inform you this morning that there is not a man or woman on the earth that is not a son or daughter of Adam and Eve. We all belong to the races which have sprung from father Adam and mother Eve; and every son and daughter of Adam and Eve is a son and daughter of that God we serve, who organized this earth and

millions of others, and who holds them in existence by law. (JD 14:111) On February 8, 1857, Brigham spoke of becoming acquainted with our Heavenly Father: The items that have been advanced are principles of real doctrine, whether you consider them so or not. It is one of the first principles of the doctrine of salvation to become acquainted with our Father and our God. The Scriptures teach that this is eternal life, to "know Thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent;" this is as much as to say that no man can enjoy or be prepared for eternal life without that knowledge. You hear a great deal of preaching upon this subject; and when people repent of their sins, they will get together, and pray and exhort each other, and try to get the spirit of revelation, try to have God their Father revealed to them, that they may know Him and become acquainted with Him. There are some plain, simple facts that I wish to tell you, and I have but one desire in this, which is, that you should have understanding to receive them, to treasure them up in your hearts, to contemplate upon these facts, for they are simple facts, based upon natural principles; there is no mystery about them when once understood. I want to tell you, each and every one of you, that you are well acquainted with God our heavenly Father, or the great Eloheim. You are all well acquainted with Him, for there is not a soul of you but what has lived in His house and dwelt with Him year after year; and yet you are seeking to become acquainted with Him, when the fact is, you have merely forgotten what you did know. I told you a little last Sabbath about forgetting things. There is not a person here today but what is a son or a daughter of that Being. In the spirit world their spirits were first begotten and brought forth, and they lived there with their parents for ages before they came here. This, perhaps, is hard for many to believe, but it is the greatest nonsense in the world not to believe it. If you do not believe it, cease to call Him Father; and when you pray, pray to some other character. It would be inconsistent in you to disbelieve what I think you know, and then to go home and ask the Father to do so and so for you. The Scriptures which we believe have taught us from the beginning to call Him our Father, and we have been taught to pray to Him as our Father, in the name of our eldest brother whom we call Jesus Christ, the Savior of the world; and that Savior, while here on earth, was so explicit on this point, that he taught his disciples to call no man on earth father, for we have one which is in heaven. He is the Savior, because it is his right to redeem the remainder of the family pertaining to the flesh on this earth, if any of you do not believe this, tell us how and what we should believe. If I am not telling you the truth,

please to tell me the truth on this subject, and let me know more than I do know. If it is hard for you to believe, if you wish to be Latter-day Saints, admit the fact as I state it, and do not contend against it. Try to believe it, because you will never become acquainted with our Father, never enjoy the blessings of His Spirit, never be prepared to enter into His presence, until you most assuredly believe it; therefore you had better try to believe this great mystery about God. [78] I do not marvel that the world is clad in mystery, to them He is an unknown God; they cannot tell where He dwells nor how He lives, nor what kind of a being He is in appearance or character. They want to become acquainted with His character and attributes, but they know nothing of them. This is in consequence of the apostasy that is now in the world. They have departed from the knowledge of God, transgressed His laws, changed His ordinances, and broken the everlasting covenant, so that the whole earth is defiled under the inhabitants thereof. Consequently it is no mystery to us that the world knoweth not God, but it would be a mystery to me, with what I know, to say that we cannot know anything of Him. We are His children. To bring the truth of this matter close before you, I will instance your fathers who made the first permanent settlement in New England. There are a good many in this congregation whose fathers landed upon Plymouth Rock in the year 1620. Those fathers began to spread abroad; they had children, those children had children, and their children had children, and here are we their children. I am one of them, and many of this congregation belong to that class. Now ask yourselves this simple question upon natural principles, has the species altered? Were not the people who landed at Plymouth Rock the same species with us? Were they not organized as we are? Were not their countenances similar to ours? Did they not converse, have knowledge, read books? Were there not mechanics among them, and did they not understand agriculture, &c. as we do? Yes, every person admits this. Now follow our fathers further back and take those who first came to the island of Great Britain, were they the same species of beings as those who came to America? Yes, all acknowledge this; this is upon natural principles. Thus you may continue and trace the human family back to Adam and Eve, and ask, "are we of the same species with Adam and Eve?" Yes, every person acknowledges this; this comes within the scope of our understanding. But when we arrive at that point, a veil is dropt, and our knowledge is cut off. Were it not so, you could trace back your history to the Father of our spirits in the eternal world. He is a being of the same species as ourselves; He lives as we do, except the difference that we are earthly, and He is heavenly. He has been earthly, and is of precisely the same species of being that we are. Whether Adam is the personage that we should consider our heavenly Father, or not, is considerable of a mystery to a good many. I do not care for one moment how that is; it is no

matter whether we are to consider Him our God, or whether His Father, or His Grandfather, for in either case we are of one species of one family -- and Jesus Christ is also of our species. You may hear the divines of the day extol the character of the Savior, undertake to exhibit his true character before the people, and give an account of his origin, and were it not ridiculous, I would tell what I have thought about their views. Brother Kimball wants me to ten it, therefore you will excuse me if I do. I have frequently thought of mules, which you know are half horse and half ass, when reflecting upon the representations made by those divines. I have heard sectarian priests undertake to tell the character of the Son of God, and they make him half of one species and half of another, and I could not avoid thinking at once of the mule, which is the most hateful creature that ever was made, I believe. You will excuse me, but I have thus thought many a time. Now to the facts in the case; all the difference between Jesus Christ and any other man that ever lived on the earth, from the days of Adam until now, is simply this, the Father, after He had once been in the flesh, and lived as we live, obtained His exaltation, attained to thrones, gained the ascendancy over principalities and powers, and had the knowledge and power to create -- to bring forth and organize the elements upon natural principles. This He did after His ascension, or His glory, or His eternity, and was actually classed with the Gods with the beings who create, with those who have kept the celestial [79] law while in the flesh, and again obtained their bodies. Then He was prepared to commence the work of creation, as the Scriptures teach. It is all here in the Bible; I am not telling you a word but what is contained in that book. Things were first created spiritually; the Father actually begat the spirits, and they were brought forth and lived with Him. Then He commenced the work of creating earthly tabernacles, precisely as He had been created in this flesh himself, by partaking of the course material that was organized and composed this earth, until His system was charged with it, consequently the tabernacles of His children were organized from the course materials of this earth. When the time came that His first-born, the Savior, should come into the world and take a tabernacle, the Father came Himself and favored that spirit with a tabernacle instead of letting any other man do it. The Savior was begotten by the Father of His spirit, by the same being who is the Father of our spirits and that is all the organic difference between Jesus Christ and you and me. And a difference there is between our Father and us consists in that He has gained His exaltation, and has obtained eternal lives. The principle of eternal lives is an eternal existence, eternal duration, eternal exaltation. Endless are His kingdoms, endless His thrones and His dominions, and endless are His posterity; they never will cease to multiply from this time henceforth and forever.

To you who are prepared to enter into the presence of the Father and the Son, what I am now telling will eventually be no more strange than are the feelings of a person who returns to his father's house, brethren, and sisters, and enjoys the society of his old associates, after an absence of several years upon some distant island. Upon returning he would be happy to see his father, his relatives and friends. So also if we keep the celestial law when our spirits go to God who gave them, we shall find that we are acquainted there and distinctly realize that we know all about that world. Tell me what you do not know anything about! I will tell you one thing, it would better become you to lay your hands upon your mouths and them in the dust, and cry, "unclean, unclean." Whether you receive these things or not, I tell you them in simplicity. I lay them before you like a child, because they are perfectly simple. If you see and understand these things, it will be by the Spirit of God; you will receive them by no other spirit. No matter whether they are told to you like the thunderings of the Almighty, or by simple conversation; if you enjoy the Spirit of the Lord, it will tell you whether they are right or not... I know my heavenly Father and Jesus Christ whom He has sent, and this is eternal life. And if we will do as we have been told this morning, if you will enter into the spirit of your calling, into the principle of securing to yourselves eternal lives, eternal existence, eternal exaltation, it will be well with you. But if, after being put into a carriage and placed upon the road, after having everything prepared for the journey that infinite wisdom could devise, this people stroll into the swamp, get into the woods among the brambles and briars, and wander around until night overtakes them, I say, shame on such people. I am ashamed to talk about a reformation, for if you have entered into the spirit of your religion, you will know whether these things are so or not. If you have the spirit of your religion and have confidence in you, walk along and continue to do so, and secure to yourselves the life before you, and never let it be said, from this time henceforth, that you have wakened out of your sleep, from the fact that you are always awake. (JD 4:215-219) [80] So, it is by the first man and first woman's partaking of the coarse materials of which an earth is composed, and thereby their systems becoming charged with the elements of mortality, that they fall and become capable of creating bodies for their spiritual offspring. President Heber C. Kimball followed the Prophet's sermon and made the following remarks: Brother Brigham has little child cannot Father and our God; know it. Often when talked here today so plain that a misunderstand it. He spoke about our I believe what he has said, in fact I I have been in the presence of brother

Brigham, we would feel such a buoyant spirit that when we began to talk we could not express our feelings, and so, "Hallelujah," says Brigham, "Glory to God," say I. I feel it and I say it. Some of the brethren kind of turn their noses on one side at me when I make such expressions, but they would not do it if they knew God. Such ones do not even know brothers Brigham and Heber; if they did they would not turn a wry face at us. (JD 4:222) We perceive from Heber's remarks that "some of the brethren" did not agree with Brigham's and Heber's views concerning God. In October of the same year (1857) Brigham Young addressed objections to the doctrine of Adam--God: Some have grumbled because I believe our God so near to us as Father Adam. There are many who know that doctrine to be true. Where was Michael in the creation of this earth? Did he have a mission to the earth? He did. Where was he? In the Grand Council, and performed the mission assigned him there. Now, if it should happen that we have to pay tribute to Father Adam, what a humiliating circumstance it would be! Just wait till you pass Joseph Smith; and after Joseph lets you pass him, you will find Peter; and after you pass the Apostles and many of the Prophets, you will find Abraham, and he will say, "I have the keys, and except you do thus and so, you cannot pass;" and after a while you come to Jesus; and when you at length meet Father Adam, how strange it will appear to your present notions. If we can pass Joseph and have him say, "Here; you have been faithful, good boys; I hold the keys of this dispensation; I will let you pass;" then we shall be very glad to see the white locks of Father Adam. (JD 5:331-332) If we fail to understand who our Father in Heaven is and what He has gone through to become such, then we fail to even understand why it is that we are here. We are now walking in the path that He once trod. If faithful, we will one day be where He now is. Is it not crucial for us to understand what we will become and what we are now being groomed for? Our Father in Heaven created all of this for our benefit and His Glory. Just four months after the historic discourse of April 9, 1852, Brigham delivered a sermon at a special conference held in the Tabernacle at Salt Lake City. In this discourse he confirmed what he had earlier revealed at the historic Priesthood discourse wherein he revealed for the first time the Adam-God doctrine. In this later discourse Brigham revealed that those who are faithful will one day possess the power to propagate their own spirit children, create a world like ours, and then create tabernacles for those children, as Adams and Eves themselves: [81] But I expect, if I am faithful with yourselves, that I shall see the time with yourselves that we shall know how to prepare to organize an earth like this -- know how to people that earth, how to redeem it, how to sanctify it, and how to glorify it, with those who live upon it who hearken to our counsels.

The Father and the Son have attained to this point already; I am on the way, and so are you, and every faithful servant of God... After men have got their exaltations and their crowns -have become Gods, even the sons of God -- are made Kings of kings and Lords of lords, they have the power then of propagating their species in spirit; and that is the first of their operations with regard to organizing a world. Power is then given to them to organize the elements, and then commence the organization of tabernacles. How can they do it? Have they to go to that earth? Yes, an Adam will have to go there, and he cannot do without Eve; he must have Eve to commence the work of generation, and they will go into the garden, and continue to eat and drink of the fruits of the corporeal world, until this grosser matter is diffused sufficiently through their celestial bodies to enable them, according to the established laws, to produce mortal tabernacles for their spiritual children. This is a key for you. The faithful will become Gods, even the sons of God; but this does not overthrow the idea that we have a father. Adam is my Father; (this I will explain to you at some future time;) but it does not prove that he is not my father, if I become a God: it does not prove that I have not a father. (JD 6:274-275, August 28, 1852; also printed in Deseret News, September 18, 1852) Adam, then, is only a name-title applied to the Father and God of each world which is created, and the name Adam applies only to that God while he is in the capacity of creating mortal tabernacles for His spirit children. Thus, our Father fell that men might be, becoming an Adam, or first man, in order to facilitate the tabernacling of His spirit children. And the name-title applied to the Mother of the children of each creation is Eve. Moses, in teaching the children of Israel this doctrine, used a parallel structure. Notice that "Adam" is paralleled with "the Lord God," his wife "Eve" with "the first of all women," and "the mother of all living ... are many": And Adam called his wife's name Eve, because she was the mother of all living; for thus have I, the Lord God, called the first of all women, which are many. (Moses 4:26) Brigham is the only man who has ever made sense of this scripture; after all, if Eve "was the mother of all living" when Adam gave her this name, then who was it that she was the mother of? And now we know what "the Lord God" means when He says, "thus have I called the first of all women, which are many." Brigham informs us that the peopling of planets has always been happening, and the Lord God informs us that He has always called the first woman Eve. And the Lord also informs us that there are many Eves. In his October 8, 1854 discourse Brigham clarifies the office or name-title of an Adam and Eve: Every world has had an Adam, and an Eve: named so, simply because the first man is always called Adam, and the first woman Eve .... Every world that has been created, has been created upon the same principle. (Brigham Young, October 8,

1854, Church Archives; see chapter five for entire discourse) [82] The Ancient Of Days We have seen from Joseph's teachings and the revelations he received that the name, Ancient of Days, belongs to Adam or Michael. In our creation the three names are synonymous and are not applied to any other Being, although they do refer, in part, to different offices or stages of our Father's work. Often, Brigham Young would refer to this Being as our Heavenly Father, and our God. On February 23, 1862 Brigham gave a discourse intended to correct "erroneous ideas entertained towards" God: Our former religious traditions have taught us that our Father in heaven has no tabernacle, that his center is everywhere and his circumference nowhere. Yet we read that "God came from Teman, and the Holy One from Mount Paran." "Before him went the pestilence, and burning coals went forth at his feet." "And the ancient of days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool." "Hast thou an arm like God? Or can'st thou thunder with a voice like him?" "And I will take away mine hand and thou shalt see my back parts; but my face thou shalt not see." "The eyes of the Lord are upon the righteous, and his ears are open to their cry." The idea that the Lord our God is not a personage of tabernacle is entirely a mistaken notion. He was once a man. Brother Kimball quoted a saying of Joseph the Prophet, that he would not worship a God who had not a Father; and I do not know that he would if he had not a mother; the one would be as absurd as the other. If he had a Father, he was made in his likeness. And if he is our Father we are made after his image and likeness. He once possessed a body, as we now do... (JD 9:286) In this discourse Brigham identifies the Ancient of Days with our Father in Heaven. And on January 8, 1865 Brigham Young again spoke of the Ancient of Days as "the Father of us all:" If Jesus should veil His glory and appear before you as a man, and witness of himself as being the image of his Father, would you believe that he was really Jesus Christ and that he told you the truth? And if you believed His words, would you not wonder exceedingly to hear that our Father and God is an organized being after the fashion of man's organization in every respect? Such, however, is the case. One of the prophets describes the Father of us all, saying, "I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool; his throne was like the fiery flame," etc. The prophet further says, "thousand thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him," etc. Again, "and, behold, one like the Son of Man came with the clouds of heaven and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him." Now, who is this Ancient of days? You may answer this question at your pleasure, I have already

told the people. (JD 11:41-42) And it is this God, the Ancient of Days, who is the God of the Old Testament. He is the one who "led Abraham, and talked to Noah, Enoch, Isaac, and Jacob." On February 10, 1867 Brigham taught: It is true that we read in the Bible with regard to the twelve tribes of Israel, that they will be gathered together tribe by tribe, and that when they are so gathered they will hear the sentence of the Ancient of Days... [83] They will come up tribe by tribe, and the Ancient of Days, He who led Abraham, and talked to Noah, Enoch, Isaac, and Jacob, that very Being will come and judge the twelve tribes of Israel. (JD 11:326-327) And on February 20, 1870 Brigham spoke of the God of Abraham: He said, "Have you confidence in me, my son Abraham?" "Yes," said Abraham. "Well, I will prove you. Bring up your son Isaac to Mount Moriah, build an alter there, place the wood on the alter and bind your son and place him on the alter and sacrifice him to me, and this will prove whether you have faith in me or not." The sacrifice was offered and accepted, and the Lord provided a way whereby Isaac could live... Who is that God? He is my Father, He is your Father; we are His offspring... (JD 13:236) The Grandfather Brigham Young plainly taught that Adam, who is Michael, was not from the same generation as the rest of the inhabitants of the earth. The Being who is Adam's Father is our Grandfather. On January 12, 1862, in the Tabernacle, Brigham said: How has it transpired that theological truth is thus so widely disseminated? It is because God was once known on the earth among his children of mankind, as we know one another. Adam was as conversant with his Father who placed him upon this earth as we are conversant with our earthly parents. The Father frequently came to visit his son Adam, and talked and walked with him; and the children of Adam were more or less acquainted with their Grandfather, and their children were more or less acquainted with their Great-Grandfather. (JD 9:148) Here, Brigham tells us that it was Adam's Father who placed him on this earth, and that same Being was Cain and Abel's Grandfather. Father, Son, And Grandson Joseph F. Smith recorded in his journal the teachings which President Brigham Young delivered to them in the School of the Prophets: Elohim, Yahovah and Michael were father, Son and grandson.

They made this Earth and Michael became Adam. (Brigham Young, as recorded in the Joseph F. Smith Journal, 17 June 1871 entry; Church Archives) Here, Brigham reveals the essence of the doctrine of Deity: the Gods which preside over us are a close-knit family who continue to serve one another in the Patriarchal Order in eternity. [84] Did Adam Know Who He Was? Many of us marvel that Father would condescend to fill the office of an Adam. The scriptural accounts of Adam's life and ministry indicate that he was a man not unlike the rest of us. And Joseph revealed that Adam was none other than the premortal Michael, creator of this earth. Was Adam's life here upon the earth veiled as ours is? Did Adam know he was the Father of us all? Did He know that He was the God of us all? On July 13, 1862 Brigham taught: An angel of the Lord visited Adam, when Adam was offering up sacrifice. The angel asked him why he was offering up sacrifice. Adam replied, I know not, but this I do know, the Lord has commanded me, therefore I offer up sacrifice. It may be said that Adam was very ignorant. It was designed by the Lord that his previous knowledge should pass from him. (JD 9:314-315) Because the veil was as functional for Adam as it is for us, we see that Adam, through the fall, became subject to the same hostile environment that we are subject to. Source Of Brigham's Light We must not forget that Brigham was the Prophet of God through whom revelation for the Church flowed. He, more than any man alive, was privileged to know the mind and will of the Father and what the Father wanted us to know. Brigham queried: Where is the divine who knows the least thing about that Being who is the Father of our spirits and the author of our bodies?.... I have had many revelations; I have seen and heard for myself, and know these things are true, and nobody on earth can disprove them ... What I know concerning God, concerning the earth, concerning government, I have received from the heavens, not alone through my natural ability, and I give God the glory and the praise. (JD 16:46) As we have already seen, Brigham Young's teachings were not always welcomed by his people. Regarding his teachings, he has said: I say now, when they are copied and approved by me they are as good Scripture as is couched in this Bible, and if you want to read revelation, read the sayings of him who knows the mind of God, without any special command to one man to go here, and to another to go yonder, or to do this or

that, or to go and settle here or there. (JD 8:264) And on another occasion Brigham said: I have never yet preached a sermon and sent it out to the children of men, that they may not call it scripture. Let me have the privilege of correcting a sermon, and it is as good as they deserve. The [85] people have the oracles of God continually... Let this go to the people with "Thus saith the Lord," and if they do not obey it, you will see the chastening hand of the Lord upon them. (Deseret News, February 2, 1870) What was the source of Brigham Young's knowledge and teachings? This question compels us to choose one of two sides: either Brigham was a bungling fool or he was an inspired prophet of God; either he fabricated dogma or he received revelation from God. And if you choose to believe Brigham Young took liberties which were not entitled to him when he promulgated doctrine, then what do you choose to believe about Joseph who had more trust in Brigham than any other man on this earth? Was Joseph a bungling fool too? No, Joseph was not a bungling fool, nor was Brigham. They both were faithful servants of our Father and God, and this is why they are so persecuted and misunderstood by critics as well as Latter-day Saints today. They were not offended by the revelations of our Father and this is why He revealed more to them than they would reveal to us. Knowledge Of Father Adam Knowledge of the things of God comes in only one way, through revelation. And this revelation comes only to those who have earned such. On October 6, 1870 Brigham said: Suppose a man should come here and tell you the very nature of our Father Adam -- tell precisely how he was organized, his height, his proportions, the extent of his knowledge, tell you the agreement that was entered into, the amount of knowledge that he had to forget to reduce himself to the capacity of a corruptible being! Suppose this could all be told to the congregations of the Saints, what would they know about it? Very little. There may be some minds which could grasp some things pertaining to it, but others could not. The spirit of revelation can reveal these things to the people. but unless they live so as to have the revelations of the Lord Jesus Christ, they will remain a mystery, for there is a veil before the minds of the people, and they cannot be understood. Some of these principles have been taught to the Latter-day Saints, but who can understand them? (JD 13:263-264) On April 25, 1855 Brigham Young delivered a discourse to the Deseret Theological Institute, of which the Deseret News printed: President Brigham delivered a lengthy, and interesting lecture on theology, which was listened to with profound attention by the audience. (DN May 2, 1855) After introducing his subject in these words, "This is eternal

life to know thee, the only true God and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent," President Young said: Well, how can we learn by reading the history of Adam and Eve to know the Lord? If you were to hear the footsteps of the Lord would you know from the history of Adam and Eve that it was the Lord coming? They knew his voice and his footsteps for they had lived with him. And what I have upon [86] this subject I now say, Adam had been with the Lord and had lived with him upon an earth like this and had been faithful and overcome, and had received his body and was resurrected and was well acquainted with the Lord and was one of his mess mates. He had eaten and drank with him and had lived with him from generation to generation and in many worlds, probably while many had come into and gone out of existence. And he helped to make this earth and brought the seeds with him that you see springing up spontaneously, and when he called, the elements came rolling together. Well you see from this, that when you and I have been with and lived with the Lord we shall know his voice. If father Adam were to come into this house and you were to see him go back and forth, would you know him? No, you would never mistrust it was him unless he revealed himself. But by the time that you have lived with him as long as Adam had before he came here you will know him and recognize his footsteps, but reading the history will not teach you these things. Consequently I come right down to ourselves and say we cannot know the only wise God and Jesus Christ whom he has sent. No man can have this knowledge but those to whom God reveals it. Has he revealed it to you, who he is, what he has to do with this world and the relationship that he sustains to it? You must not be astonished when I tell you that the whole world, with the exception of the Latter-day Saints, for they do know something about God, but the whole world besides are as far from that knowledge as the cast is from the west. Though they read it in the Bible yet it never enters into their hearts that the apostle told the truth when he says, "There is but one living and true God, the father of our spirits." Well now who is the father of our spirits?... I will tell you what I think about some who will have something to do with us by and by, when Michael blows his trumpet and calls the world together we shall then be before him and we shall be perfectly satisfied that he can pass all the judgement that we shall want, and that the dominions of the wicked will want, and I have no doubt but the Saints that live and have lived from the days of Adam will be satisfied that he can give them kingdoms and power, thrones and dominions and influence in eternity. And when they get all that he can give they will be satisfied and say it [is] enough. If we can get to him, the Ancient of Days, whose hair is like wool, a man of age, a man of experience, and can learn of him to understand "I am that I am" we shall then hear him say, "I am your father and leader. I will be your front and your rearward. I understand what this world is. I understand all about it. I have the government of the world in my hands, although to a certain extent my opposer, my enemy, has gained a certain

influence in the world." You will hear him say, "I am in the whirlwind at my pleasure. I ride upon the storms and I govern worlds. I set up one king and put another down and organize empires and overthrow them at my pleasure. I the Lord do all these things." When we come to that great and wise and glorious being that the children of Israel were afraid of, whose countenance shone so that they could not look upon him, I say when we get to him whom they could not look upon, to that man, that is I conclude he was a man for it says that he had hands and you know men have hands, and it says that he put his hands out before Moses in the cleft of the rock until his glory passed by and would not suffer Moses to see his face but his [back] parts only. Seeing then that he had parts I conclude that he was a man. When we can see that very character and talk and live with him in our tabernacles, if we are so fortunate as to get there into his society, then we can say that to us there is but one living and is the father of our Lord Jesus Christ and of our spirits. And when we get back to him and learn that he is actually our father we shall not feel any anxiety to call upon anybody else for the blessings we are in need of. It is a subject I am aware that does not appear so clear to our understandings at present as we could wish it or as it will some day, and it is one that should not trouble us at all. All such things will become more clear to your minds by and by. I tell you this as my belief about that personage who is called the Ancient of Days, the Prince and so on, but I do not tell it because that I wish it to be established in the minds of others, though to me this [87] is as clear as the sun, it is as plain as my alphabet. I understand it as I do the path to go home. I did not understand so until my mind became enlightened with the Spirit and by the revelations of God, neither will you understand until our Father in Heaven reveals all these things unto you. To my mind and to my feelings those matters are all plain and easy to be understood. (Brigham Young, April 25, 1855, Church Archives) Will The Ignorant Receive The Truth? We have already studied in detail how ignorance retards the Lord's work, and the fact that the Father desires to reveal all to us if we will only become humble before Him. Brigham was well aware that the truth would be rejected by the majority of the Saints. We wonder if he knew that his revealments about God would be rejected by the Church as a whole in this century. Perhaps Brigham knew what Moses felt like, to be the leader of a chosen people who would not accept the fullness of God's word. On May 20, 1860, President Young said: There are other revelations, besides this (meaning the one on war), not yet published to the world. In the due time of the Lord, the Saints and the world will be privileged with the revelations that are due them. They now have many more than they are worthy of, for they do not observe them. The Gentile nations have had more of the revelations of God than is their just due. And I will say, as I have before said, if guilt before my God and my brethren rests upon me

in the least, it is in this one thing -- that I have revealed too much concerning God and His Kingdom, and the designs of our Father in heaven. If my skirts are stained in the least with wrong, it is because I have been too free in telling what God is, how he lives, the nature of his providences and designs in creating the world, in bringing forth the human family on the earth, his designs concerning them, etc. If I had, like Paul, said-- "But if any man be ignorant, let him be ignorant," perhaps it would have been better for the people... You may ask whether this is reasonable. I can prove it to be so in a few sentences. There are men upon whom God has bestowed gifts and graces, and women who are endowed with strong mental ability, and yet they cannot receive the truth; and then the truth condemns them; it leaves them in darkness. When they cannot receive every truth, let it be ever so important or unimportant to them, their neglect to grasp in their faith the truth God reveals for their benefit weakens them, comparatively, from the crowns of their heads to the soles of their feet, and the enemy may have the advantage over them in an hour when they think not. To please our Father in heaven, and do his will in all things, to walk up faithfully in the discharge of every duty preparatory to being crowned in his kingdom, when a truth is presented to an intelligent person he ought to grasp it and receive it in his faith. There are revelations, wisdom, knowledge, and understanding yet to be proclaimed, and whether they will please the world, or not, is immaterial to me. I shall not pledge myself upon a single point. (Deseret News, June 27, 1860; JD 8:58-59) It is obvious that many of the Saints today would be happier if Brigham had never revealed Adam-God. It is also obvious that Brigham struggled with whether or not he should reveal Adam-God. But a prophet of God is first a prophet, and his loyalties to his God cannot [88] be diminished by his concerns for man's ignorance. As Brigham had been one of a very few who never wavered in their loyalty to Joseph, so he was desirous to be as Abraham had been, faithful in all things, and so he was. Four years prior to his death, Brigham delivered another powerful discourse on the subject of Adam-God. For over twenty years Brigham had tried to teach the Latter-day Saints about their Father and God, but found few "good and honest hearts" would accept and profit therefrom: I wanted to make a few remarks upon the subject touched upon by my brother, but I shall not have the time. I frequently think, in my meditations, how glad we should be to instruct the world with regard to the things of God, if they would hear, and receive our teachings in good and honest hearts and profit by them. I have been found fault with a great many times for casting reflections upon men of science, and especially upon theologians, because of the little knowledge they possess about man being on the earth, about the earth itself, about our Father in heaven, his Son Jesus Christ, the order of heavenly things, the laws by which angels exist, by which the worlds were created and are held in existence, etc. How pleased we would be to place these things before the people if they would receive

them! How much unbelief exists in the minds of the Latter-day Saints in regard to one particular doctrine which I revealed to them, and which God revealed to me -namely that Adam is our father and God -- I do not know, I do not inquire, I care nothing about it. Our Father Adam helped to make this earth, it was created expressly for him, and after it was made he and his companions came here. He brought one of his wives with him, and she was called Eve, because she was the first woman upon the earth. Our Father Adam is the man who stands at the gate and holds the keys of everlasting life and salvation to all his children who have or who ever will come upon the earth. I have been found fault with by the ministers of religion because I have said that they were ignorant. But I could not find any man on the earth who could tell me this, although it is one of the simplest things in the world, until I met and talked with Joseph Smith. Is it a great mystery that the earth exists? Is it a great mystery, that the world cannot solve, that man is on the earth? Yes, it is; but to whom? To the ignorant -- those who know nothing about it. It is no mystery to those who understand. Is it a mystery to the Christian world that Jesus is the Son of God, and still the son of man? Yes it is, it is hidden from them, and this fulfills the Scripture -- "If our gospel be hid, it is hid to them that are lost," who have no faith, and who pay no attention to the Spirit of God. These things are called mysteries by the people because they know nothing about them, just like laying hands on the sick. Is it a mystery that fever should be rebuked and the sick healed by the laying on of the hands of a man who is endowed with authority from God and has been ordained to that gift? "Oh yes," say the ignorant, "we know nothing about it." That is true, but where is the mystery? Will the ignorant receive the truth when they hear it? No, they will not, and this is their condemnation, that light has come into the world, and they choose darkness rather than light, because their deeds are evil. That is the fact in the case. What is the mystery about it? They do not understand invisible things. Ask the wicked, "Do you know anything about the laying on of hands?" "Oh yes, such a man" -- a man who is wicked in his whole life -- "has the art of laying on of hands for curing the tooth-ache, fevers, wounds," etc.; and now, in fulfillment of the words of the ancient prophet, thousands of people seek unto "wizards who peep and mutter," etc., but they will not seek unto the living God. I can say to all the inhabitants of the earth that before what is called spiritualism was ever known in America I told the people that if they would not believe the revelations that God had given he would suffer the devil to give revelations that they -- priests and people -- would follow after. Where did I declare this? In the cities of New York, Albany, Boston, throughout the United States and in England. Have I seen this fulfilled? I have. I told the people that as true as God lived. if they would not have truth they would have error sent unto them, and they would believe it. What is the mystery of it? [89] The Christian world read of, and think much about, St. Paul, also St. Peter, the chief of the Apostles. These men were faithful to and magnified the priesthood while on the

earth. Now, where win be the mystery, after they have passed through all the ordeals, and have been crowned and exalted, and receive their inheritances in the eternal worlds of glory, for them to be sent forth, as the Gods have been for ever and ever, with the command -- "Make yourselves an earth, and people it with your own children?" Do you think the starry heavens are going to fall? Do the Christian world or the heathen world think that all things are going to be wrapped up, consumed, and annihilated in eternal flames? Oh fools, and slow of heart to believe the great things that God has purposed in his own mind! My brother said that God is as we are. He did not mean those words to be literally understood. He meant simply, that in our organization we have all the properties in embryo in our bodies that our Father has in his, and that literally, morally, socially, by the spirit and by the flesh we are his children. Do you think that God, who holds the eternities in his hands and can do all things at his pleasure, is not capable of sending forth his own children, and forming this flesh for his own offspring? Where is the mystery in this? We say that Father Adam came here and helped to make the earth. Who is he? He is Michael, a great prince, and it was said to him by Eloheim, "Go ye and make an earth." What is the great mystery about it? He came and formed the earth. Geologists ten us that it was here millions of years ago. How do they know? They know nothing about it. But suppose it was here, what of it? Adam found it in a state of chaos, unorganized and incomplete. Philosophers, again, in talking of the development of the products of the earth, for instance, in the vegetable kingdom, say the little fibres grew first, then the larger vegetation. When this preparatory stage was completed then came the various orders of the animal creation; and finally man appeared. No mater whether these notions are true or not, they are more or less speculative. Adam came here and got it up in a shape that would suite him to commence business. What is the great mystery about it? None, that I have seen. The mystery in this, as with miracles, or anything else, is only to those who are ignorant. Father Adam came here, and then they brought his wife. "Well," says one, "why was Adam called Adam?" He was the first man on the earth, and its framer and maker. He, with the help of his brethren, brought it into existence. Then he said, I want my children who are in the spirit world to come and live here. I once dwelt upon an earth something like this, in a mortal state. I was faithful, I received my crown and exaltation. I have the privilege of extending my work, and to its increase there will be no end. I want my children that were born to me in the spirit world to come here and take tabernacles of flesh, that their spirits may have a house, a tabernacle or a dwelling place as mine has, and where is the mystery?" Now for mother Eve. The evil principle always has and always will exist. Well, a certain character came along, and said to Mother Eve, "The Lord has told you that you must not do so and so, for if you do you shall surely die. But I tell you that if you do not do this you win never

know good from evil, your eyes will never be opened, and you may live on the earth for ever and ever, and you win never know what the Gods know." The devil told the truth, what is the mystery about it? He is doing it today. He is telling one or two truths and mixing them with a thousand errors to get the people to swallow them. I do not blame Mother Eve, I would not have had her miss eating the forbidden fruit for anything in the world. I would not give a groat if I could not understand light from darkness. I can understand the bitter from the sweet, so can you. Here is intelligence, but bind it up and make machines of its possessors, and where is the glory or exaltation? There is none. They must pass through the same ordeals as the Gods, that they may know good from evil, how to succor the tempted, tried and weak, and how to reach down the hand of mercy to save the falling sinner. The Lord has revealed his gospel and instituted its ordinances that the inhabitants of the earth may be put in [90] possession of eternal life. But few of them, however, will accept it. I have preached it to many thousands of them who are naturally just as honest as I am, but through tradition there is an overwhelming prejudice in their minds which debars them of that liberty I have in my heart. They would be glad to know the ways of God, and to know who Jesus is, and to reap the reward of the faithful, if they had the stamina, I will call it, the independence of mind necessary to embrace the truth, to say, "I know this is true, and if there is no other person on the face of this earth who will defend it I will to the last." But this is not in their hearts, it is not in their organization, consequently they do not manifest it. What mystery is there about it? None whatever. What is the mystery in Jesus being the Son of God and at the same time the son of the Virgin Mary? You know what the infidels say about this, but their words are no worse than the practice of many in the Christian world. I do not want to be found fault with, but if I am it is all the same to me. There is no mystery to me in what God has revealed to me, or in what I have learned, whether it has been through Joseph, an angel, the voice of the Spirit, the Holy Ghost or the Spirit of the Lord; no matter how I have learned a thing, if I understand it perfectly it is no mystery to me. It is like making one of these pulpits, or a house like this. This is no mystery to me, I dictated it, and a great many say it is a great piece of architecture to have a single span, so large as this roof and composed of wood that will sustain itself. But it is no mystery to me. I know the strength of the materials and how to place them together. It is no mystery to me to build a temple or a common house. But you take a gentleman or lady who was never beyond the confines of a densely populated city, who never saw wheat grow, and who never saw cattle in the fields, and it is a great mystery to them to see them. Why? Because they never saw such things before, and they know nothing about them, but it is no mystery to those who know all about such things. Do you think it any mystery to angels to know how the various organizations are brought on earth? Not the least in the world. There is no mystery in all this to the Gods, no mystery in them to the prophets and apostles whom they send, and to whom they reveal them;

it is all plain, every day, common sense, just as much so with anything else in the world -- we understand it. Some may say to me, "Why, Brother Brigham, you seem to know it all." I say, Oh no, I know but very little, but I have an eternity of knowledge before me, and I never expect to see the time when I shall cease to learn, never, no never, but I expect to keep on learning for ever and ever, going on from exaltation to exaltation, glory to glory, power to power, ever pressing forward to greater and higher attainments, as the Gods do. That is an idea that drowns the entire Christian world in a moment. Let them try to entertain it and they are out of sight of land without a ship, and if they had a ship it would have neither sail, rudder nor compass. "What," say they, "God progress?" Now, do not lariat the God that I serve and say that he can not learn any more; I do not believe in such a character. "Why," say they, "does not the Lord know it all?" Well, if he does, he must know an immense amount. No matter about that, the mind of man does not reach that any more than it comprehends the heaven beyond the bounds of time and space in which the Christians expect to sit and sing themselves away to everlasting bliss, and where they say they shall live for ever and for ever. If we look forward we can actually comprehend a little of the idea that we shall live for ever and ever; but you take a rear sight, and try and contemplate and meditate upon the fact that there never was a beginning and you are lost at once. The present and the future we can comprehend some little about, but the past is all a blank, and it is right and reasonable that it should be so. But if we are faithful in the things of God they will open up, open up, open up, our minds will expand, reach forth and receive more and more, and by and by we can begin to see that the Gods have been for ever and for ever. Some of our philosophers have tried to reveal the first cause. I would change the position of the whole affair. I would plant my position in the ignorance of man that undertakes to prove or show the [91] existence of a first cause. He had better go to work and prove himself a fool to begin with and then stop, for all his reasonings, arguments and researches with regard to the first cause only prove that he is a fool. Excuse me for this rough expression, perhaps it would be better to say that he comes far short of knowing or understanding himself in the least degree, and his researches are contracted to that degree that he is lost in ignorance of himself. Is this the fact? It is. We can know nothing until we learn it, and when we come to a knowledge of facts they are no mystery to us. Take one of these native Navajo women down south here into a factory and show her the machine for weaving blankets, and if she has never seen anything of the kind she would laugh at such nonsense. Says she, "That is not the way to weave blankets, why do you not tic your web up to the limb of a tree, fasten the other end down, and then take a stick and do just so? That will never weave a blanket." By and by she sees the blanket finished, but it is a mystery to her, and she cannot understand anything about it, because she has

not learned it. It is so with the whole human family. You will excuse me for detaining you a little longer than usual. I wanted to ask the brethren and sisters if they did not think my brother, Joseph Young, pretty good. He is nearly seventy-seven years of age and had a severe sickness last winter. Do you not think he is pretty hale, and doing pretty well? I think he is. I like to see him here. I know that he has been trying to tell the people with regard to the things of God for fifty years past. If I were to live and learn as I have for forty years past -- since I have been in this Church -- for a thousand years, I should only have just commenced to learn the great lesson of eternity. I do hope and pray -- and I want you to listen how I shape this prayer, instead of praying my Father in heaven in the name of Jesus to make you and me faithful -- I pray that we Latter-day Saints may be faithful to the covenants we have entered into with our Heavenly Father and with one another, and to live our holy religion, for we do know how. I need not ask the Father to make us faithful any mo re than I need ask him to come and sow our wheat for us, not a particle, for we know all about it. Be faithful, do right and live so as to be worthy of life everlasting. Amen. (Deseret Weekly News 22:308-309, June 18, 1873) The Obligation Of The People Of God In the previous discourse, Brigham tells us exactly why the doctrinal truth of Adam-God was destined to become lost: the unbelief of the Latter-day Saints: How much unbelief exists in the minds of the Latter-day Saints in regard to one particular doctrine which I revealed to them, and which God revealed to me namely that Adam is our father and God... I told the people that if they would not believe the revelations that God had given he would suffer the devil to give revelations that they -- priests and people -- would follow after... I told the people that as true as God lived, if they would not have truth they would have error sent unto them, and they would believe it. What is the mystery of it? (Ibid.) In as much as God is a God of truth and no respecter of persons, we must believe this principle applies to all of God's children, not just non-Mormons. For those of us who have [92] difficulty in understanding how the Church could ever have lost such a prized truth, Brigham reminds us of the eternal principle which Nephi so succinctly put into words, while at the same time applying them to us: And in fine, wo unto all those who tremble, and are angry because of the truth of God! For behold, he that is built upon the rock receiveth it with gladness; and he that is built upon a sandy foundation trembleth lest he shall fall. Wo be unto him that shall say: We have received the word of God, and we need no more of the word of God, for we have

enough! For behold, thus saith the Lord God: I will give unto the children of men line upon line, precept upon precept, here a little and there a little; and blessed are those who hearken unto my precepts, and lend an ear unto my counsel, for they shall learn wisdom; for unto him that receiveth I will give more; and from them that shall say, We have enough, from them shall be taken away even that which they have. (2 Nephi 28:28-30) Nephi's prophecy may frighten some of us Latter-day Saints: those of us who reject the truth of God; "from them shall be taken away even that which they have." Brigham, in explaining that our "priests and people -- would follow after... error sent unto them," said this would be in consequence of our unbelief. This is a frightening prospect for faithful and sincere Latter-day Saints today. Brigham says that in consequence of our unbelief, God will "suffer the devil to give revelations" to our "priests and people," and that we "would follow after" these "revelations." Furthermore, since we had rejected truth from God, we "would have error sent unto" us, and we "would believe it." Isn't it time we reevaluate our prideful rejection of God's truths, and humble ourselves seeking for God's forgiveness in these matters. We can be the generation to right that which has been wronged! Although most Latter-day Saints would require no more evidence to be convinced that Brigham Young taught and knew Adam-God to be a true doctrine, we have yet a wealth of historical, doctrinal, and contemporary implications to bring to light. Do not forget that the things of God can only be found out by seeking after them in His way; you must pray and ponder over these things, and you must fast, if you truly desire a spiritual witness of their truthfulness: Behold, I say unto you they are made known unto me by the Holy Spirit of God. Behold, I have fasted and prayed many days that I might know these things of myself. And now I do know of myself that they are true; for the Lord God hath made them manifest unto me by his Holy Spirit; and this is the spirit of revelation which is in me. (Alma 5:46) [93] And whatsoever they shall speak when moved upon by the Holy Ghost shall be scripture, shall be the will of the Lord, shall be the mind of the Lord, shall be the word of the Lord, shall be the voice of the Lord, and the power of God unto salvation. The Lord, D&C 68:4

Priesthood Utterances

7

Those Priesthood leaders who were called and set apart by the Prophet Joseph Smith, and who endured to go on and lead the Church subsequent to Joseph's death, must be given the credence and authority they were duly entitled to in their day. If the keys and authority were truly passed on from Joseph to Brigham and his associates holding the Priesthood of God, then these faithful men must be regarded as men of God, entitled to revelation from God to teach and lead the Church. They Followed The Prophet Joseph had called many men to Priesthood leadership positions. The vast majority of them, though, turned against Joseph, and became enemies of the Church. A few men, however, proved their devotion to The Restoration by never wavering. On Sunday May 28, 1843, [94] Joseph had recorded in his journal: Of the Twelve Apostles chosen in Kirtland, and ordained under the hands of Oliver Cowdery, David Whitmer and myself, there have been but two but what have lifted their heel against me -- namely Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball. (HC 5:412) Joseph had tried and tested these brothers and they had never once gone against him, but all the others had on at least one occasion. Heber C. Kimball Heber C. Kimball joined the Church two months after Brigham Young, on June 15, 1832. Truman Madsen has said of Heber, he: was perhaps the second most prophetic man in LDS history. (Joseph Smith the Prophet, p. 38) Of course, Joseph was the most prophetic man in Church history, to whom Heber was here compared. To give some idea of Brother Heber C. Kimball's standing with the Lord, we quote an excerpt from his journal which was published in the Millennial Star: Far West, April 6, 1839. A word from the Spirit of the Lord to My servant Heber C. Kimball: Verily I say unto my servant Heber, thou art my son in who I am well pleased; for thou are careful to hearken to my words, and not transgress my law nor rebel against my servant Joseph Smith; for thou has a respect to the words of mine anointed, even from the least to the greatest of them; therefore thy name is written in heaven, no more to be blotted out forever, because of these things. (Millennial Star 45:101) Heber was ordained an Apostle under the hands of Joseph on the same day that Brigham Young was ordained, February 14, 1835. Heber was a faithful counselor to Brigham Young in the First Presidency of the Church until his death on June 22, 1868. Heber's faithfulness to Joseph and Brigham only serve to confirm

his unwavering faithfulness to God and His truths. What were Heber's teachings with respect to Adam-God? As we would expect from a spiritual man like Heber, his teachings are not silent upon the subject. Said Heber: When we escape from this earth, we suppose we are going to heaven? Do you suppose you are going to the earth that Adam came from, that Eloheim came from, where Jehovah the Lord came from? No. When you have learned to become obedient to the Father that dwells upon this earth, to the Father and God of this earth, and obedient to the messengers He sends -- when you have done all that, remember you are not going to leave this earth. You will never leave it until you become qualified, and capable, and capacitated to become a father of an earth yourselves. (JD 1:356) Heber, here, teaches us that Adam came from an earth other than our own. He also refers [95] to the three Gods whom we know as the Creation Gods: Eloheim, Jehovah, and Adam (Michael). No mention is made of Jesus Christ, and in fact, reference is made to "Jehovah the Lord" coming from another "earth." This does not sound like the Jehovah whom we associate with Jesus Christ, for we believe we are of the same generation as Jesus, the Son, who is our Eldest Brother, who has come from the same earth as we have. Heber also states that, "When you have learned to become obedient to the Father that dwells upon this earth, to the Father and God of this earth, and obedient to the messengers He sends ....." Heber leaves no doubt that it is the Father and God of this earth to whom we must be obedient. Who did Heber know this Father and God to be? I have learned by experience that there is but one God that pertains to this people, and he is the God that pertains to this earth -- the first man. That first man sent his own Son to redeem the world, to redeem his brethren; his life was taken, his blood shed, that our sins might be remitted. That Son called twelve men and ordained them to be Apostles, and when he departed the keys of the kingdom were deposited with three of those Twelve, viz: Peter, James, and John. (JD 4:1) Heber describes the Being who "sent His own Son to redeem the world, to redeem his brethren." His Son is Jesus Christ, our Savior, our elder brother. Who is the Father and God of this world who sent His Son to ransom us from sin? Heber says it is the first man. The identity of the first man is not disputed among the Scriptures and the Prophets. The first man is Adam: Father Adam, who was the first man. (The Lord, D&C 84:16) And the first man of all men have I called Adam, which is many. (Moses 1:34) The first man, who is Adam, our first Father. (Abraham 1:3) Commencing with Adam who was the first man. (Joseph Smith, HC 4:207) Adam is the first man. (Wilford Woodruff, Millennial Star 57:356) On another occasion Heber said: After the earth was made, then there was a garden spot

selected, and the Lord commanded some of his associates to go and plant it, and to cause all kinds of vegetation to grow, and fruits of every description. Some suppose the Lord commanded all these things to come out of the earth. Yes, he did, after the seeds were put in the earth; and he blessed the earth, and the vegetation that was in the earth. When all these things were done, the garden was beautified, and made pure and clean and holy and sanctified; and then the next thing was to bring forth the animal creation; but the animals were not brought there until the vegetation was planted and grown. We often sing, "This earth was once a garden place," where God our Father dwelt, and took possession and a stand that mankind will take who attain to that honor... The religion of Jesus Christ, of angels, of Brigham, and of all good men is to take a care of and improve and adorn the earth as Adam did. When he planted the garden, he planted it with the seeds he brought with him; and he also brought the animals from the earth he lived upon, where his Father dwelt. (JD 243-244, June 12, 1860) [96] So, the earth where Adam's Father dwelt is the earth our Father Adam came from. In the Tabernacle on March 17, 1861, Heber described a vision Joseph Smith once had: This brings to my mind the vision that Joseph Smith had, when he saw Adam open the gate of the Celestial City and admit the people one by one. He then saw Father Adam conduct them to the throne one by one, when they were crowned Kings and Priests of God. (JD 9:41) On June 27, 1863, in Provo, Heber taught that Michael was engaged in the creation of this earth and that afterwards he was made "Lord" over it: We have been taught that our Father and God, from whom we sprang, called and appointed his servants to go and organize an earth, and, among the rest, he said to Adam, "You go along also and help all you can; you are going to inhabit it when it is organized, therefore go and assist in the good work." It reads in the Scriptures that the Lord did it, but the true rendering is, that the Almighty sent Jehovah and Michael to do the work. They were also instructed to plant every kind of vegetable, likewise the forest and the fruit trees, and they actually brought from heaven every variety of fruit, of the seeds of vegetables, the seeds of flowers, and planted them in this earth on which we dwell. And I will say more, the spot chosen for the garden of Eden was Jackson County, in the State of Missouri, where Independence now stands; it was occupied in the morn of creation by Adam and his associates who came with him for the express purpose of peopling this earth. Father Adam was instructed to multiply and replenish the earth, to make it beautiful and glorious, to make it, in short, like unto the garden from which the seeds were brought to plant the garden of Eden. I might say much more upon this subject, but I will ask, has it not been imitated

before you in your holy endowments o that you might understand how things were in the beginning of creation and cultivation of this earth? God the Father made Adam the Lord of this creation in the beginning, and if we are the Lords of this creation under Adam, ought we not to take a course to imitate our Father in heaven? Is not all this exhibited to us in our endowments? the earth made glorious and beautiful to look upon, representing everything which the Lord caused to be prepared and placed to adorn the earth. The Prophet Joseph frequently spoke of these things in the revelations which he gave, but the people generally did not understand them, but to those who did they were cheering, they had a tendency to gladden the heart and enlighten the mind. (JD 10:235) Heber also had a definite knowledge of what the scriptures refer to as Adam's death: I have been to the alter where Adam offered sacrifices and blessed his sons and then left them and went to heaven. (JD 12:188) Remember, it was Heber C. Kimball who conducted the morning session of General Conference which followed the historic Priesthood Session of General Conference in which Brigham Young first revealed the Adam-God doctrine publicly. As Heber opened the Conference, he said: You have heard enough to know that the Spirit of God will be grieved at any folly manifest in the House of God. Angels are ministering spirits to those who are Heirs of Salvation, but when you do wrong the angels of the Lord will leave, and the angels of the Devil will take their place and keep their company. [97] Then you are on dangerous ground and if you will not hear the prophets that God sends unto you, you would not hear the angels of God. Some have said that I was very presumptuous to say that Brother Brigham was my god and savior Brother Joseph was his god -- the one that gave Joseph the Keys of the Kingdom was his god, which was Peter. Jesus Christ was his god and the God and Father of Jesus Christ was Adam. (Deseret News 2:46, #12, April 17, 1852; Wilford Woodruff Journal 4:130-133) Zebedee Coltrin Zebedee Coltrin "was called and ordained as one of the seven presidents of the First Quorum of the Seventy when it was organized on 28, February 1835." (Church History in the Fulness of Times, p. 104) He was very active in the early affairs of the Church as Joseph Smith mentions him in his journal on numerous occasions. In the diary of Oliver B. Huntington, Zebedee Coltrin is reported as having been with the Prophet Joseph and Oliver Cowdery when they: ... saw the heaven open and in it a great golden throne and on it a man and a woman with hair as white as snow. (Diary

of Oliver B. Huntington, p.244; Joseph Smith the Man and Seer, p.92) Joseph informed Zebedee that: ... the man and woman was Father Adam and Mother Eve. (Ibid.) Orson Hyde Orson Hyde was ordained an Apostle on February 15, 1835, one day after Brigham and Heber. He was very prominent in the early establishment of the Church under the direction of Joseph. On January 25, 1871, in Manti, Utah, Apostle Hyde told his audience: Adam is our God for this planet (earth). (Jens Christian Anderson Weiby Diary, January 25, 1871, Church Archives) Wilford Woodruff Wilford Woodruff, the fourth President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, had much to say concerning the subject of our Father in Heaven. Said he: [98] In the first place, I will say that the prophet Joseph taught us that Father Adam was the first man on the earth to whom God gave the keys of the Everlasting Priesthood. He held the keys of the Presidency, and was the first man who did hold them. Noah stood next to him. These keys were given to Noah, he being the Father of all living in his day, as Adam was in his day. These two men were the first who received the Priesthood in the eternal worlds, before the worlds were formed. They were the first who received the Everlasting Priesthood or Presidency on the earth. Father Adam stands at the head, so far as this world is concerned. Of course, Jesus Christ is the Great High Priest of the salvation of the human family. But Adam holds those keys in the world today; he will hold them to the endless ages of eternity. And Noah, and every man who has ever held or will hold the keys of Presidency of the Kingdom of God, from that day until the scene is wound up, will have to stand before Father Adam and give an account of the keys of that Priesthood, as we all will have to give an account unto the Lord, of the principles that we have received, when our work is done in the flesh. (Deseret Weekly News 38:389) President Woodruff here teaches us that which Joseph taught him: that "Jesus Christ is the Great High Priest of the salvation of the human family. But Adam holds those keys in the world today; and he will hold them to the endless ages of eternity." Adam, then, is the President over the salvation of humanity. Who are his Counselors? His First Counselor and the Great High Priest of our salvation, the one to whom the calling of Savior came, is our Savior Jesus Christ. Thanks to Wilford Woodruff and his faithful journal keeping, we have many statements he recorded about the Adam-God doctrine, attributed to the early Apostles and Prophets of this dispensation. Wilford Woodruff kept minutes of most everything he witnessed. This is not to say that Wilford

Woodruff advocated the doctrine either publicly or privately, for he was, for the most part, silent about his own feelings concerning Adam-God. In chapter 10, however, we will see that as President of the Church, Wilford Woodruff officially upheld the doctrine to be true. B. H. Roberts B. H. Roberts was Assistant Church Historian. He edited and published the seven-volume History of the Church (History of Joseph Smith, abbreviated HC) and later published a six volume history of the first century of the Church, known as A Comprehensive History of the Church. He became a member of the First Quorum of the Seventy in 1888 at the age of thirty-one. In the History of the Church volume three he quotes Joseph Smith's teachings on the subject of Adam (this was also discussed in chapter 3), wherein he footnotes: It is generally supposed that Brigham Young was the author of the doctrine which places Adam as the patriarchal head of the human race, and ascribes to him the dignity of future presidency over this earth and its inhabitants, when the work of redemption shall have been completed. Those who read the Prophet's treatise on the Priesthood in the text above will have their opinions corrected upon this subject; for clearly it is the word of the Lord through the Prophet Joseph Smith which established that doctrine. The utterances of President Brigham Young but repeat and expound the doctrine which the Prophet here sets forth. (HC 3:388) [99] On another occasion Elder Roberts wrote: We are informed that the Lord God made every plant of the field before it was in the earth, and every herb before it grew on our planet. As vegetation was created or made to grow upon some older earth, and the seeds thereof or the plants themselves were brought to our earth and made to grow, so likewise man and his helpmate were brought from some other world to our own, to people it with their children. And though it is said that the "Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground" -- it by no means follows that he was "formed" as one might form a brick, or from the dust of this earth. We are all "formed" of the dust of the ground, though instead of being molded as a brick we are brought forth by the natural laws of procreation; so also was Adam and his wife in some older world. And as for the story of the rib, under it I believe the mystery of procreation is hidden. Contributor 10:265-266; The Gospel and Man's Relationship to Deity, 8th Edition, pp.279-280) In his 1903 publication, The Mormon Doctrine Of Deity, B. H. Roberts proclaims: Some of the sectarian ministers are saying that we "Mormons" are ashamed of the doctrine announced by President Brigham Young to the effect that Adam will thus be the God of this world. No, friends, it is not that we are ashamed of that doctrine. If you see any change come

over our countenances when this doctrine is named, it is surprise, astonishment, that any one at all capable of grasping the largeness and extent of the universe the grandeur of existence and the possibilities in man for growth, for progress, should be so lean of intellect, should have such a paucity of understanding, as to call it into question at all. This is what our change of countenance means not shame for the doctrine Brigham Young taught. (The Mormon Doctrine Of Deity, B. H. Roberts, pp. 42-43) B. H. Roberts once countered public criticism of the Adam-God doctrine in answering the charges of the Presbyterian faith to the effect that there are ten reasons why Christians should not fellowship the Mormons. The Presbytery of Utah had their ten objections published in the Deseret News on July 8, 1921. The title read: Ten Reasons Why Christians Cannot Fellowship the Mormon Church The sixth reason was: The Mormon Church teaches that Adam is God, the Supreme God, the Creator of this world, our God, and the only God with whom we will have to do; and that Jesus is his son by natural generation. B. H. Roberts' response to these objections came in an address in the Tabernacle on July 10, 1921 and was printed in the Deseret News two weeks later, July 23, 1921. His answer to the Presbyterian's objection number six was: As a matter of fact the "Mormon" Church does not teach that doctrine. A few men in the "Mormon" Church have held such views, and several of them quite prominent in the councils of the Church, but the Church has made announcement of no such doctrine, nor has the Church propounded it to the world or accepted it by any article of its faith. Here I invoke the principles laid down in the early part of my remarks, viz., that the Church may only rightly be charged with those doctrines which may be adduced [100] from the official documents she herself sets forth as the sources of her doctrine, the very revelations of God that she has officially accepted; and from these sources the above may not be proven. Brigham Young and others may have taught that doctrine, but it has never been accepted by the Church as her doctrine, and she is not in any way responsible for it. (B. H. Roberts, July 10, 1921, reported in the Deseret News July 23, 1921) This type of public response had exactly the opposite effect as that desired; it embroiled the enemies of the Church who correctly knew the once-high stature the Adam-God doctrine had held in the Church, while at the same time the faithful members of the Church who believed their leaders to be infallible, began to believe the Adam-God doctrine was the fallacious brain child of Brigham Young. But some Mormons knew that doctrine to be true, and they questioned the wisdom of such statements as that of B. H. Roberts.

Heber Bennion In referring to B. H. Roberts' published answer to the Adam-God objection, Bishop Heber Bennion, brother-in-law to Heber J. Grant, had this to say: They (the unbelieving gentiles) mocked at Brigham Young, Adam-God, and we seek to mollify and pacify them by telling them that it is not the doctrine of the Church, but only the doctrine of Brigham Young. But we are making matters worse, for next we will have to explain that it was only an idea of Joseph Smith, and the Prophet Daniel, and of Jesus Christ, for Jesus gave this revelation to Joseph Smith: "Adam-ondi-Ahman, because, said he, it is the place where Adam shall come to visit his people, or the Ancient of Days shall sit, as spoken of by Daniel, the prophet." -- D.&C. 116. Now let us turn to Daniel, and see what he says about the Adam-God doctrine. "I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of Days did sit, whose garments were white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool; his throne was like the fiery flame, and his wheels as burning fire. A fiery stream issued and came forth from before him; thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him; and the judgement was set, and the books were opened." -Daniel 7:9,10. The above revelation of Joseph Smith, together with the prophecy of Daniel seems to corroborate Brigham Young's doctrine of Adam-God -- beyond question. (Heber Bennion, Supplement to Gospel Problems, p.13) Bishop Heber Bennion was a disciple of truth, and fear of the truth had no place in him. In support of the teachings of Joseph and Brigham, he said: It seems strange that people will believe that "as man now is, God once was, and that as God now is, [101] man may be"; that "God is an exalted man" and still repudiate the doctrine of Adam-God. These incredulous people believe that Elohim, Jehovah and Michael (Adam) the "Father of all living," created the world and yet cannot believe that He is the God of this world. It seems presumptuous indeed for them to ever aspire to be the God of anything, if Adam cannot be the God of the world he created and peopled. If a man is not to become the God of his own posterity what will he be the God of? Evidently, if God the Father of Jesus Christ was once a man like ourselves, he had a father as we have, a God to pray to, and that God in turn, was once a man also, and so on ad infinitum, without beginning or end. As Brigham Young says, "there never was a time when men were not passing through this ordeal and preparation to become Gods." Joseph Smith says, "Wherever was there a father without first being a son?" Jehovah means son, and

is used interchangeably as the Son and a son. In the dedicatory prayer of the Kirtland Temple the Prophet Joseph repeatedly applies the name of Jehovah to the Father whom he is addressing, as anyone may see by careful perusal of the prayer as recorded in the Doctrine and Covenants, Sec. 109. Elohim may signify the Father or Grandfather, or Great-Grandfather -- God or the Council of the Gods, and Jehovah may be applied to any of them in the capacity or relationship of a son, as they all are, for "where was there ever a father without first being a son?" (Joseph Smith in Church History, Vol. 6, p. 476.) Adam is in line with his progenitors, the Gods, and by the genealogical record cannot be deposed from his position as the God of this world under the council and direction of the Gods above him, "intelligences one above another without end." (D.& C. 78.) The whole superstructure for a plurality of the Gods is based upon this doctrine of Adam-God, and must stand or fall together. (Heber Bennion, Supplement to Gospel Problems, pp.8, 9) Samuel W. Richards Samuel W. Richards was the Mission President for the Church in Great Britain. As Mission President and editor of the Millennial Star, he published numerous articles. The following is of interest: But, behold, verily I say unto you, before the earth shall pass away, Michael, mine Archangel, shall sound his trump, and then shall the dead awake, for their graves shall be opened and they shall come forth; yea, even all. From the foregoing we are enabled to draw important conclusions, that before the coming of the Lord Jesus in the clouds of heaven, to take the reigns of government upon the earth, Adam comes and gathers around him all that have ever held keys of power under him upon the earth, in any of the dispensations thereof to man; he calls forth the dead from their graves, at the sound of his trump, he brings them to judgement, and they render unto him an account of their several stewardships; the books are opened that a glorious judgement may be rendered by him who now sits upon his throne, not only as the Father, but the judge of men; and in that capacity thousands minister unto him. An august assemblage is now gathered in one grand council around the great Patriarch of all Patriarchs, consisting of his sons, who have been faithful in that which was committed to them; and all this preparatory to that great event, when the greatness of the kingdom under the whole heaven should be given to the Saints of the Most High. Daniel saw that the Saints possessed the kingdom, by virtue of which Adam was once more in possession of the dominion given unto him before the fall, which was over every living thing that moved upon the earth which rendered him the Universal Sovereign and Lord of All. [102] There are two grand principles, by virtue of which all intelligent beings have a legitimate right to govern and hold dominion; these are by begetting children from their own loins, and by winning the hearts of others to

voluntarily desire their righteous exercise of power extended over them. We can conceive, from Scripture, principle, and analogy, that Adam's watch-care is ever over mankind; that by his own approbation and direction Gospel dispensations have been revealed from heaven to earth in different ages of the world; that he was the first that ever held the keys of Gospel power upon the earth, and by his supervision they have been handed down from age to age, whenever they have been among men; that under his direction a Deluge once swept the earth of the wickedness which was upon it, and laws were given to Israel, as a nation, to lead them to Christ; and that he will in the end call men to judgement for the privileges which have been extended to them in this world. At this important period, when Adam is reinstated with full power upon the earth, seated upon his throne, as Daniel saw him -- a glorious and an immortal God, one like the Son of Man comes in the clouds of heaven (as ofttimes represented by the Apostles,) to the Ancient of Days, and receives from him dominion, glory, and a kingdom; or in other words, Michael, having accomplished the work committed to him, pertaining to this world, delivers up an account of his stewardship over the same, to that character represented as Yahovah in the creation of the world, who reigns in unison with those upon the earth, until his work is fully accomplished -- till the last great contest with the enemy, who has been released for a little season, is won; then he in turn delivers up the kingdom to the great Eloheim, that in the language of the Apostle, "God may be all in all." This final surrender, we are to bear in mind does not detract from the Godlike power and dominion of our first Parent, nor of our Lord Jesus Christ. In the Patriarchal order of government, each and every ruler is independent in his sphere, his rule extending to those below, and not to those above him, in the same order. While the God of unnumbered worlds is acknowledged to be his God and Father, Adam still maintains his exalted position at the head of all those who are saved from among the whole family of man; and he will be God over all those who are made Gods from among men. Each and every God will be honored and adored by those over whom he reigns as a God, without any violation of the laws of heaven -- without any encroachment upon that command which saith, "thou shalt have no other Gods before me," for the glory and honor of all true Gods constitute the glory, honor, power, and dominion of the great Eloheim, according to His own order of government. What a glorious system of order is here portrayed one in which an innumerable succession of Gods, Patriarchs, and rulers, can reign forever in the greatest possible harmony that can be comprehended by intelligences, while each is independent in his position, as is all intelligence. As the great Eloheim is supreme and Almighty over all His children and kingdoms, so is Adam as great a ruler, or God, in his sphere, over his children, and the kingdom which they possess. The earth and all things upon it were created for

Adam, and it was given to him of his Father to have dominion over it. In that dominion he will be sustained throughout all eternity. (Millennial Star 15:801-804) The London Missionary Conference of 1854 A special missionary conference was held in London, June 26-28, 1854, and attended by the missionary force of the Church in Great Britain. The purpose of the three-day conference [103] was to welcome the new mission president, Franklin D. Richards, to his assignment and introduce him to his fellow laborers in the work, and to honor the departing mission president, Samuel W. Richards. During the proceedings of the conference, the many missionaries present were asked to give an accounting and report of their respective areas. Three of the reports made reference to Adam-God. Elder Thomas Caffall said: They (the Saints) are lacking faith in one principle -- the last "cat that was let out of the bag." Polygamy has been got over pretty well, that cloud has vanished away, but they are troubled about Adam being our Father and God. There is a very intelligent person investigating our principles, and who has been a great help to the Saints; he has all the works, and can get along very well with everything but the last "cat," and as soon as he can see that clearly, he will become a "Mormon." (Elder Thomas Caffall, Millennial Star 16:482, remarks made on June 26, 1854) Following Elder Caffall was Elder Joseph Hall who simply stated: Relative to the principles recently revealed, we have not the least difficulty. If Adam's being our Father and God cannot be proved by the Bible, it is alright. (Elder Joseph Hall, Millennial Star 16:483, remarks made on June 26, 1854) And two days later Elder James A. Little displayed his obedience in his report: I can see no other way of doing the work, than to keep the idea before the mind that there is a God in Israel, and that we are His servants. I believe in the principle of obedience; and if I am told that Adam is our Father and our God, I just believe it. Brethren, I feel well and have felt well all the time. (Elder James A. Little, Millennial Star 16:530, remarks made on June 28, 1854) Franklin D. Richards Franklin D. Richards had been ordained an Apostle on February 12, 1849, at the age of twenty-seven. As a member of the Quorum of Twelve and newly called Mission President, he addressed the concerns of this Missionary Conference in the following way: Concerning the item of doctrine alluded to by Elder Caffall and others, viz., that Adam is our Father and God, I have to say do not trouble yourselves, neither let the Saints be troubled about the matter. The Lord has told us in a revelation which he gave through the Prophet Joseph,

January 19, 1841 -- "I deign to reveal unto my Church things which have been kept hid from before the foundation of the world, things that pertain to the dispensation of the fulness of times." (D&C Sec. 124:41) I would like to know where you will find Scripture to prove those things by, which have never before been revealed. Some seem to feel it their bounden duty to prove everything which belongs to our faith from the Bible, but I do not, and I will excuse you from all obligation to prove this from the old Scriptures, for you cannot, if you try. You may bring much collateral evidence from the Bible and other revelations that will dissipate objections, and serve to strengthen the position, but to directly and substantially prove it, as the world require, and as we can do the first principles, it will puzzle you to do it, and from [104] henceforth we may expect more and more of the word of the Lord giving us instructions which are nowhere written in the old Scriptures. If we feel ourselves, or teach the Saints or the people generally, that we are only to believe that which can be proved from the Scripture, we shall never know much of the Lord ourselves, nor be able to teach the children of men to any very considerable extent. If, as Elder Caffall remarked, there are those who are waiting at the door of the Church for this objection to be removed, tell such, the Prophet and Apostle Brigham has declared it, and that it is the word of the Lord. That is vastly stronger proof than Christendom can give for much that they profess to believe. Tell the Saints that if this stone does not seem to fit into the great building of their faith just now, to roll it aside. You can help them to roll it aside out of their way, so that they will not stumble against it while at their daily duties, and it will be but a very short time till they will find a place in their building where no other stone will fit, then it will be on hand all right, and will come into its place in the building without the sound of hammer or chisel. (Millennial Star 16:534-535, remarks made on June 28, 1854) Elder Richards was brilliant in his understanding of these spiritual things. On another occasion he explained: The Mosaic account of the creation states that, after the earth had been prepared, "there was not a man to till the ground." This was not the only, nor perhaps the greatest, deficiency. There was no one to commence and carry out the order of the higher spheres. There was no one to partake of mortality, and propagate the race of the Gods in a descending scale, that their spiritual children might become beings of tabernacle, and receive all knowledge in a school of experience. It is evident that for this great purpose Adam and Eve were placed upon the earth, from the fact, that the first and most prominent command given them was to increase and multiply. After Adam and Eve had partaken of the seeds of mortality, it appears from the Scriptures that the Gods held a council on the subject. We read in Gen.3:22: "And the Lord God said, Behold, the man has become as one of us, to know good

and evil. From this we learn that Adam was not only in form like unto the Gods, as previously stated, but that this knowledge of good and evil was that which would exalt him among the Gods; and then that his resemblance to the Gods might be complete, the Lord God bestowed the right to exercise full power and dominion over the earth, and all its creations. "And God said unto them, Be fruitful, and Multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the foul of the air; and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth."(Gen. 1:28) If the Lord God has ever withdrawn from Father Adam the authority here bestowed upon him, He has not seen fit to make it known to the world. While there is nothing to refute, the whole tenor of revelation substantiates, the supposition, that Adam has continued to bear rule over the earth, and control the destinies of his never-ending posterity. From the time he received his commission in the Garden of Eden, he has been laboring diligently to fulfill the instructions there given him by the Lord God concerning his dominions, and to bring them under subjection to his will. This will be fully accomplished when every knee shall bow, and every tongue confess that he is the God of the whole earth. Then will the words of the Prophet Brigham, when speaking of Adam, be fully realized -- "He is our Father and our God, and the only God with whom we have to do." Having now observed how Adam, the first man, became God, we inquire why may not millions of his [105] children receive the same God-like knowledge and power? The Apostles, Prophets, and Seers, who have lived on the earth since the days of Adam, have been a succession of intelligences, who by doing the will of the Father receive of His glory, and become the heirs of His increasing dominions. God saw that among His numerous posterity of spirits there were some more noble than others, and therefore capable of assuming greater responsibilities, and performing more important parts in the great work of redemption. These He foreordained and set apart to the work designed for them, and at the time appointed they appeared on the earth through the lineage of the Priesthood. Having been ordained in the Spirit, and being heirs according to the flesh, they came forth prepared to enter upon the work designed, inherit the fruits thereof, and partake of the same glory and exaltation as the Father. First among these noble sons stands the Lord Jesus Christ. The heir by birthright of his Father's kingdom, he has proved himself worthy of his high vocation, by nobly offering to become the sacrifice that was necessary for the redemption of his Father's family. Therefore on him the Father has bestowed the keys of salvation, and the powers of the resurrection, to unlock the gates of death. On him devolved the great crowning work of redemption, and the meridian of time was appointed for the sacrifice. This same Jesus was a man like

unto other men, and attained his exaltation by suffering all things, that he might overcome them, and has ascended to power at the right hand of the Father. Next to Jesus Christ in the scale of Godlike intelligences are his brethren -- holy men who have faithfully performed the work assigned them in their Father's kingdom, and have received the fruits of their labors as an everlasting inheritance, and thereby become heirs of God and joint heirs with Jesus Christ. These men move and act independent of all others, in their sphere, and are responsible to none but the Lord Jesus Christ who sent them. The Lord has seen fit, in these days, to raise the veil a little which obscures our vision a little, by revealing to us the position now occupied by some of those ancient worthies who lived on the earth previous to his coming. In a revelation given to the Prophet Joseph, on Celestial Marriage, the Lord, speaking to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, says: "And because they did none other things than that which they were commanded, they have entered into their exaltations, according to the promises, and sit upon thrones; and are not Angels, but are Gods." All who live on the earth, and faithfully work righteousness, as did those ancient fathers, will receive like blessings of power and dominion, for God is no respecter of persons, but judges all men righteously according to their works. Thus we have a succession of Gods from Adam down to Christ and his Apostles at least. All men being in the image of their father Adam, even as he is in the image of his father, and possessing a similar knowledge of good and evil, when they receive the keys and powers of the same Priesthood, and by their works attain to its blessings, they will, like Adam, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, bear rule and dominion over their own posterity and have power to redeem, purify, and exalt them, also, to like power and glory. (Franklin D. Richards, Millennial Star 17:194-196) Elder Richards leaves us no doubt as to the correctness of the Adam-God doctrine revealed by Joseph and enlarged upon by Brigham. How beautiful it is to listen to the words of this Apostle of Jesus Christ as he enlightens our understanding. Truly, Franklin D. Richards was an inspired man of God. If only men who were ignorant of the things of God would have kept silent about that of which they knew little or nothing, we would not be under the [106] necessity of re-enlightening Mormondom today. At a later date, Elder Richards again spoke upon the subject of Father Adam: Not only do the Old Testament, and other ancient and modern revelations through the Holy Priesthood assert the fact, but mankind of every grade, condition and religion, whether Christian, Jew, Mahomedan, or Pagan, all believe in leading personages or influences which are the sources of good and evil. One of these is God the Father, Michael or Adam, from whose loins the earth is peopled, and who is now laboring for the redemption of his children. The great captain of evil is Satan, formerly Lucifer, but now a fallen "Son of

the Morning," who with his followers are diligently laboring to destroy the works of God by reducing them to a like condition with themselves. (Franklin D. Richards, Millennial Star 17:785-786) Parley P. Pratt Parley P. Pratt was ordained an Apostle on February 21, 1835 and he died firm in the faith in 1857. Parley was desirous to spread the news of The Restoration, and this led him to publish several books and pamphlets during his lifetime. On January 1, 1844 the following published account "was read in Nauvoo, in a Council of the Church, in the presence of the Prophet Joseph Smith": On entering this room, a vast and extensive hall was opened before me, the walls of which were white, and ornamented with various figures which I did not understand. In the midst of this hall was a vast throne and white as ivory, and ascended by seventy steps, and on either side of the throne, and of the steps leading to it, there were seats rising one above another. On this throne was seated an aged, venerable looking man. His hair was white with age, and his countenance beamed with intelligence and affection indescribable as if he were the father of the kingdoms and the people over which he reigned. He was clad in robes of dazzling whiteness, while a glorious crown rested upon his brow: and a pillar of light above his head seemed to diffuse over the whole scene a brilliance of glory and grandeur indescribable. There was something in his countenance which seemed to indicate that he had passed long years of struggle and exertion in the achievement of some mighty revolution, and been a man of sorrows and acquainted with grief. But, like the evening sun after a day of clouds and tempest, he seemed to smile with the dignity of repose. In connection with this venerable personage sat two others scarcely less venerable, and clad and crowned in the same manner, on the next seat below were twelve personages, much of the same appearances and clad in the same manner, with crowns upon their heads; while the descending seats were filled with some thousands of noble and dignified personages, all enrobed in white and crowned with authority, power and majesty, as kings and presiding among the Sons of God. "You now behold," said the Angel of the Prairies, "the Grand Presiding Council organized in wisdom, and holding the keys of power to bear rule over all the earth in righteousness. And of the increase and glory of their kingdoms there shall be no end..." "The venerable council which you beheld enthroned in majesty and clad in robes of white, with crowns upon their heads, is the order of the Ancient of Days, before whose august presence thrones have been cast down, and tyrants have ceased to rule." (The Angel of the Prairies, Parley P. Pratt, pp.13-14, 24) [107] In his book, Key To Theology, Elder Pratt laments mankind's unwillingness to "receive His (God's) heavenly laws or bide His presence." He states:

A royal Planter now descends from yonder world of older date, and bearing in his hand the choice seeds of the older Paradise, he plants them in the virgin soil of our new-born earth. They grow and flourish there, and bearing seed, replant themselves, and thus clothe the naked earth with scenes of beauty and the air with fragrant incense. Ripening fruits and herbs at length abound. When lo! from yonder world is transferred every species of animal life. Male and female, they come, with blessings on their heads, and a voice is heard again, "Be fruitful and multiply." Earth, its mineral, vegetable, and animal wealth, its Paradise prepared, down comes from yonder world on high a son of God, with his beloved spouse. And thus a colony from heaven, it may be from the sun, is transplanted on our soil. The blessings of their Father are upon them, and the first great law of heaven and earth is again repeated, "Be fruitful and multiply." Hence the nations which have swarmed our earth. In after years, when Paradise was lost by sin; when man was driven from the face of his heavenly Father, to toil, and droop, and die; when heaven was veiled from view, and, with few exceptions man was no longer counted worthy to retain the knowledge of his heavenly origin; then darkness veiled the past and future from the heathen mind; man neither knew himself, from whence he came, nor whither he was bound. At length a Moses came, who knew his God, and would fain have led mankind to know Him too, and see Him face to face. But they would not receive His heavenly laws or bide His presence. Thus the holy man was forced again to veil the past in mystery, and in the beginning of his history assign to man an earthly origin. Man molded from the earth, as a brick! Woman, manufactured from a rib! Thus, parents still would fain conceal from budding manhood the mysteries of procreation, or the sources of life's ever-flowing river, by relating some childish tale of new-born life, engendered in the hollow trunk of some old tree, or springing with spontaneous growth like mushrooms from out of the heaps of rubbish. O man! when wilt thou cease to be a child of knowledge? Man, as we have said, is the offspring of Deity. The entire mystery of the past and the future, with regard to his existence, is not yet solved by mortals. (Key to Theology, Parley P. Pratt, 1891 edition, pp.49-51, 1938 edition, pp. 54-56) The School Of The Prophets The Lord, in Doctrine and Covenants Section 88, by revelation: also directed the formation of a "school of the prophets" to prepare the brethren to better serve one [108] another (see D&C 88:118-41). The school began meeting the end of January 1833 in an upstairs room above the Whitney store. These meetings provided the setting for many remarkable

spiritual experiences and in-depth discussions of gospel principles. (Church History In The Fulness Of Times, p. 123; see also D&C 90:7-8) Joseph Smith was faithful to the direction given him to establish a school of the prophets, and Brigham Young continued this practice after the Saints arrived in the Great Basin. We will now look at the teachings which occurred in those schools with respect to Adam-God. 1867 In latter years Brigham Young apparently restricted his teachings concerning Adam-God to the brethren and a few public discourses. In 1867 Brigham discussed the subject at the Salt Lake School of the Prophets. Wilford Woodruff recorded the words of the Prophet Brigham: Adam was Michael the Archangel and he was the Father of Jesus Christ and was our God and that Joseph taught this principle. (Wilford Woodruff Journal, December 16, 1867) 1868 Not six months later, on June 8, 1868, during a meeting at the Provo School of the Prophets, several of the brethren present shared their attitudes and testimony of Adam-God. A. F. MacDonald remarked: I thought I would speak briefly in relation to Adam being our God. Since the year 1852 when the President first spoke on this subject, I have frequently endeavored to reconcile what I have read with regard to this matter. I believe what the President says on the subject although it comes in contact with all our tradition. I have not any doubt in my mind but that Adam is our God. Who his God and Father may be, I have no knowledge. President Kimball spoke on this question recently and very plainly illustrated the character and relationship of our Father and God. (Minutes of the School of the Prophets, Provo, Utah, June 8, 1868, pp. 37-42, Church Archives; also from typescript copy at the Utah State Historical Society, Salt Lake City) In this same meeting Abraham O. Smoot said: The doctrine preached by President Young for a few years back wherein he says Adam is our God, the God we worship, that most of the people believe this; some believe it because the President says so, others because they can find testimony in the Book of Mormon and Doctrine and Covenants. Amasa Lyman stumbled on this; he does not believe it. He did not believe in the Atonement of Jesus. Orson Pratt has also told the President that he does not believe it. This is not the way to act. We are not accountable on points of doctrine; if the President makes a statement it is not our prerogative to dispute it; he is only accountable in points of doctrine. I have heard President avow the truth of Adam being our Father and God but have never heard him argue the question at all. (Ibid.) Elder George B. Bywater possessed a similar faithfulness to the Prophet. At the same meeting of the Provo School of the Prophets

he said: [109] I am not disposed to question the discrepancies on this question of doctrine: if we five faithful, all will become clear to us. We cannot become united only as we get united in understanding; when I first heard the doctrine of Adam being our Father and God, I was favorably impressed -enjoyed, and hailed it as a new revelation. It appeared reasonable to me as the father of our spirits, that he should introduce us here; and what we do not see is only evidence that we have not the light necessary. (Ibid.) 1870 In a meeting at the Salt Lake School of the Prophets, held October 15, 1870, it is recorded: Elder George Q. Cannon fully endorsed the doctrine that Father Adam was our God and Father... the above doctrine had been revealed to him, so that he knew it was true. (Salt Lake School of the Prophets Minute Book, October 15, 1870, Church Archives) In this same meeting Brigham Young counseled: ... the brethren need to meditate on the subject, pray about it and keep it to yourselves. (Joseph F. Smith Journal, October 15, 1870, Church Archives) 1873 Three years later, in another meeting of the Salt Lake School, Daniel H. Wells, a Counselor in Brigham Young's First Presidency, asked if they believed the: ... doctrine pertaining to Adam being our Father and our God. (Salt Lake School of the Prophets Minute Book, June 9, 1873, Church Archives) Then President Wells: ... bore a powerful testimony to the truth of the doctrine, remarking that if ever he had received a testimony of any doctrine in this church, he had of the truth of this. The Endowments plainly teach it and the Bible and other revelations are full of it. (Ibid.) Here, President Wells alludes to the fact that "the Endowments plainly teach it (Adam-God)." This fact will be born out in chapter nine. Brigham clearly understood the sensitive nature of the Adam-God doctrine. At this same meeting the Prophet expressed the view that he: ... was positive of the truth of this we should be cautious about preaching we fully understand them by the power they commend themselves to the hearts (Ibid.) doctrine, but thought on doctrines unless of the Spirit, then of the hearers.

Several brethren present also confirmed their belief in the

doctrine. Among these were Henry Grow, D. B. Huntington, John Lyon, George B. Wallace, and Joseph F. Smith. These brethren were prominent members of the Church. George B. Wallace went on to [110] become President of the Salt Lake Stake from 1874 to 1876, and Joseph F. Smith became the sixth President of the Church in 1901. Joseph F. Smith, during this meeting, stated that: ... the enunciation of that doctrine gave him great joy. (Ibid.) So, in one of the most sacred settings of the Church, the School of the Prophets, we find the leading brethren in agreement that Adam-God was not only true, but that they experienced joy over it. But also do we find a circumspect attitude beginning to develop with respect to this precious revelation, an attitude which culminated, just one generation later, in complete denial of the doctrine. George Q. Cannon George Q. Cannon was a counselor to John Taylor, Wilford Woodruff, and Lorenzo Snow. Ordained an Apostle on August 26, 1860, his contributions to the gospel were many. While editor of the Millennial Star, George Q. Cannon wrote an editorial which appeared in that organ of the Church: But what saith He whose wisdom is far above man's even as the heavens are exalted above the earth? While men are weaving theories of their own, and in their halls of learning are disputing with each other on the origin of man, the Saints of God are guided, like those of old, in their councils and their judgements, by the light of revelation -- the dictates of Heaven -- the voice of God. While in the scientific land of Egypt, so to speak, the direst confusion reigns, and darkness on all vital subjects fills the land (a "darkness" so "thick" that it may be "felt" by the humblest searcher after truth), the Israel of God have "light in their dwellings," even the light of heaven's sun -- the light of Divine revelation. The "Wise Man" has said, in reference to the period of death, that "Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was, and the spirit shall return unto God who gave it" (Eccles. 12:7), thus showing that while the body is of the earth, earthy, the spirit is of celestial origin, and will ultimately "return" or be received back again into the Divine presence of Him who is, as the Apostle declares, "the Father of spirits." Many other texts of Scripture might be cited which plainly and unmistakably declare man's origin to be Divine. Having a divine parentage, and being of celestial origin, as to his spiritual nature, his instincts and high physical characteristics must from the first have placed him at the head of the entire animal creation, holding supreme "dominion over every living thing." In the New Translation of the Bible, by the Prophet Joseph

Smith, we find the following sentence in the first chapter of Genesis, in reference to the formation of the vegetables and animals of the earth, and lastly man: "Nevertheless, all things were before created; but spiritually were they created and made according to [111] my word." (Moses 3:7; Genesis 2:9, Insp. Version.) Thus showing that although man's body or tabernacle is formed from the dust of the ground, or, in other words, is of earthly origin, and that the latter has to be animated with the breath of physical life, in order to render it a suitable abode for the former; thus showing that his first estate was not in the Garden of Eden, as is commonly supposed, but in a pre-existing spiritual world or sphere. In the Book of Abraham, also, translated from the Egyptian papyrus by Joseph Smith, the following passage occurs: "Now the Lord had shown unto me, Abraham, the intelligences that were organized before the world was; and among these there were many of the noble and great ones; and God saw these souls that they were good, and he stood in the midst of them, and he said, These I will make my rulers; for he stood among those that were spirits, and he saw that they were good. And he said unto me, Abraham, thou art one of them; thou wast chosen before thou wast born. And there stood one among them that was like unto God, and he said unto those that were with him, We will go down, for there is space there, and we will take of these materials, and we will make an earth whereon these may dwell; and we will prove them herewith, to see if they will do all things whatsoever the Lord their God shall command them; and they who keep their first estate shall be added upon; and they who keep not their first estate shall not have glory in the same kingdom with those who keep their first estate; and they who keep their second estate shall have glory added upon their heads for ever and ever." (Abraham 3:22-26) We learn from this, then, among other things, that man, as a spirit, or organized intelligence, existed in the spirit world for ages long anterior to his incarnation in this lower sphere; that this temporary change was designed as a means of practically testing the power and integrity of the spirit thus removed to a new position and surrounded by varying circumstances of a lower order; and that so far as he availed himself of the opportunities afforded him of proving his integrity by grappling with surrounding evils and overcoming them, and thereby rising superior to their influence and power, he would thus gain an experience that would be invaluable, and ultimately win his way to far higher and still more and more exalted positions in the celestial state than he could otherwise have possibly reached. We will now select a President Young upon in themselves, stand of men uninspired by few the out the passages from the discourses of subject, which, clear and explicit in bold relief from the theories spirit of revelation. He says:

[At this point Elder Cannon quotes directly from the Journal of

Discourses 1:50, 51 and 6:275 which we have already dealt with in chapters 2 and 6. Then, Elder Cannon continues:] President Young, in the foregoing passages, while substantiating the fact of the union of man's preexisting spirit with a bodily product of the "dust of the ground," enters more particularly into the modus operandi of that union. He unmistakably declares man's origin to be altogether of a celestial character -- that not only is his spirit of heavenly descent, but his bodily organization too -- that the latter is not taken from the lower animals, but from the originally celestial body of the great Father of humanity. Taking the doctrine of man's origin as seen from this higher point of view, and comparing it with the low assumptive theories of uninspired men,... how great the contrast appears! "Look on this picture" -- Man, the offspring of an ape!; "and on this" -- Man, the image of God, his Father! How wide the contrast! And how different the feelings produced in the breast! In the one case, we instinctively [112] shrink with dread at the bare insinuation; while on the other, the heart beats with higher and warmer and stronger emotions of love, of adoration, and praise; the soul is cheered and invigorated in its daily struggles to emancipate itself from the thraldom of surrounding evils and darkness pertaining to this lower sphere of existence, and is animated with a purer and nobler zeal in its onward and upward journey to that Divine Presence whence it originally came. (Millennial Star 23:653-654, October 12, 1861) Certainly, this is strong evidence that President Young was not misquoted in his historic discourse of April 9, 1852, in which he first revealed the tenets of Adam-God. For, if he had been misquoted, Apostle Cannon would not have here quoted him as it is recorded in the Journal of Discourses. And in quoting JD 6:275, Elder Cannon leaves no doubt that he believed the doctrine to be true. Many years later, returning home from a Church Conference on February 22, 1888, then President George Q. Cannon (of the First Presidency), and his son Abraham H. Cannon visited about the gospel. Abraham recorded in his diary for that day: ... Father told me that all his success in life was due to his zeal for the work of God. Men gave him credit for much more ability than he possessed, but whatever talents he did possess he had tried to use to the glory of God. In his speaking he had never desired to be sensational but to be sound in doctrine. He asked me what I understood concerning Mary conceiving the Savior, and as I found no answer, he asked what was to prevent Father Adam from visiting and overshadowing the mother of Jesus. "Then," said he, "And though Christ is said to have been the "first fruits" of them that slept, yet the Savior said he did nothing but what he had seen His father do, for He had power to lay down his life and take it up again. Adam, though made of dust, was made, as President Young said, of the dust of another planet than this." I was very much instructed by

the conversation and this day's services. (Diary of Abraham H. Cannon, vol. 10:178-179, Lee Library) The next year at the General Conference of the Church President Cannon said: We believe that we are the literal offspring of Deity. We have descended from the great Being who formed this earth, and from Him we have inherited the glorious aspirations to be like unto Him... We believe in a God of revelation, who will give more and more light to us till we can become like Him. We worship the Being who has revealed Himself to us. It was necessary at the outset of this work to have a revelation from Him. There were many erroneous ideas about God, and the first revelation to Joseph Smith was the appearance of the Father and the Son. I have heard that there are some among us who say that both are one person. This is a fallacy. There are two personages, the Father and the Son. God is the Being who walked in the Garden of Eden, and who talked with the Prophets. This revelation came to us in certainty. (Millennial Star 51:278, April 7, 1889) President Cannon here instructs us that it was Michael who appeared to Joseph: "It was necessary at the outset of this work to have a revelation from Him... and the first revelation to Joseph Smith was the appearance of the Father and the Son ... God is the Being who walked in the Garden of Eden, and who talked with the Prophets." In chapter twelve we will see that the identities of the "two Personages" who appeared to Joseph in the first vision are misunderstood by us today. [113] Later the same year, President Cannon repeated his convictions to his son, Abraham, whose journal account reads: He [George Q. Cannon] believes that Jesus Christ is Jehovah, and that Adam is His Father and our God. (Abraham H. Cannon Journal, June 23, 1889) Orson Pratt Orson Pratt was ordained an Apostle April 26, 1835. Although Orson Pratt had difficulty accepting the truthfulness of Adam-God, at times he did demonstrate a great deal of insight into Adam's position over this creation. In his book, The Seer, written from 1852-1854, Orson Pratt wrote the following: If none but the Gods will be permitted to multiply immortal children, it follows that each God must have one or more wives. God, the Father of our spirits, became the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ according to the flesh. Hence, the Father saith concerning him, "Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee." We are informed in the first chapter of Luke, that Mary was chosen by the Father as a choice virgin, through whom He begat Jesus. The angel said unto the Virgin Mary, "The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore, also, that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be

called the Son of God." After the power of the Highest had overshadowed Mary, and she had by that means conceived, she related her circumstance to her cousin Elizabeth in the following words: "He that is Mighty hath done to me great things; and holy is His name." It seems from this relation that the Holy Ghost accompanied "the Highest" when he overshadowed the Virgin Mary and begat Jesus; and from this circumstance some have supposed that the body of Jesus was begotten by the Holy Ghost without the instrumentality of the immediate presence of the Father. There is no doubt that the Holy Ghost came upon Mary to sanctify her, and make her holy, and prepare her to endure the glorious presence of "the Highest," that when "He" should "overshadow" her she might conceive, being filled with the Holy Ghost; hence the angel said, as recorded in Matthew, "That which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost;" that is, the Holy Ghost gave her strength to abide the presence of the Father without being consumed; but it was the personage of the Father who begat the body of Jesus; and for this reason Jesus is called "the Only Begotten of the Father;" that is, the only one in this world whose fleshly body was begotten by the Father. There were millions of sons and daughters whom He begat before the foundation of this world, but they were spirits, and not bodies of flesh and bone; whereas, both the spirit and body of Jesus were begotten by the Father -- the spirit having been begotten in heaven many ages before the tabernacle was begotten upon the earth. The fleshly body of Jesus required a Mother as well as a Father. Therefore, the Father and Mother of Jesus, according to the flesh, must have been associated together in the capacity of Husband and Wife; hence the virgin Mary must have been, for the time being, the lawful wife of God the Father; we use the term lawful Wife, because it would be blasphemous in the highest degree to say that He overshadowed her or begat the Savior unlawfully. It would have been unlawful for any man to have interfered with Mary, who was already espoused to Joseph; for such a heinous crime would have [114] subjected both the guilty parties to death, according to the law of Moses. But God having created all men and women, had the most perfect right to do with His own creation, according to His holy will and pleasure: He had a lawful right to overshadow the Virgin Mary in the capacity of a husband, and beget a Son, although she was espoused to another; for the law which He gave to govern men and women was not intended to govern Himself, or to prescribe rules for his own conduct. It was also lawful in Him, after having thus dealt with Mary, to give her to Joseph her espoused husband. Whether God the Father gave Mary to Joseph for time only, or for time and eternity, we are not informed. Inasmuch as God was the first husband to her, it may be that He only gave her to be the wife of Joseph while in this mortal state, and that He intended after the resurrection to again take her as one of His own wives to raise up immortal spirits in eternity. As God the Father begat the fleshly body of Jesus, so He, before the world began, begat his spirit. As the body required an earthly Mother, so his spirit required a

heavenly Mother. As God associated in the capacity of a husband with the earthly Mother, so likewise He associated in the same capacity with the heavenly one. Earthly things being in the likeness of heavenly things; and that which is temporal being in the likeness of that which is eternal;... (Orson Pratt, The Seer, p.158-159) Certainly, Orson Pratt left no doubt as to his opinion about who the Father of Jesus Christ is and how the Father accomplished the conception of the Savior. This is in complete agreement with Brigham Young's revelation on the matter: When the Virgin Mary conceived the child Jesus, the Father had begotten him in his own likeness. He was not begotten by the Holy Ghost. (JD 1:50) Orson Pratt also left no doubt as to who he believed our Father was: One of these is God the Father, Michael or Adam, from whose loins the earth is peopled, and who is now laboring for the redemption of his children. (Orson Pratt, Millennial Star 17:785) And this also agrees with President Young's first public remarks upon the subject: And who is the Father? He is the first of the human family; and when he took a tabernacle, it was begotten by his Father in heaven, after the same manner as the tabernacles of Cain, Abel, and the rest of the sons and daughters of Adam and Eve; from the fruits of the earth, the first earthly tabernacles were originated by the Father, and so on in succession. (JD 1:50) Orson Pratt believed that through the redemption, we all would be restored to the condition Adam was in before he fell. On September 11, 1859 Orson Pratt stated: If we are to be redeemed from Adam's sin and its consequences, unconditionally, by the atonement, shall we not be restored into the condition Adam was in before he fell? I answer, You will be. What condition was he in? He was an immortal being, and you will be restored to immortality, whether you be Saints or sinners. The decree has gone forth that every man is to be raised to immortality. Then you will be as Adam was in the garden of Eden before he fell. (Orson Pratt, JD 7:257) On April 13, 1856 Orson Pratt said: [115] Our first parents through transgressing the law of God, brought death into the world, but through the death of Jesus Christ, life and immortality were introduced. The one brings into bondage; the other gives us hope of escape, of redemption, that we may come forth with the same kind of body that Adam had before the fall, a body of immortal flesh and bones. Adam and Eve were immortal, the same as resurrected beings,

but previous to their transgression they had no knowledge of good and evil. After the redemption we will not only have the same kind of bodies that they possessed in the garden of Eden before the fall, but we will have a knowledge of good and evil through our experience. (JD 3:344) These statements by Orson Pratt are a direct reference to the resurrected condition which all mankind will enjoy after being "raised to immortality." Adam was an immortal, resurrected Being before He fell for us, His children. On another occasion, Orson Pratt taught the nature and diversity of angels: Now, how are the angels of God after the resurrection? According to the revelations which God has given, there are different classes of angels. Some angels are Gods, and still possess the lower office called angels. Adam is called an Archangel, yet he is a God. (JD 13:187 October 7, 1869) Edward Stevenson Recorded in Elder Edward Stevenson's diary for March 7, 1880, was an entry which explains that Elder Stevenson, a member of the First Council of Seventy, was asked to lecture upon the subject of our God as our Father: ... by request of one of the presidency [I was asked to speak] upon God as the Father of our spirits. (Edward Stevenson Diary, March 7, 1880, Church Archives) In this sermon Elder Stevenson stated: ... therefore Adam is the Father of my Spirit and also of my body. (Ibid.) Elder Stevenson explained that a certain "Bishop Hess" was present and that he: ... said that he could endorse all that had been said although he did not understand all yet it made him feel good and like living his religion. (Ibid.) [116] The Contributor The Contributor was the forerunner to the Church's Improvement Era. It was published from 1879 to 1896. In 1886, an article by Thomas W. Brookbank entitled, "Biblical Cosmogony" appeared: Since our great progenitor, Adam, figures in many places of life to which none of us have yet attained, the first portion of the parallel, to make it more complete, will be founded upon facts connected with his history. Adam now lives in an exalted state, where he is, in no manner, subject to the temptation and power of the devil.

At the close of that period loosed upon the earth for a corresponding state, for we shall be found upon it, nor power over it.

during which Satan is to be little season, it will attain a nowhere read that further evil that the devil shall have any

Adam fell from the high estate in which he was once created. The loosing of the devil upon the earth for a "little season" completes the parallel here. The earth, too, shall fall. Before Adam fell, he was a resurrected man, that is, his physical body had been disorganized, and then reorganized. The Apostle Peter tells us plainly that this earth is to be dissolved, after which a new world is to be organized. It will be resurrected as Adam was. Between the time of Adam's resurrection and his fall afterwards, he must have enjoyed a season of rest and peace. The Millennium which is to give the earth a rest for a thousand years, is the corresponding state in the world's history. (The Contributor 8:218) Another article, authored by J. F. Gibbs, and entitled, "Our Father and God," appeared in the Contributor: Having while on earth complied with the requirements of the Father in relation to Celestial Marriage, he is thus qualified to become a "Father of Spirits," and his immortal wives becoming the mothers of spirits, thus obeying the only and eternal law of reproduction. In the meantime the inrushing particles of ether have been accumulating around the nucleus, and by the force of friction it becomes a mass of living fire, and from out the mass of smoke and vapor emerges a new-born system of worlds, and the elements having performed their part in preparing the world for plants and animals, and those also having served the purpose of fitting it for the presence of man, he is placed upon it and with his wives repeats the history of man on this and other planets. The Being that has organized the world; and placed upon it the germs of animated nature; is the one most entitled to furnish mortal bodies for his spiritual children. And when the great drama of life is finished and he with his children are redeemed and glorified, is he not entitled, as the head of an innumerable posterity, to be recognized as a Father and God to those that will rise up and call Him blessed? Is there anything inconsistent or unphilosophic in the doctrine that eternal progression will eventually exalt human beings to the godhead? The reverse would be illogical, no other reason for man's existence can be adduced. In this way only can he be of service in increasing glory of his Father and God to whom forever he will be a grateful and venerating son and subject. (The Contributor 6:78) [117] Joseph E. Taylor

Joseph E. Taylor was a member of the Salt Lake Stake Presidency for several years. His gospel prowess earned him the reputation among the Saints as a man of great knowledge and spiritual insight. On June 2, 1888, he gave a lecture in the Logan Temple which was later printed in the Deseret News Weekly 38:19-27, December 29, 1888, as given in the temple with no commentary other than the lecture itself. In part, Elder Taylor said: It is recorded in the fifth chapter of Genesis that Adam died at the advanced age of 930 years. But it is often asked, "Did Adam lie in the grave until he was redeemed therefrom through the death and resurrection of the Only Begotten?" I will ask a question in reply: "Did Jesus have power to lay down his life and take it up again?" He so declared (John 10:18). It might be well at this point to inquire who was the Savior of the world: and what relation did he bear to our father Adam? For the veil of the mysterious past has been lifted just a little to enable us to see within. I will first quote from a discourse preached by President Brigham Young, in Salt Lake City, April 9th, 1852. [Here Elder Taylor quotes the historic sermon recorded in the Journal of Discourses 1:50-51; and we should point out that it is quoted exactly as it appears in the Journal of Discourses. After quoting Brigham Young, Elder Taylor continues:] We will now quote some of the sayings of Joseph Smith upon this point, as uttered by him in Nauvoo, April 6, 1844: "It is the first principle of the gospel to know for a certainty the character of God, and to know that we may converse with Him, as one man converses with another, and that he was made a man like us. Yea, that God Himself, the Father of us all, dwelt on our earth the same as Jesus Christ did .... What did Jesus Christ say?... "As the Father hath power in himself, so hath the Son power." To do what? Why, what the Father did. The answer is obvious, in a manner, to lay down his body and take it up again. Jesus, what are you going to do?" "To lay down my life and take it up again." Do you believe it? If you do not believe it you do not believe the Bible. The Scriptures tell it, and I defy all the learning and wisdom of all the combined powers of earth and hell together to refute it. What did Jesus do? Why, "I do the thing I saw my Father do when worlds came rolling into existence. My Father worked out His Kingdom with fear and trembling; and I must do the same; and when I get my kingdom, I shall present it to my Father, so that He may obtain kingdom upon kingdom and it will exalt Him in glory. He will then take a higher exaltation and I take His place, and thereby become exalted myself;" so that Jesus treads in the track of his Father and inherits what God did before." [quoted from HC 6:305-306; JD 6:3] I think these two quotations from such a reliable authority fully solve the question as to the relationship existing between Father Adam and the Savior of the world, and prove beyond question the power that Adam possessed in regard to taking his body again after laying it down -- which power

he never could have attained unless he had received first a resurrection from the grave to a condition of immortality. We further say that this power was not forfeited when as a celestial being he voluntarily partook of the forbidden fruit, and thereby rendered his body mortal in order that he might become the father of mortal tabernacles, as he was already the father of immortal spirits -- thus giving opportunity to the [118] offspring of his own begetting to pass through the ordeals necessary to prepare them for a resurrection from the dead, a celestial glory. All that Father Adam did upon this earth, from the time that he took up his abode in the Garden of Eden, was done for his posterity's sake and the success of his former mission as the Savior of a world, and afterwards, or now, as the Father of a world only added to the glory which he already possessed. If, as the savior of a world, he had the power to lay down his life and take it up again, therefore, as the father of a world which is altogether an advanced condition, we necessarily conclude that the grave was powerless to hold him after that mission was completed. All those who have now for the first time taken upon themselves mortality, must wait for their resurrection through Him who alone possesses the power to bring it to pass. It is these, and these only, whose resurrection we here wish to consider. (Deseret News Weekly 38:20-21) Orson F. Whitney Bishop Orson F. Whitney delivered a discourse at the Y.M.M.I.A. Annual Conference, June 9, 1895, in which he said that Mormonism: ... takes the humblest child of God, and tells him that he is a son of God; or, if a woman, that she is a daughter of God, and teaches them that they can by growth, by development, by progress and expansion, ascend to those heights where sits enthroned in glory the God of this universe. It teaches men that they can become divine, that man is God in embryo, that God was once man in mortality, and that the only difference between Gods, angels and men is a difference in education and development. Is such a religion to be sneered at? It teaches that the worlds on high, the stars that glitter in the blue vault of heaven, are kingdoms of God, that they were once earths like this, that they have been redeemed and glorified by the same laws, the same principles that are applied to this planet, and by which it will ascend to a perfected and glorified state. It teaches that these worlds are peopled with human beings, God's sons and daughters, and that every husband and father, may become an Adam, and every wife and mother an Eve, to some future planet. (The Contributor 16:665-673; also in Collected Discourses 4:330-338) Benjamin F. Johnson In a letter which Elder Johnson wrote to George S. Gibbs in 1903, he states: He [Joseph Smith] taught us that God was the great head of

human procreation -- was really and truly the father of both our spirits and our bodies... (typescript, p.13, Church Archives) [119] Samuel O. Bennion In 1907 the Liahona, the Elder's Journal was published by the Church. We find this historical background on the journal in the Messages of the First Presidency: Liahona, the Elder's Journal was commenced with the amalgamation of Elder's Journal, published at Chattanooga, Tennessee, in the interest of the Southern States Mission, with the Liahona, published at Independence, Missouri, in the interest of the Central States Mission of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The first number of the amalgamated paper was issued June 22, 1907, with Benjamin F. Cummings, Jr., as its first editor. Its purpose was later extended to serve the interests of all the L.D.S. missions in the United State and Canada. (Messages of the First Presidency 6:225) In the Liahona, the Elder's Journal Samuel O. Bennion, who became a member of the First Quorum of Seventy in 1933, responded to the following question: "As Adam was an immortal being when placed here on earth and commanded to multiply, would not his offspring have been immortal but for the fall?" -- M.P.F., Logan, Utah. Yes. But they would have had spiritual bodies only, and not bodies of flesh, blood and bone. When Adam and Eve were first placed in the Garden of Eden they had resurrected bodies, in which there was no blood. A spiritual fluid or substance circulated in their veins instead of blood. Consequently, they had not power to beget children with tabernacles of flesh, such as human beings possess. The fall caused a change in their bodies, which, while it rendered them mortal, at the same time gave them power to create mortal bodies of flesh, blood and bone for their offspring. This is a very brief explanation of a very important subject. (Liahona, The Elder's Journal 6:33; December 1910) John M. Whitaker A series of lectures was given at the Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah in 1921. The speakers were all prominent members of the Church, and among these brethren was John M. Whitaker, who spoke upon the fall of man. Here are some of his remarks: ... I am going to assume responsibility for making this statement, that man came here, was placed here as an immortal, glorified, resurrected being. I want to make myself clear, because these lectures are going to the brethren, and if they want to correct them, they can ... I believe it was that fruit that changed and modified Adam's resurrected body, and again made it subject to death. Is that clear? At least I want you to get my idea ... and may

I say the Church does not teach this as doctrine. Many of the authorities do. Others teach that a body was prepared in some way for Adam and Eve. (Seminary Lectures, Brigham Young University, Lecture 10, June 24, 1921) Perhaps Elder Whitaker would have been more accurate in saying: "...and may I say the [120] Church does not teach this as doctrine any longer." For we have clearly seen that the Church and most of the leading Priesthood Authorities who were taught by Joseph Smith did teach this doctrine and knew it to be true. In a Melchizedek Priesthood Manual in 1948 the following was printed: There was no blood in his (Adam's) body, but he had a spiritual body until it was changed by the fall. A spiritual body is one which is not quickened by blood, but by spirit. Before the fall, Adam had a physical, tangible body of flesh and bones, but it was not quickened by blood. (Church History and Modern Revelation, p. 5, 1948 Melchizedek Priesthood Manual) So, as recent as 1948 the Church was still "hinting" at the doctrine of Adam-God in a Priesthood manual. There can be no doubt in the mind of the reasonable and honest Latter-day Saint that the leading brethren of the Church have believed and taught the Adam-God doctrine. As the next chapter will show, there were also others who believed and promoted the teaching. [121] I had learned to call thee Father, Thru thy Spirit from on high, But, until the key of knowledge was restored, I knew not why. Eliza R. Snow Church Literature How Widespread Was Adam-God? We expect that if the doctrinal teaching of Adam's exalted relationship to mankind was as widespread as it appears, then there should be an abundance of historical evidence to support the fact. Indeed, we have already seen that the Priesthood of God was responsible for the disseminating of and elaboration upon Adam--God. Should we not also expect an abundance of literary evidence from the Church membership in general? Yes, this is exactly what we expect to find, and we are not disappointed in this expectation. We find that the doctrine of Adam-God was as integral in the religion of the nineteenth century Latter-day Saint as Family Home Evening and the Word of Wisdom is today. The literature we find comes from a variety of sources including Church hymns, pamphlets, periodicals, and the testimony of the plural wives of Joseph Smith, to name a few. Although we may correctly conclude that every historical aspect 8

of Adam-God, elaborated upon so far, has been found in the literature of the Church (i.e., Church magazines, periodicals, archived documents, personal journals, etc.), the material of this chapter will be primarily from non-Priesthood authors, and articles in official Church organs of which the author may not be known, but the editor is known. [122] Departing Mission President As we discussed in chapter 7, Samuel W. Richards was the Mission President of the British Mission. He was loyal to the direction and revelation of Brigham Young, and it was his duty to introduce, and defend the doctrine of Adam-God to the British Saints. Upon his release from the British Mission, he was honored with the following: Beloved President -- it has fallen to your lot to preside over the British Saints at a time and under circumstances unparalleled in the history of the work in this country. The introduction of the Law of Celestial Marriage, which, in its operations, will revolutionize all our political, religious and domestic arrangements; and the announcement of the position which Adam, our great progenitor, occupies among the Gods; have marked your Presidency as a special epoch in the history of the British Mission. (Millennial Star 16:629) Orson F. Whitney Orson F. Whitney was ordained an Apostle on April 9, 1906. To demonstrate Elder Whitney's credibility and authority in spiritual matters one only has to consider the esteem the brethren gave him concerning such issues. At the turn of the century science and religion were coming into conflict with one another. Mormons, wanting to embrace scientific truth, were beginning to integrate the theories of evolution into their theology. Faced with this secular contamination, the brethren asked Elder Whitney to help. Perhaps the most heated and prolonged discussions during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries centered on the creation of the earth and the theories of organic evolution. In the midst of these controversies the First Presidency asked Elder Orson F. Whitney of the Quorum of the Twelve to draft a statement that would convey the Church's official position on the origin of man. Elder Whitney's statement was subsequently approved and signed by the First Presidency and the Quorum of the Twelve and published in 1909 as an official declaration of the Church. This statement affirmed that: "All men and women are in the similitude of the universal Father and Mother, and are literally the sons and daughters of Deity.... ... Man, as a spirit, was begotten and born of heavenly parents, and reared to maturity in the eternal mansions of the Father, prior to coming upon the earth in a temporal body to undergo an experience in mortality...

It is held by some that Adam was not the first man upon this earth, and that the original human being was a development from lower orders of the animal creation. These, however, are the theories of men. The word of the Lord declares that Adam was "the first man of all men" (Moses 1:34), and we are therefore duty bound to regard him as the primal parent of our race .... Man began life as a human being, in the likeness of our heavenly Father." (Church History in the Fulness of Times, p. 489) The following excerpt is from a poem written by Orson F. Whitney, published in "Elias, an [123] Epic of the Ages:" "Father!" -- the voice like music fell, Clear as the murmuring flow Of mountain streamlet, trickling down From heights of virgin snow -"Father," it said, "since One must die Thy children to redeem, Whilst Earth -- as yet unformed and void -With pulsing life shall team;" "And thou, great Michael, foremost fall That mortal man may be, And chosen Savior yet must send, Lo, here am I, send me! I ask -- I seek no recompense, Save that which then were mine; Mine be the willing sacrifice, The endless glory -- Thine!" * * * * * * * One are the human twain, as sheath and sword -Woman and man, the lady and the lord; Each pair the Eve and Adam of some world, Perchance unborn, into space unhurled. * * * * * * * Chosen, omniscient, children of the Sun, Offspring of Adam, Michael, Ancient One, Who comes anon his fiery throne to rear, His council summoning from far and near. Ten thousand times ten thousand bow the knee, And "Father" hail him, "King," eternally. -- Elias, An Epic of the Ages, pp. 18, 76, 77 It is plain that Elder Whitney was a man familiar with the Heavenly Father revealed in The Restoration. Every Knee Shall Bow, And Every Tongue Confess In the Millennial Star appeared the following: [124] ... every knee shall bow, and every tongue confess that he is the God of the whole earth. Then will the words of the Prophet Brigham, when speaking of Adam, be fully realized.

"He is our Father and our God, and the only God with whom we have to do." (Millennial Star 17:195) So, the early Saints believed that it was the Father, not the Son, to whom every knee would bow and tongue confess. This is consistent with what the scriptures have to say on the subject (see D&C 76:110; 88:104; and others). We Believe In Our God In 1856, the hymnal, "Sacred Hymns and Spiritual Songs, for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Europe," contained a hymn entitled, "We Believe In Our God." It was written by John Jaques, an English convert to the Church. The Hymnal was edited by the British Mission President, Franklin D. Richards. This hymn does not appear to have been included in any American version of the hymnal, and only appeared in the eleventh edition for the British Saints: We believe in our God, the great Prince of his race, The archangel, Michael, the Ancient of Days, Our own Father Adam, earth's Lord in his plane Who'll counsel and fight for his children again, We believe in his Son Jesus Christ, who in love For his brothers and sisters, came down from above; To die to redeem them from death, and to teach To mortals and spirits the Gospel we preach. We believe in the Bible, that came by the Jew; We believe in the Book that is called Mormon, too -The Doctrine and Covenants, also every word That proceedeth forth from the mouth of the Lord. We believe in the Gospel, the old-fashioned plan Unaltered one whit by the wisdom of man. Have faith and repent of the sins you commit, Be baptized in water, then God will remit. The Elders will then lay their hands upon you; The Holy Ghost giving -- all things become new, Your peace will be pure and be free from alloy, Your soul will be filled with unspeakable joy. (Sacred Hymns & Spiritual Songs for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1856, 11th Edition, No. 306, p. 375) [125] The twentieth edition of this same hymnal, published in 1891, contains the sacred song, "Sons of Michael, He Approaches:" Sons of Michael, He Approaches Sons of Michael, he approaches! Rise; the Eternal Father greet; Bow, ye thousands, low before him; Minister before his feet; Hail, hail the Patriarch's glad reign, Hail, hail the Patriarch's glad reign, Spreading over sea and main.

Sons of Michael, 'tis his chariot Rolls its burning wheels along! Raise aloft your voices million In a torrent power of song: Hail, hail our Head with music soft! Hail, hail our Head with music soft! Raise sweet melodies aloft! Mother of our generations, Glorious by great Michael's side, Take thy children's adoration; Endless with thy Lord preside; Lo, lo, to greet thee now advance, Lo, lo, to greet thee now advance Thousands in the glorious dance! Raise a chorus, sons of Michael, Like old Ocean's roaring swell, Till the mighty acclamation Through rebounding space doth tell That, that the Ancient One doth reign, That, that the Ancient One doth reign In his Paradise again! (Sacred Hymns & Spiritual Songs for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 20th Edition, 1891, pp. 375-376) W. W. Phelps William Wines Phelps was instrumental in many areas of the early Church, but especially is he known today for the hymns he has left us. His contributions include: The Spirit Of [126] God, Now Let Us Rejoice, Redeemer Of Israel, Now We'll Sing With One Accord, Praise To The Man, O God The Eternal Father, and If You Could Hie To Kolob. In 1865, at the 35th Semi-annual General Conference of the Church, W. W. Phelps recited the following: O may the Saints be perfect As God our Father was, When he got back to Eden By her celestial laws. (Deseret News, Oct. 12, 1865) O My Father Perhaps the most transcendent work of mormon literature is the poem, "Invocation; or, the Eternal Father and Mother," written by Eliza R. Snow. Today, we know these as the words to the treasured hymn, "O My Father:" O! my Father, thou that dwellest In the high and holy place; When shall I regain thy presence, And again behold thy face? In thy glorious habitation, Did my spirit once reside? In my first primeval childhood,

Was I nurtured by thy side? For a wise and glorious purpose, Thou hast placed me here on earth; And withheld the recollection Of my former friends and birth. Yet oft-times a secret something, Whisper'd, "You're a stranger here"; And I felt that I had wandered From a more exalted sphere. I had learned to call thee Father, Through thy spirit from on high; But until the key of knowledge Was restored, I knew not why. In the heavens are parents single? No; the thought makes reason stare; Truth is reason; truth eternal, Tells me I've a Mother there. [127]When I leave this frail existence When I lay this mortal by, Father, Mother, may I meet you In your royal court on high? Then at length, when I've completed All you sent me forth to do, With your mutual approbation, Let me come and dwell with you. (Eliza R. Snow, The Women of Mormondom, pp. 187-188) "But until the key of knowledge was restored, I knew not why." What is this "key of knowledge" which "was restored" and which caused Eliza R. Snow to say she now knew why her God was also her Father? We will allow Sister Snow to answer this question herself. The following section includes the material which accompanies and explains Eliza R. Snow's previous poem. We will see that Eliza R. Snow was a faithful disciple of the Adam-God doctrine. The Women Of Mormondom Published in 1877 by Edward W. Tullidge, The Women Of Mormondom is a collection of the writings of many of the leading women who were familiar with the Prophet Joseph and were personally acquainted with his teachings. Eliza R. Snow is perhaps the most well-known of Joseph Smith's plural wives. In 1876, Augusta Joyce Crocheron wrote, in reference to Eliza R. Snow's writings in The Women Of Mormondom, During this year she prepared her second volume of poems for the press, also assisted in selecting and preparing the manuscript for the "Women Of Mormondom," and in raising funds for its publication, and not least of all, gave the proof her attention. Also still continued her labors in the House of the Lord. (Representative Women of Deseret, p. 6)

Brigham Young's daughter, Susa Young Gates, in her biography of her father, states: After prayers that evening he [Brigham] sat in council with aunt Eliza R. Snow in the prayer room. Edward Tullidge had compiled a story on the Women of Mormondom which contained some interesting biography on the leading women to the Church and had an account of the heroic struggle of those early years. Aunt Eliza and some of her associates thought it might be proper and advisable to send a group of women out into the world to give lectures on Mormonism and to dispose of the woman's book. Two of the daughters of Brigham Young were included in the list of women who were to go. "It is an experiment -- but one that I should like to see tried," said Brigham Young to Sister Snow at the close of the discussion. (Life Story of Brigham Young, pp. 360-361) [128] With this introduction we will now look at the words of Eliza R. Snow contained in The Women Of Mormondom. At the very moment when the learned divines of Christendom were glorying that this little earth was the "be-all and the end-all" of creation, the prophet of Mormondom was teaching the sisters in the temple at Kirtland that there has been an eternal chain of creations coming down from the generations of the Gods -- worlds and systems and universes. At the time these lights of the Gentiles were pointing to the star-fretted vault of immensity as so many illuminations -- lamps hung out by the Creator, six thousand years ago, to light this little earth through her probation -- the prophet of Israel was teaching his people that the starry hosts were worlds and suns and universes, some of which had being millions of ages before this earth had physical form. Moreover, so vast is the divine scheme, and stupendous the works of creations, that the prophet introduced the expressive word eternities. The eternities are the times of creations. This earth is but an atom in the immensities of creations. Innumerable worlds have been peopled with "living souls" of the order of mankind; innumerable worlds have passed through their probations; innumerable worlds have been redeemed, resurrected, and celestialized. Hell-loving apostles of the sects were sending ninety-nine hundredths of this poor, young, forlorn earth to the bottomless pit. The Mormon prophet was finding out grand old universes, in exaltation with scarcely the necessity of losing a soul. The spirit of Mormonism is universal salvation. Those who are not saved in one glory, may be saved in another.

There are the "glory of the sun," and the "glory of the moon," and the "glory of the stars." The children of Israel belong to the glory of the sun. They kept their first estate. They are nobly trying to keep their second estate on probation. Let the devotion, the faith, the divine heroism of the Mormon sisters, witness this. "Adam is our Father and our God. He is the God of the earth." So says Brigham Young. Adam is the great archangel of this creation. He is Michael. He is the Ancient of Days. He is the father of our elder brother, Jesus Christ -- the father of him who shall also come as Messiah to reign. He is the father of the spirits as well as the tabernacles of the sons and daughters of man. Adam! Michael is one of the grand mystical names in the works of creations, redemptions and resurrections. Jehovah is the second and the higher name. Eloheim -- signifying the Gods -- is the first name of the celestial trinity. Michael was a celestial, resurrected being, of another world. "In the beginning" the Gods created the heavens and the earths. [129] In their councils they said, let us make man in our own image. So, in the likeness of the Fathers, and the Mothers -- the Gods -- created they man -- male and female. When this earth was prepared for mankind, Michael, as Adam, came down. He brought with him one of his wives, and he called her name Eve. Adam and Eve are the names of the fathers and mothers of worlds. Adam was not made out of a lump of clay, as we make a brick, nor was Eve taken as a rib -- a bone -- from his side. They came by generation. But woman, as the wife or mate of man, was a rib of man. She was taken from his side, in their glorified world, and brought by him to earth to be the mother of a race. These were father and mother of a world of spirits who had been born to them in heaven. These spirits had been waiting for the grand period of their probation, when they should have bodies or tabernacles, so that they might become, in the resurrection, like Gods. When this Garden of together, joy. They earth had become an abode for mankind, with its Eden, then it was that the morning stars sang and the sons and daughters of God shouted for were coming down to earth.

The children of the sun, at least, knew what the grand scheme of the everlasting Fathers and the everlasting Mothers meant, and they, both sons and daughters, shouted

for joy. The temple of the eternities shook with their hosannas, and trembled with divine emotions. The father and mother were at length in their Garden of Eden. They came on purpose to fall. They fell "that man might be; and man is, that he might have joy." They ate of the tree of mortal life, partook of the elements of this earth that they might again become mortal for their children's sake. They fell that another world might have a probation, redemption and resurrection. The grand patriarchal economy, with Adam, as a resurrected being, who brought his wife Eve from another world, has been very finely elaborated, by Brigham, from the patriarchal genesis which Joseph conceived. Perchance the scientist might hesitate to accept the Mormon ideals of the genesis of mortals and immortals, but Joseph and Brigham have very much improved on the Mosaic genesis of man. It is certainly not scientific to make Adam as a model adobe; the race has come by generation. The genesis of a hundred worlds of his family, since his day, does not suggest brickyards of mortality. The patriarchal economy of Mormonism is at least an improvement, and is decidedly epic in all its constructions and ideals. A grand patriarchal line, then, down from the "eternities;" generations of worlds and generations of Gods; all one universal family. The Gods are the fathers and the mothers, and the brothers and the sisters, of the saints. Divine ambitions here; a daring genius to thus conceive; a lifting up of man and woman to the very plane of the celestials, while yet on earth. (The Women Of Mormondom, pp. 177-181) [130] God the Father and God the Mother stand, in the grand pre-existing view, as the origin and centre of the spirits of all the generations of mortals who had been entabernacled on this earth. First and noblest of this great family was Jesus Christ, who was the elder brother, in spirit, of the whole human race. These constituted a world-family of pre-existing souls. Brightest among these spirits, and nearest in the circle to our Father and Mother in heaven (the Father being Adam), were Seth, Enoch, Noah and Abraham, Moses, David, and Jesus Christ -- indeed that glorious cohort of men and women, whose lives have left immortal records in the world's history. Among these the Mormon faith would rank Joseph Smith, Brigham Young, and their compeers.

In that primeval spirit-state, these were also associated with a divine sisterhood. One can easily imagine the inspired authoress of the hymn on pre-existence, to have been a bright angel among this sister throng. Her hymn is as a memory of that primeval life, and her invocation is as the soul's yearning for the Father and Mother in whose courts she was reared, and near whose side her spirit was nurtured. These are the sons and daughters of Adam -- the Ancient of Days -- the Father and God of the whole human family. These are the sons and daughters of Michael, who is Adam, the father of the spirits of all our race. These are the sons and daughters of Eve, the Mother of a world. What a practical Unitarianism is this! The Christ is not dragged from his heavenly estate, to be mere mortal, but mortals are lifted up to his celestial plane. He is still the God-Man; but he is one among many brethren who are also God-Men. Moreover, Jesus is one of a grand order of Saviours. Every world has its distinctive Saviour, and every dispensation its Christ. There is a glorious Masonic scheme among the Gods. The everlasting orders come down to us with their mystic and official names. The heavens and the earths have a grand leveling; not by palling down celestial spheres, but by the lifting up of mortal spheres. Perchance the skeptic and the strict scientist who measures by the cold logic of facts, but rises not to the logic of ideas, might not accept this literal pre-existing view, yet it must be confessed that it is a lifting up of the idealities of man's origin. Man is the offspring of the Gods. This is the supreme conception which gives to religion its very soul. Unless man's divinity comes in somewhere, religion is the wretchedest humbug that ever deluded mortals. Priestcraft, indeed, then, from the beginning to the end -from the Alpha to the Omega of theologic craft, there is nothing divine. But the sublime and most primitive conception of Mormonism is, that man in his essential being is divine, that he is the offspring of God -- that God is indeed his Father. (Ibid. p. 190-192) When Brigham Young proclaimed to the nations that Adam was our Father and God, and Eve, his partner, the Mother of a world -- both in a mortal and a celestial sense -- he made the most important revelation ever oracled to the race since the days of Adam himself. [131] This grand patriarchal revelation is the very keystone of

the "new creation" of the heavens and the earth. It gives new meaning to the whole system of theology -- as much new meaning to the economy of salvation as to the economy of creation. By the understanding of the works of the Father, the works of the Son are illumined. The revelation was the "Let there be light" again pronounced. "And there was light!" "And God created man in his own image; in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them." "And God blessed them; and God said unto them, be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it." Here is the very object of man and woman's creation exposed in the primitive command. The first words of their genesis are, "Be fruitful and multiply." So far, it is of but trifling moment how our "first parents" were created; whether like a brick, with the spittle of the Creator and the dust of the earth, or by the more intelligible method of generation. The prime object of man and woman's creation was for the purposes of creation. "Be fruitful, and multiply and replenish the earth, and subdue it," by countless millions of your offspring. Thus opened creation, and the womb of everlasting motherhood throbbed with divine ecstacy. It is the divine command still. All other may be dark as a fable, of the genesis of the race, but this is not dark. Motherhood to this hour leaps for joy at this word of God, "Be fruitful;" and motherhood is sanctified as by the holiest sacrament of nature. We shall prefer Brigham's expounding of the dark passages of Genesis. Our first parents were not made up like mortal bricks. They came to be the Mother and the Father of a new creation of souls. We say Mother now, first, for we are tracing this everlasting theme of motherhood, in the Mormon economy, without which nothing of the woman part of the divine scheme can be known -- next to nothing of the patriarchal marriage, to which we are traveling, be expounded. Eve -- immortal Eve -- came down to earth to become the Mother of a race. How become the Mother of a world of mortals except by herself again becoming mortal? How become mortal only by transgressing the laws of immortality? How only by "eating of the forbidden fruit" by partaking of the elements of a mortal earth, in which the seed of death was everywhere scattered?

All orthodox theologians believe Adam and Eve to have been at first immortal, and all acknowledge the great command, "Be fruitful and multiply." That they were not about to become the parents of a world of immortals is evident, for they were on a mortal earth. That the earth was mortal all nature here to-day shows. The earth was to be subdued [132] by teeming millions of mankind -- the dying earth actually eaten, in a sense, a score of times, by the children of these grand parents. The fall is simple. Our immortal parents came down to fall; came down to transgress the laws of immortality came down to give birth to mortal tabernacles for a world of spirits. The "forbidden tree," says Brigham, contained in its fruit the elements of death, or the elements of mortality. By eating of it, blood was again infused into the tabernacles of beings who had become immortal. The basis of mortal generation is blood. Without blood no mortal can be born. Even could immortals have been conceived on earth, the trees of life had made but the paradise of a few; but a mortal world was the object of creation then. Eve, then, came down to be the Mother of a world. Glorious Mother, capable of dying at the very beginning to give life to her offspring, that through mortality the eternal life of the Gods might be given to her sons and daughters. Motherhood the same from the beginning even to the end! The love of motherhood passing all understanding! Thus read our Mormon sisters the fall of their Mother. And the serpent tempted the woman with the forbidden fruit. Did woman hesitate a moment then? Did motherhood refuse the cup for her own sake, or did sh with infinite love, take it and drink for her children's sake? The Mother had plunged down, from the pinnacle of her celestial throne, to earth, to taste of death that her children might have everlasting What! should Eve ask Adam to partake of the elements of death first, in such a sacrament! 'Twould have outraged motherhood! Eve partook of that supper of the Lord's death first. She ate of that body and drank of that blood. Be it to Adam's eternal credit that he stood by and let our Mother -- our ever blessed Mother Eve partake of the sacrifice before himself. Adam followed the Mother's example, for he was great and grand -- a Father worthy indeed of a world. He was wise, too; for the blood of life is the stream of mortality. What a psalm of everlasting praise to woman, that Eve fell first!

A Goddess came down from her mansions of glory to bring the spirits of her children down after her, in their myriads of branches and their hundreds of generations! She was again a mortal Mother now. The first person in the trinity of Mothers. The Mormon sisterhood take up their themes of religion with their Mother Eve, and consent with her, at the very threshold of the temple, to bear the cross. Eve is ever with her daughters in the temple of the Lord their God. The Mormon daughters of Eve have also in this eleventh hour come down to earth, like her, to magnify the divine office of motherhood. She came down from her resurrected, they from their spirit, estate. [133] Here, with her, in the divine providence of maternity, they begin to ascend the ladder to heaven, and to their exaltation in the courts of their Father and Mother God. Who shall number the blasphemies of the sectarian churches against our first grand parents? Ten thousand priests of the serpent have thundered anathemas upon the head of "accursed Adam." Appalling, oftentimes, their pious rage. And Eve -- the holiest, grandest of Mothers -- has been made a very by-word to offset the frailties of the most wicked and abandoned. Very different is Mormon theology! The Mormons exalt the grand parents of our race. Not even is the name of Christ more sacred to them than the names of Adam and Eve. It was to them the poetess and high priestess addressed her hymn of invocation; and Brigham's proclamation that Adam is our Father and God is like a hallelujah chorus to their everlasting names. The very earth shall yet take it up; all the sons and daughters of Adam and Eve shall yet shout it for joy, to the ends of the earth, in every tongue! (Ibid., pp. 196-200) Sister Eliza R. Snow left no doubt as to her opinion of the importance of Adam-God: When Brigham Young proclaimed to the nations that Adam was our Father and God, and Eve, partner, the Mother of a world -- both in a mortal and a celestial sense -- he made the most important revelation ever oracled to the race since the days of Adam himself. (Ibid.) "The most important revelation ever oracled to the race since the days of Adam himself!" Certainly, we are lacking if we do not comprehend this pearl of great price. As Joseph said: It is the first principle of the gospel to know for a certainty the character of God, (HC 6:305) Eliza R. Snow Eliza R. Snow was a prominent writer, and published many works. We will now look at some of her more explicit poetry concerning

Adam-God: --The Ultimatum of Human Life Adam, your God, like you on earth, has been Subject to sorrow in a world of sin: Through long gradation he arose to be Cloth'd with the Godhead's might and majesty. And what to him in his probative sphere, Whether a Bishop, Deacon, Priest, or Seer? Whate'er his offices and callings were, He magnified them with assiduous care: By his obedience he obtain'd the place Of God and Father of this human race. [134]Obedience will the same bright garland weave, As it has done for your great Mother, Eve, For all her daughters on the earth, who will All my requirements sacredly fulfill. And what to Eve, though in her mortal life, She'd been the first, the tenth, or fiftieth wife? What did she care, when in her lowest state, Whether by fools, considered small, or great? 'Twas all the same with her -- she'd proved her worth -She's now the Goddess and the Queen of the Earth. Life's ultimatum, unto those that live As saints of God, and all my pow'rs receive; Is still the onward, upward course to tread -To stand as Adam and as Eve, the head Of an inheritance, a new-form'd earth, And to their spirit-race, give mortal birth -Give them experience in world like this; Then lead them forth to everlasting bliss, Crown'd with salvation and eternal joy Where full perfection dwells, without alloy. (Poems of Eliza R. Snow, Vol. 2, pp. 8-9; also Eliza R. Snow, An Immortal, pp. 188-189) --To Mrs. *** Adam, our Father -- Eve, our Mother, And Jesus Christ, our Elder Brother, Are to my understanding shown: My heart responds, they are my own. (Eliza R. Snow, Poems, Religious, Historical and Political, Vol. 2, p. 196) The following poem by Eliza R. Snow appeared in the Millennial Star: Father Adam, our God, let all Israel extol, And Jesus, our Brother, who died for us all. (Millennial Star 17:320) Vilate M. Kimball Vilate M. Kimball was the wife of Heber C. Kimball. She claims

that Joseph Smith received a vision in March of 1836 in which he was shown the celestial city: [135] There Father Adam stood and opened the gate to them, and as they entered he embraced them one by one, and kissed them. He then led them to the throne of God, and then the Saviour embraced each of them in the presence of God. He saw that they all had beautiful heads of hair and all looked alike. The impression this vision left on Brother Joseph's mind was of so acute a nature, that he never could refrain from weeping while rehearsing it. (The Women Of Mormondom, p. 110) Helen Mar Kimball Whitney In chapter 3 it was shown that it was Joseph Smith, not Brigham Young, who first revealed the Adam-God doctrine in this dispensation. We now investigate the source of some of the testimony which evidences this fact. As any individual who is married can attest, there is no one in whom we confide more fully than our spouse. In fact, it is almost impossible to hide anything from your spouse. So it was with Joseph. In 1881, an article appeared in the Advocate, an organ of the Reorganized Church, in which Joseph Smith III asked: By what authority did Brigham Young teach the Saints that Adam is our Father and our God, etc.? Let the Saints then judge Brigham Young's strange doctrines and practices. Ponder it well. Are not those who teach and those who endorse Brigham Young's Adam-God doctrine guilty of damnable heresies, even denying the Lord that brought them?... (Advocate, The Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, July 1, 1881) Helen Mar Kimball Whitney was the daughter of Heber C. Kimball and a plural wife of Joseph Smith. In her pamphlet, Plural Marriage, she answers Joseph Smith III's question, "By what authority did Brigham Young teach the Saints that Adam is our Father and our God?" She answers: When the Saints first heard this doctrine advanced it looked strange and unnatural to them; it was strong meat and required a little time before it could be digested; but this was owing to the narrow, contracted ideas which had been handed down from generation to generation by our forefathers. We were like babes and had always been fed upon milk; but, as Jesus said, we have to be taught "here a little and there a little." When I was able to comprehend it, it appeared quite consistent. There is something in this doctrine that is very home like, grand and beautiful to reflect upon, and it is very simple and comprehensive. It teaches us that we are all the children of the same parent, whose love was so great that He gave His beloved Son, our Elder Brother, Jesus Christ, to redeem us from the fall... It teaches us that our Father was once mortal, and that if we remain faithful we will finally become as He is immortal even if we must first pay the penalty for the transgression of our first parents...

Brigham Young did not happen to be the author of this doctrine, and to prove the truth of my assertion, I will produce some of the Prophet's teachings, given May 16, 1841. These were written, together with other things, by his clerk, William Clayton, as they were spoken, and as I had the privilege of reading [136] them when quite a young woman, I took the liberty of copying them. The copy I have retained, and, this is what the Prophet said upon this subject, commencing with the Priesthood: The Priesthood was first given to Adam -- he obtained the First Presidency and held the keys of it from generation to generation. He obtained it in the Creation, before the world was formed... He had dominion given him over every living creature; he is Michael, the Archangel spoken of in the Scriptures. Then Noah who is Gabriel -- he stands next in authority to Adam in the Priesthood. He was called of God to this office, and was the father of all living in his day, and to him was given the dominion. These men held keys first on earth and then in heaven. The Priesthood is an everlasting principle, and existed with God from eternity, and will to eternity, without beginning of days or end of years. When the keys have to be brought from heaven -- it is by Adam's authority. Daniel, in the seventh chapter of his book, speaks of the Ancient of Days -- he means the oldest man, our Father Adam, Michael. He will call his children together and hold a council with them to prepare them for the coming of the Son of Man. He (Adam) is the father of the human family and presides over the spirits of all men, and all that have had the keys must stand before him in this grand council. This may take place before some of us leave this stage of action. The Son of Man stands before him and there is given him glory and dominion. Adam delivers up his stewardship to Christ, that which was delivered to him as holding the keys to the universe, but retains his standing as the head of the human family. The fulness of times has come of which Daniel writes: I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of Days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool; his throne was like the fiery flame, and his wheels as burning fire. A fiery stream issued and came forth from before him; thousand thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him; the judgement was set, and the books were opened. I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son of Man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of Days, and they brought him near before him. And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve him: His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that shall not be destroyed." -Daniel 7:10, 13, 14 Now if he [Joseph Smith III] feels that it is his duty to

proclaim against this people and deny the doctrines which his father felt authorized of God to teach as revelation from on high, I shall only regret it for his own and his father's sake. (Helen Mar Kimball Whitney, Plural Marriage, pp. 31-37, September 20, 1882) [137] For I deign to reveal unto my church things which have been kept hid from before the foundation of the world, things that pertain to the dispensation of the fulness of times. And I will show unto my servant Joseph all things pertaining to this house, and the priesthood thereof, and the place whereon it shall be built. The Lord, D&C 124:41-42 The St. George Endowment 9

"that I may reveal mine ordinances" There is no more sacred part of our religion than the ordinances of the temple. It was revealed to Joseph that the Saints must build a temple: Therefore, verily I say unto you, that your anointings, and your washings, and your baptisms for the dead, and your solemn assemblies, and your memorials for your sacrifices by the sons of Levi, and for your oracles in your most holy places wherein you receive conversations, and your statutes and judgments, for the beginning of the revelations and foundation of Zion, and for the glory, honor, and endowment of all her municipals, are ordained by the ordinance of my holy house, which my people are always commanded to build unto my holy name. And verily I say unto you, let this house be built unto my name, that I may reveal mine ordinances therein unto my people; (D&C:124:39-40) [138] And the Lord promised the Saints that He would reveal to Joseph: all things pertaining to this house [the temple], and the priesthood thereof, and the place whereon it shall be built. (D&C 124:42) Faithful to the command, the Saints sacrificed much to build the Kirtland and Nauvoo temples, each time after which, they were persecuted and run out of their homes and forced to leave behind the temples which they had worked so very hard to build.

Joseph, three months before his death, in March of 1844, knowing that he would soon depart, conferred upon the Twelve every key and power which had been bestowed upon him: Addressing the Twelve, [Joseph] exclaimed, "Upon your shoulders the kingdom rests, and you must round up your shoulders, and bear it; for I have had to do it until now. But now the responsibility rests upon you. (Wilford Woodruff, TS 5:698, November 1, 1844) On January 1, 1845, Parley P. Pratt quoted Joseph as follows: I know not why; but for some reason I am constrained to hasten my preparations, and to confer upon the Twelve all the ordinances, keys, covenants, endowments, and sealing ordinances of the priesthood, and so set before them a pattern in all things pertaining to the sanctuary and the endowment therein. (Millennial Star 5:151, March 1845) Years later Wilford Woodruff recorded in his journal: The Prophet Joseph Smith called the Apostles together and he delivered unto them the ordinances of the church and kingdom of God, and all the keys and powers that God had bestowed upon him, he sealed upon our heads, and he told us we must round up our shoulders and bear off this kingdom, or we would be damned. (Wilford Woodruff Journal, September 13, 1883; also The Discourses of Wilford Woodruff, p.72) Joseph, knowing that Brigham would be called of God to preside over the Saints, conferred upon Brigham that which "pertains exclusively to the First Presidency of the Church:" He proceeded to confer on Elder Young, the President of the Twelve, the keys of the sealing power, as conferred in the last days by the spirit and power of Elijah... This last key of the priesthood is the most sacred of all, and pertains exclusively to the first presidency of the Church. (Parley P. Pratt, Millennial Star 5:151, March 1845) Truman Madsen, truly a brilliant Church scholar, has said of this historic meeting: In that same meeting the Prophet reconfirmed to the Twelve that Brigham Young, the presiding head of the Twelve (whom he had ordained thus at Quincy, Illinois, late in 1839), held the keys of the sealing power. They knew it then, they knew it later, and all that has been said about other leadership [139] intentions of the Prophet is thus superseded. (Joseph Smith the Prophet, p. 101) Many things concerning the administration of the temple ordinances were hurried and not the way the Prophet Joseph would have liked them to be. It was on Wednesday, May 4, 1842, that Joseph introduced the ordinances of the Priesthood to the first six men he chose to receive them. This was while the Saints labored to complete the Nauvoo temple. In Joseph's journal entry for that day we read: I spent the day in the upper part of the store, that is my

private office (so called because in that room I keep my sacred writings, translate ancient records, and receive revelations) and in my general business office, or lodge room (that is where the Masonic fraternity meet occasionally, for want of a better place) in council with General James Adams, of Springfield, Patriarch Hyrum Smith, Bishops Newel K. Whitney and George Miller, and President Brigham Young and Elders Heber C. Kimball and Willard Richards, instructing them in the principles and order of the Priesthood, attending to washings, anointings, endowments and the communication of keys pertaining to the Aaronic Priesthood, and so on to the highest order of the Melchizedek Priesthood, setting forth the order pertaining to the Ancient of Days, and all those plans and principles by which any one is enabled to secure the fullness of those blessings which have been prepared for the Church of the First Born, and come up and abide in the presence of the Eloheim in the eternal worlds. In this council was instituted the ancient order of things for the first time in these last days. (HC 5:1-2; italics added for emphasis) A few things are worthy of note in the Prophet's entry for this day. Firstly, we should note who it was that the Prophet deemed worthy to be the first to receive these things which are of "the highest order of the Melchizedek Priesthood." Among the six were the President of the Twelve, Brigham Young, and Heber C. Kimball. Whatever anyone may say concerning these men, the Prophet Joseph kept nothing from them. Secondly, it should be noted that Joseph wrote his entry as if it were understood that these sacred things were of the Father, after "the order pertaining to the Ancient of Days." We have Brigham Young's testimony that, upon administering the ordinances to them this day, the Prophet said to Brigham: "Brother Brigham, this is not arranged right. But we have done the best we could do under the circumstances in which we are placed, and I wish you to take this matter in hand and organize and systematize A these ceremonies." Then Brigham Young later said, "I did so. And each time I got something more [meaning that each time he worked on systematizing he had not only his memory and the records kept by Wilford Woodruff and others but also the light of revelation], so that when he went through the temple at Nauvoo land without Joseph] I understood and knew how to place them there. We had our ceremonies pretty correct." (Joseph Smith the Prophet, p. 98; see also L. John Nuttall Journal, vol. 1, pp. 18-19) Upon arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, the Saints, under the leadership of Brigham Young, again undertook to build a House to the Lord. Brigham had told Joseph in the months prior to the Prophet's death: Joseph, you're laying out work for 20 years. (JD 5:331) [140] The Prophet's reply to Brigham was: You have as yet scarcely begun to work; but I will set you enough to last you during your lives, for I am going to

rest. (Ibid.) Brigham Young was above all else, faithful to the Restoration and the direction of that man, called and chosen of God to commence the work of the restoration of all things, Joseph Smith. What was Brigham's key? "From the first time I saw the Prophet Joseph I never lost a word that came from him concerning the kingdom... I was anxious to learn from Joseph and the spirit of God." He was not ascribing this knowledge and wisdom to Joseph the man; he recognized that there was a fountain to which this man had access. ... Brigham meant what he said about treasuring Joseph's words beyond all earthly wealth: "This is the key of knowledge that I have today, that I did hearken to the words of Joseph, and treasured them up in my heart, laid them away, asking my Father in the name of his Son Jesus to bring them to my mind when needed. I treasured up the things of God, and this is the key that I hold today." (Joseph Smith the Prophet, pp. 95-96; see also Deseret News, June 6, 1877, p. 274) Temples In The West From the most recent history published under the direction of the Church we read: Throughout the last years of his life, President Brigham Young persisted in working toward his desire to erect temples in the Saint's "mountain home." The Endowment House on Temple Square in Salt Lake City had served as a temporary holy place since 1855, and many Latter-day Saints had received their temple ordinances there, but still there was no permanent structure. Although Brigham Young had identified the site of the Salt Lake Temple in 1847, actual construction did not begin until 1853. The project was seriously delayed by the approach of the United States army and the move south in 1857-58. Progress was gradual on the construction of the Salt Lake Temple in the 1860s and 1870s. On Temple Square, over a hundred stone cutters were cutting blocks from granite, which was being delivered from Little Cottonwood Canyon. The first temple to be completed in the West, however, was in St. George, which became a second headquarters of the Church as President Young spent most of his last several winters there. He dedicated the location for the sacred structure in November 1871. With the encouragement of the prophet, local Saints, helped by workmen called from the north, hastened the construction. Sandstone quarries were opened, and some timber was hauled from Pine Valley in southern Utah and the Kaibab Forest in northern Arizona, but most of the lumber came from Mount Trumbull in Arizona, eighty miles away. Many Saints donated food and clothing for the workers, and others donated one day in ten as "tithing labor." The temple and its interior were constructed almost

entirely from native materials, reflecting President [141] Young's concern for the development of local industry. For example, the Provo Woolen Factory made carpet for the temple, and the fringe for the alters and the pulpits was made from silk produced by the Relief Society organizations. The structure was completed in 1877, and individual rooms of the temple were dedicated in January. It was decided to hold the annual general conference in St. George; as part of the proceedings, the whole of the temple was dedicated on 6 April 1877. Daniel H. Wells read the dedicatory prayer. President Young was involved with other important aspects in connection with temple work in 1877. Together with other Church leaders, the prophet supervised the writing down of the endowment of the holy priesthood in correct form so that the work for the dead could be carried out more effectively. (Church History in the Fulness of Times, pp. 415-416) "Organize And Systematize" The Endowment In an effort to "organize and systematize" the temple ceremonies, as Joseph had instructed him, Brigham Young, "together with other Church leaders .... supervised the writing down of the endowment of the holy priesthood in correct form..." Brigham first requested Wilford Woodruff and his son, Brigham Young Jr., to write the ceremonies out: Spent the evening with President Young. He requested Brigham [Young Jr.] and Wilford Woodruff to write the ceremony of the Endowment from beginning to end. (Wilford Woodruff Journal, January 18,1877) Brigham Young Jr. informs us that L. John Nuttall helped with the writing of the Endowment ceremony: Spent most of the day writing with Woodruff and Nuttall. (Brigham Young Jr. Diary, January 15, 1877) On the next day Brigham Young Jr. recorded in his diary: Busy writing with W[oodruff) and N[uttall] on ceremonies. (Ibid., January 16, 1877) And on the next day Brigham Young Jr. recorded: Spent the evening reading to father what we -- Bro. Woodruff, and Nuttall and myself have written in relation to endowments. He made a number of corrections. (Ibid., January 17, 1877) In an entry in Wilford Woodruff s journal dated two months later, he said of this work: President Young has been laboring all winter to get up a perfect form of Endowments as far as possible. They having been perfected I read them to the company today. (Wilford Woodruff Journal, March 21, 1877)

[142] Wilford Woodruff tells us that it was on Thursday, February 1, 1877, that the Lecture at the Veil was first given by President Brigham Young: I spent the day in the Temple... I dressed in pure white Doe Skin from head to foot to officiate in the Priest's office, white pants, vest and coat, the first example in any Temple of the Lord in this last dispensation. Sister Lucy B. Young also dressed in white in officiating as Eve. President was present and delivered a lecture of the Veil. (Ibid., February 1, 1877) L. John Nuttall, in his diary for February 1, 1877, states: At the temple ... at the Veil -- President Young was present and gave some instructions not previously given which I wrote for safe keeping and reference hereafter. (L. John Nuttall Journal, February 1, 1877) Although President Young had delivered the "Lecture at the Veil," it was not submitted by his scribes in the finished form and formally approved by him until the next week. This author is very cautious when it comes to discussing the "goings-on" within the temple of the Lord. But because of its historical value, and because it contains nothing which has not already been revealed publicly by the prophets in this dispensation, I will quote from the journal of L. John Nuttall, the private secretary to Brigham Young. Brother Nuttall, as we have seen, recorded the "Lecture at the Veil" as dictated from the mouth of Brigham Young. On February 7 and 8, 1877, L. John Nuttall recorded in his journal the Lecture at the Veil which Wilford Woodruff, Brigham Young Jr., and himself had aided the Prophet in organizing: Works in the Temple being under consideration Prest. Young was filled with the spirit of God and revelation and said: When we got our washings and anointings under the hands of the prophet Joseph at Nauvoo we had only one room to work in, and with the exception of a little side room or office where we were washed and anointed, had our garments placed upon us and received our new name. And after he had performed these ceremonies, he gave the key words, signs, tokens and penalties. Then after we went into the large room over the store in Nauvoo, Joseph divided up the room the best that he could, hung up the veil, marked it, gave us our instructions as we passed along from one department to another, giving us signs, tokens, penalties, with the key words pertaining to those signs. And after we had got through, Bro. Joseph turned to me (Prest. B. Young) and said, "Bro. Brigham this is not arranged right but we have done the best we could under the circumstances in which we are placed, and I wish you to take this matter in hand and organize and systematize all these ceremonies, with the signs, tokens, penalties and key words" -I did so and each time I got something more, so that when

we went through the Temple at Nauvoo I understood and knew how to place them there. We had our ceremonies pretty correct -In the creation the Gods entered into an agreement about forming this earth and putting Michael or [143] Adam upon it. These things of which I have been speaking [the Temple Endowment] are what are termed the mysteries of godliness but they will enable you to understand the expression of Jesus, made while in Jerusalem: "This is life eternal that they might know thee the only true God and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent." We were once acquainted with the Gods, and lived with them. But we had the privilege of taking upon us flesh, that the spirit might have a house to dwell in. We did so and forgot all, and came into the world not recollecting anything of that which we had previously learned. We have learned a great deal about Adam and Eve, how they were formed, etc. Some think that he was made like an adobe and the Lord breathed into him the breath of life; for we read, "from dust thou art and unto dust shalt thou return." Well, he was made from the dust of the earth, but not of this earth. He was made just the same way you and I are made, but on another earth. Adam was an immortal being when he came to this earth. He had lived on an earth similar to ours. He had received the Priesthood and the keys thereof, and had been faithful in all things, and had gained his resurrection, and his exaltation and was crowned with glory, immortality and eternal lives, and was numbered with the Gods, for such he was through his faithfulness. And he had begotten all of the spirits that were to come to this earth. And Eve, our common mother, who is the mother of all living, bore those spirits in the Celestial world, and then this earth was organized by Elohim, Jehovah and Michael, who is Adam, our common Father. Adam and Eve had the privilege to continue the work of progression, consequently came to this earth and commenced the great work of forming tabernacles for those spirits to dwell in. And when Adam and those that assisted him had completed this kingdom -- our earth -- he came to it and slept and forgot all and became like an infant child. It is said by the historian Moses that the Lord caused a deep sleep to come upon Adam, and took from his side a rib, and formed the woman that Adam called Eve. This should be interpreted that the Man Adam like all other men had the seed within him to propagate his species, but the woman did not. She conceives the seed but she does not produce it. Consequently, she was taken from the side or bowels of her father. This explains the mystery of Moses' dark sayings in regard to Adam and Eve. Adam and Eve, when they were placed on this earth, were immortal beings of flesh, bones and sinews. But upon

partaking of the fruits of the earth while in the garden and cultivating the ground, their bodies became changed from immortal to mortal beings, with blood coursing through their veins as the action of life. Adam was not under transgression until after he partook of the forbidden fruit. This was necessary that they might be together, that man might be. The woman was found in transgression, not the man. Now in the law of sacrifice we have the promise of a Savior. And man had the privilege, and showed forth his obedience by offering the fruits of the earth and the firstlings of the flocks. This showing that Jesus would come and shed his blood. [there are five blank lines in Brother Nuttall's diary here] Father Adam's oldest son (Jesus the Saviour) who is the heir of the family, is Father Adam's first begotten in the spirit world, who according to the flesh is the only begotten as it is written. [144] In his divinity, he [Adam] having gone back into the spirit world, and came in the spirit to Mary, and she conceived. For when Adam and Eve got through with their work in this earth, they did not lay their bodies down in the dust, but returned to the spirit world from whence they came. (L. John Nuttall Journal, 1:18-21, February 7, 1877) And following the "Lecture at the Veil" in Brother Nuttall's journal, he wrote the comment: I felt myself much blessed in being permitted to associate with such men and hear such instructions as they savored of life to me. (Ibid.) Rodney Turner, Brigham Young University professor of Religion, has said: There is no legitimate reason to question the general accuracy of this account of Brigham Young's remarks as it appears in the Nuttall journal. The journal itself is a small one showing the wear of many years. The failure of Nuttall to properly punctuate, etc., may be due to an understandable haste on his part in making the entry at the time President Young was speaking. Yet, it is quite possible that the entry was made later, possibly from notes. Nuttall's personal comment at the conclusion of the entry seems to support this latter possibility since it appears to be an afterthought, or an impression entered in retrospect. As for Nuttall's integrity, the writer can think of no reasonable motive why he would deliberately write something in his private diary, one that has but recently come to public light, which was untrue! For morally, there doesn't seem to be the slightest blemish on Nuttall's character. He held the offices of bishop, stake president, and temple recorder. He acted as private secretary to President John Taylor (1879-1887) and President Wilford Woodruff (1887-1892). Andrew Jenson, an

assistant Church Historian, wrote of him: "Elder Nuttall is one of the busiest men in the Church, and has discharged every duty imposed upon him with that zeal and fidelity which characterizes God's faithful servants." Nuttall also held numerous public offices, including chief clerk of the state legislature, city recorder, etc. He occasionally acted as a clerk in the general conferences of the Church; and in taking of formal notes was considered "extremely reliable." In fact, he was acting as a special secretary to President Young at the time the journal entry in question was made. (The Position of Adam in Latter-day Saint Scripture and Theology, pp. 33-34) As the next chapter will show, the teachings which Brigham Young learned from Joseph, and preserved in the Temple Endowment in St. George, were a "stumbling block" to some members of the Church. But this will not surprise us, for even the limited knowledge which Joseph revealed to the Saints was not only a "stumbling block," but cost him his life. [145] And this I do that I may establish my gospel, that there may not be so much contention; yea, Satan doth stir up the hearts of the people to contention concerning the points of my doctrine; and in these things they do err, for they do wrest the scriptures and do not understand them. The Lord, D&C 10:63 The Bunkerville Problem Bunkerville Bunkerville, Nevada was one of many Mormon pioneer settlements directed by Brigham Young. Bunkerville was settled by Edward Bunker, a British emigrant. Edward Bunker came from England in 1856: The first emigrants to use the "Handcarts" came from England in 1856. By this means of travel the emigrant could journey from Liverpool, England, to Salt Lake City for about forty-five dollars. One company, led by Edmund Ellsworth, numbering 266 people, left Iowa City, June 9,1856. Another followed two days later, under the leadership of Daniel D. McArthur. A third company under Edward Bunker, left on the 23rd of June. All of these people walked across the plains, pushing or pulling their handcarts... The first two companies arrived in Salt Lake Valley, September 26. They were met at the foot of Little Mountain, Emigration Canyon, by the First Presidency, a large number 10

of people and a brass band, and were escorted into the city. Captain Edward Bunker received an enthusiastic welcome, October 2. (The Restored Church, Tenth Edition, William E. Berrett, pp. 280-281) [146] Father Edward Bunker, as he was called, served as the first bishop of the Bunkerville Ward in the pioneer settlement of Bunkerville, Nevada. He was succeeded by his son Edward Bunker, Jr. in 1883, because of the elder Bunker's poor health. Doctrinal Controversy Sometime prior to November 1890 a controversy arose in the Bunkerville, Nevada Ward, St. George Stake, concerning the Adam-God doctrine. Apparently, the matter first came to the attention of the Stake Presidency after Elder Myron Abbott, First Councilor in the Bunkerville Ward Bishopric, contacted them. His Bishop was Edward Bunker Jr., son of Edward Bunker. The historical record is quite clear concerning this controversy, and we will let the history speak for itself: High Council of St. George Stake met in St. George Tabernacle. President Ivins stated that he had learned that Father Edward Bunker of Bunkerville, in this Stake, had been teaching that some of the ceremonies at the Temple were wrong, and erroneous teaching was given in the Lecture at the Veil. As Elder Myron Abbot, 1st Counselor to the Bishop at Bunkerville had given some information on this matter, it was decided to learn from him, more definitely in relation to this matter. (St. George Historical Record, November 8, 1890, Church Archives) On December 13, 1890, the Bunkerville Ward Bishopric were invited to come before the Stake Presidency to voice their differences: High Council of St. George Stake met at St. George Tabernacle. In response to invitation of the Presidency of the Stake, Bishop Edward Bunker Junr. and Elders Myron Abbott and Joseph I. Earl were present. President McArthur invited the brethren named to express themselves on the views said to have been expressed in Bunkerville Ward and which are considered by some to be unsound doctrine. Myron Abbott, counselor to Bishop Edward Bunker, Junr., stated that for a number of years, questions on Church teachings had been agitated in Bunkerville Ward. Bishop Bunker had stated he did not believe Adam was our God and bishop Bunker had expressed his opinion that some teachings in the temples were wrong, -- notably -- part of the Lecture at the vail -- That Father Bunker had the same views. Father Bunker stated to him (Bro. Abbott) a number of years ago that Adoption would be of no avail as administered in the Temple. All such work would have to be done over again. Bp. Edward Bunker, Junr. among other things said: "In

regard to the lecture at the vail in the Temple, it is certainly wrong. It teaches that Eve was an immortal being and was brought here by Adam." Did not believe this. "Thought that Adam was not a resurrected being." In answering question of councilor Cannon, expressed his belief that Adam was the Archangel and that Jehovah and Michael were persons of Spirit; that Eloheim was a person of Tabernacle; and the Head of all. [147] After a prolonged second session of the Council Bishop Bunker and his Counselor, Myron Abbott felt they had done wrong in contending on the subjects referred to. (Ibid., December 13, 1890) The St. George Stake High Council Minutes for this meeting reveal some of the proceedings. Councilor Cannon read the "Lecture at the Veil" (the same one Brigham Young dictated) and stated: ... the lecture says Adam was an immortal being and Eve the Mother of all living bore those spirits in the Celestial World and Adam and Eve came here to form Tabernacles for them to dwell in. (High Council Minutes, December 1-3, 1890, Church Archives) Councilor Smith, speaking of the veil lecture, said it: ... teaches us that Adam was created on another earth and that he was resurrected and came upon this earth an immortal being and begat tabernacles for the spirits they had created in the spirit world. (Ibid.) Councilor Miles insisted that the: ... lecture was a doctrine of the Church. (Ibid.) Councilor Smith again said: All the keys revealed to the Prophet Joseph are here now and in the possession of the Apostles and that Bro. Bunker had tread upon ground that is exceeding dangerous. And when a man questions the sacred things in the Temple that had been passed upon by the Apostles who hold the keys of the Kingdom he was on dangerous ground. (Ibid.) President McArthur: ... advised Bro. Abbott to go slow about preaching that Adam was the Father of Christ. (Ibid.) The minutes also record that: Councilor Cannon said Father Bunker and Bp. Bunker nor any other man has the right to preach doctrine contrary to that which is accepted as doctrine by the Church. And as Father Bunker has privately expressed his belief that the Lecture at the veil was wrong, he is an unbeliever to that extent. (Ibid.) And Councilor Cannon appropriately warned both parties:

The Lecture at the veil and the things contained in it should not be mentioned outside of the temple. (Ibid.) [148] Edward Bunker, Senior Edward Bunker, Senior had not been invited to the December 1890 meeting. Since the position he held was condemned by the St. George Stake High Council, he now desired to defend his position: The High Council of St. George Stake took up the case of Edward Bunker, Senior, of Bunkerville Ward, who had been charged with erroneous views and teachings. Father Bunker's views were brought to the attention of the High Council on the 13th of last December. Since then Father Bunker expressed a desire to submit his views to the Council in writing. This was granted, resulting in a statement bearing date "Bunkerville, April 25th 1891," and submitted on ten pages of foolscap. (St. George Historical Record, May 15, 1891, Church Archives) The letter sent to the St. George Stake reads: After my return from Arizona, a controversy arose in the settlement, on points of doctrine principally between myself and Brother Myron Abbott. We mutually agreed to submit our views to the High Council. I was permitted by the Council to submit mine in writing. Here is their decision which they made before they received my report: Councilor Charles Smith then made the following motion: "That it is the sense of this Council that it is an error to believe or teach that Adam was not an immortal or resurrected being when he came to this earth, also that we pray to Adam as our God and it is wrong to teach that Adam is one of the Godhead." Seconded by Councilor D. H. Cannon. Carried unanimously, J. W. McAllister, Clerk of Court Council. Report to the Council To the High Council of Saint George Stake of Zion Having been represented before you as not believing certain doctrines as held to be correct by Myron Abbott and others; and not being present at the Council when represented because of sickness, and having heard the minutes read since and with your permission to answer the charges in writing, I herewith submit to you my belief and unbelief. 1st I do not believe that Adam is the father of Jesus Christ, and the God we worship, and the God of this earth. That the Council has decided on as I believe. Now, I wish to present to the Council my views fully on this subject, that those who read may not misjudge my views. I herewith submit to you the Scriptural references as I have them in mind. First, I will take the word of the Lord

to Abraham. Pearl Of Great Price page 52: "And the angel of his presence stood by me, and immediately loosed my bands, and his voice was unto me: Abraham! Abraham! behold, my name is Jehovah." Now, who is this God who ministered unto Abraham? The same that ministered unto Moses. Bible, Exodus, 6 chapt. 3 verse. "And I appeared unto Abraham, and Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God almighty, but by my name Jehovah was I not known to them." This same God that appeared unto Joseph Smith in the Kirtland Temple D and C Sect. 110, verses 2,3,4: "We saw the Lord standing upon the breastwork of the pulpit, before us, and under his feet was a paved work of pure gold in color like amber. His eyes were as a flame of fire, the hair of his head was white like the pure snow, [149] his countenance shone above the brightness of the sun, and his voice was as the sound of the rushing of great waters, even the voice of Jehovah, saying -- I am the first and the last, I am he who liveth, I am he who was slain, I am your advocate with the Father." Now we will let the Book of Mormon make plain who this God Jehovah is. BOM p. 311. v. 5 [3 Nephi 15:5]: "Behold I am he that gave the law, and I am he that covenanted with my people Israel; therefore, the law in me is fulfilled, for I have come to fulfill the law; therefore it hath an end." When did Jesus Christ covenant with them? Hundreds of years before he took a tabernacle of flesh. BOM 503, 14 [3 Nephi 11:14]: "Arise and come forth unto me, that ye may thrust your hands into my side, and also that ye may feel the prints of the nails in my hands and in my feet, that ye may know that I am the God of Israel, and the God of the whole earth, and have been slain for the sins of the world." Verse 17: "Hosanna! blessed be the name of the Most High God! And they did fall down at the feet of Jesus, and did worship him." I will give you a few more references and show that he is the God of Enoch. Pearl of Great Price pg. 31 [Moses 6:43]: "And Enoch continued his speech, the Lord which spake with me, the same is the God of Heaven, and he is my God, and your God, and ye are my brethren, and why counsel ye yourselves, and deny the God of heaven?" Why counsel we ourselves and seek to supplant the God of heaven with some other God? PoGP, p. 45 [Moses 7:691: "And it came to pass that Zion was not, for God received it up into his own bosom, and from thence went forth the saying, Zion is fled." What God is this that took the Zion of Enoch into his own Bosom? Let the D & C answer, Sec. 38:1-4: "Thus saith the Lord your God even Jesus Christ, the Great I Am, Alpha and Omega, the Beginning and the end, the same which looked upon the wide expanse of eternity, and all the seraphic hosts of heaven, before the world was made; I am the same which Have taken the Zion of Enoch into mine own bosom; and verily, I say, even as many as have believed in my name, for I am Christ and in mine own name, by the virtue of the blood which I have spilt, have I pleaded before the Father for them.." This ought to settle the question on this item of doctrine

to those who believe in revelation.. Now in regard to the law of adoption: I believe it is a correct principle and when it runs in the lineage it looks consistent, but the adoption of one man to another out of the lineage, I do not understand and for that reason I would not enter into it. And adopting the dead to the living is as adopting the father to the son. I don't believe there is a man on earth that thoroughly understands the principle. If there is, I have never heard it taught so I could understand it. I believe it is permitted more to satisfy the minds of the people for the present until the Lord reveals more fully on the principle. In regard to Adam coming to this earth in the creation a resurrected Celestial being and a God; having had a second probation on another planet, and that his body was of the dust of another planet. I do not believe this item of doctrine, and I will give you the scriptural references as I believe them. First, the sacred record as given to us is for the earth and the heavens belonging to this earth. Here is what the Lord said to Moses. PoGP p. 7 [Moses 2:1]: "And it came to pass that the Lord spake unto Moses, saying: Behold, I reveal unto you concerning this heaven, and this earth; write the words which I speak. I am the Beginning and the End, the Almighty God, by mine Only Begotten I created these things; yea, in the beginning I created the heaven, and the earth upon which thou standest." [150] Now this record has come to us direct from the heavens through the Prophet Joseph Smith. Shall we receive it in whole or in part? If it is not all correct, what confidence can we have in any other communication which has come from the same source? Here is what the Brother of Jared says. BOM p. 577, 12 [Ether 3:12]: "And he answered: Yea, Lord, I know that thou speakest the truth, for thou art a God of truth and canst not lie." D & C Sect. 3, v.22 [Third Lecture on Faith, paragraph 22], The words of the Prophet Joseph: "And again, the idea that he is a God of truth and cannot lie, is equally as necessary to the exercise of faith in him, as the idea of his unchangeableness." We will now take the record of the creation PoGP p. 68 [Abraham 5:7]: "And the Gods formed man from the dust of the ground, and took his spirit (that is, the man's spirit), and put it into him; and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul." This is plain to me that Adam came to this earth a personage of Spirit. He might have been Celestial spirit, because he kept a Celestial law in his first estate. What ground was Adam's body taken from? That which he was sent forth from the garden of Eden to till. PoGP p. 17 [Moses 4:29]: "I, the Lord God, will send him forth from the

Garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken." BoM p. 306, 3 [Alma 42:2]: "For behold, after the Lord God sent our first parents forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence they were taken." According to the words of the Prophet Joseph Smith the ground that Adam tilled was in Jackson Co. Mo. or not far from there. What God formed men from the dust of the earth? The Lord that created him. D & C Sect. 29, 34 v.: "Wherefore, verily I say unto you that all things unto me are spiritual, and not at any time have I given unto you a law which was temporal; neither any man, nor the children of men; neither Adam, your father, whom I created." How could Jesus Christ have created Adam in the garden of Eden if he came to the earth with a resurrected Celestial body; and Jesus Christ the God of heaven and of the whole earth and a personage of spirit in the creation? Some came with that may think that Jesus had a resurrected body when he down to create the earth. If he did, what did he do it when he was born of the Virgin Mary? For the body was crucified was the one he took to heaven with him.

Here is what he said in Third Nephi p. 476, v.13 [3 Nephi 1:13]: "Lift up your head and be of good cheer; for behold the time is at hand, and on this night shall the sign be given, and on the morrow come I into the world, to show unto the world that I will fulfill all that which I have caused to be spoken by the mouth of my holy prophets." That was on this continent, and on the morrow he was going to enter the infant tabernacle, that was to be born of the Virgin Mary in Bethlehem Judea. Now if Jesus could come down in the creation a personage of spirit why not Adam also? I understand that the family of spirits -- Jesus Christ at their head -- had not received a second estate and that was why this earth was created. I believe Adam's body was an immortal body before the fall, and the same law that produced his body in the creation is the same law by which the whole human family will obtain their resurrection. [151] Question. Is it possible for a resurrected being, having received an exaltation to lay off that body and become a fallen being? To me it is not possible. Here is my proof. BoM 267, 45 v. [Alma 11:45]: "Now, behold, I have spoken unto you concerning the death of the mortal body, and also concerning the resurrection of the mortal body. I say unto you that this mortal body is raised to an immortal body, that is from death, even from the first death unto life, that they can die no more; their spirits uniting with their bodies, never to be divided; thus the whole becoming spiritual and immortal, that they can no more see corruption." Now, I will give you my views in regards to father Adam. I will first take the four leading spirits in heaven. PoGP p.63 [Abraham 3:27, 28]: "And the Lord said, who shall I

send? And one answered like unto the Son of Man, here am I, send me. And another answered and said, here am I, send me. And the Lord said, I will send the first. And the second was angry and kept not his first estate, and, at that day, many followed after him." Now, who was the first? Jesus Christ. Who the second? The devil. Who the third? Adam. See D&C Sect. 29:36: "And it came to pass that Adam being tempted of the devil (for behold the devil was before Adam) for he rebelled against me, saying, Give me thine honor, which is my power; and also a third part of the hosts of heaven turned he away from me because of their agency." Noah was fourth. The devil fell and lost his birthright, and Adam took it and came next to the Savior. In the sermons and writings of the Prophet Joseph in the Contributor vol. 3, 2 p. [p. 33]: "The Priesthood is an everlasting principle, and existed with God from eternity, and will to eternity, without beginning of days or end of years. The keys have to be brought from heaven whenever the gospel is sent. When they are revealed from heaven, it is by Adam's authority. Daniel vii, speaks of the Ancient of Days; he means the oldest man, our Father Adam, Michael; he will call his children together and hold a council with them to prepare them for the coming of the Son of Man. He (Adam) is the Father of the human family, and presides over the spirits of all men, and all that have had the keys must stand before him in this grand council. This may take place before some of us leave this stage of action. The Son of Man stands before him, and there is given him glory and dominion. Adam delivers up his stewardship to Christ, that which was delivered to him as holding the keys of the Universe, but retains his standing as head of the human family. Christ is the Great High Priest; Adam next." Adam is the Archangel of Jesus Christ. D&C Sect. 29,26: "But behold, verily I say unto you, before the earth shall pass away, Michael, mine archangel, shall sound his trump, and then shall all the dead awake, for their graves shall be opened, and they shall come forth -- yea, even all." Adam is a prince forever. D&C Sect. 78, v.16: "Who hath appointed Michael your prince, and established his feet, and set him upon high, and given unto him the days of salvation under the counsel and direction of the Holy One, who is without beginning of days or end of life." He is the first and seventh angel. D&C Sect. 88:113: "And Michael, the seventh angel, even the archangel, shall gather his armies, even the hosts of heaven." Adam will reign and rule on the earth as a mighty prince in the Millennium under Jesus Christ as God, King and law giver. Now, in regard to Adam being a God here is what the Lord said concerning Abraham. D&C Sect. 132:37: "They have entered into their exaltation, according to the promises, and sit upon thrones, and are not angels but are gods." [152] Abraham, Isaac and Jacob are Gods. Surely Noah and Adam are

Gods. Do the children of Abraham worship and pray to him? I think not. Noah was the father of all living in his day. Neither do the children of Noah worship him, or Adam's children worship him. To me there is a great difference between those Gods and the God Jesus Christ who created the earth and redeemed it. Every God in his own order: Honor to whom honor is due; a place for everything and everything in its place. There are no dark sayings or mysteries in the communications of God to man. If there is darkness, it is in man because he will not receive the truth from heaven in the plainness that God does give it. Here are the words of the Prophet Joseph Smith. Contributor vol. 3, p. 35: "We may come to Jesus and ask him; he will know all about it; if he comes to a little child, he will adapt himself to the language and capacity of a little child." The words of 2nd Nephi BoM 123 [2 Nephi 31:3]: "For my soul delighteth in plainness; for in this manner doth the Lord God work among the children of men. For the Lord God giveth light unto the understanding; for he speaketh unto men according to their language, unto their understanding." Here is the admonition of the Prophet Joseph to us and to all Saints. Compendium p. 270, Keys "July 2, 1839, At a meeting of the Twelve and some of the Seventies. President Joseph Smith made the following remarks. `O ye Twelve! and all Saints! prophit by this important key -- that in all your trials, troubles, temptations, afflictions, bonds, imprisonments and death, see to it, that you do not betray heaven; that you do not betray Jesus Christ; that you do not betray the brethren; that you do not betray the revelations of God, whether in the Bible, Book of Mormon, or Doctrine and Covenants, or any other that ever was or ever will be given or revealed to man in this world. Yea in all your kickings and flounderings see to it that you do not do this thing, lest innocent blood be found on your skirts, and you go down to hell. All other sins are not to be compared to the sinning against the Holy Ghost and proving a traitor to thy brethren.'" With due respect to the Council and all my brethren, I cannot, I dare not ignore the written word of God. I subscribe myself your friend and brother in the Gospel of Christ. (The Autobiography Of Edward Bunker, pp. 31-47, Church Archives) We feel with force the choice before us; either Edward Bunker, Sr. was right and Brigham Young was wrong, or the Prophet of God was right and Edward Bunker wrested the scriptures. Edward Bunker, Sr. chose the scriptures, or we should really say he chose his understanding of the scriptures over the word of God through the Prophet of God. First Presidency Requested After the Stake Council had read Father Bunker's letter, they deemed it wise:

That the communication of Edward Bunker on what he believes and does not believe; together with a statement of the cause leading to the investigation which called forth his declaration, also the full action of the Council in this matter be forwarded to the First Presidency of the Church, asking their advice as [153] to the proper course for us to take, as the Presidency and High Council of this Stake. Councilor David H. Cannon moved that the Presidency of the Stake with Councilor James G. Bleake, and the Clerk of the High Council act as a Committee to formulate this statement: carried. (St. George Historical Record, May 1-5, 1891, Church Archives) The proposed letter was drafted and a week later considered: The following was prepared and subsequently approved by the High Council and forwarded to the First Presidency: St. George, 22nd May, 1891. To President Wilford Woodruff and Councilors. Brethren: -- For some years there has existed a spirit of division on doctrinal points and Church teachings, in Bunkerville Ward, this Stake of Zion. It was thought that by the gentle corrections and teachings of the Stake Presidency, to certain of the disputants, the division would gradually die out, and be overcome. Such, we regret to state, has not been the case. Finding the evidences of this division more and more manifest, it was reported to the High Council here, at its meeting in November last. By action of the Presidency and High Council, the chief parties to the division were invited to meet with us in Council that we might learn more definitely their views. At our High Council in December last in response to this invitation Bishop Edward Bunker, Junr. and his Counselors, Myron Abbott and Joseph I. Earl met with us. Father Edward Bunker, being in poor health at the time, could not attend. Bishop Bunker and his first Counselor, Myron Abbott, who is also his uncle, being representatives of the diverse and unreconciled views prevailing in the Ward, stated some of their respective differences of belief and teachings. Upon hearing these brethren it was found that they were each most pronounced in their respective views. As a result of the investigation the following was passed as the action of the Council: "It is the sense of this Council that it is an error to teach that Adam was not an immortal, or, resurrected, being when he came to this earth; also, that we pray to Adam as our God; and, it is wrong to teach that Adam is one of the Godhead; Father Edward Bunker was present at the High Council in March last, and asked the privilege of expressing his views, in writing, upon the doctrines and teachings

referred to in the December High Council Meeting. This was granted. The written statement has been presented to and read in, the High Council, and the Council has decided to submit it, and this whole matter, to you. This statement, enclosed herewith, sets forth the points upon which the division in Bunkerville Ward is based, and we submit it to you with a desire to receive instruction as to what you wish us, as a Presidency and High Council to do in this matter. [154] There is one thing more: You will notice in the beginning of Father Bunker's statement declaring his views relating to Adam, he uses the words: "That the Council has decided upon, as I believe The only Council action in deciding anything about the points in controversy, is embodied in the quoted action of the Council found at the bottom of page 2 of this letter. Awaiting your instruction, or decision, in this matter. We remain, dutifully yours, -Daniel D. McArthur. A. W. Ivins, per DDMA. Erastus B. Snow. (Ibid., May 22, 1891) The First Presidency felt this matter was important enough for them to personally speak with the parties from Bunkerville Ward. And on June 11, 1892, they attended a special High Council meeting of the St. George Stake. From the historical evidence it is apparent that sometime after receiving the letter from the St. George Stake and before coming to St. George, the First Presidency requested some background information about the "Lecture at the Veil" from L. John Nuttall. We recall from the previous chapter that Elder Nuttall was one of the principle brethren involved in editing and recording the lecture as dictated by President Brigham Young in 1877. Elder Nuttall's letter, dated June 3, 1892, was written just eight days prior to the special High Council meeting. It stated: In January 1877, shortly after the lower portion of the St. George Temple was dedicated, President Brigham Young, in following up in the Endowments, became convinced that it was necessary to have the formula of the Endowments written, and he gave directions to have the same put in writing. Shortly afterwards he explained what the Lecture at the Veil should portray, and for this purpose appointed a day when he would personally deliver the Lecture at the Veil. Elders J. D. T. McAllister and L. John Nuttall prepared writing material, and as the President spoke they took down his words. Elder Nuttall put the same into form and the writing was submitted to President Young on the same evening at his office in residence at St. George. He there made such changes as he deemed proper, and when he finally

passed upon it said: This is the Lecture at the Veil to be observed in the Temple. A copy of the Lecture is kept at the St. George Temple, in which President Young refers to Adam in his creation & c. [signed] L. John Nuttall For Presidents:W. Woodruff Geo. Q. Cannon Jos. F. Smith June 3, 1892 Salt Lake City (L. John Nuttall Papers, 4:290) [155] Indicative of what was going on in the Quorum of Twelve just one week prior to the St. George High Council Meeting, may be the proceedings of the Quorum Meeting in which Apostle Abraham H. Cannon recorded: I was at my quorum meeting where were present all the presidency and myself, as also Bro. Lyman; Geo. Gibbs, clerk. Bro. Jos. F. Smith was mouth in prayer Thereafter some conversation followed as to whether Adam is our God or not. There are some in the Church who do not accept of the statements of Pres. Young that such is the case. (Abraham H. Cannon Journal, May 26, 1892) After receipt of Elder Nuttall's letter explaining President Young's perfecting of the Endowment, President Wilford Woodruff and his first counselor, George Q. Cannon, came to the St. George Stake for the purpose of settling "the case of disagreement on points of doctrine between brethren of Bunkerville Ward." President Wilford Woodruff's journal entry for the day of the meeting reads: We met in the tabernacle at 10 o'clock on the trial of Bishop Bunker [Senior] on doctrine. We talked to them plainly on the impropriety of indulging in mysteries to create difficulties among the Saints. They purposed to be satisfied. (Wilford Woodruff Journal, June 11, 1892) We also have recorded the events of the meeting: High Council of St. George Stake convened at 10 a.m. in St. George Tabernacle. Prest. Dan D. McArthur prest. The council was favored with the presence of President Wilford Woodruff and his first counselor, Prest. George Q. Cannon. The case of disagreement on points of doctrine between brethren of Bunkerville Ward was called up. Father Edward Bunker, and others from Bunkerville Ward were prest. Elder Arthur Winter, clerk to the First Presidency, then

read Father Edward Bunker's views on doctrinal points, written April 25, 1891 and forwarded to the First Presidency by St. George Stake Presidency pursuant to action of St. George Stake High Council on 15th May 1891. The results of this investigation was that all the Bunkerville parties became reconciled to each other on the points which they had been agitating for a long time, and which had engendered bitter feelings between them. (St. George Historical Record, June 11, 1892, Church Archives) Present at the High Council meeting was J. D. T. McAllister. He recorded in his journal: 10 a.m. attended High Council. Presidents Woodruff and Cannon present. The doctrine preached and contended for by Father Edward Bunker of Bunkerville Ward was investigated, condemned and Father Bunker set right. It was a nice time. Much instruction was given by the First Presidency present. (Diary of J. D. T. McAllister, June 11, 1892) [156] Also present was Charles Lowell Walker. Of the meeting, he wrote: St. George -- Attended the High Council at which Pres. Woodruff presided. G. Q. Cannon was present also and a large body of the leading men of this Stake. Br. Edward Bunker Sen. and others of Bunkerville, Nevada, had been advancing false doctrine. One item was, that he, Bunker, thought it was right to worship the intelligence that was in God the Eternal Father and not God, who made all things by the power of his Word. And another was that Adam was made of the dust of the earth contained in the Garden of Eden. He had also advanced some erroneous ideas concerning the resurrection. Pres. Woodruff and Cannon showed in a very plain manner that it was right to Worship the true, and Living God, and Him only, and not the intelligence that dwelt in Him; that His Son Jesus Christ, or Jehovah, never taught such doctrine, but always to worship my Father which is in Heaven, and to always pray to the Father in the name of His Son Jesus Christ. Showed that Adam was an immortal being when he came to this earth and was made the same as all other men and Gods are made; and that the seed of man was of the dust of the earth, and that the continuation of the seeds in a glorified state was Eternal Lives. And after this mortal tabernacle had crumbled to dust in the grave, that God would, in the time of the resurrection by his Matchless Power, bring together again in the form of a glorified and an immortal [body] to the Righteous to dwell with Him forever. Also that those who were not righteous would also be resurrected, but not with a glorified body. Said it was not wisdom for the elders to contend about such matters and things they did not understand. And not to teach such things to the children in the Sunday Schools; they could not comprehend them. Pres. Woodruff spoke of the false doctrine taught by Amasa Lyman some years ago, viz, that the atoning blood of Jesus Christ was of no more efficacy than the blood of any other man or that of a Bullock & c. Such false ideas had led him to apostasy and

finally out of the church. Also of the false teachings of the late Orson Pratt, one of the Twelve, arguing that every particle of matter which composed the elements had all the attributes of the Deity in it, and that they, i.e., the particles of Matter, by some unaccountable way united together and became God. Pres. Woodruff told of Orson's unyielding stubbornness, and of upbraiding the Twelve for not being manly, for not declaring their views the way he looked at it, and branding them as cowards & c &c. Spoke of the firmness of Pres. Young in correcting Orson Pratt and setting him aright; of Orson wishing to resign his position in the Quorum; of Pres. Young saying "No you won't Orson, I'll rub your ears until I get you right;" and had it not been for [the] firmness of Pres. Young in maintaining the right, and assiduously laboring and showing him his gross errors, Orson would have been out of the Church. Showed the folly of some men because they cannot look up and prove by the Bible the glorious Revelations that God has given; they receive them doubtfully. Showed that God had, and would yet, reveal many glorious things that men could not prove, and Search out of the old Bible. Pres. Cannon said that it was not necessary that we should [teach] or endorse the doctrine that some men taught that Adam was the Father of Jesus Christ. Counsel was given for the Elders to teach that which they knew, not that which they did not. The Meeting was in session over three hours, and much good counsel was given to the elders present on these things by Pres. Woodruff and Cannon. To me it was a feast for I had been pondering over some of these things of late. (Diary of Charles Lowell Walker, 2:740-741, June 11, 1892) A. R. Whitehead was present at the meeting: Elder A. R. Whitehead asked if we should not let these things alone and not talk of them in our Sunday Schools. Prest. Cannon said if he knew of anyone teaching these things in Sunday School he would want to suspend him. (St. George High Council Minutes of the Trial of Edward Bunker, Sr., June 11, 1892, Church Archives) [157] During the June 11th meeting, the First Presidency revealed that the "Lecture at the Veil" had been scrutinized by the Twelve and "no man has any right to say anything against it:" Prest. Young was so careful that he would not allow Bro. Cannon or anyone else to quote it, but had it written down to be read at the veil. Councilor Cannon said the Endowments were organized in Joseph's brick store in Nauvoo. Prest. Young said he wanted to deliver the Lecture at the veil and 4 men were writing [it down]. And after they had got through, the memos were given to Prest. Young to revise and as he revised it, Prest. George Q. Cannon wrote it very slowly and after Prest. Young's death it was sent for by the Twelve Apostles and closely scrutinized and there was only one thing changed in it and then accepted by them and no man has any right to say anything against it. (Ibid.)

Father Bunker's unbelief of the teachings in the temple was primarily due to what he saw as a contradiction between the scriptures and the temple Endowment. President Cannon stated that there is something we tend to overlook in our study of the scriptures: "I am the beginning and the end." Jesus speaks for the Godhead, the personages who compose the Godhead, and that must be kept in mind all the time, not speaking for himself, but for the father. It is overlooking this that leads to confusion. Men thinking that Jesus speaks for himself. (Ibid). President Cannon also said: Father Bunker labors to show that the God of this earth is the Savior... we worship the Father in the name of Jesus. If Jesus is the object of our worship, who was left in charge when he tabernacled in the flesh? It was the Father. (Ibid.) The minutes also record the following: Father Bunker holds different views and Bro. Orson Pratt also had different views from this and as a consequence he nearly went out of the Church for it. And he [George Q. Cannon] once heard him [Orson Pratt] say, that whenever he contended with Prest. Young, his mind was darkened, and he said he was going to stop. (Ibid.) George Q. Cannon instructed: Adam was created like we are. (Ibid.) He further testified: ... in the name of Jesus Christ that Adam was born just as we are born. The lecture at the veil is true ... procreation is the gift of eternal lives, and if we are faithful we shall create worlds and people them just as Adam has done. (Ibid.) [158] President Wilford Woodruff then left no doubt as to the true relationship between Adam and Christ: President Wilford Woodruff said Adam stood ahead of this world and Jesus was born long after. Now this is the key to the whole matter. (Ibid.) So, in 1892 we have the Prophet of God and his first councilor endorsing the doctrine which places Adam at the head of this creation, and which doctrine states that we are the literal spirit children of Michael, the Ancient of Days, our Heavenly Father. Nothing which was elaborated upon by the First Presidency in this High Council meeting was contrary to what Brigham Young revealed forty years earlier in that historic Priesthood Session of General Conference, on April 9, 1852. The only change we now see is that without the presence of Brigham Young, men now felt free to criticize that which he revealed to

the Saints as the word of God through the Prophet of God. It is obvious that Brigham Young intended Adam-God to be a permanent teaching to which the more faithful Saints would always have access. Why else would he have the doctrine taught as part of the Endowment? Certainly, Brigham believed that the temple ordinances would remain faithful to his designs, and the trust Joseph placed in him, regardless of the personal and spiritual immaturity of those who would not comprehend Adam-God. Perhaps we can best understand why Brigham Young felt so strongly about the doctrine if we remember two things: first, Brigham learned the temple ordinances from Joseph. Second, who did Joseph learn them from? And I will show unto my servant Joseph all things pertaining to this house, and the priesthood thereof... (D&C 124:42) As we will see in the next chapter, classifying Adam-God as a higher doctrine, not to be taught publicly, was the seed necessary to enable the removal of the doctrine altogether from Mormon theology. [159] And thou shalt not command him who is at thy head, and at the head of the church; For I have given him the keys of the mysteries, and the revelations which are sealed, until I shall appoint unto them another in his stead. The Lord, D&C 28:6-7 The Devolution Of A Doctrine To Devolve Devolve means to degenerate through a gradual change. It is certainly accurate to describe the history of the Adam-God doctrine in terms of a devolution, for it has gradually degenerated from the status of a revealed truth to that of an uninspired myth in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. We must admit that Joseph Smith played an important role in the revelation of this doctrine. And we must also admit that Brigham Young not only heard Joseph testify to the truth of Adam-God, but that he had received that divine witness that Adam-God was a true doctrine. To call these things into question is to cast doubt upon the integrity of Joseph and Brigham, for they have left their testimony attesting to the truthfulness of these things. We Latter-day Saints must not be afraid to ask the question: "How could this devolution of a gospel truth have occurred?" [160] 11

Perhaps the Bunkerville Problem and some of the earlier opposition give us some idea as to how this change took place. It will prove valuable for us to see how this devolution occurred slowly, almost imperceptible to both those who believed the Adam-God doctrine and those who disbelieved it. A Public Doctrine We have clearly seen that the contention that Adam-God was never clearly revealed and endorsed is absolutely false. History insists that Adam-God was revealed to the Priesthood at large during General Conference, that it was revealed in detail to the body of the Church in General Conference, that it was revealed to the world through Church-owned newspapers and publications, that it was published to the European Saints in the organs of the Church, that it was endorsed by the Priesthood leadership in various meetings and settings, that the literature and sacred music of the Church endorsed the doctrine, and perhaps the best and most overwhelming evidence is the fact that Adam-God was clearly defined and taught in the ordinances of the temple. The Chain Of Authority Some would contend that although Adam-God held the once prominent position in Mormon theology, this does not prove that it was a true doctrine. To question whether or not Adam-God is a true doctrine is to question whether Joseph Smith was a true Prophet, whether the Book of Mormon is a true work, whether the Doctrine and Covenants is revelation from God, whether or not the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the Church of God on earth, for all had their origin with Joseph Smith. And if we rationalize that Brigham Young did not constitute a prophet in the same sense that Joseph did, then we have pulled the carpet out from under our present day authority; for if Brigham Young did not possess the keys and authority which Joseph possessed, then all of the Apostles with Brigham did not possess the keys and authority, because they all testified that: The voice of God came from on high, and spake to the Council. Every latent feeling was aroused, and every heart melted. What did it say to us? "Let my servant Brigham step forth and receive the full power of the presiding Priesthood in my Church and kingdom." (Apostle Orson Hyde, JD 8:233-234) In short, a rational and sincere member of the Church, out of necessity, must embrace Adam-God, for everything about it is Mormon. It cannot be separated from everything that is Mormon! [161] At this point we will only state the obvious for those who have failed to comprehend what has happened to Adam-God: It was revealed by prophets of God in this dispensation, and slowly fell into what can only be called an apostate condition. What was once a prominent doctrine is now nothing more than a topic of speculation and derision. How did this happen? A Sensitive Doctrine There can be no doubt that Brigham was aware of the difficulty

many of the Saints would experience over the Adam-God doctrine. From the very beginning there was always a circumspect attitude associated with the teaching of the doctrine. Remember, when Brigham first revealed Adam-God, in 1852, he said: I could tell you much more about this; but were I to tell you the whole truth, blasphemy would be nothing to it, in the estimation of the superstitious and overrighteous of mankind. However, I have told you the truth as far as I have gone. (JD 1:51) Brigham further revealed: I have given you a few leading items upon this subject, but a great deal more remains to be told. (Ibid) Certainly, it is the nature of mankind to be reluctant to accept new knowledge, and there can be no more difficult knowledge to accept than that which contradicts preconceived notions about the nature of God. Many of the Saints brought with them their centuries-old dogmas of Christian tradition. They were not sufficiently prepared for the whole truth about Adam-God. In fact, we have the vantage point today which allows us to know that many of the Saints were not even prepared for what they did receive, for it was rejected and today it is rare indeed to know a Latter-day Saint who knows the true "nature and character of God." In the October 8, 1854 General Conference address, Brigham fully revealed the "nature and character of God" and thereafter said: Now to know the only wise God and Jesus Christ whom He has sent, will put the man, woman, congregation, or nation in possession of Eternal Life. Are the hearts of the Latter-day Saints prepared to have Eternal life given to them enmass, and say there shall be no more apostasy, but bring them all up that they may know and understand the Gods, Eternities, Creations, Heavens, Hells, Kingdoms, Thrones, Principalities and Powers? It cannot be done. The sheep and goats are together, the wheat and the tares are growing together; the good and the bad are mixed; and they must so remain until the time when Jesus Christ will say, "gather my sheep into my fold; gather my wheat into my garner, and [162] let the tares, and chaff, and stubble be burned." That is not yet. (October 8, 1854, General Conference; see chapter five for entire discourse) After revealing the doctrine of Adam-God in explicit detail, Brigham Young stated: I wish you to understand well the position I have taken, and the nature of the remarks I have made. Profit by them, both saints and sinners. You have had things laid before you that does not belong to the world, nor to men and women, who calculate to apostatize. They belong to the wise; to those who are serving God with all their hearts. Now let me say to the wicked in heart, you cannot remember a word of this discourse unless you remember it in the Lord. I might reveal all there is in eternity, and those who have not their hearts on righteousness would know

nothing about it, nor be in the least instructed. (Ibid.) Brigham Young understood only too well the nature of these things of God: They belong to the wise; to those who are serving God with all their hearts. (Ibid.) Now, perhaps we are willing to ask ourselves, "Do I believe the prophets of God? If not, maybe I am not serving God with all my heart." Six months after Brigham Young's historic Priesthood Conference Session, wherein he revealed Adam-God for the first time, we find Elder Orson Spencer advocating the doctrine: A morning meeting was held at which Orson Spencer and Orson Pratt spoke on the subject of Adam. Spencer spoke of Adam coming to this earth in the morning of creation with a resurrected body and etc ... brother Spencer endeavors to substantiate the position taken by President Young: Viz, that Adam came to this earth with a resurrected body, and became mortal by eating the fruits of the earth, which was earthy. William Clayton Journal, October 3, 1852, Church Archives) However, Orson Pratt would not accept the doctrine, choosing instead to accept only: ... the literal reading of the scriptures for his guide. Ibid.) William Clayton continued his account: The subject was finally left in so much difficulty and obscurity as it has been from the beginning... Elder Pratt advised the brethren to pray to God for knowledge of the true principles, and it appears evident that whenever the question is decided, it will have to be by revelation from God. (Ibid.) The next day William Clayton wrote to President Young: There is also another subject which has occupied much of the time, and in which the difference in opinion seems to be wider, and more firmly established than the baby resurrection; and that is in regard to Adam's coming on this earth; whether he came here with a resurrected body and became mortal by eating the fruits of the earth which are earthy, or he was created direct (that is his mortal tabernacle) [163] from the dust of the earth, according to the popular opinion of the world. On this subject brother Pratt and myself, have rather locked horns, he holding to the latter opinion, and I firmly believing the former; but there can be no difficulty between us, as he is my superior and I shall not argue against him; but if [he] were an equal I should be apt to speak my feelings in full. There are difficulties on both sides, take it which way we will, and he is unwilling to express anything more than his opinion on the subject. (Letter from William Clayton to

Brigham Young, October 4, 1852, Church Archives; emphasis in original) A Prominent Opponent Orson Pratt was converted by the preaching of his older brother, Parley P. Pratt. Orson was baptized on his nineteenth birthday, and became a zealous member of the Church on September 19, 1830. (see Orson Pratt's Works, p. xii) Orson returned to Nauvoo from a mission, and on August 20, 1842, Orson and his wife were dropped from the records of the Church. Later Joseph rebaptized them both on January 20, 1843, and restored Orson to his former office in the Quorum of Twelve. (see HC 5:60-61, 5:256; Brigham Young's Journal, 2 August 1842). Orson was the first man of his stature in the Church to publicly challenge President Brigham Young's authority with regard to the Adam-God doctrine. He had a great difficulty in believing that which was not recorded in the scriptures. On September 17, 1854 Wilford Woodruff recorded the following in his journal: [We] had an interesting conversation in our Prayer Circle. The subject of Elder Orson Pratt publishing The Seer and the doctrine it contained was brought up in conversation. President Young said he ought not to have published the marriage ceremony. It was sacred and one of the last ceremonies attended to in the Endowments and ought not to have been given to the world. Brother Pratt said he thought it was no harm as the plurality of wives and its doctrines was to be published to the world. He said he should not have done it if he had thought there had been the least harm in it. President Young said he was satisfied that he intended no wrong in it. He said that the doctrine taught in The Seer that God had arrived at that state whereby He could not advance any further in knowledge, power and glory was a false doctrine and not true -- that there never will be a time to all Eternity when all the Gods of Eternity will cease advancing in power, knowledge, experience and glory, for if this was the case eternity would cease to be and the glory of God would come to an end. But all of celestial beings will continue to advance in knowledge and power, worlds without end. Joseph would always be ahead of us. We should never catch up with him in all Eternity, nor he with his leaders. Brother Pratt also thought that Adam was made of the dust of the Earth. [He] could not believe that Adam was our God or the Father of Jesus Christ. President Young said that He was -- that He came [164] from another world and made this [Earth], brought Eve with him, partook of the fruits of the Earth, begat children and they were earthly and had mortal bodies, and if we were faithful we should become Gods as He was. He told Brother Pratt to lay aside his Philosophical reasoning and get revelation from God to govern him and enlighten his mind more and it would be a great blessing to him to lay aside his books and go into the canyons as some of the rest of us was doing and it would be better for him.

He said his philosophy injured him in a measure. Many good things were said by President Young -- that we should grow up in revelation so that principle would govern every act of our lives. He had never found any difficulty in leading this people since Joseph's death. (Wilford Woodruff Journal, September 17, 1854, P.M.) Two weeks later, on October 1, 1854, President Young explained to Orson Pratt: ... about Adam begetting Christ after he had received his exaltation and that all have got to become Adams upon some Earth -- or other. (Historian's Office Journal, October 1, 1854, 17:148, Church Archives) The General Conference of the Church was held the following week on October 8, 1854. Joseph Lee Robinson recorded in his journal the following things after he heard Brigham Young deliver this historic discourse, at General Conference, on Adam-God: Attended conference, a very interesting conference, for at this meeting President Brigham Young said thus: That Adam and Eve were the names of the first man and woman of every earth that was ever organized and that Adam and Eve were the natural Father and Mother of every spirit that comes to this planet, or that receives tabernacles on this planet, consequently we are brothers and sisters, and that Adam was God, our Eternal Father. This as Brother Heber remarked, was letting the cat out of the bag, and it came to pass, I believed every word, for I remembered saying to the Brethren at a meeting of High Priests in Nauvoo, while I was speaking to them under the influence of the spirit, I remarked thus, that our Father Adam had many wives, and that Eve was only one of them, and that she was our mother, and that she was the mother of the inhabitants of this earth, and I believe that also, but behold yea there were some that did not believe these sayings of the Prophet Brigham, even our beloved Brother Orson Pratt told me he did not believe it. He said he could prove by the scriptures it was not correct. I felt very sorry to hear Professor Orson Pratt say that. I feared lest he should apostatize, but I prayed for him that he might endure to the end, for I knew verily that it was possible that great men might fall. (Joseph Lee Robinson Diary, Oct. 8, 1854, pp. 102-103, Church Archives, also typescript, Utah State Historical Society) In chapter four we discussed the fallacy adhered to by those who believe they can prove all things from the scriptures, especially those things which have: ... not been revealed since the world was until now. (D&C 121:26) This attitude which places the scriptures as our authority demonstrates ignorance of the true nature of the scriptures and denies revelation from God. As Franklin D. Richards said: I would like to know where you will find scripture to prove

these things by, which have never before been revealed. Some seem to feel it their bounden duty to prove everything which belongs to our faith [165] from the Bible, but I do not, and I will excuse you from all obligation to prove this from the old Scriptures, for you cannot, if you try. (Millennial Star 16:534-535; see chapter four for complete article) Orson Pratt, brilliant as he may have been, was disobedient to the Prophet of God, and he cannot be excused from this fact. Samuel W. Richards recorded the following experience in his journal on March 11, 1856: Evening with the Regency in the upper room of the Presidents office, examining the spelling for the new books in the D. Alphabet. A very serious conversation took place between President B. Young and Orson Pratt upon doctrine. O. P. was directly opposed to the President's views and very freely expressed his entire disbelief in them after being told by the President that things were so and so in the name of the Lord. He was firm in the position that the President's word in the name of the Lord, was not the word of the Lord to him. The President did not believe that Orson Pratt would ever be Adam, to learn by experience the facts discussed, but that every person in the room would be if they lived faithful. J. M. Grant, Amasa Lyman, W. Woodruff, Albert Carrington, Elias Smith, and Robert L. Campbell were present. (Diary of Samuel Whitney Richards 1824-1909, March 11, 1856, p. 15; BYU Library) In March 1857 we find Brigham Young publicly chastising Orson Pratt (again): With all the knowledge and wisdom that are combined in the person of brother Orson Pratt, still he does not yet know enough to keep his foot out of it, but drowns himself in his own philosophy, every time that he undertakes to treat upon the principles that he does not understand. When he was about to leave here for his present mission, he made a solemn promise that he would not meddle with principles which he did not fully understand, but would confine himself to the first principles of the doctrine of salvation, such as were preached by brother Joseph Smith and the Apostles. But the first thing that we see in his writings, he is dabbling with things that he does not understand; his vain philosophy is no criterion or guide for the Saints in doctrine. (JD 4:266-267, March 8, 1857) On April 4, 1860, at a meeting of the Twelve, Orson Pratt continued his attack on Brigham's authority to teach the Adam-God doctrine: I would like to enumerate items, first preached and publish[ed] that Adam is the fa[ther] of our spirits, and father of Spirit and father of our bodies. When I read the Rev[elation] given to Joseph I read directly the opposite. (April 4, 1860, Miscellaneous Papers, Brigham Young Collection, Church Archives) Brigham's answer shows what history has already told us: he

never backed down from his insistence that the Adam-God doctrine was true. He informed Orson: You came out tonight and place them as charges, and have as many against me as I have you. One thing I thought I might still have omitted. It was Joseph's doctrine that Adam was God when in Luke Johnson's, at O[rson] Hyde['s] the power came upon us, or such that alarmed the neighborhood. God comes to earth and eats and partakes of fruit. (Ibid.) "God comes to earth and eats and partakes of fruit" is a reference to how Gods fall "that [166] man might be." Brigham's devotion to the Prophet Joseph and the doctrines he revealed is beyond reproach. Brigham's reason for upholding Adam-God is best put in his own words: It is my duty to see that correct doctrine is taught and to guard the church from error, it is my calling. (Ibid.) The next day, April 5, 1860, during a meeting of the Council of Twelve, Orson Pratt once again voiced his opposition to the Prophet: In regard to Adam being our Father and God... I frankly say, I have no confidence in it, although advanced by Brother Kimball in the stand, and afterwards approved by Brigham... I have heard Brigham say that Adam is the Father of our spirits and he came here with a resurrected body, to fall for his own children, and I said to him it leads to an endless number of falls which leads to sorrow and death; that is revolting to my feelings, even if it were sustained by revelation. One [revelation] says that Adam was formed out of the earth, and the Lord put in his spirit, and another that he came with his body, flesh and bones, there are two contradictory revelations. In the garden it is said that a voice said to Adam, in the meridian of time, I will send my only begotten son Jesus Christ, then how can that man and Adam both be the Father of Jesus Christ?... It was the Father of Jesus Christ that was talking to Adam in the garden. Young says that Adam was the Father of Jesus Christ both of his spirit and body in his teaching from the stand. (Orson Pratt, April 5, 1860, Miscellaneous Papers, Brigham Young Collection, Church Archives) In 1865 we find that Orson Pratt had not conformed to the counsel of the Prophet, for he was again on the receiving end of the President's criticism: We have persons in this Church who have preached and published doctrines on the subject of Deity which are not true. Elder Orson Pratt has written extensively on the doctrines of this Church, and upon this particular doctrine. When he writes and speaks upon subjects with which he is acquainted and understands, he is a very sound reasoner; but when he has written upon matters of which he knows nothing -- his own philosophy, which I call vain philosophy -- he is wild, uncertain and contradictory. In all my public ministration as a minister of truth, I have

never yet been under the necessity of preaching, believing or practicing doctrines that are not fully and clearly set forth in the Old and New Testaments, Book of Doctrine and Covenants and the Book of Mormon. (Deseret News, August 23, 1865, p. 370) Again in 1868, we find not only Orson Pratt's malignant unbelief of Adam-God, but Apostle Amasa Lyman also "stumbled on this." On June 8, 1868, during a meeting of the Provo School of the Prophets, Abraham O. Smoot said: The doctrine preached by President Young for a few years back wherein he says Adam is our God, the God we worship, that most of the people believe this; some believe it because the President says so, others because they can find testimony in the Book of Mormon and Doctrine and Covenants. Amasa Lyman stumbled on this; he does not believe it. He did not believe in the Atonement of Jesus. Orson Pratt has also told the President that he does not believe it. This is not the way to act. We are not [167] accountable on points of doctrine; if the President makes a statement it is not our prerogative to dispute it; he is only accountable in points of doctrine. I have heard President avow the truth of Adam being our Father and God but have never heard him argue the question at all. (Minutes of the School of the Prophets, Provo, Utah, June 8, 1868, pp. 37-42, Church Archives, also from a typescript copy at the Utah State Historical Society, Salt Lake City) Unbelief In The Minds Of The Latter-day Saints Like Joseph before him, Brigham learned that to reveal and bear testimony of the truth was to stir up the powers of darkness against him. The life of Joseph Smith reveals that his fiercest enemies had once been close to the Church. Brigham undoubtedly believed that in the isolation of their western domain, the Saints would be able to embrace the laws and doctrines of God, and establish Zion. But as dedicated as the Saints were, some had motives other than to establish the Zion of their God. On July 12, 1857 Heber C. Kimball chastised the Saints: I do not want half-hearted characters to labor with me. Poor miserable creatures; they are not fit for anything. Some of them have been in the house of Israel from fifteen to twenty years, and are following the Devil. Are there any such characters in this congregation? Yes, several, both men and women. There are men and women ready to oppose brother Brigham in what he said last Sunday. He told the truth of God in every word he spoke. Do you suppose that he is so unwise to say a thing which he does not know to be true? He understands what he speaks, and he looks before he jumps, and God Almighty will lead him straight, and he will never stumble -- no, never, from this time forth; nor will you, brother Hyde, if you will follow him; neither will any other man. (JD 5:32) In October 1857 Brigham expressed his discontent over the Saint's unwillingness to accept Adam-God: Some have grumbled because I believe our God so near to us

as Father Adam. (JD 5:331) Two years later, in July 1859, President Young is quoted as saying: I am hated for teaching the people the way of life and salvation -- for teaching them principles that pertain to eternity, by which the Gods were and are, and by which they gain influence and power. (JD 7:3) We sense that Brigham experienced the same treatment from the Saints that Joseph did; as long as he would not preach anything new to them they would be happy. Unbelief was the reaction as soon as they would reveal any of the mysteries of the kingdom. Reacting to this dilemma, Brigham declared: [168] You need exhorting rather than teaching. You have been taught doctrine in abundance, and I have sometimes thought it a pity the Lord has revealed quite as much as he has. And I can truly say that I believe, if I am guilty in any one point in my walk before this people, it is in telling them things they are not worthy of -- that I have given unto them things that they could not receive. (JD 7:238, September 1, 1859) Speaking of the Saints unbelief, Brigham said: I will give you a few words of doctrine, upon which there has been much inquiry, and with regard to which considerable ignorance exists. Br. Watt will write it, but it is not my intention to have it published, therefore pay good attention, and store it up in your memories. Some years ago, I advanced a doctrine with regard to Adam being our Father and God, that will be a cause [curse] to many Elders of Israel because of their folly. With regard to it they yet grovel in darkness and will. It is one of the most glorious revealments of the economy of heaven, yet the world holds it [in] derision. Had I revealed the doctrine of baptism from the dead instead [of] Joseph Smith there are men around me who would have ridiculed the idea until dooms day. But they are ignorant and stupid like the dumb ass. (manuscript entitled "A Few Words Of Doctrine," October 8, 1861, Brigham Young Collection, Church Archives) And on June 4, 1864, Brigham Young said: President Kimball remarked that he had been told that some did not believe all that he said, or all that I say. I care not one groat whether they believe all that I say or not, or whether they love me or not; I have no concern about that. If I can see the people serving God with all their hearts, building up His kingdom on the earth, and bringing forth righteousness, I do not care whether they ever think of brother Brigham, or of brother Heber C. Kimball, or whether they believe what we say or not; if they believe what the Almighty says, that will content me. (JD 10:302) On June 18, 1873, Brigham Young publicly expressed his frustration:

How much unbelief exists in the minds of the Latter-day Saints in regard to one particular doctrine which I revealed to them, and which God revealed to me -- namely that Adam is our father and God -- I do not know, I do not inquire, I care nothing about it. Our Father Adam helped to make this earth, it was created expressly for him, and after it was made he and his companions came here. (Deseret Weekly News 22:308-309, June 18, 1873) "Keep It To Yourselves" In January 1860 Wilford Woodruff recorded the following: Michael (Adam) was a resurrected being and he left Elohim and came to the earth with an immortal body, and continued so till he partook of earthly food and begat children who were mortal (keep this to yourselves) and then they died. (Wilford Woodruff Journal, January 27, 1860) [169] In an 1870 meeting of the School of the Prophets, Brigham counseled: ... the brethren to meditate on the subject, pray about it and keep it to yourselves. (Joseph F. Smith Journal, October 15, 1870) On June 9, 1873 President Young said he: ... was positive of the truth of this doctrine [Adam-God], but thought we should be cautious about preaching on doctrines unless we fully understand them by the power of the Spirit, then they commend themselves to the hearts of the hearers. (Salt Lake School of the Prophets Minute Book, June 9, 1873) After Brigham's Passing In 1878, just a few months after Brigham Young's death, George Q. Cannon recorded in his journal: Some of my brethren, as I have learned since the death of President Brigham Young, did have feelings concerning his course. They did not approve of it, and felt oppressed, and yet they dare not exhibit their feelings to him, he ruled with so strong and stiff a hand, and they felt that it would be of no use. In a few words, the feeling seemed to be that he transcended the bounds of authority which he legitimately held. I have been greatly surprised to find so much dissatisfaction in such quarters .... Some even feel that in the promulgation of doctrine he took liberties beyond those to which he was legitimately entitled. (George Q. Cannon Journal, January 17, 1878; also cited in The Instructor, vol. 80, no. 6, p. 259, 1945) John Taylor succeeded Brigham Young as President of the Church in 1877, and served as Prophet until 1887. It is worthy of note that there is no public or private record of his ever endorsing the Adam-God doctrine. Even during the Brigham Young

administration there is not one supportive statement by him. Perhaps his silence, at least in part, contributed to the devolution. This note is not presented in an effort by the author to show that John Taylor was in any way unfriendly toward the things of God. In fact, his silence is in harmony with the counsel given by Brigham Young to, "Keep it to yourselves." We have already seen that L. John Nuttall was involved in recording the Endowment for President Young in 1877. In the context of the devolution of Adam-God as a doctrine of the Restored Church, we find L. John Nuttall, as Kanab Stake President, correcting a brother who had given his listeners "a wrong impression" about the Adam-God doctrine: Attended fast day meeting. Several spoke and the question as to Adam being our Father and God was presented. I explained this matter as I got it from Prest. B. Young and as I understand it -- this [170] question has been on the minds of several of the brethren since Bro. Wandel Mace spoke on it about a month ago and gave a wrong impression. I spoke to correct him and set the people right -- which correction he accepted. (L. John Nuttall Journal, 1:254, March 6, 1879) In 1882, Edward Stevenson, of the First Council of Seventy, addressed the subject of Elder Thomas Howell's unbelief toward Adam-God. During the General Meeting of the Seventies, Elder Stevenson counseled Brother Howell that if he: ... could not comprehend these things to lay them up until he could, and if he indulged in that spirit to correct or set President Young right, that he would be dealt with and lose his faith and standing in the Church. (Edward Stevenson Diary, March 4, 1882, Church Archives) After much was said, Thomas Howell: ... said he was wrong, sorry for it and asked for forgiveness. (Ibid.) In April of 1889, George Q. Cannon told his audience at the General Conference of the Church: There are two personages, the Father and the Son. God is the being who walked in the Garden of Eden, and who talked with the prophets. This revelation came to us in certainty. (Millennial Star 51:278; April 7, 1889) "This revelation came to us in certainty!" This does not sound like the testimony of a belief, but it is the proclamation of a revelation of truth from President Cannon. Sacred Hymn Altered In chapter 8 we saw that an 1891 Church hymnal contained the sacred song, "Sons of Michael, He Approaches." We here present this hymn and its contribution to the devolution of Adam-God: Sons of Michael, He Approaches

Sons of Michael, he approaches! Rise; the Eternal Father greet; Bow, ye thousands, low before him; Minister before his feet; Hall, hail the Patriarch's glad reign, Hail, hail the Patriarch's glad reign, Spreading over sea and main. [171] Sons of Michael, 'tis his chariot Rolls its burning wheels along! Raise aloft your voices million In a torrent power of song: Hail, hail our Head with music soft! Hail, hail our Head with music soft! Raise sweet melodies aloft! Mother of our generations, Glorious by great Michael's side, Take thy children's adoration; Endless with thy Lord preside; Lo, lo, to greet thee now advance, Lo, lo, to greet thee now advance Thousands in the glorious dance! Raise a chorus, sons of Michael, Like old Ocean's roaring swell, Till the mighty acclamation Through rebounding space doth tell That, that the Ancient One doth reign, That, that the Ancient One doth reign In his Paradise again! (Sacred Hymns & Spiritual Songs for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 20th Edition, 1891, pp. 375-376) As this hymn states, "Michael" is "the Eternal Father." But as the devolution transpired, this hymn, along with Mormon sentiment, underwent a subtle, but significant change. In the 1948 edition of the hymnal the first two lines read: Sons of Michael, he approaches! Rise; the ancient Father greet; (Hymns of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, First Edition, 1948, No. 163) Now Michael is no longer "the Eternal Father," but "the ancient Father." The devolution became seemingly complete in 1985 with the removal of any allusion to Michael's status as our "Eternal Father." Note the many alterations which are underlined for emphasis: Sons of Michael, he approaches! Rise; the ancient father greet; Bow, ye thousands, low before him; Minister before his feet; Hail the patriarch's glad reign, Spreading over sea and main. [172]

Sons of Michael, 'tis his chariot Rolls its burning wheels along! Raise aloft your voices million In a torrent power of song: Hail our head with music soft! Raise sweet melodies aloft! Mother of our generations, Glorious by great Michael's side, Take thy children's adoration; Endless with thy seed abide. Lo! to greet thee now advance Thousands in the glorious dance! Raise a chorus, sons of Michael, Like old ocean's roaring swell, Till the mighty acclamation Through rebounding space doth tell That the ancient one doth reign In his Father's house again! (Sacred Hymns & Spiritual Songs for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, First Edition, 1985, p. 51) Now, Michael is the ancient father, not the "Ancient Father." He is now our head not our "Head." Eve no longer presides with her Lord, but abides with her seed. Michael is no longer the "Ancient One," but the ancient one, And now we are told that Michael will not reign in his "Paradise again," but in his Father's house. Now, the devolution is seemingly complete. Doubts And Discouragement As we discovered in the last chapter, the Quorum of Twelve met shortly before the First Presidency traveled to the St. George Stake, June 1892, to hear the case of Edward Bunker, Sr., Abraham H. Cannon left this testimony concerning the attitudes of some of the brethren present at this meeting of the Twelve: ... I was at my quorum meeting where were present all the presidency and myself, as also Bro. Lyman; Geo. Gibbs, clerk. Bro. Jos. F. Smith was mouth in prayer. Thereafter some conversation followed as to whether Adam is our God or not. There are some in the Church who do not accept of the statements of President Young that such is the case... (Abraham H. Cannon Journal, May 26, 1892, Church Archives) [173] So, even at the highest levels of the Church, the Twelve, we find brethren questioning "whether Adam is our God or not. There are some in the Church who do not accept of the statements of Pres. Young that such is the case." Certainly, the seeds of unbelief, here indicated, are of a different genre than the discretion fostered by Brigham Young; for Brigham never exhibited the least doubt as to the doctrine's truthfulness. And we also recall that at the High Council Court of Edward Bunker, Sr., George Q. Cannon advised: It was not necessary that we should [teach] or endorse the

doctrine that some men taught that Adam was the Father of Jesus Christ. Counsel was given for the Elders to teach that which they knew, not that which they did not. (Charles Walker Journal, June 11, 1892) Of course, this counsel was given to quell the hostilities between the factions of the Bunkerville Ward. While the First Presidency upheld the "Lecture at the Veil" and the doctrine of Adam-God, discussion of Adam-God was discouraged. "Counsel was given for the Elders to teach that which they knew, not that which they did not." The implication of this counsel is that Adam-God is a doctrine which cannot be known, for nowhere in this counsel is it implied that one might obtain a testimony of the truthfulness of Adam-God, thus allowing one to teach it. Three years later, during the Spring 1895 General Conference of the Church, Wilford Woodruff advised the Latter-day Saints to stop worrying about who Adam was. It is more than likely the case that the "Bunkerville problem" was not unique. President Woodruff's frustration over the Saint's preoccupation with Adam-God is obvious: Before I sit down I want to say a word to the Elders of Israel on another subject. I am called an old man; I guess I am. I was thinking just now, in speaking of the apostles and prophets that were with Joseph Smith when he made his last speech, I am the only man living that was with him at that time. The rest are today in the spirit world. How much longer I shall talk to this people I do not know; but I want to say this to all Israel: Cease troubling yourselves about who God is; who Adam is, who Christ is, who Jehovah is. For heaven's sake, let these things alone. Why trouble yourselves about these things? God has revealed himself and when the 121st section of the Doctrine and Covenants is fulfilled, whether there be one God or many Gods they will be revealed to the children of men, as well as all thrones and dominions, principalities, and powers. Then why trouble yourselves about these things? God is God. Christ is Christ. The Holy Ghost is the Holy Ghost. That should be enough for you and me to know. If we want to know anymore, wait till we get where God is in person. I say this because we are troubled every little while with inquiries from Elders anxious to know who God is, who Christ is, and who Adam is. I say to the Elders of Israel, stop this. Humble yourselves before the Lord; seek for light, for truth, and for a knowledge of the common things of the Kingdom of God. The Lord is the same yesterday, today, and forever. He changes not. The Son of God is the same. He is the Savior of the world. He is our advocate with the Father. We have had letter after letter from Elders abroad wanting to know concerning these things. Adam is the first man. He was placed in the Garden of Eden, and is our great progenitor. God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost, [174] are the same yesterday, today, and forever. That should be sufficient to know. (Millennial Star 57:355-356, April 7, 1895) This is a sad day in the history of the Church; no longer are we encouraged to learn all we can about God, but we are encouraged to "let these things alone." Perhaps if there had been a

concerted effort by all of the membership of the Church to exercise faith in the doctrine of Adam-God, we would not be in the current predicament. The Ephraim H. Nye Approach Elder Ephraim H. Nye was the President of the California Mission at the turn of the century. During his tenure, two of his missionaries in Fresno, California placed an article promoting their missionary efforts in the Fresno Morning Republican. It explained that our missionaries were involved in: ... house to house visitation and whenever the inmates will give them a hearing explain their religious views. Tracts are left with everyone who will accept them, and in this manner a systematic and energetic canvass of the town is being made for converts. (Fresno Morning Republican, October 30, 1897) This article did not set well with a local reverend, C. A. Munn, whose own article, printed over a week later, proclaimed: Brigham Young, in a sermon in the tabernacle in Salt Lake City on April 9, 1852, said: "When our Father Adam came into the garden of Eden, he came into it with a celestial body, and brought Eve, one of his wives, with him. He helped to make and organize this world. He is Michael, the Archangel, the Ancient of Days, and about whom holy men have written and spoken. He is our father and our God, and the only God with whom we have to do." Of "His son, Jesus Christ," Brigham Young said: I tell you that God was the father of Jesus Christ, just as I am the father of my son." (Ibid., November 10, 1897) And, as is usual with the enemies of Mormonism, Reverend Munn attacked many other of our "unorthodox" beliefs. Just two days later Reverend Munn expanded his criticism to both the Fresno Morning Republican and the Fresno Weekly Republican with articles that maligned the characters of Joseph and Brigham. One of these articles was entitled: "The Mormons:Rev. C. A. Munn Writes about Them -- Desires to Warn the People against the Emissaries of Evil." The Fresno missionaries responsible for the first article, responded to Reverend Munn's attack with their first rebuttal, printed in the November 16, 1897 Fresno Morning Republican. It does not address the Adam-God doctrine, but does attempt to show that [175] the scriptures teach of an anthropomorphic God. Munn continued his attacks in a November 19, 1897 article. At this point Mission President Ephraim H. Nye became involved and he wrote an article which appeared in the Fresno Morning Republican on December 1, 1897 and in the Fresno Weekly Republican on December 3, 1897. President Nye claims that Munn misrepresented Brigham Young's words: He [Munn] then quotes that world renowned leader [Brigham Young] as saying that "Adam is our Father and our God and the only God with whom we have to do." Why does he not present the whole sermon? Simply because if he did, he

would have no case, but to score a point he singles out an isolated sentence and undertakes to make capital of it. Now let us examine it in the light of reason. According to the passages of scripture cited above, God is the Father of the spirits of an men, including Adam. John said: "When Jesus comes we (who obey his laws) shall be like Him, and He is a God." He is our elder brother and as Adam is one of the sons of God, he is a brother of Jesus Christ and will be a God. Then as he is the great progenitor and father of the human race, he will stand at the head of his family. The Prophet Daniel says: "The ancient of days shall sit whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool; his throne was like the fiery flame and his wheels as burning fire ... thousands, ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him; the judgement was set and the books were opened." So we see Adam, or the Ancient of Days will sit and ten thousand times ten thousand shall stand before him. Then our Father Adam has developed into quite an important personage, with dominion, power and glory. Adam as a son of God and progenitor of the human race will stand at the head of all the generations of man crowned with immortality and eternal life, the great patriarch over all the sons of men, a God among the sons of God. But he is not the God to whom we pray, nor did Brigham Young undertake to convey such an idea. We worship the God who made the heavens, and the earth, the seas and the foundations of water -- the Being who placed Adam in the Garden of Eden. (Fresno Morning Republican, December 1, 1897) Reverend Munn was not persuaded by President Nye's subterfuge, however, and two weeks later responded as follows: Notwithstanding President Nye to the contrary, the Mormon Church teaches that Adam is God, the supreme God, the Creator of this world, our God, and the only God with whom we have to do, and that Jesus Christ is his son by natural generation. The Mormon Church is polytheistic. It teaches a plurality of Gods, and that these become Gods, having been men. Being men they become Gods by practicing plural or celestial marriage and the Mormon principles. We omit the proofs here for want of time and space. (Fresno Morning Republican, December 15, 1897) President Nye, uncertain of his stand on the Adam-God issue, wrote to Apostle Franklin D. Richards to determine whether his was the correct response to Reverend Munn: [176] 915 Golden Gate Ave., San Francisco, Calif. Dec. 4th, 1897 Apostle F. D. Richards Ogden City, Utah Dear Brother;-Herewith I send you a clipping from the Fresno Republican

published in Fresno, Fresno County, Cal. When our Elders Poulter and Bushnel went there about the 15th, October, or a little later, the reporter of the Fresno Republican met with them and gave them a good writeup which I think was afterward copied by Ogden Standard. This brought forth a letter from the Rev. C. A. Munn, of Fresno, who said that he had received a lot of "Documents" from a Rev. Mr. McMilton, pastor of a Christian Church in Utah, among which was the Mormon Articles of faith, Catechism, &c and from which he proceeded to "Expose us to the good people of Fresno" filling up with the Mountain Meadows and other Blood curdling stories. The elders sent me a copy of the paper containing his piece and I answered it. This brought forth another piece from the rev. gentleman, and I answer[ed] again sending the enclosed which they have published. In his attack he has brought up the old story so often flung in our faces especially by the "Josephites" through out this state, and now commonly referred to as "the Adam-God" story. And the opportunity seemed to be so good that I could not resist the temptation to answer him and all the Josephites on that question. I studied the matter clearly and very carefully and I felt that I was right so I forged ahead. Will you kindly look over the piece and if I am not correct please point out to me the errors as this is a matter we have got to meet continually; it is the stronghold of the Josephite and one they never fail to use; and our Elders are all lame on that point and are afraid to answer upon it. They therefore side track it in the most convenient way in each case and the result is, the elders of the "Reorganized" say, "You are afraid to meet it" and [in] fact, as a rule, our young Elders, and all that we have out here, are unable to meet the question and have to "Dodge" it the best they can. I would not that you should suppose from this that we are seeking controversy with the "Reorganized people" or even accepting it, by no means; but, publicly we treat them with silent contempt; they have challenged us again and again to debates, discussions, etc., but we do not notice them publicly; but as our elders go around their respective fields they often find members of the "Reorganized Church" who take them in and treat them well providing for their necessities and with such the elders have to meet the questions raised by them. About three months ago two of their leading elders came to us in Los Angeles and accused us of baptizing 23 of their members, since then we have led several more into the waters of their people. The story referred to is the quotation from one of Prest. Young's sermons wherein he says that Adam is our Father and God and the only God with which we have to do. I fear that my long communications are wearisome to you hence I will close devoutly hoping that you are well. Sister Nye unites in kind regards and best wishes to dear Sister R. and Yourself. We are well; Very Sincerely Your Brother. E. H. Nye (B.Y.U. Special Collections, E.H. Nye mission letter book)

The next we hear of this matter is in a meeting of the First Presidency and Quorum of Twelve, held in the Salt Lake Temple on Thursday December 16, 1897. Franklin D. [177] Richards had discussed the Nye letter with Joseph F. Smith, and they decided it should be brought before the brethren. In attendance at this meeting were President Wilford Woodruff, George Q. Cannon, Joseph F. Smith, Lorenzo Snow, Franklin D. Richards, Brigham Young, Jr., John Henry Smith, George Teasdale, Heber J. Grant and Anthon Lund. Wilford Woodruff's journal entry for that day says: ... at the office read a letter from N[ye]. Attended my usual meeting at the Temple until 2 p.m., afterwards at the office. (Wilford Woodruff Journal, December 16, 1897) Brigham Young, Jr., recorded: Meeting at 11 AM in Temple. Pres.W. Geo.Q JosFS. L.S. FDR BY JnoHS. Geo T. HJG ALund present. Question on ceremony of marriage sealing Couples who have never had their endowments; do their children need to be sealed to them in the Temple when they come to have their endowments? Answer No, it is all done. Adam is our father and God and no use to discuss it with Josephites or any one else. (Brigham Young, Jr., Journal, December 16, 1897, Church Archives) Franklin D. Richards' diary entry reads: December, Thursday 16, 1897 A pleasant cold day... At 11 at Council with WW GQC & JFS -- LS, FDR, BY, JHS., G.T., HJG, AH Lund. After investigation it was decided by Prest. W.W. that children (of parents who are sealed but not Endowed) are born in the covt. and need not to be sealed to their parents, and voted by all present. Letter and article by E. H. Nye was read and highly approved but no action as to the dealing with Adam our F[ather] and God subject... (Franklin D. Richards Journal, December 16, 1897, Church Archives) Elder Richards' journal entry for the next day reads: December, Friday 17, 1897 A clear cold day Drafted a letter for President Ephraim H. Nye 915 Golden Gate Avenue Fran, Cal. (Ibid.) And the following entry in Franklin D. Richards' journal explains further the letter to President Nye: December, Saturday, 18, 1897 Sent Prest. E. H. Nye letter of Decision of Council about and approving his Article to the Fresno Republican and a copy of Prest. Young's remarks about Adam our Father as contained in Vol. 1 of Journal of Discourses. (Ibid.)

[178] The letter which Elder Richards wrote to President Nye reads: S.L. City Dec. 18, 1897 President E. H. Nye, 915 Golden Gate Avenue, San Francisco, Cal. Dear Brother: On receipt of your letter of the fourth inst., I conferred with Prest. Joseph F. Smith, and we concluded to present the matter to the Council of the First Presidency and Twelve Apostles. Both your letters to me, and the Article to the Fresno Republican, were read. Each of the Presidency and several of the Apostles expressed themselves well pleased with your article, that it evinced skill and valor for the Truth, and they did not see how it could be much improved. The Council did not deem it wise to lay out any line of procedure in which to deal with the subject, but felt that it is best to avoid bringing it up, and to do the best we can and as the Spirit may suggest when it is thrust upon us. Your having got so many of the Josephites was received with marks of particular pleasure. This, like many other points of more advanced doctrine, is too precious a pearl to be cast before swine. But when the swine get hold of them, let us rescue them by the help of the Spirit as best we can. Thinking it may be convenient to you to have President Young's sayings on that subject, I enclose a copy from his sermon in the first Volume of the Journal of Discourses. (Richards Family Collection, Franklin Dewey Richards Letterbook, Church Archives) It is obvious why the brethren: ... did not deem it wise to lay out any line of procedure in which to deal with the subject, but felt that it is best to avoid bringing it up, and to do the best we can and as the Spirit may suggest when it is thrust upon us. (Ibid.) The reason why Adam-God could not be dismissed as are other false accusations against us, is because: Adam is our father and our God and no use to discuss it with Josephites or anyone else. (Brigham Young, Jr., Journal, December 16, 1897) One wonders if President Nye knew of the brethren's true feelings toward Adam-God. In Elder Richards letter to President Nye, little doubt is left as to the dual official stand of the Church on the Adam-God doctrine. The public stand was to deny the Adam-God doctrine while the private understanding of the brethren is best summed up by them: This, like many other points of more advanced doctrine, is too precious a pearl to be cast before swine. But when the swine get hold of them, let us rescue them by the help of the Spirit as best we can. (See above letter of Franklin D. Richards)

How ironic it is that Franklin D. Richards, a century ago, said, Adam-God "like many other points of more advanced doctrine, is too precious a pearl to be cast before swine." The irony is that the "swine" are having a hay-day with Adam-God today. Simply stated: they [179] know our history and they see us deny the truth about our history. Now that the "cat is out of the bag" what are we to do? Shall we continue to be branded liars, and truthfully so? Shall we continue to be deserving of the warning: Verily, verily, I say unto you, wo be unto him that lieth to deceive because he supposeth that another lieth to deceive, for such are not exempt from the justice of God. (D&C 10:28) One naturally inquires at this point in history, what is to become of the Adam-God doctrine since it now is exclusively a personal doctrine, to be denied in public? In latter chapters we will see that the destiny of this now private truth, is to not be espoused by the Church any longer, and in fact, its status will become that of a lie, even though it is a truth. Like Moses' Israel in the wilderness, only that which the people will accept, will be espoused by the Church in an official capacity from this time forward. That's The Beauty Of It: It's A Mystery Now we find the doctrine of Adam-God taking on the flavor of being purely speculative, while we find the Mormon doctrine of God taking on the worldly status of being a mystery. The next logical step in the devolution of the doctrine would be for the official position of the Church to be one of discouraging the Saints from discussing such things. Moroni would be incensed if we were to abandon his admonition that we "ask God, the Eternal Father" if we want to know any and all things (Moroni 10:3-5). But surely this could not happen in the Lord's Church. We would never discourage anyone from asking questions about Father or His Plan, would we? We should not get into that old sectarian notion, that we have no right to know anything about this, that or the other, and that we must not pry into this, that or the other. That is an old sectarian notion, which we have fought against all the day long, and we do not want it to creep into the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. It is the privilege of its members to let their minds expand, and to ponder upon the things of God, and to enquire of him, and by and by, when we have prepared ourselves by getting all the knowledge we possibly can from that which is written, God will give more. (Orson Pratt, JD 16:336) Clearly, it is an established principle of the Plan of Salvation, and one upheld by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, which encourages the exercise of free agency, the probing of all unknowns, the asking of all questions, the reacting to all impressions of the Spirit, and the discerning of all truth. In the proceedings of the first Sunday School Convention of the

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, in 1898, President George Q. Cannon said: [180] I was stopped yesterday afternoon by a young man, who wanted to know whether Adam was the Father of our Lord and Savior -- whether he was the being we worshipped, etc. Now, we can get ourselves very easily puzzled, if we choose to do so, by speculating upon doctrines and principles of this character. The Lord has said through His Prophet that there are two personages in the Godhead. That ought to be sufficient for us at the present time... Concerning the doctrine in regard to Adam and the Savior, the Prophet Brigham Young taught some things concerning that; but the First Presidency and the Twelve do not think it wise to advocate these matters. It is sufficient to know we have a Father -- God the Eternal Father, who reveals Himself by His Holy Spirit unto those who seek him; and that Jesus Christ is His Son, our Redeemer, the Savior of the world. (Proceedings of the First Sunday School Convention of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, pp. 87-88, November 28, 1898) In reference to "the doctrine in regard to Adam and the Savior,...the First Presidency and the Twelve do not think it wise to advocate these matters." This is a far cry from branding the Adam-God doctrine false! President Cannon was simply saying that the brethren do not wish to "advocate these matters." This counsel allows for Church members to believe as they wish, but the brethren "do not think it wise to advocate" the doctrine. President Cannon said it "ought to be sufficient for us at the present time ... to know we have a Father -- God the Eternal Father, who reveals Himself by His Holy Spirit unto those who seek Him." In-other-words, I'm not going to tell you "whether Adam was the Father of our Lord and Savior," but I will tell you to "seek Him" and thereby you shall know. A New Era Church history now enters upon a new era with the death of those who were in leadership positions during Brigham's administration. Wilford Woodruff died in 1898, Franklin D. Richards in 1899, George Q. Cannon and Lorenzo Snow in 1901, and Brigham Young, Jr., in 1903. Joseph F. Smith was the only surviving Apostle from Brigham's years as Prophet. Charles W. Penrose A product of this new era was Charles W. Penrose, ordained an Apostle in 1904. Prior to this he was the editor of the Deseret News and countered many anti-Mormon attacks published in the Salt Lake Tribune. In February 1900 he wrote a personal letter to Quincy Anderson of Ozark, Missouri, in which he denied that Brigham Young meant to imply that Adam is the Father of Jesus Christ or our Heavenly Father: [181] Salt Lake City, Utah Feb. 17, 1900 Mr. Quincy Anderson, Ozark, Mo.:

Dear Sir -- In reply to your letter of inquiry. I have to say that President Brigham Young, in the discourse of which you speak, did not say that "the Virgin Mary was not overshadowed by the Holy Ghost." He did not say that it was "Adam." He did not say that "Adam was our only God." What he did say, on this subject, was that Jesus was not "begotten" by the Holy Ghost. He taught that Jesus was the "first-begotten" of God in the spirit, and the "only begotten" of God in the flesh. As to Adam, he taught that he was God in the sense of being at the head of the human family. That he was Michael, the Ancient of Days, and in the resurrection would be at the head. In that way the whole human family will be related to him as his children, and in the Patriarchal order he will be the personage with whom they will have to do, and the only one in that capacity. President Young taught faith in that Eternal Being to whom Adam and all of his race should bow in humble reverence, who is our Eternal Father and the Father of our elder brother, Jesus Christ, and is the Great Elohim. The Journal of Discourse is not now in print and I do not know of any volume now on sale; however, I have given you the substance of President Young's teachings as to Adam. Hoping that this will be satisfactory, I am, Yours truly, C. W. Penrose, Editor, News. This letter found its way into the "Saint's Herald," an organ of the Reorganized Church. Upon learning of this, Elder Penrose published the letter in the Deseret News along with this explanation: Anyone who has carefully read the discourse ... will perceive that our brief statement of its purport is correct, that there is nothing in one that is in conflict with the other; that we have neither "apologized for" nor disputed anything contained in that one sermon, which has been so much misunderstood and perverted by the enemies of our late venerable president. We are familiar with the doctrine he taught, and which he did not attempt fully to explain in the discourse which has been published. And it should be understood that the views entertained by that great leader and inspired servant of the Lord, were not expressed as principles to be accepted by mankind as essential to salvation. Like the Prophet Joseph Smith, his mind was enlightened as to many things which were beyond a common understanding, and the declaration which would bring upon him the opposition of the ignorant. ... There are men in the church who entertain ideas of a more advanced nature, some of which, although they may be expressed in public ... are not put forth as binding upon any person... That which President Young put forth in the discourse referred to, is not preached either to the Latterday Saints or to the world as a part of the creed of the Church. In answering the letter of our correspondent we simply

explained in private that which was asked in private, so that he might understand the tenor of President Young's views, and not with any intention of advocating or denying his doctrine, or of controverting anything that may have been said upon the subject by opponents of his utterances. (Deseret Evening News, March 21, 1900) [182] Many levels of understanding are evident in Charles W. Penrose's explanation. He indicates that the doctrine is "of a more advanced nature," and that it is not "binding upon any person." President Penrose also said that he had no "intention of advocating or denying his [Brigham Young's] doctrine." Clearly, the tenor of his statements to Quincy Anderson and those to the Saints (who knew better) were contradictory. On the one hand, he tells Quincy Anderson that "that Eternal Being to whom Adam ... should bow ... is our Eternal Father and the Father of our elder brother, Jesus Christ..." This is in direct opposition to what Brigham Young taught in the historic Priesthood discourse, and the legion other sermons Brigham Young taught on the subject. The Saints knew this and this is why Brother Penrose had to try to double-talk his way out of an obvious contradiction. It appears that misrepresentation of Brigham Young's teachings has acquired the sanction of officialdom. This statement may not be the first official Church response to claim that Brigham Young was misinterpreted or misunderstood, but it is part of what we may call the Church's new posture on Adam-God: that is that Adam-God was not sufficiently set forth and defined in the historic Priesthood Session of General Conference for us to determine the true tenets of the doctrine. This attitude, however, ignores several hundred other references in which the doctrine is absolutely defined. Rodney Turner, Brigham Young University Professor of Religion, in his work, The Position of Adam in Latter-day Saint Scripture and Theology, in regard to Brother Penrose's explanation, has written: There is a seeming inconsistency between the explanation of the "purport" of the discourse and the editor's assertion that what Brigham Young was supposedly saying "is not preached either to the Latter-day Saints or to the world." If the Penrose analysis is correct, there is no reason why it should not be "preached," since it is no more than is accepted throughout the Church today and since the time of Joseph Smith. (The Position of Adam in Latter-day Saint Scripture and Theology, pp. 78-79) Two years later Elder Penrose continued his efforts to explain what Brigham Young really meant. The September 1902 Improvement Era carried the article entitled, "Our Father Adam," wherein Elder Penrose said, in regard to the historic discourse in question: The views then expressed were uttered in a single sermon, which created so much comment that the speaker did not afterward enter into further details or explanation. (Improvement Era, vol. 5, p. 873) The substance of President Young's declaration was, that the person who was placed in the Garden of Eden and became the great progenitor of the human race, is "our Father and

our God." He said further, "and is the only God with whom we have to do." Careful reading of the entire address will show that President Young comprehended much more on this subject than he then made known, and that he regarded our Father Adam as the being who will stand, in eternity, at the head of the human family as the great Patriarch and ruler over all his posterity, and the Parent with whom they will have personal association and intercourse, as the representation and embodiment to them of all that constitutes the individuality of the Godhead. (Ibid., September 1902, 5:873-880) Brother Penrose also alluded to the fact that "opponents" of the Church are "very fond of quoting isolated passages" from Brigham Young's historic discourse of April 9, 1852. This [183] article further made popular the idea that Brigham's comments were taken out of context and that they were not at all what he meant. Time, however, has been on the side of Brigham Young, for we have seen that there was no misinterpretation, no misunderstanding, and certainly no doubt as to what the Prophet said and what he meant. We can see what has happened to the Adam-God doctrine, and as Rodney Turner has written: But perhaps it was not so much a matter of misinterpretation as it was of opposition; sometimes opposition assumes the guise of misunderstanding. The concern expressed by the English missionaries in their special conference of 1853, the reassurances of Franklin D. Richards, and the editorials and articles in the "Millennial Star" defending the doctrine -- all these indicate the recognition of an opposition of sorts. The members were puzzled, even alarmed by this shocking new concept. It was contrary to much that they had accepted as truth all their lives. (The Position of Adam in Latter-day Saint Scripture and Theology, pp.36-37) He's Back: Edward Bunker, Jr. Ten years after his first attempt to convince the brethren that they were teaching false doctrine in the temple (see chapter 10), we find Edward Bunker, Jr. back at it again. His first attempt was with President Wilford Woodruff. Now it would be with President Joseph F. Smith. In February 1902 Edward Bunker, Jr. wrote a letter to President Smith: President Joseph F. Smith Dear Bro. One of our recently returned missionary from the North Western States is advocating the Doctorn that Adam is the very eternal Father in the Godhead and the Father of Jesus Christ and that Pres Kelch so taught the Elders in that mission. I say the Doctorn is Faulse and while every Person enjoying the spirit of the Lord may know of a Doctorn whether it is true or faulse; but that they have no right (Except the President of the Church) to advance any Doctorn not clearly set forth and defined in the written Law, and in doing so they stand on dangerous ground, and until we are able to live up to the revealed Law in the spirit thereof, can we hope to enjoy suficient of the spirit of the Lord to understand fully the plan of life and salvation. As a Bp my position cared if not where in am I

in error. Your answer through the medium of the Juvenil instructor [Juvenile Instructor] or other wise will be greatly apreasiated by your Brother in the Gospel. Edw Bunker Jr President Joseph F. Smith's reply to Edward Bunker, Jr.: Bishop Edward Bunker Bunkerville, Lincoln Co., Nevada Dear Brother-Your letter of the 9th inst. reached me on the 14th, and in reply to the question therein contained, I have this to say: It is certainly unwise for the elders or any other member of the Church to advocate [184] doctrines that are not clearly set forth in the revealed word of God, and concerning which, in consequence, difference of opinion exist. No good can come from it, but on the contrary, much evil may result. Had the Lord desired or designed that such doctrines should be promulgated, He would have clearly and fully defined them, as he has those beautiful and simple laws and ordinances known as "the first principles of the Gospel." While it is far from my purpose to stifle thought and free speech among the brethren, or to brand as "false doctrine" any and every mystery of the kingdom, it is nevertheless my wish and my advice, in which Presidents Winder and Lund, my counselors, heartily join, that the Elders should not make a practice of preaching upon these abtruse themes, these partly revealed principles, respecting which there are such wide differences of belief. What is called the Adam-God doctrine may properly be classed among the mysteries. The full truth concerning it has not been revealed to us; and until it is revealed all wild speculations, sweeping assertions and dogmatic declarations relative thereto, are out of place and improper. We disapprove of them and especially the public expression of such views. In the absence of Elder K______, and without any oral or written statement by him as to his belief regarding this doctrine, we do not feel called upon, nor would it be right to pass judgement in his case; but we will simply say that the accepted doctrine concerning our father Adam, the great sire of the human race, is as follows: He is Michael, the Ancient of Days, the future God of this earth, when it shall become celestialized and shine like unto a sea of glass mingled with fire, the glorified home of celestial beings for ever. Hence Adam stands at the head of the human family, presides over them spiritually and temporally, and will come in due time as the Ancient of Days to call his children together, according to the scriptures, both ancient and modern. He will preside over them for ever, and be their God eternally; this, of course, after the Millennial reign of Christ. Christ is not Adam, nor is Adam Christ, but both are eternal Gods, and it may even be said Fathers, since they are the parents of eternal or spiritual children. As to the personality and position of each God, and as to which of all is the greater, these are matters immaterial at the present time, and are best

but an unprofitable speculation. Let us be content with what is plainly revealed on this subject, namely: That though there be Lords many and Gods many, as the Apostle Paul declares, yet to us there is but one God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. With kind regards, I am your brother, and friend, Jos. F. Smith (Joseph F. Smith Personal Letterbook, pp. 26-27) It is beyond the understanding of this author why a Church which claims to be a living Church with living prophets and direct revelation would reject the revelations and teachings of their own latter-day prophets. The darkness surrounding the Adam-God doctrine was created by Church members, for whatever reason. Indicative of this Church-imposed darkness is the following from President Smith's previously cited letter: Had the Lord desired or designed that such doctrines should be promulgated, He would have clearly and fully defined them, as he has those beautiful and simple laws and ordinances known as "the first principles of the Gospel." (Ibid.) But we have seen that the Doctrine of Adam-God was most definitely clearly and fully defined by Brigham, the Prophet of God. Are we to understand from President Smith that a prophet's revelations no longer carry the authority and acceptance of being the revealed word of God, for he plainly says that Adam-God is: [185] ... not clearly set forth in the revealed word of God... (Ibid.) Apparently, President Joseph F. Smith believed the "revealed word of God" to be limited to the scriptures and not necessarily that which the Prophet of God revealed. Here is the turning point where the standard works are replacing the Prophet as the last word on doctrine and revelation. This author sees a dangerous change taking place at this time; the scriptures were never meant to be the final authority. If we elevate them to the status of being the standard by which all things will be judged, then there is no room for the new revelation they promise. Final authority used to be the Prophet's job. And wait just a minute; Joseph said: It is the first principle of the gospel to know for a certainty the character of God, and to know that we may converse with Him as one man converses with another. (HC 6:305) But President Joseph F. Smith says that God has not: ... clearly and fully defined [Adam-God], as he has..."the first principles of the Gospel." (see above letter) The problem with this statement is that Joseph clearly has told us that: ... correct ideas of the character of God are necessary in

order to exercise faith in him unto life and salvation; and that without correct ideas of his character, men could not have power to exercise faith in him unto life and salvation... (Joseph Smith, Lectures On Faith, Lecture Fourth) So, Adam-God is the first principle of the Gospel. Regarding this principle and doctrine, Brigham warned: Now, let all who may hear these doctrines, pause before they make light of them, or treat them with indifference, for they will prove their salvation or damnation. (JD 1:51) Without a knowledge of the Adam-God doctrine, we do not know the correct ideas of Father's character, and thus we do not have power to exercise faith in Him unto life and salvation. The Origin Of Man We can only imagine the rumblings which must have been going on among Church members. After all, there were still people alive who had heard Brigham Young reveal and teach the Adam-God doctrine. And now, the leaders of the Church seemed to be saying [186] that Brigham never taught Adam-God, and that he was misquoted, and that the doctrine was not to be advocated by Mormons. Concurrent with the devolution of Adam-God, was the growing interest, among Mormons, in the "scientific" theory of evolution. Attempts were made by "intellectuals" to integrate evolution into the creation of man theology. In response to this, the First Presidency commissioned Orson F. Whitney to write what would become the official Church position with respect to "The Origin Of Man." It stated that: Adam our great progenitor, "The First Man," was, like Christ, a pre-existent spirit, and like Christ he took upon him an appropriate body, the body of a man, and so became a "living soul." (First Presidency Statement, Joseph F. Smith, John R. Winder and Anthon H. Lund, Improvement Era, November 1909, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 75-81) Joseph F. Smith felt that further clarification of the Church's official position on Adam-God was required, and six months after "The Origin of Man" was published, he printed the following article: Origin Of Man. -- "In just what manner did the mortal bodies of Adam and Eve come into existence on this earth?" This question comes from several High Priest's quorums. Of course all are familiar with the statements in Genesis 1:26, 27; 2:7; also in the Book of Moses, Pearl of Great Price, 2:27; and in the Book of Abraham 5:7... These are the authentic statements of the scriptures, ancient and modern, and it is best to rest with these, until the Lord shall see fit to give more light on the subject. Whether the mortal bodies of man evolved in natural processes to present perfection, through the direction and power of god; whether the first parents of

our generations, Adam and Eve, were transplanted from another sphere, with immortal tabernacles, which became corrupted through sin and the partaking of natural foods, in the process of time; whether they were born here in mortality, as other mortals have been, are questions not fully answered in the revealed word of God. (Improvement Era, April 1910, vol. 13, p. 570) Let us look at the several statements within this article, which address the origin of Adam and Eve. First, President Smith concludes that the scriptures are the only authentic statements on this subject: ... until the Lord shall see fit to give more light on the subject. (Ibid.) But the Lord already had given more light on the subject. In fact, if we are to believe the Prophet of God, Brigham Young, then there is no doubt as to the origin of Adam and Eve. And again, President Smith claims that these: ... are questions not fully answered in the revealed word of God. (Ibid.) Which "revealed word of God" has not answered these questions? Which has more authority to answer these questions (or any other question for that matter), the Prophet of God or the [187] scriptures? Brigham left no doubt as to what the answers to these questions are. Only the unbelief of the Saints has relegated the word of God through His prophet to a status of possessing less authority than the scriptures. We are little different than the sectarians in this respect, whose authority lies in the scriptures. Our Father will reveal no more to us until we exercise faith in that which He has already revealed through His servants the prophets. Brigham Young was a prophet of God! When will we stop apologizing for him, ridiculing him, and accept the truth of God revealed through him? We have seen that through Joseph's and Brigham's teachings, how and why Adam and Eve came to earth were plainly revealed. We have also seen that President Smith refuted this by saying these "are questions not fully answered in the revealed word of God." This is odd indeed! The Restoration of the Gospel of Jesus Christ through Joseph Smith is fundamentally built upon Living Prophets and Direct Revelation, not upon the scriptures. Our Living Prophets have clearly revealed "the origin of man," but President Smith insisted that the word of God was not clear on the matter, and speculated that perhaps "the mortal bodies of man evolved in natural processes to present perfection." We now enter an era wherein the scriptures have become our prophet. This sounds like a dead Church, for no book of scripture ever provided man with living revelation. Ten Years Of Rhetoric The First Presidency continued its course to establish the official Church position on Adam-God when, in March 1912, it had the following statement published in the Improvement Era: Speculations as to the career of Adam before he came to the

earth are of no real value. We learn by revelation that he was Michael, the Archangel, and that he stands at the head of his posterity on earth (Doctrine and Covenants, Sect. 107:53-56). Dogmatic assertions do not take the place of revelation, and we should be satisfied with that which is accepted as doctrine, and not discuss matters that, after all disputes, are merely matters of theory. (First Presidency statement, signed by Joseph F. Smith, Anthon H. Lund and Charles W. Penrose, Improvement Era, March 1912, vol. 15, pp. 417-418) Two months later, in the General Conference of the Church, Charles W. Penrose, then a counselor in the First Presidency, read a letter received by the First Presidency which claimed that some Patriarchs were teaching the Adam-God doctrine. Elder Thomas Clawson recorded in his journal that President Penrose then quoted from the Doctrine and Covenants sections 19 and 107 in refutation of the Adam-God doctrine. Following this, President Penrose insisted: [188] Brigham Young did not qualify his remarks which were taken in longhand and there may have been some things said which unless further explained might be misconstrued... (Thomas Clawson Journal, April 8, 1912, Utah State Historical Society; see also Anthony W. Ivins Journal, April 8, 1912, Utah State Historical Society) Here we see evidence of the false rumor to the effect that Brigham Young may have been misquoted or misunderstood, for President Penrose says that without further explanation on the subject, the words of Brigham Young's historic discourse, contained in the Journal of Discourses, "might be misconstrued." It is President Penrose who has "misconstrued" what Brigham Young said, as has plainly been demonstrated in the previous ten chapters of this book. Following President Penrose's remarks at this General Conference of the Church: Prest. Jos F. Smith then said that he was in full accord with what Prest Penrose had said and Prest. Brigham Young when he delivered that sermon only expressed his own views and that they were not corroborated by the word of the Lord in the Standard works of the Church.... Now all doctrine if it can't be established by these standards is not to be taught or promulgated by members. (Ibid.) Apparently, we no longer need a prophet since President Smith has effectively tied the hands of the prophet, so to speak, by not allowing the Church to receive anything not already revealed in the Standard Works. Our authority on matters of doctrine now lies in the scriptures. After observing the devolution of Adam-God, we may not be certain as to the intentions of President Smith in regard to the doctrine, for we have already seen that the brethren deemed it proper to deny the doctrine publicly, while admitting its truthfulness in private councils. However, it appears that a change in how Adam-God is to be dealt with publicly is underway

in this time period; ten years prior the Saints were discouraged from discussing Adam-God, and now the doctrine is labeled as unscriptural and false. In 1913, at a Mesa, Arizona Stake Conference, President Smith stated: The Son, Jesus Christ, grew and developed into manhood the same as you or I, as likewise did God, his father grow and develop to the Supreme Being that he now is. Man was born of woman, Christ the Savior, was born of woman. Adam, our earthly parent, was also born of woman into this world, the same as Jesus and you and I. (Deseret News, December 27, 1913, Section 3, p. 7) The evolution of Adam-God has gone from open teaching, to guarded teaching, to "keeping it to yourself," to "mystery," and now to what must be admitted is an outright denial of Adam-God. For, to claim that "Adam, our earthly parent, was also born of woman into this world, the same as Jesus and you and I," is to deny the fundamental tenets of Adam-God. Adam was born on another world, "the same as Jesus and you and I" were born on this world. Adam was not "born of woman into this world." [189] On February 20, 1912 the First Presidency wrote the following letter to Elder Samuel O. Bennion, Mission President of the Central States Mission: Prest. Samuel O. Bennion Independence, Dear Brother: Your question concerning Adam has not been answered before because of pressure of important business. We now respond briefly, but, we hope plainly. You speak of "the assertion made by Brigham Young that Jesus was begotten of the Father in the flesh by our father Adam, and that Adam is the father of Jesus Christ and not the Holy Ghost," and you say that Elders are challenged by certain critics to prove this. If you will carefully examine the sermon to which you refer, in the Journal of Discourses, Vol. 1, you will discover that, while President Young denied that Jesus was "begotten of the Holy Ghost," he did not affirm, in so many words, that "Adam is the father of Jesus Christ in the flesh." He said, "Jesus, our elder brother, was begotten in the flesh by the same character that was in the garden of Eden and who is our Father in Heaven." Who is our "Father in Heaven?" Here is what President Young said about him; "Our Father in heaven begat all the spirits that ever were or ever will be upon this earth and they were born spirits in the eternal world. Then the Lord by his power and wisdom organized the mortal tabernacle of man." Was He in the Garden of Eden? Surely He gave commandments to Adam and Eve; He was their Father in Heaven; they worshipped Him and taught their children after the fall to worship and obey Him in the name of the Son who was to come.

But President Young went on to show that our father Adam, -- that is, our earthly father, -- the progenitor of the race of man, stands at our head, being "Michael the Archangel, the Ancient of Days," and that he was not fashioned from earth like an adobe, but "begotten by his Father in Heaven." Adam is called in the Bible "the son of God" (Luke 3:38). It was our Father in Heaven who begat the spirit of him who was "the Firstborn" of all the spirits that come to this earth, and who was also his Father by the Virgin Mary, making him "the only begotten in the flesh." Read Luke 1:26-35. Where is Jesus called "the only begotten of the Father." (John 1:14; 3:16, 18, &c) The Holy Ghost came upon Mary, and her conception was under that influence, even of the spirit of life; our Father in Heaven was the Father of the Son of Mary, to whom the Savior prayed, as did our earthly father Adam. When President Young asked, "who is the Father?" he was speaking of Adam as the father of our earthly bodies, who is at our head, as revealed in Doctrine and Covenants, Section 107, verses 53-56. In that sense he is one of the gods referred to in numerous scriptures, and particularly by Christ (John 10:34-36). He is the great Patriarch, the Ancient of Days, who will stand in his place as "a prince over us forever," and with whom we shall "have to do," as each family will have to do with its head, according to the holy patriarchal order. Our father, Adam, perfected and glorified as a God, will be the being who will carry out the behests of the great Elohim in relation to his posterity. (See Daniel 7:9-14.) While, as Paul puts it, "there be gods many and Lords many (whether in heaven or in earth), unto us there is but one God the Father, of whom are all things, and one Lord Jesus Christ by whom are all things." The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints worships Him alone, who is the Father of Jesus Christ, whom he worshipped, whom Adam worshipped, and who is God the Eternal Father of us all. (signed by Joseph F. Smith, Anthon H. Lund, Charles W. Penrose, the First Presidency, February 20, 1912, Messages of the First Presidency 4:265-267) [190] This letter, although it attempts to explain what Brigham revealed on the subject, is an unmistakable rejection of Adam-God, for it comes into direct conflict with Brigham's revealment that it was Adam who Fathered Jesus Christ in the flesh. In 1916 the First Presidency and Quorum of Twelve again voiced their position with respect to Adam-God in a pamphlet entitled, "The Father and the Son." Therein was stated that: God the Eternal Father, whom we designate by the exalted name-title "Elohim," is the literal Parent of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, and of the spirits of the human race. (reprinted in the Improvement Era, August 1916, vol. 19, pp. 934-942) This was a subtle rejection of the Adam-God doctrine, for

Brigham had clearly distinguished between Elohim and Michael. Although the name-title, Elohim, had been applied to Michael by Brigham, it had almost always been used to designate patriarchal superiors to Michael (i.e., Michael's Father or Grandfather). It is obvious that to designate the literal parent of Jesus Christ "by the exalted name-title `Elohim'" is to detract from the Adam-God doctrine. We will more fully investigate the names, titles and offices of Deity and their revealed applications in later chapters. Adam-God is a doctrine which illuminates the eternal and infinite progression of the Gods. It explains what is in store for the righteous; it details how we will progress and reveals that we are from a race of Beings who are continually progressing. Mormonism is the revealed religion which that race of Beings has given us as a glimpse into our true nature and being. To be sure, Mormonism is the blueprint of existence. It is not a religion of one, but many Gods; it represents a Plurality of Gods! Yes, Mormonism is polytheistic. We should shout it from the roof-tops; we are the descendants of the Gods; we are the progeny of a superior race of Beings, the Gods. But Joseph's religion is not popular in our monotheistic culture. And this is the difficulty which Adam-God has encountered; although it is true, Adam-God has been labeled a heresy. Charles W. Penrose was intent on putting an end to the Adam-God doctrine. In the April 6, 1916 General Conference of the Church he argued: There still remains, I can tell by the letters I have alluded to, an idea among some of the people that Adam was and is the Almighty and Eternal God ... The notion has taken hold of some of our brethren that Adam is the being that we should worship ... I am sorry that has not been rectified long ago, because plain answers have been given to brethren and sisters who write and desire to know about it, and yet it still lingers, and contentions arise in regard to it, and there should be no contentions among Latter-day Saints... Who was the person Adam prayed to? Adam prayed to God... So Adam was neither the Father, nor the Son, nor the Holy Ghost, was he? Then who was he? Why, we are told he was Michael in his first estate, and as Adam he will stand at the head of his race. (Conference Report of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, April 1916, pp. 16-17) [191] President Penrose has here said it perfectly: "...there should be no contentions among Latterday Saints..." concerning Adam-God. But why are there contentions? Is it because we once advocated the doctrine, or is it because we now repudiate it? The question must be asked: "How ignorant did the leaders of the Church think the Saints were?" There were hundreds of public sermons during the 1800s which declared Brigham's intent and set forth in clarity the Adam-God doctrine. Now, at the highest levels of Mormondom, we find what Brigham and Joseph would have called a heresy. President Penrose finally put the Adam-God doctrine to rest in an April 22, 1922 discourse wherein he

proclaimed that: Jesus of Nazareth, born of the virgin Mary, was literally and truly the Son of the Father, the Eternal God, not of Adam. (Conference Report of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, April 1922, p. 23) The Rewriting Of Church Literature In chapter eight we quoted the following excerpt from the poem by Elder Orson F. Whitney, published in "Elias, an Epic of the Ages:" "Father!" -- the voice like music fell, Clear as the murmuring flow Of mountain streamlet, trickling down From heights of virgin snow -"Father," it said, "since One must die Thy children to redeem, Whilst Earth -- as yet unformed and void With pulsing life shall team;" "And thou, great Michael, foremost fall That mortal man may be, And chosen Savior yet must send, Lo, here am I, send me! I ask -- I seek no recompense, Save that which then were mine; Mine be the willing sacrifice, The endless glory -- Thine!" * * * * * * One are the human twain, as sheath and sword -Woman and man, the lady and the lord; [192]Each pair the Eve and Adam of some world, Perchance unborn, into space unhurled. * * * * * * Chosen, omniscient, children of the Sun, Offspring of Adam, Michael, Ancient One, Who comes anon his fiery throne to rear, His council summoning from far and near. Ten thousand times ten thousand bow the knee, And "Father" hail him, "King," eternally. -- Elias, An Epic of the Ages, pp. 18, 76, 77 With the change in doctrine came a change in Church literature also. In the Melchizedek Priesthood study guide for 1914, entitled "Gospel Themes," Orson F. Whitney changed these lines in "Elias, an Epic of the Ages" to read: "Father!" -- the voice like music fell, Clear as the murmuring flow Of mountain streamlet, trickling down From heights of virgin snow "Father," it said, "since One must die Thy children to redeem,

From spheres all formless now and void Where pulsing life shall team;" "And mighty Michael, foremost fall That mortal man may be, And chosen Savior yet must send, Lo, here am I, send me! I ask -- I seek no recompense, Save that which then were mine; Mine be the willing sacrifice, The endless glory -- Thine!" In the original poem Michael is the "Father" who will send the Savior, but after the change this connection is no longer made. The Obligation Of The People Of God There is not much more that can be said now than what the Lord has already revealed, and what we have already read at the end of chapter six; Brigham must have seen it coming: [193] How much unbelief exists in the minds of the Latter-day Saints in regard to one particular doctrine which I revealed to them, and which God revealed to me -- namely that Adam is our father and God.... I told the people that if they would not believe the revelations that God had given he would suffer the devil to give revelations that they -- priests and people -- would follow after.... I told the people that as true as God lived, if they would not have truth they would have error sent unto them, and they would believe it. What is the mystery of it? (Brigham Young, Deseret Weekly News 22:308-309, June 18, 1873) For those of us who have difficulty in understanding how the Church could ever have lost such a prized truth, Brigham reminds us of the eternal principle which Nephi so succinctly put into words, while at the same time applying them to us: And in fine, wo unto all those who tremble, and are angry because of the truth of God! For behold, he that is built upon the rock receiveth it with gladness; and he that is built upon a sandy foundation trembleth lest he shall fall. Wo be unto him that shall say: We have received the word of God, and we need no more of the word of God, for we have enough! For behold, thus saith the Lord God: I will give unto the children of men line upon line, precept upon precept, here a little and there a little; and blessed are those who hearken unto my precepts, and lend an ear unto my counsel, for they shall learn wisdom; for unto him that receiveth I will give more; and from them that shall say, We have enough, from them shall be taken away even that which they have. (2 Nephi 28:28-30) Are we in trouble today? You must ask Father that question yourself, for there is no other way to know but by revelation.

This is the obligation of the people of God. [194] [195] (Blank page) Part 2: The Doctrinal Treatment Of The Adam-God Doctrine

True doctrine, understood, changes attitudes and behavior. The study of the doctrines of the gospel will improve behavior quicker than a study of behavior will improve behavior. Preoccupation with unworthy behavior can lead to unworthy behavior. That is why we stress so forcefully the study of the doctrines of the gospel. (Boyd K. Packer, Fall General Conference of the Church, October 1986; Conference Report p. 20) [196] [197] (Blank page) When the light rested upon me I saw two Personages, whose brightness and glory defy all description, standing above me in the air. Joseph Smith Joseph And The First Vision Historical -vs- Doctrinal The next four chapters of this book are a historical treatment of the Mormon doctrine of Deity, and as such they draw heavily upon the teachings of Joseph Smith. These chapters could have been placed in their chronological order in the Historical Treatment of Adam-God, but because of the doctrinal contribution of this material to the Mormon interpretation of Deity, they are placed here in the Doctrinal Treatment. Traditional Christianity Joseph Smith was born into a world of apostate Christianity. Three centuries earlier Martin Luther and his contemporaries, recognizing that the Church Jesus Christ organized was no longer on the earth, rebelled against the only legal Catholic Church. This revolt formed the impetus for the various Protestant movements which we see in evidence today. Joseph, being a product of this religious culture, had difficulty embracing any of these [198] religions; they all taught differing doctrines and claimed they were Christ's Church. In 1844, just one week before his death, and with much more insight into the condition of modern Christianity, Joseph Said: I will illustrate it by an old apple tree. Here jumps off a branch and says, I am the true tree, and you are corrupt. If the whole tree is corrupt, are not its branches corrupt? If the Catholic religion is a false religion, how can any true religion come out of it? If the Catholic church is bad, how can any good thing come out of it? The character 12

of the old churches have always been slandered by all apostates since the world began. (HC 6:478) The Vision Joseph's desire to learn for himself which church he should join led him, in 1820, to enquire of the Lord: While I was laboring under the extreme difficulties caused by the contests of these parties of religionists, I was one day reading the Epistle of James, first chapter and fifth verse, which reads: If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God, that giveth to all men liberally, and upbraideth not; and it shall be given him. Never did any passage of scripture come with more power to the heart of man than this did at this time to mine. It seemed to enter with great force into every feeling of my heart. I reflected on it again and again, knowing that if any person needed wisdom from God, I did; for how to act I did not know, and unless I could get more wisdom than I then had, I would never know; for the teachers of religion of the different sects understood the same passages of scripture so differently as to destroy all confidence in settling the question by an appeal to the Bible. At length I came to the conclusion that I must either remain in darkness and confusion, or else I must do as James directs, that is, ask of God. I at length came to the determination to "ask of God," concluding that if he gave wisdom to them that lacked wisdom, and would give liberally, and not upbraid, I might venture. So, in accordance with this, my determination to ask of God, I retired to the woods to make the attempt. It was on the morning of a beautiful, clear day, early in the spring of eighteen hundred and twenty. It was the first time in my life that I had made such an attempt, for amidst all my anxieties I had never as yet made the attempt to pray vocally. After I had retired to the place where I had previously designed to go, having looked around me, and finding myself alone, I kneeled down and began to offer up the desires of my heart to God. I had scarcely done so, when immediately I was seized upon by some power which entirely overcame me, and had such an astonishing influence over me as to bind my tongue so that I could not speak. Thick darkness gathered around me, and it seemed to me for a time as if I were doomed to sudden destruction. But, exerting all my powers to call upon God to deliver me out of the power of this enemy which had [199] seized upon me, and at the very moment when I was ready to sink into despair and abandon myself unto destruction -- not to an imaginary ruin, but to the power of some actual being from the unseen world, who had such marvelous power as I had never before felt in any being -- just at this moment of great alarm, I saw a pillar of light exactly over my head, above the brightness of the sun, which descended gradually

until it fell upon me. It no sooner appeared than I found myself delivered from the enemy which held me bound. When the light rested upon me I saw two Personages, whose brightness and glory defy all description, standing above me in the air. One of them spake unto me, calling me by name and said, pointing to the other -- This is My Beloved Son. Hear Him! My object in going to inquire of the Lord was to know which of all the sects was right, that I might know which to join. No sooner, therefore, did I get possession of myself, so as to be able to speak, than I asked the Personages who stood above me in the light, which of all the sects was right (for at this time it had never entered into my heart that all were wrong) -- and which I should join. I was answered that I must join none of them, for they were all wrong; and the personage who addressed me said that all their creeds were an abomination in his sight; that those professors were all corrupt; that: "they draw near to me with their lips, but their hearts are far from me, they teach for doctrines the commandments of men, having a form of godliness, but they deny the power thereof." He again forbade me to join with any of them; and many other things did he say unto me, which I cannot write at this time. When I came to myself again, I found myself lying on my back, looking up into heaven. When the light had departed, I had no strength; but soon recovering in some degree, I went home. (Joseph Smith History 1:11-20, Pearl of Great Price) This account is from Joseph's statement of his experience in the grove, written in 1838, but not published until 1842. On at least three other occasions, he told of the vision in slightly differing ways, describing his experience with the "two Personages" who appeared and spoke to him. We have supposed that it was Jesus Christ whom Joseph was directed to "hear,"when he wrote: One of them spake unto me, calling me by name and said, pointing to the other -- This is My Beloved Son. Hear Him! (Ibid.) Further on Joseph says: I asked the Personages... (Ibid.) And he says: ... the Personage who addressed me... (Ibid.) All we can really discern from Joseph's record is what he has given us. Joseph never said that one of "the Personages" was Jesus Christ, but only that he was the "Beloved Son" of the [200] other "Personage." In the coming chapters we will learn more about the "Beloved Son," and the fact that the Son can be any God, for Joseph taught that all Gods have a Father. Also it will become clear that, in Joseph's last months on the earth, be

tried to teach the Saints about the Plurality of Gods. Who Were They? The "two Personages" who appeared to Joseph Smith were God and His Son. Does it really matter who they were? If a knowledge of God is not important, then why did Joseph place such a great emphasis on obtaining such? With this much said, let us answer this question simply: it is important that we never put words into a prophet's mouth. Joseph never said that Jesus Christ was one of the "two Personages" with whom he communed. However, in Joseph's first known account, written in his own writing in 1832, he recorded: The Lord heard my cry in the wilderness and while in the attitude of calling upon the Lord in the 16th year of my age a pillar of light above the brightness of the sun at noon day [came] down from above and rested upon me. I was filled with the spirit of God and the Lord opened the heavens upon me and I saw the Lord. He spake unto me saying, "Joseph my son thy sins are forgiven thee. Go thy way, walk in my statutes and keep my commandments. Behold I am the Lord of Glory. I was crucified for the world that all those who believe on my name may have Eternal life. Behold the world lieth in sin at this time and none doeth good, no not one. They have turned aside from the gospel and keep not my commandments. They draw near to me with their lips while their hearts are far from me and mine anger is kindling against the inhabitants of the earth to visit them according to their ungodliness and to bring to pass that which hath been spoken by the mouth of the prophets and Apostles. Behold and lo, I come quickly as it [is] written of me, in the cloud clothed in the glory of my Father." (The Diaries and Journals of Joseph Smith, pp. 5-6) The Being who here speaks with Joseph fits all the description of Jesus Christ. And we have no reason to doubt that this was Jesus Christ, but notice that Joseph does not tell how many "Personages" were involved in this rendering, nor does he say or imply that one of the "two Personages" was Jesus Christ. He does say that he "saw the Lord," and "he spake unto" Joseph. In the other known accounts of the first vision Joseph was careful not to state or even imply that Jesus Christ was one of the "two Personages." In the November 9, 1835 account Joseph stated: A personage appeared in the midst of this pillar of flame which was spread all around and yet nothing consumed. Another personage soon appeared like unto the first. He said unto me, "Thy sins are forgiven thee." He testified unto me that Jesus Christ is the Son of God. I saw many angels in this vision. I was about 14 years old when I received this first communication. (Ibid., p. 51) [201] In this rendering Joseph indicates that the second "Personage" who spoke to him "testified .. that Jesus Christ is the Son of God." Was Jesus Christ one of the "two Personages" who appeared to Joseph? It appears that Jesus Christ was testified of by the

second "Personage," but that he was not present, at least not in the capacity of one of the "two Personages." The last known rendering of Joseph's first vision was written in a letter in 1842 to the "Editor and Proprietor of the Chicago Democrat." In this letter Joseph said: I have written the following sketch of the rise, progress, persecution, and faith of the Latter-day Saints, of which I have the honor, under God, of being the founder. (HC 4:535) Joseph wrote of his vision: I was enwrapped in a heavenly vision, and saw two glorious personages, who exactly resembled each other in features and likeness, surrounded with a brilliant light which eclipsed the sun at noonday. They told me that all religious denominations were believing in incorrect doctrines, and that none of them was acknowledged of God as His Church and kingdom: and I was expressly commanded "to go not after them," at the same time receiving a promise that the fullness of the Gospel should at some future time be made known unto me. (Ibid., p. 536) The enemies of the Church have insisted that Joseph's inability to keep his story straight proves that he made up the whole experience, therefore showing that he is a fraud. This attitude overlooks the obvious in an effort to slander God's work. Do they ever ask why the Four Gospels do not agree concerning the events surrounding the empty tomb at Christ's resurrection. How many angels were present? (see Matt. 28:2; Mark 16:5; Luke 24:4;John 20:12) How many women were there? (see Matt. 28:1, 5; Mark 16:1; Luke 24:10; John 20:1) Were the angels standing or sitting? (see Matt. 28:2; Mark 16:5; Luke 24:4; John 20:12) How can these variations be reconciled? The faithful Christian cares infinitely more that the tomb was empty than that those who recorded their experiences exactly agree on details. Perhaps this is a trait of the sincere. Why then are we questioning the details of Joseph's first vision? Are not faithful Mormons infinitely more concerned with the fact that God appeared to Joseph and the message He delivered, than with how many Beings appeared and who they are? Yes, absolutely yes! But remember, the subject of this book acknowledges the truthfulness of Joseph's work and calling. Our purpose is to learn of that God with whom we have to do, and in studying the first vision we expect to come nearer to God in our understanding of the doctrine of Deity. Joseph's differing versions of his sacred experience serve to support the reality of the first vision, for if Joseph had intended to deceive, he surely would have been careful to deliver the same fraudulent story each time it was written or published. The differences, though they be no more important than those of the Four Gospels, attest to the fact that Joseph Smith was an honest man. [202] If we dare differ so, to believe the Father speculate as to who Joseph saw and why his renderings let us do so carefully and honestly. We have been led that Heavenly Father appeared, and then Jesus Christ; pointed to Jesus, testified of him and said, "Hear

him." But if we harmonize all four of Joseph's accounts of his first vision, what do we find? A personage appeared in the midst of this pillar of flame which was spread all around and yet nothing consumed. Another personage soon appeared like unto the first. He said unto me, "Thy sins are forgiven thee." He testified unto me that Jesus Christ is the Son of God. (1835 account) It is altogether possible that Joseph, at this point in his experience, was shown a vision in which Jesus Christ did speak, for in the 1832 account Joseph said: He spake unto me saying, "Joseph my son thy sins are forgiven thee." Go thy way, walk in my statutes and keep my commandments. Behold I am the Lord of Glory. I was crucified for the world that all those who believe on my name may have Eternal life. (1832 account) But in the 1835 account the "two Personages" do not include Jesus Christ. Joseph said the second "Personage" "testified unto" him "that Jesus Christ is the Son of God." Obviously this "Personage" was not Jesus Christ, but in the 1832 account Joseph was spoken to by the Being who "was crucified for the world." This author cannot conclude any more than what Joseph has told us, but the above facts speak for themselves, and explain why Joseph, in the 1838 account which we have in the Pearl of Great Price, chose not to identify the "two Personages" who appeared and taught him. Perhaps Joseph felt that the world was not yet ready for the truths he possessed and therefore never gave the full account of who appeared to him and what They revealed, for in the 1838 account he stated: ... and many other things did he say unto me, which I cannot write at this time. (1838 account) And in the 1835 account Joseph hinted that there were other Beings involved in his first vision which he later decided not to identify: ... I saw many angels in this vision. (1835 account) What can we conclude from this harmonizing? On one occasion Joseph said that "two Personages" appeared to him, and the second one testified "that Jesus Christ is the Son of God," and this account was written by the Prophet in his own hand. On another occasion Joseph said that the "Lord" spoke to him during this same sacred experience, and the words which the Lord spoke indicate that it was Jesus Christ speaking, although Joseph never identified him as such. Who were the "two Personages" that appeared in Joseph's first vision? A likely explanation, considering all that Joseph has told us about his first vision, is that it was Jehovah and His [203] Son Michael who appeared to Joseph Smith to open the last dispensation. Then Michael, our Father, showed to Joseph a vision wherein Jesus Christ spoke to Joseph. This is a scenario which would explain all of the apparent inconsistencies in the four renderings extant, and finds much support in the teachings of Brigham Young, and as we will see in subsequent chapters,

Joseph revealed much which serves to support this explanation, as he taught about the Father of Jesus Christ's Father. A Redefinition As we have seen, Joseph never named or identified one of the "two Personages" as "Jesus Christ." In fact, after stating in the 1832 account that a Being spoke to him who fits all the description of Jesus Christ, Joseph never again made this allusion when referring to his first vision and the "two Personages" who "appeared" unto him. It was not until 1879 that President John Taylor introduced Jesus Christ into the 1838 account of the first vision, which Joseph was careful not to do. Said President Taylor, Joseph: ... went to the Lord and asked him, and the Lord revealed himself to him together with his Son Jesus, and, pointing to the latter, said: "This is my beloved Son, hear him." (JD 21:161) As we have seen, John Taylor's words as here stated are correct, but if one is unfamiliar with all of Joseph's teachings then they might mistakenly conclude that Jesus was one of the "two Personages" who "appeared." Joseph clearly did not teach this, but he did teach that he was spoken to by Jesus. From Joseph's death until John Taylor's above-mentioned elaboration, we find no mention of the Savior Jesus Christ in connection with the first vision. In several General Conference sermons and other discourses by general authorities of the Church which speak of the first vision, not once is Jesus considered to be the "Son" referred to by Joseph. Some of the general authorities who never made this connection are Joseph Smith, Brigham Young, Orson Pratt, George A. Smith, Wilford Woodruff, and others (see JD 2:170-71, 196-197; 7:220-221; 11:1-2; 12:67, 302, 352-354; 13:65-67, 77-78; 14:140-141; 15:180-182; 18:239; 20:167; 22:29). As we will see in the next chapter, this redefining of Joseph's work will be carried much further with the new Jehovah--Christ theology, which will identify Jehovah as Jesus Christ and make Mormonism appear to be more "mainstream" in the Christian community. [204] Joseph's Reluctance Today the first vision is an integral part of the Mormon experience. No person joins the Church without first learning and praying about Joseph's experience in the grove. It is our favorite experience to share with friends whom we feel would walk in the ways of light. We are surprised to find that the first vision was generally unknown among the Saints until it was published in 1842. Brigham Young University Professor of History, James B. Allen, has said: ... it would appear that the general church membership did not receive information about the first vision until the 1840's and that the story certainly did not hold the prominent place in Mormon thought that it does today... It

is evident that the general membership of the church knew little, if anything, about it. (Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 32-34) Although Joseph had related his sacred experience to many people over the years, it was not published and made available for the general membership of the Church until March 15 and April 1, 1842, where it was printed in the Times and Seasons and in June of the same year was published in the Millennial Star. Why did Joseph withhold this great experience which has touched the lives of so many? Professor Allen believes: A possible explanation for the fact that the story of the vision was not generally known in the 1830's is sometimes seen in Joseph Smith's conviction that experiences such as these should be kept from the general public because of their extremely sacred nature... It represented one of his most profound spiritual experiences, he could well have decided to circulate it only privately until he could feel certain that in relating it he would not receive again the general ridicule of friends. (ibid.) This explanation for why Joseph was reticent to share his first vision is consistent with Joseph's Nauvoo teachings, which were withheld from the general membership of the Church until the few months prior to the Prophet's death. As we will see in the coming chapters, Joseph saved the more advanced teachings about the Gods until he was prompted to reveal them. And even then, by his own admission, Joseph withheld some of his knowledge. Because his advanced teachings on Deity were new to many of his followers, Joseph was ridiculed for his revelations on the nature and character of the Gods, as we will see. Doctrinal Contribution It will become further evident that Joseph withheld his experience in the grove until he was ready to reveal the fullness of his knowledge of the plurality of Gods. This, he did not begin to do until 1844, just weeks before he was killed. The first vision was an elementary lesson for the Saints and no doubt intended to prepare them for the greater things Joseph would [205] reveal. Did Joseph intend for the Saints to believe that Jesus Christ was one of the "two Personages" of his first vision? If he did then there is a great weakness in what he has left us, for he did not identify either of the "two Personages" as Jesus Christ. [206] [207] (Blank page) Knowledge saves a man; and in the world of spirits no man can be exalted but by knowledge. Joseph Smith HC 6:314 Development Of The Mormon Doctrine Of Deity Sacred Cows 13

There are those who will be offended if we begin to question our concepts and dogmas about God. It is apparently offensive to most people to have their notions about who and what God is, and how He came to be God, questioned. However, in light of the Adam-God doctrine it becomes obvious that we need to ask a few questions. Some of them are: Who is Jehovah? Who is the God of the Old Testament? Who is the Creator? We have seen from the Historical Treatment of Adam-God who the first Priesthood leaders of this dispensation believed these Gods to be. But what did Joseph teach concerning these things, and how did the doctrine of Deity develop into what we have today? If you are offended, or perhaps a little scared after the excursions of the previous chapters, then I can sympathize with you, for I was there not very long ago myself. Learning new things which challenge old preconceived notions is very upsetting to most of us. But the desire to learn the truth must be stronger in the Saints than their comfort zone of the familiar. Orson Pratt may have expressed it as well as it has ever been said when he stated: [208] We should not get into that old sectarian notion, that we have no right to know anything about this, that or the other, and that we must not pry into this, that or the other. That is an old sectarian notion, which we have fought against all the day long, and we do not want it to creep into the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. It is the privilege of its members to let their minds expand, and to ponder upon the things of God, and to enquire of him, and by and by, when we have prepared ourselves by getting all the knowledge we possibly can from that which is written, God will give more. (JD 16:336) If you are offended by such questions concerning our progenitors, you shouldn't be. Sincere seekers of truth need answers to these questions. In 1871 Elder George A. Smith echoed this very attitude: If a faith will not bear to be investigated; if its preachers and professors are afraid to have it examined, their foundation must be very weak. (JD 14:216) The Mormon faith will "bear to be investigated," but only if its members are honest and faithful to the teachings of The Restoration. Precept Upon Precept The teachings of the Restoration leave little doubt as to how the Lord deals with His people. Said Joseph: The Lord deals with this people as a tender parent with a child, communicating light and intelligence and the knowledge of his ways as they can bear it. (HC 5:402) Concerning this, Brigham Young said: Consequently the Lord has to descend to our capacities and

give us a little here and a little there, line upon line and precept upon precept, as the prophet has said. (JD 3:354) In 1830 the Lord revealed to Joseph: Behold, ye are little children and ye cannot bear all things now; ye must grow in grace and in the knowledge of truth. (D&C 50:40) Joseph's knowledge of God increased as he continued faithful to his calling, but he, in turn, could only reveal that which the Saints were prepared to receive. As late as 1839 we find Joseph lamenting the fact that he had not been able to reveal to the Saints the fullness of what God had revealed to him: I never have had opportunity to give them the plan that God has revealed to me. (The Personal Writings of Joseph Smith, March 15, 1839, pp. 386-387) [209] This fact will help us to understand why Joseph did not teach all he knew about Deity in the earliest stages of The Restoration. It will also become evident that Joseph revealed what some of the Saints believed were radically different doctrines during the last few months of his life. Some faithless individuals even believed Joseph had become a "fallen prophet," so heretical did his last teachings about God appear. Early Teachings On Adam As was discussed in chapter three, the Ancient of Days has always been understood to be the Supreme God of the Bible. In the era in which Mormonism was born, to speak of the Ancient of Days was to speak of God the Father. Certainly, Oliver Cowdery, speaking to a people who were a product of this religious culture, would have been careful not to confuse Adam with this Judeao-Christian God whom the Bible calls the Ancient of Days, unless he had intended his readers to believe that Adam was indeed God the Father. Oliver Cowdery referred to this very Being when he published: ... who could the Ancient of Days be but our father Adam? Surely none other... (Evening and Morning Star, May 1834, p.308) There are other early Church references to Adam which do not confirm the doctrine of Adam-God, but we do not expect to find every Elder and missionary in the early stages of the Church to be versed in this "higher doctrine." Concerning this, Rodney Turner has written: In view of the abundant later references to Adam, we might have expected more [pertinent material]. And yet, there would be no valid reason for this; Adam was not then a subject of particular interest to the membership; then, as now, he was accepted as Michael, the Archangel, the Ancient of days, the "great progenitor of the human race," nothing more. Then too, even a cursory glance at the early history of Mormonism will reveal the simple fact that the Church

was far too busy getting born, catching its breath, and struggling for survival in an alien world, to be much concerned with anything so admittedly academic as the identity of Adam. (The Position of Adam In Latter-day Saint Scripture And Theology, pp. 94-95) Joseph's Teachings On Jehovah Probably the majority of our present-day problem with understanding and accepting the Adam-God doctrine is due to the fact that we have been misled to believe that Jehovah and [210] Jesus Christ are unique names for the same being. Nothing could be further from the truth. Joseph has left no evidence that he ever identified Jesus Christ as Jehovah, nor did any of his contemporary followers. Rather, Joseph taught that Jehovah was a patriarchal superior to Jesus Christ. In 1841 the following was published in the Times and Seasons: We believe in God the Father, who is the great Jehovah and head of all things, and that Christ is the Son of God, co-eternal with the Father. (TS 3:578, November 15, 1841) This distinction between Jehovah and Christ is also made in an 1842 prayer in which Joseph wrote: O Thou, who seest and knowest the hearts of all men -- Thou eternal, omnipotent, omniscient, and omnipresent Jehovah -God -- Thou Elohim, that sittest, as saith the Psalmist, "enthroned in heaven," look down upon Thy servant Joseph at this time; and let faith on the name of Thy Son Jesus Christ, to a greater degree than Thy servant ever yet has enjoyed, be conferred upon him. (HC 5:127) Here, Joseph clearly teaches that Jesus Christ is the Son of "Jehovah -- God -- Thou Elohim." And just one week earlier Joseph had written the following letter, dated August 14, 1842, to Nauvoo wherein he pleaded: Shall we shrink at the onset? No! Let every man's brow be as the face of a lion; let his breast be as unshaken as the mighty oak, and his knee confirmed as the sapling of the forest: and by the voice and the loud roar of the cannon; and the loud peals and thundering of artillery; and by the voice of the thunderings of heaven as upon Mount Sinai; and by the voice of the heavenly hosts; and by the voice of the eternal God; and by the voice of innocent blood; and by thy voice of innocence; and by the voice of all that is sacred and dear to man, let us plead the justice of our cause; trusting in the arm of Jehovah, the Eloheim, who sits enthroned in the heavens; that peradventure He may give us the victory... (HC 5:94) Again, we see that Joseph in no way states or implies that Jehovah is in any way to be considered as Jesus Christ. (See also Joseph's prayer of March 1836 in D&C section 109 and HC 2:420-426 to see that Joseph did not teach that Jehovah is Jesus Christ, but a patriarchal superior to Christ.) Considering Joseph's teaching that Jehovah is a patriarchal superior to Jesus Christ, his creation Gods (Elohim, Jehovah, and Michael) do not seem to include Christ. This subject will be dealt with

in greater detail later. Brigham's Teachings On Jehovah Brigham Young was faithful in promoting Joseph's theology. On one occasion he combined the titles Jehovah and Elohim just as Joseph was accustomed to doing: [211] We obey the Lord, Him who is called Jehovah, the Great I Am, I am a man of war, Eloheim, etc. (JD 12:99) Brigham Young always referred to Jehovah as a patriarchal superior to Jesus Christ, although it is not always clear whether it is the Father or the GRANDFATHER to whom he referred. On October 21, 1860 Brigham said: I am proud to say that I honour my God -- that I love him -- that I worship him; I am proud to call him my Father, while many are proud to deride and despise him. They are proud when they get together and curse and swear, damning and calling the name of Jehovah in vain, calling upon God to damn each other: they are proud that they have this audacity. (JD 8:228) On another occasion Brigham spoke of the blessings "Jehovah has for his children." (JD 9:240) Clearly, this Jehovah is our patriarchal superior, for we are "his children." For us to be "his children" does not necessarily mean that He is the Father, for a grandfather also considers his grandchildren to be his. But it does exclude the possibility that Jehovah could be Jesus Christ, for we are Jesus Christ's brothers and sisters, not "his children." By the same reasoning, a Being whom we refer to as the Father does not necessarily have to be our God and Father; HE may be His FATHER, or in other words, our GRANDFATHER. Brigham has told us who the Father is, the Ancient of Days, and he also taught that it was this Being who was the God of Israel, or the God of the Old Testament: They will come up tribe by tribe, and the Ancient of Days, He who led Abraham, and talked to Noah, Enoch, Isaac, and Jacob, that very Being will come and judge the twelve tribes of Israel. (JD 11:326-327, February 10, 1867) Thus, the man Joseph groomed and prepared for the leadership of the Saints, Brigham Young, knew the God of the Old Testament to be Father in Heaven, the Ancient of Days, Adam. Some people believe the God of the Old Testament to be Jesus Christ as a premortal being, as the scriptures sometimes appear to state. But President George Q. Cannon, at the trial of Edward Bunker, said this is an erroneous idea which comes from a poor understanding of the scriptures: "I am the beginning and the end." Jesus speaks for the Godhead, the personages who compose the Godhead, and that must be kept in mind all the time, not speaking for himself, but for the Father. It is overlooking this that leads to confusion. Men thinking that Jesus speaks for himself. (St. George High Council Minutes, June 11, 1892, Church Archives)

In a meeting of the School of the Prophets on June 17,1871, Joseph F. Smith was present and recorded President Brigham Young's teachings on the identity of Elohim, Yahovah and Michael. Brigham explained: Elohim, Yahova & Michael, were father, Son and grandson. They made this Earth & Michael became Adam. (Brigham Young, as recorded in the Joseph F. Smith Journal, 17 June 1871 entry) [212] Here, Brigham shows us the eternal nature of the Patriarchal Order, fathers and sons continue to assist one another in eternity. The Gods which preside over us are a close-knit family which continues to serve one another in eternity. The Creation Gods In the April 6, 1916 General Conference of the Church Charles W. Penrose said: We are told by revelation that in the creation of the earth there were three individuals personally engaged. This is more particularly for the Temple of God, but sufficient of it has been published over and over again to permit me to refer to it. [The title] Elohim ... is attached to the individual who is the Father of all, the person whom we look to as the Great Eternal Father. Elohim, Jehovah, and Michael were engaged in the construction of this globe. Jehovah, commanded by Elohim, went down to where there was space, saying to Michael, "Let us go down."... You see, do you not, that Michael became Adam, and that Adam was not the Son Jehovah, and he was not Elohim the Father. He occupied his own place and position in the organization of the earth and in the production of mortal beings on the earth. Jesus of Nazareth was the Jehovah who was engaged with the Father in the beginning. (Conference Reports, April 6, 1916, pp. 15-19) Here, we have not the prophet, but a councilor to a prophet apparently reversing the earlier teachings of Joseph Smith and Brigham Young that Jehovah was a patriarchal superior to Jesus Christ. Much of our confusion over which God is which comes from the fact that Joseph and Brigham used the names Jehovah and Elohim as if they were interchangeable. As we will see, our founding prophets understood these names to be titles or offices of the Gods, not proper names by which any one God was uniquely known. This, in itself, does not constitute a problem, but when we try to understand who the creation Gods are, this is when we get confused. But if we remember that it was Joseph, not Charles W. Penrose, through whom the Temple Endowment was restored, and accept Joseph's identification of these beings, then we will find that our confusion is swept away by simple truth. Joseph used the titles Elohim and Jehovah interchangeably to address God, and also distinguished between an Elohim and a Jehovah in the creation account. These facts make no sense at all as long as we insist on interpreting Elohim and Jehovah as proper names. But when we understand that these are titles of Deity, then we begin to see that picture of Deity which was shown to Joseph: a plurality of Gods! In the next chapter we will see that Joseph's

ontology was so far in advance of our base traditions, that we scarce can comprehend the fullness of what he tried to teach us about the realms of Deity. In the creation account Elohim, Jehovah, and Michael are separate Beings involved in the creation of our world. Was Jesus Christ part of this trio? Brigham Young, the one who knew Joseph's mind better than anyone, left us very plain on this subject: [213] Who did beget him [Jesus]?... His Father; and his Father is our God, and the Father of our spirits, and he is the framer of the body, the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. Who is he? He is Father Adam; Michael; the Ancient of Days. (Brigham Young, February 19, 1854, Church Archives) Now, the creation account implies (at the very least) that Elohim and Jehovah are patriarchal superiors to Michael, whom Brigham taught was a patriarchal superior to Jesus. This, then, would tend to confirm the teachings of Joseph that the Jehovah of the creation account is not Jesus Christ, but a patriarchal superior to Jesus. And this leads to the conclusion that Joseph's creation Gods do not seem to include Jesus. Mine Only Begotten Much of our present-day confusion about the creation Gods stems from the misinterpretation of scripture. As the following scripture, restored by Joseph Smith, attests, it was God and His Only Begotten who made man in their image: And I, God, said unto mine Only Begotten, which was with me from the very beginning, Let us make an in our image, after our likeness; and it was so... And I, God, created man in mine own image, in the image of mine Only Begotten created I him, male and female created I them. (Moses 2:26-27) This scripture finds at least two possible interpretations. Is this Elohim and Jehovah, whom we know to be the two Personages who presided over this earth while Michael became Adam? Or, is this Jehovah and Michael who created this world under the direction of Elohim? In this scriptural passage Jehovah is Elohim's Only Begotten, or Michael is Jehovah's Only Begotten. In either case, this passage does not refer to Jesus Christ, for Jesus had no part in our creation. In fact, Jesus was created just as we were, by our Heavenly Parents. Jesus was created in the image of God's Only Begotten, as we are. But in some passages it is Jesus Christ who is spoken of as the Only Begotten. Jesus Christ is Michael's Only Begotten. This concept may appear to view as being highly speculative, but as we will see, the Prophet Joseph attempted to teach these things to the Saints in his last months upon the earth. John Taylor's Teachings On Jehovah

In 1882, while President of the Church, John Taylor published his book, The Mediation And [214] Atonement. Therein President Taylor referred to the atonement of our Savior Jesus Christ: Hence His profound grief, His indescribable anguish, His overpowering torture, all experienced in the submission to the eternal fiat of Jehovah and the requirements of an inexorable law. (The Mediation And Atonement, p. 150) In a sermon delivered at Ogden, Utah in 1883, President Taylor made the same distinction between Jehovah and Jesus Christ: Suffice it to say that He bore the sins of the world, and, when laboring under the pressure of those intense agonies, He exclaimed, "Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass." But it was not possible. It was the decree of God; the fiat of the great Jehovah... (JD 24:34) President Taylor here agrees with Joseph and Brigham that it was by "submission to the eternal fiat (command or decree) of Jehovah" that Jesus Christ atone for the sins of the world. Thus, Jesus Christ submitted to the will of Jehovah. But just a few pages earlier in his book, President Taylor said: "His name shall be called Immanuel," which being interpreted is, God with us. Hence He is not only called the Son of God, the First Begotten of the Father, the Well Beloved, the Head, and Ruler, and Dictator of all things, Jehovah, the I Am, the Alpha and Omega, but He is also called the Very Eternal Father. Does not this mean that in Him were the attributes and power of the Very Eternal Father? (The Mediation And Atonement, p.138) President Taylor here explains that the name-titles: Jehovah, I Am, Alpha and Omega, and even "the Very Eternal Father" may appropriately be applied to our Savior, Jesus Christ, because "in Him were the attributes and power of the Very Eternal Father." Hence, if we understand that Jehovah is not the proper name of a God, but is a title which may be applied to more than one God, then we do not pervert the plain teaching of Joseph and his disciples. On the other hand, if we insist on adhering to the new Jehovah--Christ theology, this is when we get all confused, for then we can make no sense out of the revelations of our founding prophets. A careful analysis of the following hymn, written by John Taylor, will tell us who he considered Jehovah to be: As in the heavens they all agree The record's given there by three.... Jehovah, God the Father's one, Another His Eternal Son, The Spirit does with them agree, The witnesses in heaven are three. (Sacred Hymns and Spiritual Songs for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1891, p. 295, # 262) [215] If President Taylor used "Father's" as a contraction to indicate "God the Father is one," then it is implied that Jehovah is God

the Father. In any case Jehovah is not Christ, for the next line speaks not of "God the Father's one," but of "His Eternal Son." The subtle meaning of this poem agrees with Joseph's and Brigham's teachings that Jehovah is someone other than Jesus Christ. A common misconception in the Church today is that Jesus Christ was and is the Great I AM, the God who communed with Moses and others. In 1872 President John Taylor delivered an address in which he identified the "Great I Am:" Who has controlled and managed the affairs of the world from its creation until the present time? The Great I Am, the Great Eloheim, the Great God who is our Father. We bow before him. (JD 15:217) President Taylor gives some explanation about the sacred nature of this knowledge of our God: The Scriptures tell us there are "Gods many and Lords many. But to us there is but one God, the Father." (1 Cor., viii, 5.) And for this reason, though there were others engaged in the creation of the worlds, it is given to us in the Bible in the shape that it is; for the fulness of these truths is only revealed to highly favored persons for certain reasons known to God; as we are told in the Scriptures: "The secret of the Lord is with them that fear him; and he will show them his covenant."--Psalms, xxv, 14. (The Mediation And Atonement, p. 93) Now, here President John Taylor has revealed the very essence of the problem with the Adam-God doctrine: ... the fulness of these truths is only revealed to highly favored persons for certain reasons known to God. (ibid.) The rest of us must believe the words of those "highly favored persons," or as Brigham said, we would have error sent unto us: How much unbelief exists in the minds of the Latter-day Saints in regard to one particular doctrine which I revealed to them, and which God revealed to me -- namely that Adam is our father and God -- I do not know, I do not inquire, I care nothing about it. Our Father Adam helped to make this earth, it was created expressly for him, and after it was made he and his companions came here. He brought one of his wives with him, and she was called Eve, because she was the first woman upon the earth. Our Father Adam is the man who stands at the gate and holds the keys of everlasting life and salvation to all his children who have or who ever will come upon the earth... I told the people that as true as God lived, if they would not have truth they would have error sent unto them, and they would believe it. What is the mystery of it? (Deseret Weekly News 22:308-309, June 18, 1873; see chapter 6) [216] The New Theology On Jehovah The Journal of Discourses span a period of over 30 years, from

the 1850s to the 1880s. They contain many sermons of the First Presidency and Quorum of Twelve. Mormon author Boyd Kirkland has said: In some 256 references to Elohim and Jehovah and the God of the Old Testament in the Journal of Discourses, the title Jehovah is only specifically applied to Jesus once. This occurred in 1885 when the new doctrine identifying Jesus as Jehovah was just beginning to be developed. (Boyd Kirkland, Line Upon Line, p. 40-41) In 1871 Apostle George Q. Cannon furthered his teaching that it was Jesus Christ who was: ... the Being who spoke to Moses in the wilderness and declared, "I am that I am." (Juvenile Instructor 6:155, September 30, 1871) And in 1882 Apostle Franklin D. Richards claimed that Jesus was: ... the same being who called Abraham from his native country, who led Israel out of the land of Egypt... and who made known to them his law amid the thunderings, of Sinai. (A Compendium of the Faith and Doctrine of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, pp. 78-79, 1882) During the April 1885 General Conference of the Church, Elder Richards spoke of Jehovah as a patriarchal superior to Jesus Christ: The Savior said He could call to His help more than twelve legions of angels; more than the Roman hosts; but He knowing the great purposes of Jehovah could go like a lamb to the slaughter. (JD 26:172) But in August of that same year, Franklin D. Richards, apparently for the first time, endorsed the new Jehovah--Christ theology: We learn that our Savior was born of a woman, and He was named Jesus the Christ. His name when He was a spiritual being, during the first half of the existence of the earth, before He was made flesh and blood, was Jehovah. He was in the beginning of the creation, and He had to do and has had to do continually with the creation and government of this heaven and this earth... (JD 26:300) Elder Richards goes on to describe several scriptural passages which refer to the premortal Christ as Jehovah. It should be remembered that Orson Pratt's primary objection to the Adam-God doctrine was that it was not scripturally sound. This objection is primarily concerned with Jehovah being Christ, thus making it impossible for Michael to be God the Father, since Jehovah is His superior in the creation account. Edward Bunker's objections were the same as Orson Pratt's. Although we do not see a contradiction between the new Jehovah-Christ theology and the teachings of Joseph, this is only because we have been able to see Jehovah as a name-title which can be applied to many Gods, not just one. Although [217] The Book Of Mormon leads us to believe that Jehovah is a name reserved for Christ, it does not

say that there are not other Jehovahs, nor other Christs for that matter. It is unclear who Apostles Cannon and Richards believed the Jehovah in the creation account to be. It should be remembered that both of these brethren were outspoken advocates of the Adam-God doctrine, and therefore, probably believed Jehovah-Christ to be different than the Jehovah of the creation account. We saw from the Bunkerville Problem that Wilford Woodruff defended the St. George Temple Lecture at the Veil and the Adam-God doctrine, thus implying that the Jehovah of the creation account is not Jesus Christ. President Woodruff did not endorse the new Jehovah-Christ theology, and in 1893 stated: ... Thus may we come up into the holy place [the Temple] with our hearts free from guile and our souls prepared for the edification that is promised! Thus shall our supplications, undisturbed by a thought of discord, unitedly mount into the cars of Jehovah and draw down the choice blessings of the God of Heaven! (Messages of the First Presidency of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 3:243) President Woodruff, two years later, still remained non-committal on the new Jehovah--Christ theology when he chastised the Saints for their not being content with "a knowledge of the common things of the kingdom:" Before I sit down I want to say a word to the Elders of Israel on another subject. I am called an old man; I guess I am. I was thinking just now, in speaking of the apostles and prophets that were with Joseph Smith when he made his last speech, I am the only man living that was with him at that time. The rest are today in the spirit world. How much longer I shall talk to this people I do not know; but I want to say this to all Israel: Cease troubling yourselves about who God is; who Adam is, who Christ is, who Jehovah is. For heaven's sake, let these things alone. (Millennial Star, 57:355-356, April 7, 1895) Silent Advocacy It should be understood by the reader that the Adam-God doctrine is in an extremely vulnerable position at this time in history. Remember, Brigham Young had urged the brethren to "keep it [Adam-God] to yourselves." And we have already seen that even among the Quorum of Twelve the Adam-God doctrine was questioned. Thus, at the turn of the century, we are confronted with those who know the Adam-God doctrine to be true, but are true to the promptings of the Spirit to keep these things sacred. For this reason they do not publicly defend the doctrine, nor, in all likelihood, do they privately promote the doctrine, for it is a "higher doctrine," to be understood by personal revelation. Unfortunately, those who lack the spiritual maturity to comprehend the Adam-God doctrine do not play by the same rules. They are free to ridicule and argue against the Adam-God [218] doctrine and against those who believe it to be true. The argument is always won by the faithless, for the believers will

not "cast their pearls before swine." We have already submitted testimony from Elder Edward Stevenson that he was possessed of a testimony of the Adam-God doctrine (see chapter 7). In 1896 Elder Stevenson was one of the seven presidents of the Seventy. After having what he referred to as "a deep talk" with President Lorenzo Snow about the Adam-God doctrine, Elder Stevenson recorded in his journal: Certainly Heloheim and Jehovah stands before Adam, or else I am very much mistaken. Then 1st Heloheim, 2nd Jehovah, 3d Michael-Adam, 4th Jesus Christ, Our Elder Brother, in the other World from whence our spirits come... Then Who is Jehovah? The only begotten Son of Heloheim on Jehovah's world. (Edward Stevenson Diary, February 28 & March 3, 1896, Church Archives) As here written, Elder Stevenson's concept of the hierarchy of the Gods is in perfect agreement with what Joseph and Brigham revealed and taught. Apparently, President Lorenzo Snow shared this same concept, for it was after "a deep talk" with President Snow that Elder Stevenson had confirmed his conviction of the truthfulness of the Adam-God doctrine and recorded such in his diary. Interpretation Of Scripture Guides Development Of Doctrine We have already seen that in the early 1900s, Charles W. Penrose, counselor to President Joseph F. Smith, led the movement to retire the Adam-God doctrine (see chapter 11). In 1912 the following First Presidency message appeared in the Improvement Era: Speculations as to the career of Adam before he came to the earth are of no real value. We learn by revelation that he was Michael, the Archangel, and that he stands at the head of his posterity on earth. (Doctrine and Covenants, Sect. 107:53-56.) Dogmatic assertions do not take the place of revelation, and we should be satisfied with that which is accepted as doctrine, and not discuss matters that, after all disputes, are merely matters of theory. (First Presidency statement, Joseph F. Smith, Anthon H. Lund, Charles W. Penrose, January 31, 1912, Improvement Era, Vol. 15, March 1912, pp. 417-418; see also Messages of the First Presidency, vol. 4, pp. 264-265) The "Dogmatic assertions" herein referred to can only be Brigham Young's teachings on Adam-God. But if Brigham Young's "Dogmatic assertions" amount to revelation from God, then what are we to make of this official rhetoric which claims: Dogmatic assertions [Brigham Young's revelations] do not take the place of revelation? (Ibid.) The article went on to say: [219] ... we should be satisfied with that which is accepted as doctrine... (Ibid.) Now, we must ask, what constitutes doctrine in the Church of

Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints? A few weeks after the above-mentioned statement President Joseph F. Smith, referring to Brigham Young's historic Priesthood Session sermon on Adam-God, said: Brigham Young when he delivered that sermon only expressed his own views and that they were not corroborated by the word of the Lord in the Standard works of the Church. (Thomas Clawson Journal, April 8, 1912, Utah State Historical Society; see also Anthony W. Ivins Journal, April 8, 1912, Utah State Historical Society) President Smith said the Standard Works of the Church were sustained by the membership of the Church and then said: Now all doctrine if it can't be established by these standards is not to be taught or promulgated by members. (Ibid.) Clearly, in this era, Mormonism is shifting its emphasis from living prophet to Standard Works. But it was our living prophet who gave Mormonism its distinction among the dead religions of the world; it is the living prophet which makes Mormonism alive. Now we are told that any teaching of our founding prophets which "can't be established by these standards is not to be taught or promulgated." If the Mormon understanding of God is to be limited to that which is found in the scriptures, then we will not be surprised to find that our teachings of God are very similar to those of contemporary Christianity, who also limit their understanding to that which is found in the scriptures. Jesus The Christ A First Presidency Message, dated 13 August 1915, was published in the September 1915 Improvement Era. It was an endorsement of the newly written book, Jesus the Christ: OFFICIAL ANNOUNCEMENT Within the month of September, 1915, there will be issued from The Deseret News press a book entitled Jesus the Christ, written by Elder James E. Talmage, of the Council of the Twelve. This important work has been prepared by appointment, and is to be published by the Church. The field of treatment is indicated on the title-page as "A study of the Messiah and his mission, according to Holy Scriptures both ancient and modern." The book is more than a "Life of Christ" in the ordinary acceptation of that title, as it not only treats at length the narrative of our Lord's life and ministry in the flesh, together with his death, resurrection, and ascension, but deals also with his antemortal existence and Godship, and with his ministry in the [220] resurrected state, both of old and in the current dispensation. The sacred subject of our Savior's life and mission is presented as it is accepted and proclaimed by the Church that bears his Holy Name. We desire that the work, "Jesus the Christ" be read and

studied by the Latter-day Saints, in their families, and in the organizations that are devoted wholly or in part to theological study. We commend it especially for use in our Church schools, as also for the advanced theological classes in Sunday schools and priesthood quorums, for the instruction of our missionaries, and for general reading. (Messages of the First Presidency, vol. 4, pp. 339-340) James E. Talmage was commissioned by the First Presidency to "prepare by appointment" his work, Jesus the Christ. Therein he affirmed the new Jehovah--Christ theology. He made Jesus to be THE God of the Bible: Jesus Christ was and is God the Creator.... the God of the Old Testament record; and the God of the Nephites. We affirm that Jesus Christ was and is Jehovah, the Eternal One. (Jesus the Christ, pp. 32-41) During the first quarter of this century, there were a number of official declarations, discourses, articles, books, etc., of which Talmage's book was a part, which further endorsed the new Jehovah--Christ theology (see for example The Father and the Son, A Doctrinal Exposition by The First Presidency and The Twelve; June 30, 1916, Original Pamphlet; reprinted in August 1916, Improvement Era 19:934-942; also in Messages of the First Presidency, volume 5, pp. 23-34). Although apologists in Mormonism have gone to great lengths to harmonize the new Jehovah--Christ concept with the teachings of the standard works, many inconsistencies exist, especially when compared to the teachings of our founding prophets. The New Doctrinal Synthesis Today in the Mormon Church we are taught that Jesus Christ is Jehovah, God of the Old Testament, and that Elohim is our Father in Heaven, the father of Jesus Christ and all who will ever live upon this earth. Not only are we taught these things, but we are led to believe that they are absolute doctrines of the Mormon faith. These beliefs are promoted in the literary organs of the Church. They are promoted in our Priesthood, Relief Society, Sunday School, and various other instructional manuals. They are promoted in books written by Church members and the General Authorities. Also, a great deal of effort goes into showing that these concepts of God are consistent with the scriptures. Apparently, there have been those people, involved in guiding the evolution of doctrine in the Church, who have wanted our message to be scriptural! Fortunately, and in spite of the whims of men, our message is not limited to scripture alone, or we would be a dead church. No, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is a living Church and we claim [221] the privilege that is ours: to receive revelation, not only the prophets who lead, but the members who serve and believe. If God has revealed more through His prophets than what is recorded and accepted as scripture, then why do we choose not to accept the "greater things?" Naturally, we have assumed that the currently accepted concept of God has always been the doctrinal position of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. But now we know that Mormon

perceptions of God have actually undergone a departure from what Joseph and his disciples believed and taught. [222] [223] (Blank page) As man now is, God once was: As God now is, man may be. Lorenzo Snow The King Follett Discourse Lorenzo Snow Lorenzo Snow became the fifth president of the Church September 13, 1898. Lorenzo Snow's contribution to the Mormon doctrine of Deity is interesting and significant because it anticipated the teachings of the Prophet Joseph: Early in his life, Lorenzo Snow developed a remarkable understanding about the nature of God and man. In Kirtland, Ohio, he met Joseph Smith, Sr., the first patriarch to the Church, who promised him that he would soon be baptized into the Church and then said, "You will become as great as you can possibly wish--EVEN AS GREAT AS GOD, and you cannot wish to be greater" (Snow, Biography, p. 10). Four years later, in 1840, Lorenzo received a personal revelation that clarified Father Smith's mysterious saying: "The Spirit of the Lord rested mightily upon me--the eyes of my understanding were opened, and I saw as clear as the sun at noonday, with wonder and astonishment, the pathway of God and man. I formed the following couplet which expresses the revelation, as it was shown to me, and explains Father Smith's dark saying to me at a blessing meeting in the Kirtland Temple, prior to my baptism,..."As man now is, God once was: As God now is, man may be" (Snow, Biography, p. 46). At first, he shared this revelation with no one except his sister Eliza. Then he privately related it to Brigham Young, who wisely told him: "Brother Snow, that is a new doctrine; if true, it has been revealed to you for your own private information, and will be taught in due time by the Prophet to the Church; till then I advise you to lay it upon the shelf and say no more about it" (Whitney, Juvenile Instructor, Jan. 1900, p. 4). This Lorenzo did until the Prophet Joseph delivered the King Follett discourse and taught the same doctrine publicly for the first time. Thereafter, Lorenzo Snow felt free to teach it. (My Kingdom Shall Roll Forth, Church lesson manual, p. 68) [224] The King Follett Discourse The King Follett discourse, as it has come to be called, was a sermon in which the Prophet Joseph addressed the Saints, following the death of one of their brothers. He delivered the discourse on Sunday, April 7, 1844, at the Conference of the 14

Church, and "before about twenty thousand Saints." Before presenting the meat of this discourse, we should like to quote a footnote which B. H. Roberts included with the King Follett Discourse in the History Of The Church: This was not a stenographic report, but a carefully and skillfully prepared one made by these men who were trained in reporting and taking notes. Evidently, there are some imperfections in the report and some thoughts expressed by the Prophet which were not fully rounded out and made complete; nevertheless it contains many wonderful truths pertaining to the subjects discussed and therefore is valuable in giving us a better understanding than we would have without it. (HC 6:302) In the April 1944 General Conference of the Church, Elder John A. Widtsoe said, in reference to the conference in which Joseph delivered the King Follett Discourse: That conference was remarkable in many ways. The Prophet's mind seemed to sweep, as it were, the horizons of eternity. He touched upon the things that are far beyond -- the things of eternity. This sermon is known in our history as the "King Follett Sermon," a most remarkable document. I am glad that Elder Joseph Fielding Smith included it in his Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith. He taught revealing doctrines never clearly told before, since Christ, or perhaps since Adam, of the nature of God, our Heavenly Father, and of the destiny of man. The doctrine as there taught has been incorporated into our thinking and writing, in our books and sermons, without knowing exactly when or how it was first stated. (John A. Widtsoe, April 7, 1944 Conference Report, p. 95) The King Follett Discourse is esteemed as one of Joseph's crowning works, for in it he revealed our relationship to "the Gods." A reading of the complete discourse is encouraged by this author, but we shall only deal with that part which is applicable to our discussion of Adam-God, the peculiar Mormon doctrine of Deity: Beloved Saints: I will call [for] the attention of this congregation while I address you on the subject of the dead. The decease of our beloved brother, Elder King Follett, who was crushed in a well by the falling of a tub of rock, has more immediately led me to this subject... There are but a very few beings in the world who understand rightly the character of God. The great majority of mankind do not comprehend anything, either that which is past, or that which is to come, as it respects their relationship to God. They do not know, neither do they understand the nature of that relationship; and consequently they know but little above the brute beast, or more than to eat, drink and sleep. This is all man knows about God or His existence, unless it is given by the inspiration of the Almighty.

[225] If a man learns nothing more than to eat, drink and sleep, and does not comprehend any of the designs of God, the beast comprehends the same things. It eats, drinks, sleeps, and knows nothing more about God; yet it knows as much as we, unless we are able to comprehend by the inspiration of Almighty God. If men do not comprehend the character of God, they do not comprehend themselves. I want to go back to the beginning , and so lift your minds into more lofty spheres and a more exalted understanding than what the human mind generally aspires to. I want to ask this congregation, every man, woman and child, to answer the question in their own hearts, what kind of a being God is? Ask yourselves; turn your thoughts into your hearts, and say if any of you have seen, heard, or communed with Him? This is a question that may occupy your attention for along time. I again repeat the question -- What kind of a being is God? Does any man or woman know? Have any of you seen Him, heard Him, or communed with Him? Here is the question that will, peradventure, from this time henceforth occupy your attention. The scriptures inform us that "This is life eternal that they might know thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent." If any man does not know God, and inquires what kind of a being He is, -- if he will search diligently his own heart -- if the declaration of Jesus and the apostles be true, he will realize that he has not eternal life; for there can be eternal life on no other principle. My first object is to find out the character of the only wise and true God, and what kind of a being He is; and if I am so fortunate as to be the man to comprehend God, and explain or convey the principles to your hearts, so that the Spirit seals them upon you, then let every man and woman henceforth sit in silence, put their hands on their mouths, and never lift their hands or voices, or say anything against the man of God or the servants of God again. But if I fail to do it, it becomes my duty to renounce all further pretensions to revelations and inspirations, or to be a prophet; and I should be like the rest of the world -- a false teacher, be hailed as a friend, and no man would seek my life. But if all religious teachers were honest enough to renounce their pretensions to godliness when their ignorance of the knowledge of God is made manifest, they will all be as badly off as I am, at any rate; and you might just as well take the lives of other false teachers as that of mine. If any man is authorized to take away my life because he think and says I am a false teacher, then, upon the same principle, we should be justified in taking away the life of every false teacher, and where would be the end of the blood? And who would not be the sufferer? In the discourse, B. H. Roberts here inserted the following footnote of explanation: [It should be remembered that at the time of this discourse

apostates and other enemies of the Prophet were seeking his life, and open threats were being made even in his presence. The forces of evil were determined that the Prophet should be destroyed. It was less than three months following the date of this discourse when he and his brother Hyrum were martyred.] Now we pick up Joseph's words where we just left off: But meddle not with any man for his religion: all governments ought to permit every man to enjoy his religion unmolested. No man is authorized to take away life in consequence of difference of religion, which all laws and governments ought to tolerate and protect, right or wrong. Every man has a natural, and, in our country, a constitutional right to be a false prophet, as well as a true prophet. If I show, verily, that I have the truth of God, and show that ninety-nine out of every hundred professing religious [226] ministers are false teachers, having no authority, while they pretend to hold the keys of God's kingdom on earth, and was to kill them because they are false teachers, it would deluge the whole world with blood. I will prove that the world is wrong, by showing what God is. I am going to inquire after God; for I want you all to know Him, and to be familiar with Him; and if I am bringing you to a knowledge of Him, all persecutions against me ought to cease. You will then know that I am His servant; for I speak as one having authority. I will go back to the beginning before the world was, to show what kind of a being God is. What sort of a being was God in the beginning? Open your ears and hear, all ye ends of the earth, for I am going to prove it to you by the Bible, and to tell you the designs of God in relation to the human race, and why He interferes with the affairs of man. God himself was once as we are now, and is an exalted man, and sits enthroned in yonder heavens! That is the great secret. If the veil were rent today, and the great God who holds this world in its orbit, and who upholds all worlds and all things by His power, was to make himself visible, -- I say, if you were to see him today, you would see him like a man in form -- like yourselves in all the person, image, and very form as a man; for Adam was created in the very fashion, image and likeness of God, and received instruction from, and walked, talked and conversed with Him, as one man talks and communes with another. In order to understand the subject of the dead, for consolation of those who mourn for the loss of their friends, it is necessary we should understand the character and being of God and how He came to be so; for I am going to tell you how God came to be God. We have imagined and supposed that God was God from all eternity. I will refute that idea, and take away the veil, so that you may see. These are incomprehensible ideas to some, but they are

simple. It is the first principle of the gospel to know for a certainty the character of God, and to know that we may converse with Him as one man converses with another, and that He was once a man like us; yea, that God himself, the Father of us all, dwelt on an earth, the same as Jesus Christ himself did; and I will show it from the Bible. I wish I was in a suitable place to tell it, and that I had the trump of an archangel, so that I could tell the story in such a manner that persecution would cease forever. What did Jesus say? (Mark it, Elder Rigdon!) The scriptures inform us that Jesus said, as the Father hath power in himself, even so hath the Son power -- to do what? Why, what the Father did. The answer is obvious -- in a manner to lay down his body and take it up again. Jesus, what are you going to do? To lay down my life as my Father did, and take it up again. Do you believe it? If you do not believe it you do not believe the Bible. The scriptures say it, and I defy all the learning and wisdom and all the combined powers of earth and hell together to refute it. Here, then, is eternal life -- to know the only wise and true God; and you have got to learn how to be Gods yourselves, and to be kings and priests to God, the same as all gods have done before you, namely, by going from one small degree to another, and from a small capacity to a great one; from grace to grace, from exaltation to exaltation, until you attain to the resurrection of the dead, and are able to dwell in everlasting burnings, and to sit in glory, as do those who sit enthroned in everlasting power. And I want you to know that God, in the last days, while certain individuals are proclaiming His name, is not trifling with you or me. These are the first principles of consolation. How consoling to the mourners when they are called to part with a husband, wife, father, mother, child, or dear relative, to know that, although the earthly [227] tabernacle is laid down and dissolved, they shall rise again to dwell in everlasting burnings in immortal glory, not to sorrow, suffer, or die any more, but they shall be heirs of God and joint heirs with Jesus Christ. What is it? To inherit the same power, the same glory and the same exaltation, until you arrive at the station of a god, and ascend the throne of eternal power, the same as those who have gone before. What did Jesus do? Why, I do the things I saw my Father do when worlds came rolling into existence. My Father worked out His kingdom with fear and trembling, and I must do the same; and when I get my kingdom, I shall present it to My Father, so that He may obtain kingdom upon kingdom, and it will exalt Him in glory. He will then take a higher exaltation, and I will take His place, and thereby become exalted myself. So that Jesus treads in the tracks of His Father, and inherits what God did before; and God is thus glorified and exalted in the salvation and exaltation of all His children. It is plain beyond disputation, and you thus learn some of the first principles of the gospel, about which so much hath been said. When you climb up a ladder, you must begin at the bottom, and ascend step by step, until you arrive at the top; and

so it is with the principles of the gospel -- you must begin with the first, and go on until you learn all the principles of exaltation. But it will be a great while after you have passed through the veil before you will have learned them. It is not all to be comprehended in this world; it will be a great work to learn our salvation and exaltation even beyond the grave. I suppose I am not allowed to go into an investigation of anything that is not contained in the Bible. If I do, I think there are so many over-wise men here that they would cry "treason" and put me to death. So I will go to the old Bible and turn commentator today. I shall comment on the very first Hebrew word in the Bible; I will make a comment on the very first sentence of the history of creation in the Bible -- Berosheit. I want to analyze the word. Baith -- in, by, through, and everything else. Roch -- the head, Sheit -- grammatical termination. When the inspired man wrote it, he did not put the baith there. An old Jew without any authority added the word; he thought it too bad to begin to talk about the head! It read first, "The head one of the Gods brought forth the Gods." That is the true meaning of the words. Baurau signifies to bring forth. If you do not believe it, you do not believe the learned man of God. Learned men can teach you no more than what I have told you. Thus the head God brought forth the Gods in the grand council. I will transpose and simplify it in the English language. Oh, ye lawyers, ye doctors, and ye priests, who have persecuted me, I want to let you know that the Holy Ghost knows something as well as you do. The head God called together the Gods and sat in grand council to bring forth the world. The grand councilors sat at the head in yonder heavens and contemplated the creation of the worlds which were created at the time. When I say doctors and lawyers, I mean the doctors and lawyers of the scriptures... The doctors (I mean doctors of law, not physic) say, "If you preach anything not according to the Bible, we will cry treason..." Come here, ye learned men, and read, if you can. I should not have introduced this testimony, were it not to back up the word rosh -- the head, the Father of the Gods. I should not have brought it up, only to show that I am right. In the beginning, the head of the Gods called a council of the Gods; and they came together and concocted [prepared] a plan to create the world and people it. When we begin to learn this way, we begin to learn the only true God, and what kind of a being we have got to worship. Having a knowledge of God, we begin to know how to approach Him, and how to ask so as to receive an answer. [228] When we understand the character of God, and know how to come to Him, he begins to unfold the heavens to us, and to tell us all about it. When we are ready to come to him, he is ready to come to us.... (The King Follett Discourse, April 7, 1844. HC 6:302-308)

Let us now look at what Joseph has taught in this funeral sermon delivered at General Conference. Not Contained In The Bible It is probably not coincidental that Joseph publicly revealed these teachings a short time before his death. Evidence suggests that he was aware that his time upon the earth was short. History reveals that Joseph had received Section 132 on Plural Marriage as early as 1830, while he was translating the Bible. But Joseph never fully revealed (in public) all that he knew about the New and Everlasting Covenant of Marriage. He left this for Brigham to fully reveal and implement in the safety of the West. And, although Joseph revealed the fundamental truths of how our God and Father came to be God, he did not go into detail about our God's identity while speaking publicly. In the King Follett Discourse he even admitted that his audience, the Latter-day Saints, would not allow him to reveal all he knew about the subject. During the sermon, Joseph desired to elaborate upon the principles of the Gods' progression and exaltation, but since his thoughts were "...not contained in the Bible," he deemed it wise not to express them: I suppose I am not allowed to go into an investigation of anything that is not contained in the Bible. If I do, I think there are so many over-wise men here that they would cry "treason" and put me to death. (Ibid.) Joseph's remarks indicate that the knowledge he possessed was so different from what the people were accustomed to believing, that if he were to reveal it, "...there are so many overwise men here that they would cry "treason" and put me to death." Now, ask yourself, "What did Joseph know about progression and exaltation which he deemed unwise to share with the body of the Church?" It should be a simple question to answer, given what we now know about Brigham's teachings on Adam-God. And it is more than coincidental that Brigham's attitude was identical to Joseph's when it came to revealing the Adam-God doctrine: Now, let all who may hear these doctrines, pause before they make light of them, or treat them with indifference, for they will prove their salvation or damnation. (JD 1:51) And Brigham was reluctant to tell all he knew, just as was Joseph: [229] I could tell you much more about this; but were I to tell you the whole truth, blasphemy would be nothing to it, in the estimation of the superstitious and overrighteous of mankind. However, I have told you the truth as far as I have gone. (Ibid.) And in the same discourse, Brigham repeated: I have given you a few leading items upon this subject, but a great deal more remains to be told. (Ibid.) No Eternal Life If Man Does Not Know God There is probably no more misunderstood principle than that

which states: This is life eternal that they might know thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent. (Joseph Smith, King Follett Discourse, HC 6:304; see also John 17:3) We think that we have an intimate relationship with our Father in Heaven if we pray to Him three times a day, but Joseph said that we must know God, or it will not be enough to save and exalt us: If any man does not know God, and inquires what kind of a being He is, -- if he will search diligently his own heart -- if the declaration of Jesus and the apostles be true, he will realize that he has not eternal life; for there can be eternal life on no other principle. (Ibid.) ... for there can be eternal life on no other principle. Knowing God is very different than having a one-way conversation with Him (which is typical of most prayers). No, Joseph said: It is the first principle of the gospel to know for a certainty the character of God, and to know that we may converse with Him as one man converses with another... (HC 6:305) Let us ask ourselves, "When was the last time I conversed with God as one man converses with another?" (Remember, when a man converses with another, the other converses back in the same manner.) God Was Once A Man Like Us Said Joseph: [230] God himself was once as we are now, and is an exalted man, and sits enthroned in yonder heavens! That is the great secret. If the veil were rent today, and the great God who holds this world in its orbit, and who upholds all worlds and all things by His power, was to make himself visible, -- I say, if you were to see him today, you would see him like a man in form -- like yourselves in all the person, image, and very form as a man... (Ibid.) It is an erroneous idea which alleges that God has always been God: We have imagined and supposed that God was God from all eternity. I will refute that idea, and take away the veil, so that you may see. These are incomprehensible ideas to some, but they are simple. (Ibid.) The Father Of Us All Dwelt On An Earth, The Same As Jesus Christ Himself Did Joseph taught that the Father of us all: ... was once a man like us; yea, that God himself, the Father of us all, dwelt on an earth, the same as Jesus

Christ himself did. (Ibid.) It should be remembered from chapter seven that Joseph Taylor, for some reason unknown to this author, quoted Joseph in a significantly different way: It is the first principle of the gospel to know for a certainty the character of God, and to know that we may converse with Him, as one man converses with another, and that he was made a man like us. Yea, that God Himself, the Father of us all, dwelt on our earth the same as Jesus Christ did. (see chapter seven) Joseph Taylor insists that it was our earth on which the Father dwelt. Jesus Did What His Father Did Joseph insisted that Jesus did only that which the Father had done by coming here to "lay down his body and take it up again:" The scriptures inform us that Jesus said, as the Father hath power in himself, even so hath the Son power -- to do what? Why, what the Father did. The answer is obvious -- in a manner to lay down his body and take it up again. Jesus, what are you going to do? To lay down my life as my Father did, and take it up again. Do you believe it? If you do not believe it you do not believe the Bible. (HC 6:305) [231] It is likely that Jesus (and Joseph on this occasion) was referring to the example Adam set in the Garden of Eden where He did: ... lay down His body and take it up again. (Ibid.) Joseph asked: Jesus, what are you going to do? To lay down my life as my Father did, and take it up again. (Ibid.) Some have also speculated that it is entirely possible that Jesus was here informing us that his Father (and hence, our Father) was once a Savior on the earth upon which He entered mortality for the first time. This author has no problem with either explanation of Jesus' remarks, but we will only point out that we know that Adam fell, thus becoming mortal, and laid down His life so that His spirit children might enter mortality. And upon departing this earth, took His body up again, thus fulfilling Jesus' words. The second possibility may or may not be true. You Have Got To Learn To Be Gods Yourselves Mormonism is unique among religions in the status it ascribes to man: we are progressing to become as our Father. Joseph taught: Here, then, is eternal life -- to know the only wise and true God; and you have got to learn how to be Gods yourselves, and to be kings and priests to God, the same as

all gods have done before you, namely, by going from one small degree to another, and from a small capacity to a great one; from grace to grace, from exaltation to exaltation, until you attain to the resurrection of the dead, and are able to dwell in everlasting burnings, and to sit in glory, as do those who sit enthroned in everlasting power. (HC 6:306) It is this doctrine of Mormonism which has earned us a reputation among professing Christians as a people who believe they are Gods. Yes, we believe we are the literal children of a race of Beings whom we inhabitants of the earth call the Gods (or if you insist on ignoring all but our God, then one might say we believe we are the literal descendants of a Being whom we inhabitants of the earth call God.) It Is Not All To Be Comprehended In This World Said Joseph: [232] When you climb up a ladder, you must begin at the bottom, and ascend step by step, until you arrive at the top; and so it is with the principles of the gospel -- you must begin with the first, and go on until you learn all the principles of exaltation. But it will be a great while after you have passed through the veil before you will have learned them. It is not all to be comprehended in this world; it will be a great work to learn our salvation and exaltation even beyond the grave. (HC 6:306-307) This is not to say that we should stop trying to comprehend and learn our salvation and exaltation while in this world. Joseph never advocated doing such. His admonition was for all of us to never stop searching the mysteries, and to perfect ourselves: I advise all to go on to perfection, and search deeper and deeper into the mysteries of Godliness. (HC 6:363) It is a fitting way to end our study of this great discourse by quoting Joseph one more time: I wish I was in a suitable place to tell it... (HC 6:305) Joseph died just eleven weeks after delivering the King Follett Discourse. He never made it to "a suitable place to tell it." After arriving in the confines of the Rocky Mountains, did Brigham Young believe he was in a suitable place to tell it? Did Joseph share all that he knew about the nature and character of God with the next prophet of the Church? Who could doubt that Brigham was faithful to his beloved Prophet Joseph? [233] I advise all to go on to perfection, and search deeper and deeper into the mysteries of Godliness. Joseph Smith, HC 6:363 Joseph's Last Sermon 15

King Follett Discourse Questioned Because Joseph gave the King Follett Discourse just eleven weeks before his death, it is only appropriate to question whether or not this sermon is accurate as we have it recorded. After all, many things in the King Follett Discourse had never before been disclosed by the Prophet in public. Perhaps those who recorded the discourse misunderstood Joseph's words, or the meaning behind the words. The discourse was not published until after Joseph's death, so it never was approved by him in the form we have today. Joseph did not endorse the account we have in the History of the Church, or did he? Those Who Reported The Discourse Joseph's remarks during that General Conference of the Church in which he gave the King Follett Discourse were reported by Willard Richards, Wilford Woodruff, Thomas Bullock, and William Clayton. These men all provided loyal service to the Prophet for many years and their integrity as scribes is beyond reproach. These four men together have provided [234] the vast majority of the recorded history on the Prophet Joseph Smith. Without their devotion in keeping the record of the life of Joseph we would not know the Prophet today as we do. The RLDS Objection The Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (abbreviated RLDS) was organized in the years subsequent to the Saint's removal to the West. Its following was primarily composed of those who did not approve of the leadership of Brigham Young. We have already seen that Joseph had given the keys of the kingdom (the authority which had been conferred upon him) to the Twelve. And under the direction of the President of the Twelve, the Church would then continue until such time as the Lord would call His next prophet. Some of the Saints chose not to follow Brigham and the majority of the Twelve, remaining instead in Illinois and the region. RLDS author, Steven L. Shields, has written the following about the LDS (Mormon) doctrine of God: The LDS Church theology of God has undergone change since the early declarations by Joseph Smith, Jr. When the LDS Church became established in Utah, Brigham Young taught the following: "When our father Adam came into the Garden of Eden, he came into it with a celestial body, and brought Eve, one of his wives, with him. He helped to make and organize this world. He is Michael, the Archangel, the Ancient of Days! about whom holy men have written and spoken -- he is our father and our God, and the only God with whom we have to do." (JD 1:50) A number of other LDS Church leaders during the same period also taught the same thing. This "theory," as present-day leaders call it, has been denounced by them as false doctrine. (Deseret News 1985 Church Almanac)

While the purposes of God might be understood similarly by the RLDS and LDS churches, the LDS church teaches that God is a resurrected man -- that he once lived on another world and earned godhood by obeying the gospel. Attributing this teaching to Joseph Smith, Jr., the LDS church quotes him thus: "God himself was once as we are now, and is an exalted man, and sits enthroned in yonder heavens!...I am going to tell you how God came to be God We have imagined and supposed that God was God from all eternity. I will refute that idea, and take away the veil, so that you may see ... It is the first principle of the gospel to know for a certainty the character of God, and to know that we may converse with him as one man converses with another, and that he was once a man like us, yea, that God himself, the Father of us all, dwell on an earth, the same as Jesus Christ himself did, and I will show it from the Bible... [235] Here, then, is eternal life -- to know the only wise and true God; and you have got to learn how to be gods yourselves, and to be kings and priests to God, the same as all gods have done before you, namely, by going from one small degree to another, and from a small capacity to a great one; from grace to grace, from exaltation to exaltation, until you attain to the resurrection of the dead, and are able to dwell in everlasting burnings, and to sit in glory, as do those who sit in glory, as do those who sit enthroned in everlasting power ... [Such persons are] heirs of God and joint-heirs with Jesus Christ. What is it? To inherit the same power, the same glory and the same exaltation, until you arrive at the station of a god, and ascend the throne of eternal power, the same as those who have gone before." (Mormon Doctrine, p. 321) Whether Joseph Smith actually said this was debated between the two churches for decades. The problem arises in that the discourse from which the above quote was taken [the King Follett Discourse] was not published until after Joseph Smith's death, thereby raising questions for the RLDS church as to its authenticity. In addition, RLDS church members find it difficult to support this idea from the scriptures. (Latter Day Saint Beliefs, Steven L. Shields, pp. 15-17) As stated by Brother Shields, then, the RLDS problem with the King Follett Discourse is: ... that the discourse from which the above quote was taken [the King Follett Discourse] was not published until after Joseph Smith's death, thereby raising questions for the RLDS church as to its authenticity. In addition, RLDS church members find it difficult to support this idea from the scriptures. (Ibid.) Let us first deal quickly with the objection, "RLDS church members find it difficult to support this idea from the scriptures." You will recall that during the King Follett Sermon

Joseph desired to elaborate upon the principles of the Gods' progression and exaltation, but since his thoughts were "...not contained in the Bible," he deemed it wise not to express them: I suppose I am not allowed to go into an investigation of anything that is not contained in the Bible. If I do, I think there are so many over-wise men here that they would cry "treason" and put me to death. (see chapter fourteen) Joseph's remarks indicate that the knowledge he possessed was so different from what the people were accustomed to believing, that if he were to reveal it, "...there are so many overwise men here that they would cry "treason" and put me to death." If one will carefully think through what Joseph has here said, they will understand that he meant much more than he actually said. In addition to the Bible, the Saints in 1844 were in possession of The Book of Mormon, Doctrine and Covenants, The Book of Abraham, The Book of Moses, and Lectures on Faith. No Latter-day Saint in Joseph's day was denied access to the published revelations of Joseph Smith and to these standard works of the Church. Assuming that those "twenty thousand Saints" were at least aware of the published teachings of Joseph, we are compelled to ask what it is that Joseph could have revealed to the Latter-day Saints that would have caused them to cry "treason" and put Joseph to death. [236] It now becomes clear to us that what more Joseph could have told was not yet revealed in his published works. For this reason, it is meaningless to say, "We cannot accept Joseph's King Follett teachings because they are difficult to support from the scriptures." Joseph has already told us that what he wanted to further elaborate upon is not to be found in the scriptures! In fact, so removed were these truths from the standard works, that his followers would have put him to death had he revealed more. End of argument! Now we come to the second objection by the RLDS to the teachings contained in the King Follett Discourse: "..that the discourse .. was not published until after Joseph Smith's death, thereby raising questions for the RLDS church as to its authenticity. The Second Witness The Lord has taught us that when He establishes the gospel, or sends a prophet, or reveals truth, He will provide more than one witness as a testimony to the truth. The scriptures abound with the promise: In the mouth of two or three witnesses shall every word be established. (2 Corinthians 13:1; see also D&C 6:28 and others) The Lord has provided the answer to this RLDS objection, which objection questions the "authenticity" of the King Follett Discourse. The Lord has provided a second witness. Just eleven days before his death, Joseph taught his last public sermon to the Saints. His theme was the same as that of the King Follett Discourse: the plurality of Gods! It is apparent from the

opening remarks of the Prophet that his recent revelation (the King Follett Discourse) on the "plurality of Gods" disturbed some of the Saints. So disturbed were some of the members that they had "..apostatized from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints." We now present Joseph's last discourse in its entirety: Sunday June 16, 1844. -- I preached at the stand at 10 a. m. Before I closed my remarks it rained severely. The following synopsis was reported by Elder Thomas Bullock, whom I had transferred from the duties of clerk of the Maid of Iowa to my office. Prayer by Bishop Newel K. Whitney. Choir sang, "Mortals Awake." President Joseph Smith read the 3rd chapter of Revelation, and took for his text 1st chapter, 6th verse--"And hath made us kings and priests unto God and His Father: to Him be glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen." It is altogether correct in the translation. Now, you know that of late some malicious and corrupt men have sprung up and apostatized from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and they declare [237] that the Prophet believes in a plurality of Gods, and, lo and behold! we have discovered a very great secret, they cry -- "The Prophet says there are many Gods, and this proves that he has fallen." It has been my intention for a long time to take up this subject and lay it clearly before the people, and show what my faith is in relation to this interesting matter. I have contemplated the saying of Jesus (Luke 17th chapter, 26th verse) -- "And as it was in the days of Noah, so shall it be also in the days of the Son of Man." And if it does rain, I'll preach this doctrine, for the truth shall be preached. I will preach on the plurality of Gods. I have selected this text for that express purpose. I wish to declare that I have always and in all congregations when I have preached on the subject of the Deity, it has been the plurality of Gods. It has been preached by the Elders for fifteen years. I have always declared God to be a distinct personage, Jesus Christ a separate and distinct personage from God the Father, and that the Holy Ghost was a distinct personage and a Spirit: and these three constitute three distinct personages and three Gods. If this is in accordance with the New Testament, lo and behold! we have three Gods anyhow, and they are plural: and who can contradict it? Our text says "And hath made us kings and priests unto God and His Father." The Apostles have discovered that there were Gods above, for Paul says God was the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. My object was to preach the scriptures, and preach the doctrine they contain, there being a God above, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. I am bold to declare I have taught all the strong doctrines publicly, and always teach stronger doctrines in public than in

private. John was one of the men, and apostles declare they were made kings and priests unto God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. It reads just so in the Revelation. Hence, the doctrine of a plurality of Gods is as prominent in the Bible as any other doctrine. It is all over the face of the Bible. It stands beyond the power of controversy. A wayfaring man, though a fool, need not err therein. Paul says there are Gods many and Lords many. I want to set it forth in a plain and simple manner; but to us there is but one God -- that is pertaining to us; and he is in all and through all. But if Joseph Smith says there are Gods many and Lords many, they cry, "Away with him! Crucify him! crucify him!" Mankind verily say that the scriptures are with them. Search the scriptures, for they testify of things that these apostates would gravely pronounce blasphemy. Paul, if Joseph Smith is a blasphemer, you are. I say there are Gods many and Lords many, but to us only one, and we are to be in subjection to that one, and no man can limit the bounds or the eternal existence of eternal time. Hath he beheld the eternal world, and is he authorized to say that there is only one God? He makes himself a fool if he think or says so, and there is an end of his career or progress in knowledge. He cannot obtain all knowledge, for he has sealed up the gate to it. Some say I do not interpret the scriptures the same as they do. They say it means the heathen's gods. Paul says there are Gods many and Lords many; and that makes a plurality of Gods, in spite of the whims of all men. Without a revelation, I am not going to give them the knowledge of the God of heaven. You know and I testify that Paul had no allusion to the heathen gods. I have it from God, and get over it if you can. I have a witness of the Holy Ghost, and a testimony that Paul had no allusion to the heathen gods in the text. I will show from the Hebrew Bible that I am correct, and the first word shows a plurality of Gods; and I want the apostates and learned men to come here and prove to the contrary, if they can. An unlearned boy must give you a little Hebrew. Berosheit baurau [238] Eloheim ait aushamayeen vehau auraits, rendered by King James' translators, "In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." I want to analyze the word Berosheit. Rosh, the head; Sheit, a grammatical termination, The Baith was not originally put there when the inspired man wrote it, but it has been since added by an old Jew. Baurau signifies to bring forth; Eloheim is from the word Eloi, God, in the singular number; and by adding the word heim, it renders it Gods. It read first, "In the beginning the head of the Gods brought forth the Gods," or, as others have translated it, "The head of the Gods called the Gods together." I want to show a little learning as well as other fools -A little learning is a dangerous thing. Drink deep, or taste not the Pierian spring, There shallow draughts intoxicate the brain,

And drinking largely sobers us up again. All this confusion among professed translators is for want of drinking another draught. The head God organized the heaven and the earth. I defy all the world to refute me. In the beginning the heads of the Gods organized the heavens and the earth. Now the learned priests and the people rage, and the heathen imagine a vain thing. If we pursue the Hebrew text further, it reads, "Berosheit baurau Eloheim ait aashamayeen vehau auraits"--The head one of the gods said, Let us make a man in our own image." I once asked a learned Jew, "If the Hebrew language compels us to render the first Eloheim plural?" He replied, "That is the rule with few exceptions; but in this case it would ruin the Bible." He acknowledged I was right. I came here to investigate these things precisely as I believe them. Hear and judge for yourselves; and if you go away satisfied, well and good. In the very beginning the Bible shows there is a plurality of Gods beyond the power of refutation. It is a great subject I am dwelling on. The word Eloheim ought to be in the plural all the way through -- Gods. The heads of the Gods appointed one God for us; and when you take [that] view of the subject, it sets one free to see all the beauty, holiness and perfection of the Gods. All I want is to get the simple, naked truth, and the whole truth. Many men say there is one God; the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost are only one God! I say that is a strange God anyhow -- three in one, and one in three! It is a curious organization. "Father, I pray not for the world, but I pray for them which thou hast given me." "Holy Father, keep through Thine own name those whom thou hast given me, that they may be one as we are." All are to be crammed into one God, according to sectarianism. It would make the biggest God in all the world. He would be a wonderfully big God -he would be a giant or a monster. I want to read the text to you myself -- "I am agreed with the Father and the Father is agreed with me, and we are agreed as one." The Greek shows that it should be agreed. "Father, I pray for them which Thou hast given me out of the world, and not for those alone, but for them also which shall believe on me through their word, that they all may be agreed, as Thou, Father, art with me, and I with Thee, that they also may be agreed with us," and all come to dwell in unity, and in all the glory and everlasting burnings of the Gods; and then we shall see as we are seen, and be as our God and He as His Father. I want to reason a little on this subject. I learned it by translating the papyrus which is now in my house. I learned a testimony concerning Abraham, and he reasoned concerning the God of heaven. "In order to do that," said he, "suppose we have two facts: that supposes another fact may exist -- two men on the earth, one wiser than the other, would logically show that another who is wiser than the wisest may exist. Intelligences exist one above another, so that there is no end to them." [239] If Abraham reasoned thus -- If Jesus Christ was the Son of God, and John discovered that God the Father of Jesus

Christ had a Father, you may suppose that He had a Father also. Where was there ever a son without a father? And where was there ever a father without first being a son? Whenever did a tree or anything spring into existence without a progenitor? And everything comes in this way. Paul says that which is earthly is in the likeness of that which is heavenly, Hence if Jesus had a Father, can we not believe that He had a Father also? I despise the idea of being scared to death at such a doctrine, for the Bible is full of it. I want you to pay particular attention to what I am saying. Jesus said that the Father wrought precisely in the same way as His Father had done before Him. As the Father had done before. He laid down His life, and took it up the same as His Father had done before. He did as He was sent, to lay down His life and take it up again; and then was committed unto Him the keys, &c. I know it is good reasoning. I have reason to think that the Church is being purged. I saw Satan fall from heaven, and the way they ran was a caution. All these are wonders and marvels in our eyes in these last days. So long as men are under the law of God, they have no fears -- they do not scare themselves. I want to stick to my text, to show that when men open their lips against these truths they do not injure me, but injure themselves. To the law and to the testimony, for these principles are poured out all over the scriptures. When things that are of the greatest importance are passed over by weak-minded men without even a thought, I want to see truth in all its bearings and hug it to my bosom. I believe all that God ever revealed, and I never hear of a man being damned for believing too much; but they are damned for unbelief. They found fault with Jesus Christ because He said He was the Son of God, and made Himself equal with God. They say of me, like they did of the apostles of old, that I must be put down. What did Jesus say? "Is it not written in your law, I said, Ye are Gods? If He called them Gods unto whom the word of God came, and the scriptures cannot be broken, say ye of Him whom the Father had sanctified and sent into the world, Thou blasphemest, because I said I am the Son of God?" It was through Him that they drank of the spiritual rock. Of course He would take the honor to Himself. Jesus, if they were called Gods unto whom the word of God came, why should it be thought blasphemy that I should say I am the son of God? Oh, poor, blind apostates! did you ever think of this before? These are the quotations that the apostates take from the scriptures. They swear that they believe the Bible, the Book of Mormon and the Doctrine and Covenants and then you will get from them filth, slander, and bogus-makers plenty. One of the apostate Church official members prophesied that Joseph would never preach any more, and yet I am now preaching. Go and read the vision in the Book of Covenants. There is clearly illustrated glory upon

glory -- one glory of the sun, another glory of the moon, and a glory of the stars; and as one star differeth from another star in glory, even so do they of the telestial world differ in glory, and every man who reigns in celestial glory is a God to his dominions. By the apostates admitting the testimony of the Doctrine and Covenants, they damn themselves. Paul, what do you say? They impeached Paul and all went and left him. Paul had seven churches, and they drove him off from among them; and yet they cannot do it by me. I rejoice in that. My testimony is good. [240] Paul says, "There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars; for one star differeth from another star in glory. So is also the resurrection of the dead." They who obtain a glorious resurrection from the dead, are exalted far above principalities, powers, thrones, dominions and angels, and are expressly declared to be heirs of God and joint heirs with Jesus Christ, all having eternal power. The scriptures are a mixture of very strange doctrines to the Christian world, who are blindly led by the blind. I will refer to another scripture. "Now," says God, when He visited Moses in the bush, (Moses was a stammering sort of a boy like me) God said, Thou shalt be a God unto the children of Israel." God said, "Thou shalt be a God unto Aaron, and he shall be thy spokesman." I believe those Gods that God reveals as Gods to be sons of God, and all can cry, "Abba, Father!" Sons of God who exalt themselves to be Gods, even from before the foundation of the world, and are the only Gods I have a reverence for. John said he was a king. "And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, and the first begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth. Unto Him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in His own blood, and hath made us kings and priests unto God, and His Father; to him be glory and dominion forever and ever Amen." Oh, Thou God, who art King of kings and Lord of lords, the sectarian world, by their actions, declare, "We cannot believe Thee." The old Catholic church traditions are worth more than all you have said. Here is a principle of logic that most men have no more sense than to adopt. I will illustrate it by an old apple tree. Here jumps off a branch and says, I am the true tree, and you are corrupt. If the whole tree is corrupt, are not its branches corrupt? If the Catholic religion is a false religion, how can any true religion come out of it? If the Catholic church is bad, how can any good thing come out of it? The character of the old churches have always been slandered by all apostates since the world began. I testify again, as the Lord lives, God never will acknowledge any traitors or apostates. Any man who will betray the Catholics will betray you; and if he will betray me, he will betray you. All men are liars who say they are of the true Church without the revelations of Jesus Christ and the Priesthood of Melchizedek, which is after the order of the Son of God.

It is in the order of heavenly things that God should always send a new dispensation into the world when men have apostatized from the truth and lost the priesthood; but when men come out and build upon other men's foundations, they do it on their own responsibility, without authority from God; and when the floods come and the winds blow, their foundations will be found to be sand, and their whole fabric will crumble to dust. Did I build on any other man's foundation? I have got all the truth which the Christian world possessed, and an independent revelation in the bargain, and God will bear me off triumphant. I will drop this subject. I wish I could speak for three or four hours; but it is not expedient on account of the rain: I would still go on, and show you proof upon proofs; all the Bible is equal in support of this doctrine, one part as another. (HC 6:473-479) We are the beneficiaries of less than what the Prophet had intended to teach on this occasion, because, as his history states: [On account of the rain it was impossible for Thomas Bullock to report any more] (Ibid.) [241] The Plurality Of Gods Joseph said the reason many had apostatized was because he had taught a plurality of Gods: Now, you know that of late some malicious and corrupt men have sprung up and apostatized from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and they declare that the Prophet believes in a plurality of Gods, and, lo and behold! we have discovered a very great secret, they cry -"The Prophet says there are many Gods, and this proves that he has fallen." (Ibid.) Joseph declared: I will preach on the plurality of Gods. I have selected this text for that express purpose. I wish to declare that I have always and in all congregations when I have preached on the subject of the Deity, it has been the plurality of Gods. It has been preached by the Elders for fifteen years. (Ibid.) Joseph had indeed always taught the plurality of Gods: I have always declared God to be a distinct personage, Jesus Christ a separate and distinct personage from God the Father, and that the Holy Ghost was a distinct personage and a Spirit: and these three constitute three distinct personages and three Gods. If this is in accordance with the New Testament, lo and behold! we have three Gods anyhow, and they are plural: and who can contradict it? (Ibid.)

Although this view constitutes a plurality of Gods, it may have caused some confusion to those who had been converted to the Church through a reading of The Book of Mormon. The Book of Mormon is not supportive of Joseph's plurality of Gods, as is evidenced by Zeezrom's intimidation of Amulek: And Zeezrom said unto him: Thou sayest there is a true and living God? And Amulek said: Yea, there is a true and living God. Now Zeezrom said: Is there more than one God? And he answered, No. Now Zeezrom said unto him again: How knowest thou these things? And he said: An angel hath made them known unto me. And Zeezrom said again: Who is he that shall come? Is it the Son of God? And he said unto him, Yea. * * * * * * * Now Zeezrom saith again unto him: Is the Son of God the very Eternal Father? [242] And Amulek said unto him: Yea, he is the very Eternal Father of heaven and of earth, and all things which in them are; he is the beginning and the end, the first and the last; And he shall come into the world to redeem his people; and he shall take upon him the transgressions of those who believe on his name; and these are they that shall have eternal life, and salvation cometh to none else. (Alma 11:26-33, 38-40) Amulek said there is not "more than one God," and that it is "the Son of God" that "shall come," but that "the Son of God" is "the very Eternal Father." To someone who had been taught that The Book of Mormon was the word of God as revealed through His Prophet Joseph, the teaching of a plurality of Gods may have been very puzzling. Even though Joseph had taught that the Father and the Son are separate and individual Beings, it is a great deal more to admit that the Father of Jesus Christ has a Father, and His Father has a Father, and so on ad infinitum. It now becomes clear to us why some of the membership would have asked: "Why was Brother Joseph contradicting The Book of Mormon?" If Joseph's teachings on the plurality of the Gods had been confined to the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, perhaps there would have been less confusion, but his teachings went far beyond. Where Was There Ever A Father Without First Being A Son? Joseph's theology saw no end to the Gods: "Intelligences exist

one above another, so that there is no end to them:" If Abraham reasoned thus -- If Jesus Christ was the Son of God, and John discovered that God the Father of Jesus Christ had a Father, you may suppose that He had a Father also. Where was there ever a son without a father? And where was there ever a father without first being a son? Whenever did a tree or anything spring into existence without a progenitor? And everything comes in this way. Paul says that which is earthly is in the likeness of that which is heavenly, Hence if Jesus had a Father, can we not believe that He had a Father also? I despise the idea of being scared to death at such a doctrine, for the Bible is full of it. (HC 6:476) Joseph then went on to say that Jesus' Father did what His FATHER had done: I want you to pay particular attention to what I am saying. Jesus said that the Father wrought precisely in the same way as His Father had done before Him. As the Father had done before. He laid down His life, and took it up the same as His Father had done before. He did as He was sent, to lay down His life and take it up again; and then was committed unto Him the keys, &c. I know it is good reasoning. (Ibid.) If all of these Gods have been laying down their lives and taking them up again, as their Fathers have done before, then what are we to make of this? Brigham explained Joseph's teachings thus: [243] After men have got their exaltations and their crowns -have become Gods, even the sons of God -- are made Kings of kings and Lords of lords, they have the power then of propagating their species in spirit: and that is the first of their operations with regard to organizing a world. Power is then given to them to organize the elements, and then commence the organization of tabernacles. How can the do it? Have they to go to that earth? Yes, an Adam will have to go there. and he cannot do without Eye; he must have Eve to commence the work of generation, and they will go into the gardan, and continue to eat and drink of the fruits of the corporeal world, until this grosser matter is diffused sufficiently through their celestial bodies to enable them, according to the established laws, to produce mortal tabernacles for their spiritual children. (JD 6:274-275, also quoted in chapter 6) If we are faithful, we too will one day do as our Father has done, lay our bodies down so that our children may be. But To Us There Is But One God Yes, there are Gods ad infinitum and the designs of this great race of Beings have no end, but we have only one God with which to do: Paul says there are Gods many and Lords many. I want to set it forth in a plain and simple manner; but to us there is

but one God -- that is pertaining to us; and he is in all and through all. But if Joseph Smith says there are Gods many and Lords many, they cry, "Away with him! Crucify him! crucify him!" Mankind verily say that the scriptures are with them. Search the scriptures, for they testify of things that these apostates would gravely pronounce blasphemy. Paul, if Joseph Smith is a blasphemer, you are. I say there are Gods many and Lords many, but to us only one, and we are to be in subjection to that one, and no man can limit the bounds or the eternal existence of eternal time. Hath he beheld the eternal world, and is he authorized to say that there is only one God? He makes himself a fool if he think or says so, and there is an end of his career or progress in knowledge. He cannot obtain all knowledge, for he has sealed up the gate to it. (Ibid.) Joseph then explains that it was appointed that our God should be over us: The heads of the Gods appointed one God for us; and when you take [that] view of the subject, it sets one free to see all the beauty, holiness and perfection of the Gods. All I want is to get the simple, naked truth, and the whole truth. (Ibid.) This sounds as if Joseph is describing Brigham's "only God with whom we have to do:" HE is our FATHER and our GOD, and the only God with whom WE have to do. (JD 1:50) Brigham spoke of "our GOD" just as Joseph did because they both were trying to teach the Saints about the same Being. The only difference is that Joseph wished he: [244] ... was in a suitable place to tell it. (HC 6:305) And Brigham, after the more faithful part of the Saints had removed to the Great Basin, found he "was in a suitable place to tell it." Joseph Withheld The Knowledge Of The God Of Heaven One might be apt to believe that Joseph the Gods during this meeting, but it is the case. Joseph did reveal much of the but he knew that it was the wrong place reveal more. Said he: revealed all he knew of obvious that such is not economy of the heavens, and the wrong time to

Without a revelation, I am not going to give them the knowledge of the God of heaven. (HC 6:475) Concerning the caution the Prophet exercised in speaking of these things to the Saints at large, Rodney Turner has said: It is generally understood, for it is an obvious fact, that the Prophet withheld some of his views from the general Church membership. Judging from his own statements, and

those of others, he did this because the Saints at large were unprepared for all that he might have revealed to them. For example, in one address he said: "I could explain a hundred fold more than I ever have of the glories of the kingdoms manifested to me in the vision, were I permitted, and were the people prepared to receive them." (The Position of Adam In Latter-day Saint Scripture and Theology, p. 104) Did Joseph believe this doctrine of "the plurality of Gods" would be something new and unusual to the Saints? Most definitely, but he knew that it was God's will that these things be taught before he went down to his grave. Said he: I'll preach this doctrine, for the truth shall be preached. (HC 6:474) The Church Is Being Tested And Purged It was always Joseph's concern that many of the Saints would not be able to follow him when he revealed the fullness of what he knew. Wilford Woodruff remarked: Brother Joseph used a great many methods of testing the integrity of men, and he taught a great many things which, in consequence of tradition, required prayer, faith, and a testimony from the Lord, before they could be believed by many of the Saints. His mind was opened by the visions of the Almighty, and [245] the Lord taught him many things by vision and revelation that were never taught publicly in his days; for the people could not bear the flood of intelligence which God poured into his mind. (JD 5:83-84) Joseph testified that he had always declared a plurality of Gods: I wish to declare that I have always and in all congregations when I have preached on the subject of the Deity, it has been the plurality of Gods. (HC 6:474) Heber C. Kimball said that: The Prophet Joseph frequently spoke of these things in the revelations which he gave, but the people generally did not understand them, but to those who did, they were cheering, they had a tendency to gladden the heart, and enlighten the mind. (JD 10:235) Joseph had waited until those two months before his death to publicly reveal the doctrine of Deity to the Saints. Although he did not reveal the fullness of what he knew, as is evidenced by his words, he did reveal enough to disaffect many to the point of leaving the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Joseph knew that many of the wicked were being tested and separated from among the righteous by the words which he was speaking: I have reason to think that the Church is being purged. (HC 6:478)

What better way to separate the faithful from the unbelievers than by the truth? As Nephi has said, the truth possesses the power to do just that: ... the guilty taketh the truth to be hard, for it cutteth them to the very center. And now my brethren, if ye were righteous and were willing to harken to the truth, and give heed unto it, that ye might walk uprightly before God, then ye would not murmur because of the truth... (1 Nephi 16:2-3) I know that the words of truth are hard against all uncleanness; but the righteous fear them not, for they love the truth and are not shaken. (2 Nephi 9:40) The truth possesses a transcendent power that the wicked just can not endure. Too much truth is too much glory for the wicked to endure. Men Are Damned For Unbelief In this discourse Joseph also revealed the consequence of rejecting the truth of God. Men do damage to themselves, not to the one who delivers the truth: [246] I want to stick to my text, to show that when men open their lips against these truths they do not injure me, but injure themselves. To the law and to the testimony, for these principles are poured out all over the scriptures. When things that are of the greatest importance are passed over by weak-minded men without even a thought, I want to see truth in all its bearings and hug it to my bosom. I believe all that God ever revealed, and I never hear of a man being damned for believing too much; but they are damned for unbelief (HC 6:477) Sealed With His Blood Joseph sealed his testimony with his own blood just eleven days later. What greater witness could he have left us? [247] As to a person not knowing more than the written word, let me tell you that there are keys that the written word never spoke of, nor ever will. Brigham Young, TS 5:666-667 Scripture: The Restoration Perspective What Is Scripture? For many centuries the Christian canon of scripture has been the source of authority in religious matters. What is God? Who is God? What is man's relationship to God? Who is the Son of God? What is required of man while upon the earth? These and many 16

more questions find a multitude of answers, but to traditional Christianity the ultimate answers to these questions find fulfillment in the written word of God. In what sense is scripture the word of God? Mormons accept the Bible, The Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants, and The Pearl of Great Price as scripture, the standard works we call these. Do we understand these standards to be the literal, inerrant word of God? Joseph Smith said that "We believe the Bible to be the word of God as far as it is translated correctly" (8th Article of Faith). Did Joseph mean to imply that if the Bible had been translated without error by the King James translators into English, then it would be the infallible word of God, our authority in religious matters? Joseph likely did not mean to imply this because The Book of Mormon tells us that long before the Bible was translated into English, there were: [248] ... many plain and precious things taken away from the book. (1 Nephi 13:28) So, it appears that the writings of the inspired men of God, which make up the Bible, have not been handed down in their original purity. Most Mormons do not have a problem with this fact. But if we consider the writings of the Bible and The Book of Mormon, and ask if those who wrote the original record were infallible in what they wrote, this becomes quite another thing. When a prophet writes and it becomes part of the Bible or The Book of Mormon, or some writing which is even now destined to become future scripture, do we consider this to be without error? Do we always consider the meaning of those writers to be perfectly understood? Joseph's Work It is beyond the scope of this book to detail all of the changes which Joseph made to later editions of The Book Of Mormon, only suffice it to say that the Prophet made numerous changes which more clearly represented his knowledge of doctrine (compare the 1830 and 1837 editions of The Book of Mormon for the following verses: 1 Nephi 11:18, 20-21, 32; 1 Nephi 13:40-41). For example, in the 1830 edition of The Book Of Mormon Joseph translated 1 Nephi 13:40 as follows: And the angel spake unto me, saying: These last records which thou hast seen among the Gentiles, shall establish the truth of the first, which is of the twelve apostles of the Lamb, and shall make known the plain and precious things which have been taken away from them; and shall make known to all kindreds, tongues, and people, that the Lamb of God is the Eternal Father and the Saviour of the world; and that all men must come unto Him, or they cannot be saved... (1830 Book Of Mormon, p. 32) Here, Nephi says, "that the Lamb of God is the Eternal Father and the Saviour of the World. Joseph changed this verse to say: And the angel spake unto me, saying: These last records, which thou hast seen among the Gentiles, shall establish the truth of the first, which are of the twelve apostles of

the Lamb, and shall make known the plain and precious things which have been taken away from them; and shall make known to all kindreds, tongues, and people, that the Lamb of God is the Son of the Eternal Father and the Savior of the world; and that all men must come unto him, or they cannot be saved... (current edition of The Book Of Mormon, 1 Nephi 13:40; underlined-bold indicates words Joseph added or changed) Now, a reader of The Book of Mormon might be inclined to believe that either Joseph believed Jesus to be the Eternal Father at the time he translated the gold plates, thus reading his own understanding into the record as he translated, or that Nephi believed Jesus to be the Eternal Father. Of course, a thorough reading of the rest of Nephi's words clearly shows that Nephi did not believe Jesus was the Eternal Father, and we know from [249] Joseph's teachings that neither did he believe this. In any case, Joseph did not want the Saints to believe that the Godhead was merely three manifestations of the same Being, as Christianity had done with their erroneous creeds. Brigham Young believed that Joseph would have changed more of The Book Of Mormon had he lived to do so, and on July 13, 1862 said: Should the Lord Almighty send an angel to re-write the Bible, it would in many places be very different from what it now is. And I will even venture to say that if the Book of Mormon were to be re-written, in many instances it would materially differ from the present translation. According as people are willing to receive the things of God, so the heavens send forth their blessings. If the people are stiffnecked, the Lord can tell them but little. (JD 9:311) As we have already discussed, during a meeting of the Salt Lake City School of the Prophets in 1873, Brigham Young was asked: ....why the scriptures seemed to put Jesus Christ on an equal footing with the Father. (Salt Lake City School of the Prophets Minute Book, June 9, 1873, Church Archives) Brigham's response to this query indicates that even prophets grow in their understanding of the things of God, and that their writings may suffer from this fact: The writers of those scriptures wrote according to their best language and understanding. (Ibid.) Evidence that Joseph indeed would have changed more of The Book of Mormon lies in the fact that he, in the above-mentioned alteration, changed 1 Nephi 13:40 so that it would not identify Jesus Christ as the Eternal Father, but there still remains similar passages in The Book of Mormon which identify Jesus as the Eternal Father (see Mosiah 15:1-4, 16:15; Alma 11:38-40). Joseph left no doubt as to who the Eternal Father is; He is the Father of Jesus Christ: We believe in God, the Eternal Father, and in His Son, Jesus Christ, and in the Holy Ghost. (First Article of Faith) Thus it becomes obvious why the scriptures can not be the last

word on the things of God; only the Man of God can interpret the things of God! Peter certainly understood the nature of scripture and how it should be interpreted. He warned: Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost. (2 Peter 1:20-21) [250] Who is the "holy man" today who can interpret scripture? It is the man who lives worthy of the Holy Ghost, and desires to know these things from God. And again, we must emphasize the fact that knowledge of the things of God comes only by revelation. And revelation comes only to those who have prepared themselves to receive such: those who ask God with a sincere heart, having faith in Christ. We can not emphasize enough that the truth contained within these pages is not self evident except to those who have prepared their hearts through fasting and humble prayer. Jesus Speaks For The Godhead Jesus Christ is the second member of the Godhead. He serves in all capacities as he administers the will of the Father. He is our Savior and our mediator with the Father. He is our God in the sense that he represents the Father in dealing with the inhabitants of this earth. Jesus Christ is not the Father in any other sense than as representative of the Father. In the scriptures it is often the Savior who communicates to man, and in many cases he will speak in the first person as if he were the Father, because he is revealing the will of the Father. As Presidents Wilford Woodruff and George Q. Cannon affirmed at the trial of Edward Bunker, Sr.: "I am the beginning and the end." Jesus speaks for the Godhead, the Personages who compose the Godhead, and that must be kept in mind all the time, not speaking for himself, but for the father. It is overlooking this that leads to confusion. Men thinking that Jesus speaks for himself. (see chapter ten) The Book of Mormon: The Most Correct Book Mormons "believe The Book of Mormon to be the word of God." (Eighth Article of Faith) By the power of God, Joseph Smith translated, what is today The Book of Mormon, from an ancient language written on what were called, "gold plates." We do not doubt the contents of that book because, as the Lord has affirmed: He has translated the book, even that part which I have commanded him, and as your Lord and your God liveth it is true. (D&C 17:6) Having experienced the translation first hand, Joseph could only testify that the book was of God, and as such was the most

correct on earth. He recorded in his journal: [251] I told the brethren that the Book of Mormon was the most correct of any book on earth, and the keystone of our religion, and a man would get nearer to God by abiding by its precepts, than by any other book. (HC 4:461) Truly, The Book of Mormon is a work of God. This author has followed the council of the Prophet Joseph to "get nearer to God" and has made it a habit to read the book from cover to cover every year. The experience of seriously reading and studying that book can not be expressed in words. Those who have done the same will understand, while those who have not befriended The Book of Mormon will not know what they have missed until their meeting with Father at that grand accounting for which we all wait. The Book of Mormon is a character changer. It possesses the power to make us more God-like. The book has been designated by some as a great treatise on doctrine, but those who would claim such fail to understand the message of The Book of Mormon. The Book of Mormon is the record of a fallen people, a people who went through repeated cycles which were composed of periods of righteousness, prosperity, wickedness, and destruction. Nephi, son of Helaman, witnessed this very cycle and warned us thus: And thus we can behold how false, and also the unsteadiness of the hearts of the children of men; yea, we can see that the Lord in his great infinite goodness doth bless and prosper those who put their trust in him. Yea, and we may see at the very time when he doth prosper his people, yea, in the increase of their fields, their flocks and their herds, and in gold, and in silver, and in all manner of precious things of every kind and art; sparing their lives, and delivering them out of the hands of their enemies; softening the hearts of their enemies that they should not declare wars against them; yea, and in fine, doing all things for the welfare and happiness of his people; yea, then is the time that they do harden their hearts, and do forget the Lord their God, and do trample under their feet the Holy One -- yea, and this because of their ease, and their exceedingly great prosperity. And thus we see that except the Lord doth chasten his people with many afflictions, yea, except he doth visit them with death and with terror, and with famine and with all manner of pestilence, they will not remember him. O how foolish, and how vain, and how evil, and devilish, and how quick to do iniquity, and how slow to do good, are the children of men; yea, how quick to hearken unto the words of the evil one, and to set their hearts upon the vain things of the world! Yea, how quick to be lifted up in pride; yea, how quick to boast, and do all manner of that which is iniquity; and how slow are they to remember the Lord their God, and to give ear unto his counsels, yea, how slow to walk in wisdom's paths!

Behold, they do not desire that the Lord their God, who hath created them, should rule and reign over them; notwithstanding his great goodness and his mercy towards them, they do set at naught his counsels, and they will not that he should be their guide. (Helaman 12:1-6) [252] The Book of Mormon is not a doctrinal treatment on the kingdom of God. Although it contains true teachings on such doctrines as the atonement, the plan of salvation, baptism, faith, repentance, and many others, it was not for the express purpose of defining doctrine for the Latter-day Saints that this work was written, preserved and brought forth. Nephi, Mormon, and Moroni saw our day. They knew we would have prophets to receive and reveal doctrine. No, The Book of Mormon is not our doctrinal authority; the Prophet of God is! For this reason we should not look to The Book of Mormon to settle doctrinal questions. This authority belongs to the calling of Prophet alone. This is why the scriptures rarely exhibit the careful usage of words we would desire when treating the subject of Deity. And can we imagine how the scriptures might read if they were to be an infallible treatment of doctrine? Anyone who has ever read a legal document knows how carefully words must be stated in order to eliminate all loop-holes and ambiguities. This is an inherent weakness in our written and spoken language which can not be avoided without making the words cumbersome and difficult to read. For example, the First Article of Faith simply reads: We believe in God, the Eternal Father, and in His Son, Jesus Christ, and in the Holy Ghost. If someone trained in the unambiguous usage of language, such as a lawyer, were to write this article so that it could not be interpreted incorrectly, it might begin something like this: We, those people who have reached the age of accountability and have chosen, by our own free win, without coercion, to exercise faith in the gospel of Jesus Christ, as out-lined in the laws of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, to be baptized, by immersion for the remission of our sins, which remission of sins is requisite to an understanding of the aforementioned gospel, believe in God, that Being to whom we owe our existence, who in the heavens bore our spirits and who now is engaged in the work of bringing to pass our immortality and eternal life, the Eternal Father, not the Father of All Fathers, for such a Being does not exist, but the Father to whom we were born, and in His Son, that is, His Son in the sense that the Father is the literal progenitor of the Son's spirit and body, which progeny can not be without a female counterpart which shall remain undefined for the purposes of this article ..... Of course, this author is neither a lawyer nor someone skilled in legal description, but it is plain to see that interpretation of anything which is written allows a broad range of definition unless you possess the power and authority to interpret those words. If the standard works of the Church were written in completely unambiguous form, they would fill a set of

encyclopedias on doctrine; and few would undertake this laborious reading task. The Doctrine and Covenants is clear that any appeal to doctrinal interpretation ultimately requires the decision "of the First Presidency of the Church." (D&C 102) They alone possess the authority and power to make final decisions in matters of doctrine. They receive "the mind of the Lord by revelation." This is not to say that the mind of the Lord can not be obtained by any other person, but only that the First Presidency will have the last word in matters of doctrine in the Church. [253] So, in what sense did Joseph intend us to believe The Book of Mormon to be "the most correct book?" As Avraham Gileadi, Hebrew scholar and Mormon author of Isaiah, A New Translation and The Last Days: Types And Shadows From The Book Of Mormon, has said, "We can show The Book of Mormon to be the most correct of any book" in a "rhetorical sense alone." And that is as a prophetic message for our day. "The Book of Mormon portrays the Lord's Great and Marvelous Work of the last days by way of types." The Great and Marvelous Work has only begun with the commencement of the restoration of all things through Joseph Smith. Much has yet to transpire in the fulfillment of the Lord's Great and Marvelous Work. Brother Gileadi correctly states that from Nephi's prophecies: ... we learn the true nature of the Lord's Great and Marvelous Work. At least in part, it concerns a new exodus, and a new wandering in the wilderness to the promised land for Israel in the last days. We also see that these redemptive events fulfill the Lord's covenants with His people... One category of the terms: great, marvelous, and work, in the Book of Mormon, portrays the Lord's Great and Marvelous Work of the last days by way of types. In other words, there have occurred in the past a number of works of the Lord that are properly called Great and Marvelous. By their very nature, these events foreshadow what the future Great and Marvelous Work will be. Because Book of Mormon writers use such terms consistently, they provide us with a reliable guide to all former works of the Lord that could be described as Great and Marvelous. In this rhetorical sense alone, we can show the Book of Mormon to be the most correct of any book. (Avraham Gileadi, A Great and Marvelous Work, cassette tape 1; see also his book The Last Days) Of course, the Great and Marvelous Work is only part of The Book of Mormon message, but what Avraham Gileadi has revealed concerning The Book of Mormon is a necessary step in our learning of the Lord's Work of the last days. Avraham Gileadi's published works are must reading. We must also point out another connection which study of the Adam-God doctrine. Brother Gileadi concludes that at the time of the Lord's future Marvelous Work (this work is not to be confused coming), a division will occur among the Lord's applies to our correctly Great and with the second people. Many of

the Lord's people will fail to comprehend the Great and Marvelous Work as the Lord's Work. They will incorrectly determine that the prophet who is to perform this Great and Marvelous Work is an imposter. This servant of the Lord will reveal the words of Christ (perhaps the sealed part of the gold plates?), and the revelation which he reveals may very well include the true doctrine of Deity. This probability represents all the more reason to correct our false impressions concerning the Gods. Since many in the Church do not understand Adam-God they may fail to follow that prophet who teaches this truth unless they become well-acquainted with the true doctrine of Deity now. [254] The Lesser Part When Moroni appeared to Joseph Smith on the twenty-first of September 1823, he told Joseph that a book of gold plates was deposited: He said there was a book deposited, written upon gold plates, giving an account of the former inhabitants of this continent, and the source from whence they sprang. He also said that the fulness of the everlasting Gospel was contained in it, as delivered by the Savior to the ancient inhabitants; (Joseph Smith-History 1:34) We learn from this that the gold of the everlasting Gospel..., as ancient inhabitants." But it was everlasting Gospel" which was to Nephi saw and wrote: plates contained "the fulness delivered by the Savior to the not this "fulness of the be translated by Joseph Smith.

But the words which are sealed he shall not deliver, neither shall he deliver the book. For the book shall be sealed by the power of God, and the revelation which was sealed shall be kept in the book until the own due time of the Lord, that they may come forth; for behold, they reveal all things from the foundation of the world unto the end thereof. (2 Nephi 27:10) The part of the plates which were "sealed" contained a revelation of "all things." Just as a matter of interest, Joseph was not even allowed to read the sealed part: Wherefore, when thou hast read the words which I have commanded thee, and obtained the witnesses which I have promised unto thee, then shalt thou seal up the book again, and hide it up unto me, that I may preserve the words which thou hast not read, until I shall see fit in mine own wisdom to reveal all things unto the children of men. (2 Nephi 27:22) When the Lord gave Joseph Smith a revelation for Oliver Cowdery, David Whitmer, and Martin Harris, He commanded: And ye shall testify that you have seen them, even as my servant Joseph Smith, Jun., has seen them; for it is by my power that he has seen them, and it is because he had faith.

And he has translated the book, even that part which I have commanded him, and as your Lord and your God liveth it is true. (D&C 17:5-6; underline added for emphasis) Here we learn that Joseph translated only that part which the Lord commanded him to translate, and Nephi knew the Lord would command Joseph to: Touch not the things which are sealed, for I will bring them forth in mine own due time; for I will show unto the children of men that I am able to do mine own work. (2 Nephi 27:21) So we Latter-day Saints are recipients of only "that part" of the "gold plates" which the Lord planned to be translated by Joseph Smith. The rest of the plates will come forth in "the due time of the Lord." It is this sealed part of the gold plates which contain: [255] ... the fulness of the everlasting Gospel ... as delivered by the Savior to the ancient inhabitants. (Joseph Smith-History 1:34) President Ezra Taft Benson has said that we are under condemnation if we fail to read The Book of Mormon and spread its message to the world. We should not be afraid to publish the teachings of The Book of Mormon to the world. The message of The Book of Mormon is not threatening to the Christian world and is a second witness of Jesus Christ. Remember, The Book of Mormon does not contain the "greater part" of the "words of Christ." And now there cannot be written in this book even a hundredth part of the things which Jesus did truly teach unto the people; But behold the plates of Nephi do contain the more part of the things which he taught the people. And these things have I written, which are a lesser part of the things which he taught the people; and I have written them to the intent that they may be brought again unto this people, from the Gentiles, according to the words which Jesus hath spoken. And when they shall have received this, which is expedient that they should have first, to try their faith, and if it shall so be that they shall believe these things then shall the greater things be made manifest unto them. And if it so be that they will not believe these things, then shall the greater things be withheld from them, unto their condemnation. Behold, I was about to write them, all which were engraven upon the plates of Nephi, but the Lord forbade it, saying: I will try the faith of my people. (3 Nephi 26:6-11) The faithful, those who have endured the trial of their faith,

those who have feasted upon the words of Christ, look forward with anxious hearts for "the greater things" to be revealed. They have prepared themselves by obedience to the commandments, and through fasting and prayer. [256] [257] (Blank page) And all they who receive the oracles of God, let them beware how they hold them lest they are accounted as a light thing, and are brought under condemnation thereby, and stumble and fall when the storms descend, and the winds blow, and the rains descend, and beat upon their house. The Lord, D&C 90:5 Prophets And Revelation What Is Revelation? Revelation may be received by men and women alike. Although we tend to think of revelation for the Church being limited to the Lord's prophet, this is not so. We each have the privilege to receive all the revelation which the prophet receives. As Joseph said: God hath not revealed anything to Joseph [calling himself by name], but what He will make known unto the Twelve, and even the least Saint may know all things as fast as he is able to bear them. (HC 3:380) It must be admitted that revelation from God comes in various ways: inspiration, impression, dreams, visions, voices, visitations, etc. However, the subject of this chapter is that form of revelation which God grants to His prophet. Revelation given to that man who is the prophet and presiding authority over the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is peculiar in that it is given for the guidance and direction of all the inhabitants of the earth, if they will listen. It is this kind of revelation that we here discuss. [258] Many of us Latter-day Saints believe revelation to be the literal words of God as delivered to His prophet. Revelation defined in this way must be received in direct thoughts or audible words in order to preserve the literal word of God delivered to that prophet. This interpretation, though it may be true for some revelation, ignores two significant qualities of revelation. First, revelation comes through God's servants on earth who receive revelation as prophets to guide the Lord's Church. These 17

servants are born and raised in a culture which is totally foreign to God and the things of God. We live in a carnal and sensual world which is separated from the celestial realm of Deity by virtue of death and sin. For these reasons we can not go where God is and He will not dwell where we are. Then how does God communicate to His servants? Does He speak English? Spanish? Russian? Of course God could speak any language He chooses, but if He reveals things in our language, then the revelation is limited in that our language is not perfect. Human language can not convey all the things of God, for it does not possess the power to communicate as does the language of God. Mormon has plainly told us this: And I know the record which I make to be a just and a true record; nevertheless there are many things which, according to our language, we are not able to write. (3 Nephi 5:18) The words Jesus spoke to the Nephites could not be written by any man: And no tongue can speak, neither can there be written by any man, neither can the hearts of men conceive so great and marvelous things as we both saw and heard Jesus speak; and no one can conceive of the joy which filled our souls at the time we heard him pray for us unto the Father. (3 Nephi 17:17) And tongue cannot speak the words which he prayed, neither can be written by man the words which he prayed. (3 Nephi 19:32) Then does God communicate in thoughts? If so, then one who receives such revelation becomes an interpreter to put the thoughts he receives into his native language, thus introducing again the limitations of human language, and the interpreter's limitations based upon his understanding of the language and his bias as determined by his cultural learning and environment. Thus, the message of a given revelation is governed, to some extent, by the culture in which the servant serves, and the ability of that servant to express the message in his language, given his unique ability to do so. This factor would help explain why a prophet such as Joseph Smith found it necessary to change parts of The Book of Mormon when he revised it for later publications: Joseph's ability to interpret the things of God became more refined, thus enabling him to express God's will more carefully and in some cases, more accurately. To better illustrate this quality of interpretive bias, we will call it, imagine that a prophet were a woman; what different emphasis and perspective would we expect her interpretation of revelation to exhibit? By a similar analogy, we can understand how differently the interpretations of different men might be, since all men have different [259] qualities which make them "tick." Also, revelation is dependent upon the given servant's comprehension of the things of God. "Line upon line" growth applies to all of God's children. Even Joseph received "line upon line." An eternal law of revelation is that God will never reveal anything that a given people have not prepared themselves to receive. If a people have not been obedient to the "lesser" things, the "greater" will be withheld from them.

To Whom Cometh Revelation? Although there is safety in following the prophet of God, this obedience does not excuse us from our responsibility to seek the Lord's will in all things. No other person will be held responsible for our decisions, but ourselves. The free agency with which we have been endowed, alone, will determine our destiny. Speaking with regard to the individual's responsibility in such matters, Brigham Young said: I am more afraid that this people have so much confidence in their leaders that they will not inquire for themselves of God whether they are led by Him. I am fearful they settle down in a state of blind self-security, trusting their eternal destiny in the hands of their leaders with a reckless confidence that in itself would thwart the purposes of God in their salvation, and weaken that influence they could give to their leaders, did they know for themselves, by the revelations of Jesus, that they are led in the right way. Let every man and woman know, by the whispering of the Spirit of God to themselves, whether their leaders are walking in the path the Lord dictates, or not. (JD 9:150) Brigham Young, here, suggested that the Saints, if they would only "inquire for themselves of God," could be a strengthening influence to "their leaders." We have seen that if the Saints would have faithfully accepted and embraced the Adam-God doctrine, thus supporting the prophet of God, then it would not have fallen into obscurity where it remains to this day. Joseph F. Smith, in the April 1912 General Conference of the Church, stated that "it is the right and privilege of every man, every woman and every child" to receive revelation: The Spirit of inspiration, the gift of revelation, does not belong to one man solely; it is not a gift that pertains to the Presidency of the Church and the Twelve Apostles alone. It is not confined to the presiding authorities of the Church; it belongs to every individual member of the Church, and it is the right and privilege of every man every woman, and every child who has reached the years of accountability to enjoy the spirit of revelation and to be possessed of the spirit of inspiration in the discharge of his duties as a member of the Church. It is the privilege of every individual member of the Church to have revelation for his own guidance, for the direction of his life and conduct... (Conference Report, April 1912, p. 5) [260] Can A Prophet Be Wrong? Taken at face value, to question the teachings of a prophet seems to be a traitorous act. But at what point do we begin to ask God if we are led right? At what point do we begin to desire that our faith in principles, doctrines, and prophets, become knowledge? Surely it is when we ask God if we are led right! Converts ask these questions all the time for it is in this mode that they enter the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

If we ask no questions, then we gain no knowledge; knowledge is not passive. It must be earned! If we hope to know what the prophet knows, then we must gain testimony of his calling and teachings. A major misconception held by Church members is that prophets are infallible. The truth is that prophets are men and are tried by all the conditions of this veiled existence, just as any other human. In 1930 when Brigham H. Roberts published his six volume Comprehensive History of the Church under the direction of the First Presidency, he wrote the following introductory statement in the preface to volume 1 which very well demonstrates the difficulty that a writer has in honestly revealing the history of the Church while unavoidably confronting the weaknesses of men he loves and respects: The position is not assumed that the men of the New Dispensation -- its prophets, apostles, presidencies, and other leaders -- are without faults or infallible, rather they are treated as men of like passions with their fellow men. Bearing indeed a heavenly treasure, no less a thing than delegated authority from God to teach the gospel and administer its ordinances of salvation to the children of men; to gather modern Israel from among the nations of the earth, and establish Zion; to perfect the lives of those who receive the truth the church proclaims, and prepare the world for its coming Lord, the rightful King of all the earth, Jesus the resurrected and glorified Christ. But while the officers and members of the Church possess this spiritual "treasure," they carried it in earthen vessels; and that earthliness, with their human limitations, was plainly manifested on many occasions and in various ways, both in personal conduct and in collective deportment. But back of all that, and it should never be lost sight of, is the supreme fact -- and it was a controlling element in all their proceedings -- that they occupied such relations with God that they were, on occasion, moved upon to speak and act as God would speak or act. And when they spoke and acted as prompted by the inspiration of God, then what they said and what they did was the word and will of God, and the power of God unto salvation. (Doctrine and Covenants 68:3-4)... It is always a difficult task to hold the scales of justice at an even balance when weighing the deeds of men. It becomes doubly more so when dealing with men engaged in a movement that one believes had its origin with God. Under such conditions to so state events as to be historically exact, and yet, on the other hand, so treat the course of events as not to destroy faith in these men, nor in their work, becomes a task of supreme delicacy; and one that tries the soul and the skill of the historian. The only way such a task can be accomplished, in the judgement of the writer, is to frankly state events as they occurred, in full consideration of all related circumstances, allowing the line of condemnation or of justification to fall where it may; being confident that in the sum of things justice will follow truth; and God will be glorified in His work, no matter what may befall individuals, or groups of individuals... (B. H. Roberts, Comprehensive History of the Church, volume 1, p. vi-ix)

This author is in full agreement with B. H. Roberts in the previous quote; it is not my desire to destroy faith in any leader of the Lord's Church, past or present. But out of a love and [261] devotion to God and the truth, I am willing to let God's justice fall where it may. In the Fall 1989 General Conference of the Church, Elder James E. Faust, of the Quorum of Twelve, stated: We make no claim of infallibility or perfection in the prophets, seers, and revelators. Yet I humbly state that I have sat in the company of these men, and I believe their greatest desire is to know and do the will of our Heavenly Father. (November 1989 Ensign, p. 11) And this honest statement by Elder Faust is in complete harmony with the teachings of Joseph Smith. On February 8, 1843 Joseph recorded the following in his journal: This morning, I read German, and visited with a brother and sister from Michigan, who thought that "a prophet is always a prophet;" but I told them that a prophet was a prophet only when he was acting as such. (HC 5:265) On many occasions Joseph commented that, like all men, he was as prone to err as another, but he said that there was no error in the revelations he revealed and taught. On one occasion he stated: I never told you I was perfect; but there is no error in the revelations which I have taught. (HC 6:366) From the foregoing statement of Joseph it is obvious that a prophet must work his way through this life "with fear and trembling," overcoming his own unique "package" of weaknesses, as must we all. A prophet is prone to express his opinion and to be wrong sometimes, as are we all. But when it comes to receiving revelation, such as is contained in the Doctrine and Covenants, there is no error. Notice that Joseph did not say that "there is no error in the recorded revelations which I have written." We have already discussed the inherent weakness of human language; it does not possess the power to convey, without limitation, the things of God. Human language is an unavoidable result of the veil which has been placed between us and our prior existence; it is a result of our separation from God. But with a prophet of God to interpret the revelations of God, the truth behind those revelations may be taught without error. As Joseph said: ... there is no error in the revelations which I have taught. (Ibid.) On July 7, 1954 President J. Reuben Clark, Jr. gave a talk to LDS Seminary and Institute teachers at Brigham Young University entitled, "When Are Church Leaders' Words Entitled to Claim of Scripture?" Therein President Clark quoted Joseph Smith's above quoted remarks (HC 5:265) and declared: Even the President of the Church has not always spoken under the direction of the Holy Ghost, for a prophet is not

always a prophet... In our own Church, leaders have differed in view from the first. (Deseret News, 31 July 1954, 2F) [262] Perhaps it is appropriate to coin a subtle adage: Without revelation there is no prophet, and without a prophet there is no revelation. In other words, the Bible is only a book; but in the hands of a prophet of God it is a living revelation. The Doctrine and Covenants is no different; its words fall upon deaf ears unless the Spirit of Revelation falls upon the one interpreting those words. And just because words come out of a prophet's mouth does not make them absolute truth. Even opinions expressed over the pulpit at General Conference do not constitute scripture. As we have seen, teachings on the doctrine of Deity have gone from "Adam is Heavenly Father," in the 1800s, to "Adam is not Heavenly Father" in this century! These opposing views have been expressed in private and during General Conferences. Obviously, the opinions of men are not restricted to where they may be expressed. What is our rule of thumb? Regardless of where we hear it and who it is that is saying it, it is not truth until we inquire of the Lord and He confirms it. As we have shown, some of our prophets have understood this fact while others have not. To Err In Doctrine Joseph once taught a principle which is significant to our current discussion. A certain Elder Pelatiah Brown had incorrectly interpreted the book of Revelation. For his erroneous preaching "he was hauled up for trial before the High Council." Joseph, commenting upon the folly of Elder Brown, said: I did not like the old man being called up for erring in doctrine. It looks too much like the Methodist, and not like the Latter-day Saints. Methodists have creeds which a man must believe or be asked out of their church. I want the liberty of thinking and believing as I please. It feels so good not to be trammelled. It does not prove that a man is not a good man because he errs in doctrine. (HC 5:340) Of course, the converse of what Joseph has here said is just as true; just because a man is a good man does not prove that his doctrine is true. The essence of what Joseph has said is that we are all free to believe as we please, and no one should be persecuted because they are ignorant of the doctrines of the kingdom of God. We all are at different levels of understanding in our eternal progression, and therefore not all will know of the doctrine of Adam-God since it is a doctrine which: ... is only revealed to highly favored persons for certain reasons known to God. (John Taylor, The Mediation And Atonement, p. 93; see chapter thirteen) [263] Prophets And Doctrines A prophet can certainly change any policy or decision made by an earlier prophet. He may also add to any previously revealed

ordinance, practice, teaching, doctrine, etc. This is what is meant by a "living Church." But, may a prophet declare the revelations of a prior prophet to be false? May a prophet declare a previous prophet's revealed doctrine to be false? Concerning the Adam-God doctrine, Elder Abraham O. Smoot said: The doctrine preached by President Young for a few years back wherein he says Adam is our God, the God we worship, that most of the people believe this; some believe it because the President says so, others because they can find testimony in the Book of Mormon and Doctrine and Covenants. Amasa Lyman stumbled on this; he does not believe it. He did not believe in the Atonement of Jesus. Orson Pratt has also told the President that he does not believe it. This is not the way to act. We are not accountable on points of doctrine; if the President makes a statement it is not our prerogative to dispute it; he is only accountable in points of doctrine. I have heard President avow the truth of Adam being our Father and God but have never heard him argue the question at all. (Minutes of the School of the Prophets, Provo, Utah, June 8, 1868, pp. 37-42, Church Archives, also from a typescript copy at the Utah State Historical Society, Salt Lake City) President John Taylor endorsed this truth that only the Prophet is accountable in points of doctrine. On April 15, 1878 he issued the following message: No man is authorized to teach to the Church new or advanced doctrines except the Presidency thereof. Light comes from the head, and to that point must the members of the Church look for knowledge and wisdom and doctrine and principle. Did every man holding a portion of the Priesthood have the right to advance doctrines for the acceptance of the Church, it would bring chaos, our name would be Babylon, and it could no longer be said that "God's house is a house of Order;" we should be like the rest of the world, one man's opinion would be as good as that of another; there would be no rallying point, no recognized authority, no head; on the contrary we should be weak indeed. Then let us not stray from well defined landmarks. If, in the providence of God, and the growth, increase and development of his kingdom, we need further light and intelligence on doctrine, it will be given to us, and it will come through the proper and duly appointed authority. (Messages of the First Presidency, volume 2, pp. 312-313; see also Millennial Star 40:235-236) John Taylor has here said that if "we need further light and intelligence on doctrine, it will be given to us," and it will come through the Lord's mouthpiece, His prophet. Obviously, the Lord wanted the Church to know about the Adam-God doctrine or He would not have revealed it in this dispensation through His Prophets. Can anyone dispute the doctrinal teachings of Joseph Smith and Brigham Young? Let us quote Elder Smoot again on this question: We are not accountable on points of doctrine; if the President makes a statement it is not our prerogative to dispute it; he is only accountable in points of doctrine.

(Ibid.) [264] Adam-God And Revelation There is no known record of a revelation in which God revealed the Adam-God doctrine to his prophet. We have Brigham Young's word that Joseph taught it and that the Lord also revealed it to him, but if the Lord gave Joseph and Brigham revelation on Adam-God, then why was it never published, nor referred to in more detail? It appears that we have only Joseph and Brigham asserting their knowledge of the truthfulness of Adam-God, and since there was no attempt to canonize the doctrine, it has remained a personal belief for Latter-day Saints who choose to believe it. Thus, Adam-God should not be seen as a belief which is hostile to Mormonism, nor is it one which can be supported by the canon of scripture. But if we carry this argument into another area of the gospel, perhaps it will illustrate for us the fallacy of dismissing Adam-God since it has not been canonized. Suppose this author were to assert that the temple ordinances were merely speculative, for they are not canonized in scripture, nor written anywhere for general consumption. This assertion would immediately be branded as false! The temple ordinances are as they should be; for these things are sacred and are to be accepted only by those who will submit to God's will, obeying His commandments, thus proving their faithfulness. But what of the Adam-God doctrine? Did Brigham Young intend that the faithful should have access to the true doctrine of Deity? Lacking Harmony Joseph Smith revealed the exalted relationship of Adam to us, His literal posterity. Brigham Young, Joseph's closest confidant, in the secure confines of the Saints' new mountain home, elaborated upon that at which Joseph had only been able to hint. As we have seen, the doctrine concerning Adam was fully revealed to the Saints in the nineteenth century. Because of reluctance and unbelief the teaching devolved and is now associated with heresy and is espoused by those who are labeled apostate. It is a most delicate issue we now undertake to unravel. For the faithful Mormon there is perhaps no more delicate issue. We have seen that Joseph introduced Adam-God, and Brigham revealed it in full and placed it in the temple where it belonged. Today we have inherited a legacy which has condemned the doctrine as false while branding those who believe it as apostates. To the faithful member of the Church this is a heart-wrenching predicament. But this author sincerely believes there is a reasonable explanation for our current quagmire. From our historical treatment of the Adam-God doctrine, it is clear that the devolution of the doctrine can not be blamed on any one individual, although we have seen some prominent figures. It was a gradual change which had its genesis with two of the original [265] Apostles who served under Brigham Young, and with the reluctance of the Saints to allow anyone, prophet or not, to enlarge upon the works of Joseph Smith. This truly represents an irony, for essential to the nature and calling of a prophet is the possession of keys which give authority to one

man to receive revelation for the guidance and direction of the Church (see D&C 43:1-6). As we have seen, Brigham was no less "called of God" than was Joseph. And Brigham was in possession of all keys, powers, and authority which Joseph held. We have seen that God revealed the doctrine of Adam-God to his prophets, and we are compelled to believe that it was Father's will that the true doctrine of Deity be had among the Latter-day Saints. It is an unfortunate consequence of God's revealing His truth to His children that some are offended by the truth. Truth is a sieve which causes men to be separated by the tight and knowledge God desires to be shed upon His people. Nevertheless, God has revealed that we should not fear man, but Him. And if we choose to fear man more than God, we will reap the consequences of such: But with some I am not well pleased, for they will not open their mouths, but they hide the talent which I have given unto them, because of the fear of man. Wo unto such, for mine anger is kindled against them. And it shall come to pass, if they are not more faithful unto me, it shall be taken away, even that which they have. (D&C 60:2-3) [266] [267] (Blank page) It is necessary we should understand the character and being of God and how he came to be so; for I am going to tell you how God came to be God. We have imagined and supposed that God was God from all eternity. I will refute that idea, and take away the veil, so that you may see. Joseph Smith, HC 6:305 The Government Of Deity Eternal Law In the realms of Deity, existence and organization is governed by eternal law. All privileges, offices, domains, and dominions are governed by the same irrevocable, immutable eternal law. The framework under which all things exist and operate has always been, and will always be as it now is. Our progenitors, the Gods, have all gone through what we are presently going through, and by obedience to eternal law, they have become exalted, and they continue to abide eternal law as they progress, as their progenitors before have done. The Rights Of The Priesthood 18

All power and authority which is exercised in the society of Deity is by virtue of the Priesthood. In the heavenly realms, as on earth, the priesthood can only be held and [268] handled upon the principles of righteousness, which principles are the eternal law. These principles can be suitably summarized by the revelation which Joseph Smith received while a prisoner in Liberty jail in March 1839: Behold, there are many called, but few are chosen. And why are they not chosen? Because their hearts are set so much upon the things of this world, and aspire to the honors of men, that they do not learn this one lesson -That the rights of the priesthood are inseparably connected with the powers of heaven, and that the powers of heaven cannot be controlled nor handled only upon the principles of righteousness. That they may be conferred upon us, it is true; but when we undertake to cover our sins, or to gratify our pride, our vain ambition, or to exercise control or dominion or compulsion upon the souls of the children of men, in any degree of unrighteousness, behold, the heavens withdraw themselves; the Spirit of the Lord is grieved; and when it is withdrawn, Amen to the priesthood or the authority of that man. Behold, ere he is aware, he is left unto himself, to kick against the pricks, to persecute the saints, and to fight against God. We have learned by sad experience that it is the nature and disposition of almost all men, as soon as they get a little authority, as they suppose, they will immediately begin to exercise unrighteous dominion. Hence many are called, but few are chosen. No power or influence can or ought to be maintained by virtue of the priesthood, only by persuasion, by long-suffering, by gentleness and meekness, and by love unfeigned; By kindness, and pure knowledge, which shall greatly enlarge the soul without hypocrisy, and without guile -Reproving betimes with sharpness, when moved upon by the Holy Ghost; and then showing forth afterwards an increase of love toward him whom thou hast reproved, lest he esteem thee to be his enemy; That he may know that thy faithfulness is stronger than the cords of death. Let thy bowels also be full of charity towards all men, and to the household of faith, and let virtue garnish thy thoughts unceasingly; then shall thy confidence wax strong

in the presence of God; and the doctrine of the priesthood shall distil upon thy soul as the dews from heaven. The Holy Ghost shall be thy constant companion, and thy scepter an unchanging scepter of righteousness and truth; and thy dominion shall be an everlasting dominion, and without compulsory means it shall flow unto thee forever and ever. (D&C 121:34-46) So, we are here informed that the "rights of the priesthood are" obtained and "handled only upon the principles of righteousness." We also learn from this that "the powers of heaven" derive from these rights of the priesthood. The Gods are faithful priesthood holders. [269] The Patriarchal Order By the same eternal law, the society of Deity is Patriarchal in dominion. To those who now inhabit the earth, this concept may seem difficult to comprehend because of the injustices wrought by the male-dominated society of earth. But any man who thinks to exercise dominion in any degree of unrighteousness while here upon the earth, will be denied the privilege of exercising dominion in the society of Deity. Those individuals who merit exaltation and are endowed with eternal increase shall govern their progeny even as a righteous father and mother govern their home here on the earth, with love, gentleness, and kindness. The dominion of the patriarchal order is well defined in this article which appeared in the Millennial Star: In the Patriarchal order of government, each and every ruler is independent in his sphere, his rule extending to those below, and not to those above him, in the same order. While the God of unnumbered worlds is acknowledged to be his God and Father, Adam still maintains his exalted position at the head of all those who are saved from among the whole family of man; and he will be God over all those who are made Gods from among men... As the great Eloheim is supreme and Almighty over all His children and kingdoms, so is Adam as great a ruler, or God, in his sphere, over his children, and the kingdom which they possess. The earth and all things upon it were created for Adam, and it was given to him of his Father to have dominion over it. (Millennial Star 15:76) No woman worthy of exaltation would, in the least degree, diminish the importance of womanhood in the divine order of heaven. As families are born and reared to maturity here, so will they be there. As any mother can attest, without her love and nurturing, the family cannot succeed. Woman's divine role in the eternities is no less necessary than is man's. Both, as companions and as partners, contribute that which only they can contribute to the progression and glory of the race from which they have sprung. Mother and Father, Wife and Husband, are eternal roles which cannot be altered, although, by our disobedience to law, we may fall short of being exalted to these privileged stations. It is the law of our species, the Gods. Eternity

True concepts which are sometimes beyond our comprehension, and always alien to our day-to-day experience, are at times best described by poetry and music. Such is eternity. We humans, now residing in a finite sphere, can not escape all the limitations placed upon us. When we try to comprehend the teachings of Joseph and Brigham which say that God is a finite being, forever progressing, and that there never was a time when the chicken and the egg did not both exist, this is when we reach our limit of comprehension. But the concept of eternity is not wasted on us altogether, for there is a chord within each of us which rings [270] with wonder and joy as we draw near to these glorious truths. William W. Phelps wrote one of the most transcendent works on this very subject. It is entitled, "If You Could Hie to Kolob:" If you could hie to Kolob In the twinkling of an eye, And then continue onward With that same speed to fly, Do you think that you could ever, Through all eternity, Find out the generation Where Gods began to be? Or see the grand beginning, Where space did not extend? Or view the last creation, Where Gods and matter end? Me think the Spirit whispers, "No man has found `pure space,' Nor seen the outside curtains, Where nothing has a place." The works of God continue, And worlds and lives abound; Improvement and progression Have one eternal round. There is no end to matter; There is no end to space; There is no end to spirit; There is no end to race. There There There There There There There There is is is is is is is is no no no no no no no no end end end end end end end end to to to to to to to to virtue; There is no end to might; wisdom; There is no end to light. union; There is no end to youth; priesthood; There is no end to truth. glory; being; glory; being; There There There There is is is is no no no no end to love; death above. end to love; death above.

(Hymns of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1985, No. 284) [271] I will not seek to compel any man to believe as I do, only by force of reasoning, for truth will cut its own way. Joseph Smith, HC 6:476 Names, Titles, And Offices Of Deity19 Various Appellations Of Deity The scriptures abound with the various appellations of Deity. Many of these names, titles, or offices are not used in a strict

sense to identify certain Beings who may be involved in our salvation, but rather these appellations may be used to revere Deity in an attitude of worship and adoration. Often, the writers of scripture do not exercise great care in referring to Deity, for it is understood by them that several Beings preside over the earth in the patriarchal order. This chapter will define, as much as is possible, the nature of these various appellations of Deity and their correct application as revealed by the prophets and scripture. The Gods Of This Earth: in a nutshell Before we undertake to list and define the various usages of the names, titles, and offices [272] of Deity who are associated with this earth, let us briefly review and put in perspective who is who with regard to the Gods of this earth. This has been clearly summarized by one who has been true to the religion of Joseph Smith, Bishop Heber Bennion. He wrote: It seems strange that people will believe that "as man now is, God once was, and that as God now is, man may be"; that "God is an exalted man" and still repudiate the doctrine of Adam-God. These incredulous people believe that Elohim, Jehovah and Michael (Adam) the "Father of all living," created the world and yet cannot believe that He is the God of this world. It seems presumptuous indeed for them to ever aspire to be the God of anything, if Adam cannot be the God of the world he created and peopled. If a man is not to become the God of his own posterity what will he be the God of? Evidently, if God the Father of Jesus Christ was once a man like ourselves, he had a father as we have, a God to pray to, and that God in turn, was once a man also, and so on ad infinitum, without beginning or end. As Brigham Young says, "there never was a time when men were not passing through this ordeal and preparation to become Gods." Joseph Smith says, "Wherever was there a father without first being a son?" Jehovah means son, and is used interchangeably as the Son and a son. In the dedicatory prayer of the Kirtland Temple the Prophet Joseph repeatedly applies the name of Jehovah to the Father whom he is addressing, as anyone may see by careful perusal of the prayer as recorded in the Doctrine and Covenants, Sec. 109. Elohim may signify the Father or Grandfather, or GreatGrandfather -- God or the Council of the Gods, and Jehovah may be applied to any of them in the capacity or relationship of a son, as they all are, for "where was there ever a father without first being a son?" (Joseph Smith in Church History, Vol. 6, p. 476.) Adam is in line with his progenitors, the Gods, and by the genealogical record cannot be deposed from his position as the God of this world under the council and direction of the Gods above him, "intelligences one above another without end." (D.& C. 78.) The whole superstructure for a plurality of the Gods is based upon this doctrine of Adam-God, and must stand or fall together. (Heber Bennion, Supplement to Gospel Problems, pp. 8,9) Now if the facts of The Restoration, as herein recorded, have proven anything, then it is that Heber Bennion's statement is one of the most beautiful and accurate statements on the roles

and identities of Deity recorded in this dispensation. Joseph would be pleased that such truths could finally be written and spoken without fear of losing one's life. As we begin to look at each of the following names, titles, and offices, we will remember that Joseph laid the foundation of this work and it is his definitions we will rely upon. Jehovah "Jehovah" is the anglicized form of the Hebrew name Yahweh or Jahveh. It means the Self-existent One or The Eternal. (The Gospel: God, Man and Truth, p. 13, David H. Yarn, Jr.) Chapter thirteen clearly depicted the different ways in which Jehovah has been used to identify Deity. We saw that Joseph never referred to Jesus as Jehovah, and on numerous occasions addressed Jesus' patriarchal superiors as Jehovah. This practice was consistently adhered to until John Taylor's administration in the late 1880s. At this juncture we began [273] to associate only Jesus Christ with this divine name-title. As we have seen, it is incorrect to uniquely associate the name-title Jehovah with Jesus Christ. Jesus earned the name-title by faithfully fulfilling all that Jehovah has required of him. Apparently, Jehovah is a name title which may be applied to all of the Gods who preside in some capacity over this earth, for the prophets of The Restoration have used it as such. As a name, Jehovah appears to have special significance when used to denote the creation-God who presided over Michael. In this capacity, as creator, Jehovah appears to be the Father of Michael. Father Father may be and has been applied to any and all Gods. In a very real sense the terms Father and God are synonymous, for it is the primary duty of a God to "have increase" and preside over His children's progression. For this reason Father may be applied to any God. The literal Father of our spirits bore us by the literal Mother of our spirits. It is also through them that our physical bodies derive their generation. Creator We have had some misconceptions of this confusion has come from scriptures. The Gospel of John, example. The chapter heading in about who the Creator is. Much men's misinterpreting the chapter one, is a typical the LDS Bible reads:

Christ is the Word of God -- He created all things and was made flesh... (John 1:chapter heading) Although John chapter one does not literally say that Jesus Christ "created all things," we have been taught that it does, and a surface reading tends to support such an interpretation. But Joseph's and Brigham's revelations on the plurality and nature of Deity have given us fresh insight into who the creator is. Let's look at John chapter one with our new-found knowledge of Deity. Joseph Smith's Inspired Version of the Bible reads:

In the beginning was the gospel preached through the Son. And the gospel was the word, and the word was with the Son, and the Son was with God, and the Son was of God. All things were made by him; and without him was not anything made which was made. In him was the gospel, and the gospel was the life, and the life was the light of men; [274] And the light shineth in the world, and the world perceiveth it not. The same came into the world for a witness, to bear witness of the light, to bear record of the gospel through the Son, unto all, that through him men might believe. He was not that light, but came to bear witness of that light, Which was the true light, which lighteneth every man who cometh into the world; Even the Son of God. He who was in the world, and the world was made by him, and the world knew him not. But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God; only to them who believe on his name. He was born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. And the same word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the Only Begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth. John bear witness of him, and cried, saying, This is he of whom I spake; He who cometh after me, is preferred before me; for he was before me. For in the beginning was the Word, even the Son, who is made flesh, and sent unto us by the will of the Father. And as many as believe on his name shall receive of his fulness. And of his fulness have all we received, even immortality and eternal life, through his grace. (Joseph Smith Translation, John 1:1,3-5, 7-10, 12-16) In verse one we learn that "the gospel was the word," and in verse fourteen "the same word was made flesh." Verse fifteen tells us that "John [the baptist] bear witness of him, and cried, saying, This is he of whom I spake." In verse sixteen we see that "in the beginning was the Word, even the Son, who is made flesh, and sent unto us by the will of the Father." Jesus Christ is this "word" who is the "gospel," or good news. But in verse one we read that "the word [Jesus Christ] was with the Son, and the Son was with God, and the Son was of God." And "all things were made by him." We now comprehend John One in a brilliant light: "the word [Jesus Christ] was with the Son [Michael], and the Son was with God [Jehovah], and the Son [Michael] was of God [Jehovah]." Our Heavenly Father, Michael,

created all things: All things were made by him; and without him was not anything made which was made. (Ibid.) Joseph's plurality of Gods comes alive in the scriptures when we do not impose our preconceptions upon them. Thank you Joseph for leaving us your teachings; they are a light shining in the dark! [275] Grandfather, Great-Grandfather, and so on... These titles of our patriarchal ancestors are not found in the standard works as such, but are referred to variously as Elohim, Jehovah, the Lord, the Lord God, God, and others. These Gods are one with our Father even as our Father is one with Christ. They all are one in that they all agree in purpose and perfection, and labor for the immortality and eternal life of their children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren, etc., depending upon their relationship to us. All of these Gods may be called Father since we are the progeny of them all, excluding Jesus Christ who is of our generation. As Christ speaks for the Father we may also consider him as Father, but not in a literal sense. Son The Son may be any God, for as Joseph has said, "Where was there ever a Father without first being a son?" Our Father is a Son and so is His FATHER, and so on ad infinitum. Son Of Man Son of Man is a name by which Jesus Christ is known (see Moses 6:57; Matthew 17:9; D&C 49:6). A natural corollary from the name, Son of Man, is that Man is a name of Christ's Father. The following connection is significant: While it is in all probability true that the gospels were originally written in Aramaic, it is even more certain that the New Testament is based upon an Old Testament-Hebraic culture and religion. This being the case, it is most significant that in the Hebrew language the word for man is Adam, hence in the some odd 84 passages in the gospels when Jesus referred to himself as the Son of Man, it can be taken quite literally as a claim on Jesus' part that he was the son of Adam. (The Teachings of President Brigham Young, volume 3, p. 327) From Daniel chapter seven we read: I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him. (Daniel 7:13) This verse is significant in identifying Jesus Christ as "one like the Son of man." From this we conclude that Son of Man is applied to other individuals, and since one of the names of our Father in heaven is "Man," then Son of Man may be correctly applied to all sons of our Father (see "son of man" used

repeatedly in Ezekiel). [276] Man Of Holiness Man of Holiness is a name of our Father in Heaven: ... Man of Holiness is his name, and the name of His Only Begotten is the Son of Man, even Jesus Christ. (Moses 6:57, 7:35). Man Of Counsel Man of Counsel is a name of our Father in Heaven (see Moses 7:35). Endless And Eternal Endless and Eternal is a name of our Father in Heaven (see Moses 6:57, 7:35). Savior Savior is the office and calling held by the oldest faithful Son of the family. Oldest meaning of those born in the spirit world. His mission is to be born into mortality of a mortal mother and fathered by the Father of our spirits. As such, the Savior possesses the necessary power to accomplish the atonement for the death and sins of the world. This author does not pretend to comprehend the mechanics behind one man's capacity to bear the sins of all the world. Suffice it to say that he does possess this capacity and has already fulfilled this part of his mission. Upon the crucifixion of the Savior an angel came to roll away the stone and he, himself having already been resurrected, had the power to resurrect our Savior from physical death to life immortal. Although Jesus Christ is the Savior, it is Michael who holds "the keys of salvation," in our creation: Who hath appointed Michael your prince, and established his feet, and set him upon high, and given unto him the keys of salvation under the counsel and direction of the Holy One, who is without beginning of days or end of life. (D&C 78:16) Remembering that Joseph and Brigham referred to our God and Father as "the only wise and true God," we find in the scriptures references to Father as the Savior: [277] To the only wise God our Saviour, be glory and majesty, dominion and power, both now and ever. Amen. (Jude 1:25) Messiah Messiah is an Aramaic word meaning the anointed. Avraham Gileadi has written: The title Messiah (Greek Christus -- from which the English word Christ derives) comes from the Hebrew masiah, which means "anointed one." That title anciently described King David and his ruling heirs (2 Sam. 22:51; Ps. 18:50;

132:17). Aaron, a high priest, and his sons who ministered in the priesthood, too, were anointed of the Lord (Lev. 6:19-22; 8:1-13). Both king and priest anciently mediated with the Lord on behalf of His people Israel (Lev. 4:1-3-21; 7:28-38; 1 Kgs. 8:33-39; Isa. 37:15-20). Both king and priest, therefore, serve as types of a messianic or mediatory role. (The Last Days, p. 194) Christ Christ is the English derivation of the Greek Christus, from the Hebrew Messiah (Ibid.). Eliza R. Snow informed us: Moreover, Jesus is one of a grand order of Saviors. Every world has its distinctive Savior, and every dispensation its Christ. (The Women Of Mormondom, p. 192) We understand that Christ is not a proper name; it is a title meaning: "anointed one." Redeemer Redeemer is a title of Jesus Christ, for it is he who redeems the rest of the family from death and sin, so that they might return, unblemished, to their heavenly home. It is important to understand that the title of Redeemer is not limited to Jesus Christ, for there have been as many Redeemers as there have been earths created and peopled. The Gods who preside over this earth hold the keys of the redemption of man, and in this sense our Father in Heaven is our Redeemer. Jesus Christ administers redemption under the direction of his Father and ours. The keys of redemption are administered by the Father, for it is His work and glory to bring to pass the immortality and eternal life of man. [278] I AM I AM is one of the names of the God who spoke to Moses (see Exodus 3:14). Although this name has been identified with Jesus Christ (see D&C 39:1), Jesus Christ is not the Being who spoke to Moses. We learn from the book of Moses that it was the Father who spoke with Moses "face to face:" The words of God, which he spake unto Moses at a time when Moses was caught up into an exceedingly high mountain, And he saw God face to face, and he talked with him, and the glory of God was upon Moses; therefore Moses could endure his presence. And God spake unto Moses, saying: Behold, I am the Lord God Almighty, and Endless is my name; for I am without beginning of days or end of years; and is not this endless? And, behold, thou art my son; wherefore look, and I will show thee the workmanship of mine hands; but not all, for my works are without end, and also my words, for they never cease.

Wherefore, no man can behold all my works, except he behold all my glory; and no man can behold all my glory, and afterwards remain in the flesh on the earth. And I have a work for thee, Moses, my son; and thou art in the similitude of mine Only Begotten; and mine Only Begotten is and shall be the Savior, for he is full of grace and truth; but there is no God beside me, and all things are present with me, for I know them all. (Moses 1:1-6; see also Moses 1:17) When Jesus Christ ministers as the Father, it is as a messenger of the Father that he ministers to earth. He is the mediator between man and the Father. Only Begotten Of our generation, Only Begotten is a title of Jesus Christ by virtue of his being the only child to be Fathered by our Heavenly Father in His Glory. Mary was the only woman of this earth to conceive by the power of the Father in His Glory. Thus, Jesus is the Only Begotten of the Father, or the Only Begotten Son. But Only Begotten finds a more generic application when viewed in light of Joseph's plurality of Gods. From the creation account, we see that Jehovah is Elohim's Only Begotten: And I, God, said unto mine Only Begotten, which was with me from the beginning: Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and it was so. And I, God, said: Let them have dominion over the fishes of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. [279] And I, God, created man in mine own image, in the image of mine Only Begotten created I him; male and female created I them. And I, God, blessed them, and said unto them: Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it, and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth. (Moses 2:26-28) We know from the creation account that it is Elohim and Jehovah who presided over the creation of this earth while Michael became Adam, and here we have seen that Elohim identifies Jehovah as His Only Begotten. We are created in the image of Jehovah, through His Son, Michael (our Father). Elohim and Jehovah are patriarchal superiors to Michael. Mine Only Begotten Mine Only Begotten is the Only Begotten of the God speaking. If it is Father Michael speaking, then Mine Only Begotten refers to Jesus Christ. But if Jehovah or Elohim speaks of their Only Begotten, then it would be their Son over whom they preside in that respective creation. Firstborn

The Firstborn, or First Begotten, is the first male child born to God in the spirit world. If faithful, it falls upon the Firstborn Son to be the Savior of the family. Jesus Christ is this faithful Son in our family (D&C 93:21). It is also true that first begotten refers to Jesus Christ as the first begotten of the dead, for Joseph and the scriptures so identified him (see HC 6:478; Col. 1:18). Lord God Almighty From Moses 1:1-6 we learn that this is the Father of Jesus Christ. Holy One Of Zion The Holy One of Zion, also called the Lord God, is that Being who appointed Michael and gave him the keys of salvation, but it is under the counsel and direction of the Holy One [280] that all these things are done. From this context it appears to be the creation Gods who are here described: Elohim, Jehovah, and Michael. Michael was appointed and the keys were given to him by Jehovah, under the counsel and direction of Elohim: That you may come up unto the crown prepared for you, and be made rulers over many kingdoms, saith the Lord God, the Holy One of Zion, who hath established the foundations of Adam-ondi-Ahman; Who hath appointed Michael your prince, and established his feet, and set him upon high, and given unto him the keys of salvation under the counsel and direction of the Holy One, who is without beginning of days or end of life. (D&C 78:1-5-16) Ahman Ahman is the name of God in the pure adamic language. Son of God is Son Ahman. Men are known as sons Ahman. Angels are anglo-man. (see JD 2:342) Holy One Of Israel The Holy One of Israel is that God who gave us breath: ... and they are restored to that God who gave them breath, which is the Holy One of Israel. (2 Nephi 9:26) And, as with all the names of Deity, the Holy One of Israel may also be applied to Christ: ... and Christ is the Holy One of Israel. (2 Nephi 25:29) The Most High God From Nephi we read: And when I had spoken these words, the Spirit cried with a loud voice, saying: Hosanna to the Lord, the most high God; for he is God over all the earth, yea, even above all. And blessed art thou, Nephi, because thou believest in the Son

of the most high God; wherefore, thou shalt behold the things which thou hast desired. (1 Nephi 11:6) [281] Although Jesus is identified as "Son of the most high God" (see Mark 5:7), thus making Michael the Most High God, this does not preclude the possibility, in 1 Nephi 11:6, of Jehovah being identified as such, and Michael being the Son of the Most High God. As we saw in John chapter one, Michael is also referred to as the "Son." Jesus Christ As Spokesman For God We have shown throughout this book that Jesus Christ often speaks for the Gods because of his office as Mediator between God and man. This fact is easily discerned by a careful look at Section 29 of the Doctrine and Covenants. Although Jesus speaks as if he were the Lord God, it is evident that he uses the names and titles of God only as he administers the will of the Gods: Listen to the voice of Jesus Christ, your Redeemer, the Great I AM, whose arm of mercy hath atoned for your sins... Wherefore, I the Lord God will send forth flies upon the face of the earth... Wherefore, I, the Lord God, caused that he should be cast out from the Garden of Eden, from my presence, because of his transgression... But, behold, I say unto you that I, the Lord God, gave unto Adam and unto his seed, that they should not die as to the temporal death, until I, the Lord God, should send forth angels to declare unto them repentance and redemption, through faith on the name of mine Only Begotten Son. (D&C 29:1, 18, 41-42) We see that Jesus Christ begins by speaking in the first person and never "changes gears" as he begins to speak as Jehovah in first person. This practice of the Savior must be understood if one is to comprehend the proper roles and offices of the Gods who preside over the earth. Simply put, because the Savior speaks as the Creator, Jehovah, or Father, this does not mean he is the Creator, Jehovah, or Father! This is the source of most confusion concerning scriptural interpretation. Only if one is conversant with this mechanism in the scriptures, can one use them as a source of doctrine on Deity. Ancient Of Days, Michael, Adam, Archangel These are all names of the Father and God of mankind, the first man. [282] Elohim, El, Eloah "Elohim" is a name for God which is found in Hebrew texts of the Old Testament. It is the plural form of "El" and "Eloah," other Semitic words for God. Not only does "Elohim" have a quantitative meaning but a qualitative

meaning as well. That is, not only does it mean "Gods" instead of "God" but it also connotes majesty, excellence, power, and supremacy. It is in this latter sense that "Elohim" is used as the name of God the Eternal Father. (The Gospel: God, Man, and Truth, pp. 3-4, David H. Yarn, Jr.) Joseph taught that Elohim is correctly understood to be a plurality of Gods, as in the creation (see chapters fourteen and fifteen for these details), and Elohim is also a title which we have seen used to identify Jehovah, Michael, and their patriarchal superiors. Holy Ghost, Holy Spirit, Spirit Of God The Holy Ghost, as the King James translators interpreted the name, is that being, influence, and power by which all truth can be and is given unto men. A partial definition is: The third member of the Godhead and, as the name implies, a personage of Spirit, not possessing a body of flesh and bones (D&C 1-30:21-22). The Holy Ghost is manifested to men on the earth both as the power of the Holy Ghost and as the gift of the Holy Ghost. The power can come upon one before baptism, and is the convincing witness that the gospel is true. It gives one a testimony of Jesus Christ and of his work and the work of his servants upon the earth. The gift can come only after proper and authorized baptism, and is conferred by the laying on of hands, as in Acts 8:12-25 and Moroni 2:1-3. The gift of the Holy Ghost is the right to have, whenever one is worthy, the companionship of the Holy Ghost. More powerful than that which is available before baptism, it acts as a cleansing agent to purify a person and sanctify him from all sin. Thus it is often spoken of as "fire" (Matt. 3:11; 2 Ne. 31:17; D&C 19:31). The manifestation on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2) was the gift of the Holy Ghost that came upon the Twelve, without which they were not ready for their ministries to the world. (LDS Bible Dictionary, p. 704) This treatment of the names, titles and offices of Deity does not pretend to be comprehensive. If we have learned anything from our study of Deity so far, it is that we must be very careful in using the scriptures to prove the identities of the Gods who preside over us. To conclude more than this, we must seek knowledge from Father by the power of the Holy Ghost. [283] He that keepeth his commandments receiveth truth and fight, until he is glorified in truth and knoweth all things The Lord, D&C 93:28 The Doctrine Of Deity What Is The Doctrine Of Deity? 20

The doctrine of Deity is understood to be those truths which define and describe that race of Beings whom we call the Gods. Being truths, these principles are beyond the power of mankind to refute or alter. By our ignorance we may fail to comprehend these truths, but our ignorance of them can not cause them to cease to exist. Sacred And Privileged Remember that a prophet of God has classified this doctrine as one to be revealed only to those to whom God chooses to reveal it: The Scriptures tell us there are "Gods many and Lords many. But to us there is but one God, the Father." (1 Cor., viii, 5.) And for this reason, though there were others engaged in the creation of the worlds, it is given to us in the Bible in the shape that it is; for the fulness of these truths is only revealed to highly favored persons for certain reasons known to God; as we are told in the Scriptures: "The [284] secret of the Lord is with them that fear him; and he will show them his covenant."--Psalms, xxv, 14. (The Mediation And Atonement, p. 93) This perspective should help us to understand why so few people have truly comprehended the pure doctrine of Deity. Although we may not know that the Adam-God doctrine is true, this does not excuse us from exercising faith in the principle, which faith is requisite to our some day knowing for ourselves as Joseph and Brigham did, that it is true. As Joseph has said: Knowledge saves a man; and in the world of spirits no man can be exalted but by knowledge. (HC 6:314) And in our probationary state this knowledge of the Father can come through only one channel, the Savior said that no man knows: ... who the Father is, but the Son, and he to whom the Son will reveal him. (Luke 10:22) The Doctrine 1. A race of Beings called the Gods have always existed. There never was a time when this race did not exist. 2. The Gods are continually progressing and there is no end to their progression. They progress in knowledge, power, and glory, although they possess all knowledge, all power, and all glory in their respective dominions. 3. The social organization of the Gods is what may be termed a patriarchy, a familial system in which the Father is the head of the family. "Familial system" should be understood quite literally here. Our God is literally our Father, and His FATHER is also involved in our salvation and exaltation as well as our Father's GrandFATHER, and so on. The plan of salvation is truly a family affair, wherein the duty and love of family abounds.

4. One way in which the Gods progress is by procreating "after their own kind." A. Procreation by the Gods is limited to those who have progressed to that level of maturity required by eternal law. B. Procreation is one of the most sacred privileges attained by Gods. C. There are two estates of procreation among the Gods, spirit birth and mortal birth. i. A Father and Mother God procreate spirit children in their heavenly home. ii. After those spirit children are born and reared to maturity in the heavens above, it becomes necessary for them to enter mortality in order to continue [285] their progression. This is accomplished by a man and a woman who must come to an earth and commence the creating of mortal bodies for their spirit children to inhabit. Their mortal children, once housed in a body, grow to maturity and marry and continue to "multiply and replenish the earth." 5. Adam and Eve were not created from dust, mud, water, or any other substance, nor was Eve created from Adam's rib. These symbolisms are not to be understood literally. Adam and Eve were born to parents in another creation long ago and in the same way you and I were born. There is an eternal law which governs the birth of all life: new life comes through its own kind and in the same way its progenitors came, through physical generation of the species. There is no other way in which the generation of life comes. 6. Every creation which has ever been, has had an Adam and an Eve, whose privilege it was to come down to an earth, which they helped create, in order to create bodies for their spirit children. Adam and Eve are properly understood to be offices or callings of Gods who come to the earth they created in order to "fall," thus becoming mortal themselves that they may become the grand progenitors of their children in mortality. 7. "The Fall" of a Heavenly Father and a Heavenly Mother is the process whereby these immortal Beings become mortal, enabling them to procreate mortal bodies for their spirit children to inhabit. Moses said this befell Adam and Eve in consequence of their partaking "of the forbidden fruit." At least part of the reason for Adam and Eve becoming mortal is a result of their eating the fruits of the mortal earth, thus causing a degeneration of their bodies from immortal to mortal. 8. Freedom of choice is the underlying law of the society of the Gods. This same privilege applies to spirit children as well; they are free to choose what they will and some will choose not to accept the eternal plan of salvation and exaltation which has always and forever exalted their progenitors. A. The spirit children who rebel against their parents' plan will, by their own choosing, be damned (literally stopped) from further progression. B. Those spirit children who accept the reality of obedience and agree to abide by the eternal laws of

progression will be born again, this time into mortality, to earthly parents, and progress in this mortal estate. 9. Mortality is a probationary state where the children of Gods are tested and gain experience. This testing and experience is made different by virtue of the spirit now being housed in a tangible body which can interact with matter, whereas prior to mortality the spirit had no interaction with the grosser matter of this estate. 10. The testing and experience of our earthly estate do not end upon the death of the body. [286] After death, the spirit goes to the spirit world where the same society continues to exist, only the spirit is without the body. Free agency prevails there as it does here, and the individual continues to gain experience through choices and consequences as a result of those choices. 11. Upon completion of the probationary period of mortality and post-mortality, and at some future date, the offspring of God will go through a metamorphosis called resurrection whereby the physical body will in some manner be rejoined with the spirit. All of God's children who came to earth will receive a resurrection. 12. By eternal laws the children of God are judged according to their adherence and faithfulness to the laws which govern the mortal estate. If they are faithful and true to the requirements of eternal law, these children will not only be saved and resurrected, but they will be exalted to the station of a God, where they will enjoy all the rights and privileges which their eternal parents enjoy. The great circle of life will then continue as those children, now exalted, set out to create worlds of their own and procreate children in the society of the Gods. 13. Adam and Eve are only the names of Gods while they are fulfilling the calling of peopling Their earth. In reality, They are the only Gods with whom we have to do. They are the only Heavenly Father and Heavenly Mother we have anything to do with. It is this God and Father of whom Joseph and Brigham have said: "He is our God and Father, and the only God with whom we have to do." He is that Being to whom we owe reverence and worship, and in fact our very existence. 14. Adam and Eve, once their mission is completed on earth, take their bodies back up again. This is correctly understood to mean that because Adam and Eve have already successfully lived out their mortal probation on an earth and been resurrected and exalted, They possess the power over mortal death to raise Themselves up again. In other words, They possess the keys which have power over death, and death is thereby powerless to hold them. 15. In the pre-mortal estate the first born son to our parents has the privilege of being ordained to be the Savior of the family. It is his responsibility, honor, and privilege to fill this exalted and holy office. At an appointed time he will be born into mortality and through obedience to the will of the Father, he will accomplish the redemption of the family, thus enabling them all to return back to their home. This is

correctly understood to be salvation. But the degree of exaltation to which each child is raised is determined by their obedience to the will of the Father who presides over them. A. To accomplish his mission, the Savior's body is fathered by the Father of our spirits, while his mother is mortal. The Savior is the only human who will have a God for his earthly parent. This accounts for the Savior's being "the only begotten of the Father." [287] B. Adam's children in mortality (Abel, Seth, etc.) differed from Jesus Christ in their parentage in that Adam had become a mortal being to father bodies for these spirits, whereas He had Fathered the Savior as an immortal Being, possessing the seeds of immortality. 16. The society of heaven is polygynous, the Parentage is composed of one male and more than one female who enjoy a perfect unity of will, purpose and love. A. Adam and Eve represent the male and one of His wives, which wife is the Mother of all the children born to Her in heaven and who will inhabit the earth through Her loins. B. Presumably, Adam will "fall" repeatedly, a sufficient number of times to allow each of His companions the opportunity to come to an earth and commence the begetting of Her children. C. The "falling" which the Gods do is a selfless act of honor and love which provides for Their children the opportunity to become as They are, even Gods. It is a tenet of the Mormon religion that each faithful man and woman must consider themselves as if they are respectively Adam and Eve. For if they prove faithful, they will eventually be called up, and anointed a king and a queen, exalted parents will they become, and then they will be prepared to fill the callings of an Adam and an Eve on their own earth. This is why Adam and Eve figure so prominently in our religion: they are a type of what we are to become if we are obedient and valiant. This outline of The Doctrine Of Deity is not a complete treatment and it presupposes an understanding of the plan of salvation. [288] [289] (Blank Page) Part 3: Opposition To The Adam-God Doctrine But listen to the explanation of the parable of the Sower: "When any one heareth the word of the Kingdom, and understandeth it not, then cometh the wicked one, and catcheth away that which was sown in his heart." Now mark the expression -- that which was sown in his heart. This is he which receiveth seed by the way side. Men who have no principle of righteousness in themselves, and whose hearts are full of iniquity, and have no desire for the principles of truth, do not understand the word of truth when they hear it. The devil taketh away the word of

truth out of their hearts, because there is no desire for righteousness in them. "But he that receiveth seed in stony places, the same is he that heareth the word, and at once, with joy receiveth it; yet hath he not root in himself, but dureth for a while: for when tribulation or persecution ariseth because of the word, by and by, he is offended. He also that receiveth seed among the thorns, is he that heareth the word; and the care of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches choke the word, and he becometh unfruitful. But he that received seed into the good ground, is he that heareth the word, and understandeth it, which also beareth fruit, and bringeth forth, some an hundred fold, some sixty, some thirty." Joseph Smith, HC 2:266-267 [290] [291] (Blank Page) For there are many yet on the earth among all sects, parties, and denominations, who are blinded by the subtle craftiness of men, whereby they lie in wait to deceive, and who are only kept from the truth because they know not where to find it Joseph Smith, D&C 123:12 Anti-Mormon Rhetoric 21

Persecution A Natural Consequence Persecution of the People of God is an eternal principle, and one to be expected to show itself in this dispensation in many ways and at many times. The adversary has never left truth alone, but has always mustered all his forces and power to extinguish it. The Savior explained the consequences of becoming one of his followers and embracing the truths which he revealed: I am come to set a man at variance against his father, and the daughter against her mother, and the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law. And a man's foes shall be they of his own household. (Matthew 10:35-36) And also: If the world hate you, ye know that it hated me before it hated you. If ye were of the world, the world would love his own: but because ye are not of the world, but I have chosen you out of the world, therefore the world hateth you. Remember the word that I said unto you, The servant is not

greater than his lord. If they have persecuted me, they will also persecute you; if they have kept my saying, they will keep yours also. [292] But all these things will they do unto you for my name's sake, because they know not him that sent me. (John 15:18-21) Thus, persecution of, rejection of, and hatred toward his followers are all the trademarks which identify the people of God. If these things are missing or waning, we might expect that his followers have departed from his truths and teachings, thus gaining favor with the world. The Adam-God Issue The enemies of the truth, and hence, enemies of Jesus Christ, reject the Church of Jesus Christ in our day even as they did in ancient times. In the early days of The Restoration the Saints were persecuted for believing in the revealed doctrine of Deity, the Adam-God doctrine. Today, enemies of the restored Gospel have capitalized on what has come to be the official Church position on the Adam-God doctrine. Because today some deny what was plainly taught by the founding fathers of Mormonism, we find ourselves in the predicament of choosing between Joseph and those he personally taught on the one hand, and the prevalent misconceptions of our day on the other. If we continue to misunderstand what was taught by the Prophet Joseph and those he set apart to lead the kingdom, thinking instead that we know better than they, then we forfeit the integrity of The Restoration; we fail to preserve in purity the doctrines of The Restoration which make this the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Because we have failed to understand the teachings of early prophets, our situation, as far as Adam-God is concerned, is clearly depicted by anti-Mormon authors who state: Undoubtedly Joseph Smith was unique in applying the term "Ancient of Days" to Adam, since theologians down through the centuries have been quite consistent in identifying the "Ancient of Days" with Almighty God. it is apparent that Joseph Smith's concept of God was the same as Brigham Young's. (The Maze of Mormonism, p. 83) Mormons would have their people and others believe that Brigham Young was misquoted or misunderstood. They would like to think that this Adam-God doctrine is an attempt by anti-Mormons to defame their prophet. Nevertheless, any honest Mormon who is willing to face the facts can find out for himself exactly what Brigham Young gave on the subject in the Journal of Discourses and other Mormon writings. ... concerning the Adam-God doctrine: "It is true that Mormons today do not believe this; however, I have had a number of Mormon people tell me that they themselves believe it. Most others have never heard of the idea and say that it is simply not true. However, facts are: For more than 50 years (1852-1903), Mormonism's official writers taught without hesitation that Adam is our God, and

the major share of the people believed it!" [293] It is impossible and utterly dishonest to pretend that Brigham Young was misquoted and misunderstood for over 50 years ... If his revelations are contradicted at a later date, why have a living prophet? How do Mormons know they are not now misunderstanding their current Mormon prophet? ... for the Mormon church to deny the Adam-God doctrine brands Brigham Young as a false prophet. (The Mormon Illusion, pp.80, 85, 86, 88) The State Of Those Who Reject God's Work In choosing to quote some of the writings of these anti-Mormons, I do not wish to contribute to their credibility. I have carefully quoted that which was honest while rejecting their slanderous statements about Joseph Smith, his successors, and the work of The Restoration. Because anti-Mormons reject the testimony of Joseph Smith in regard to The Restoration, they, in effect, bid farewell to the Lord's confirmation of Joseph's testimony. They tie the Lord's hands, that He cannot help them to see and understand the truth of the work. Similarly, Mormons who reject the word of God through His prophets will experience the consequences described by Alma: And therefore, he that will harden his heart, the same receiveth the lesser portion of the word; and he that will not harden his heart, to him is given the greater portion of the word, until it is given unto him to know the mysteries of God until he know them in full. And they that will harden their hearts, to them is given the lesser portion of the word until they know nothing concerning his mysteries; and then they are taken captive by the devil, and led by his will down to destruction. Now this is what is meant by the chains of hell. (Alma 12:10-11) This eternal principle explains why and how a people that reject the Lord's word lose their distinction as His people altogether: by willingly rejecting "the lesser portion of the word," the Lord's people seal their own fate, "until they know nothing concerning his mysteries." Why Help The Enemy? The question will be asked by those who are not familiar with the methods of the enemies of the Church, "Why are you writing all of these things in your book for anti-Mormons to use?" The truth is that the anti-Mormon authors of books and literature already know more about Adam-God than the vast majority of us Mormons. Any Christian book store [294] has a selection of books on modern-day cults, and these writers definitely believe Mormonism to be a cult (cult simply means: an unorthodox religion; Mormonism is very unorthodox; in fact, orthodox ought to be a four-letter word to Mormons). Their books are jam-packed with most of what has been covered already in this book. The only difference between their treatment of the Adam-God doctrine

and that which is contained herein, is that this work is a testimony of The Restoration of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, while their's is centered around destroying the work of The Restoration. I do not intend to list the numerous anti-Mormon books which treat Adam-God, nor do I encourage the reading of such dubious works of scholarship. These books utilize the most devious and dishonest tactics in an attempt to slander the Lord's Work. They will outright lie in order to convince their readers that Joseph Smith was a fraud and that he made up his experiences. They ignore facts which would destroy their cause. They do as the Savior said: Ye blind guides, which strain at a gnat, and swallow a camel. (Matthew 23:24) In other words they ignore the truths and testimonies of The Restoration while criticizing the trivial. Although they believe they are ultimately doing the Lord's work in destroying the "misguided Mormons," those who stoop to deceive in an attempt to malign Mormonism are not exempt from the justice of God: Verily, verily, I say unto you, wo be unto him that lieth to deceive because he supposeth that another lieth to deceive, for such are not exempt from the justice of God. (D&C 10:28) Falsehood Has No Place In God's Church In February 1982 my wife and I attended a baptismal service for a young couple and their daughter who had just converted to the Church. I recorded in my journal on February 6, 1982: I was particularly impressed with a family ... who got baptized today... In my journal I listed their names and spoke of what a neat experience it was to be at their baptism. We later learned that this family had left for a vacation the next day, but not before their previous minister gave them an anti-Mormon book complete with the "Adam-God expose." When they returned from their vacation they asked to have their names removed from the records of the Church, and didn't want to see any Mormons again! In the Arapahoe Colorado Stake, of which we previously belonged, our stake president [295] personally told me that a return missionary left the Church after learning about the Adam-God doctrine. This missionary could find no one in the Church who could answer his questions honestly, because none of his priesthood leaders were educated in the true doctrine of Deity. The late Walter Martin, a noted anti-Mormon propagandist, has produced a series of recorded audio tapes of public confrontations he had with so-called cults. His audio cassette, Martin Under Fire On Mormonism, contains the following exchange which took place in a crowded auditorium: Walter Martin: "I don't know what your Baptist background was, or

what you learned, but you never learned that there was more than one God, did you?" Mormon Missionary: "I certainly did not." Walter Martin: "Right! And you never learned that Jesus Christ was conceived by Adam-God and the Virgin Mary, did you?" Mormon Missionary: "I have not learned that in the Mormon Church." Walter Martin: "Ah, now that is precisely why you're probably still there. If Brigham Young really taught that, would you stay?" Mormon Missionary: "If he taught it in the context that you presented it, I would not." Walter Martin: "Then you would leave?" Mormon Missionary: "Then may I ask a question? If..." Walter Martin: "But I have an important point! If Brigham really taught that, then you'd leave wouldn't you?" Mormon Missionary: "If he taught it in the context that you have said that he taught it, yea, I guess I..." Walter Martin: "You see me afterwards and I'll give you all the quotations and you check them yourself." As I have thought about that newly baptized family and these uninformed missionaries who were deceived by those who "lie in wait," it has occurred to me that their disaffection from the Church may be the responsibility of those Mormons who have been uninformed about the Adam-God doctrine. For heaven's sake, let's not disaffect people from the Church by our remaining ignorant of the history of The Restoration. This author would to God that investigators would be disaffected by the truth instead of by falsehoods. In fact, it may be that if we admit the truth, and embrace it with all our being, then many would return to the Church. It is inconceivable why any faithful member of the Church would, given the choice, purposely deceive in an attempt to hide the truth. The Savior was very clear that his sheep [296] hear his voice and know him; they care not what the message is, but they are disciples of truth and can discern anything less than truth as not being of God. The Savior also taught that there are those things which are not fit for initiates. He said that they must be fed milk at first and the meat will come later. I do not differ with this direction. Nor do I feel it appropriate to cast pearls before swine, but Adam-God, whatever pearl of great price it is, has been trampled upon, and as it stands now, is in need of rescue. The choice we are faced with is continuing to live in ignorance of the revealed doctrine of Deity, further plunging this pearl into apostasy, or pay the price of restoring Adam-God to its true stature, thus offending the wicked who will persecute the truth. Let us serve the honest and faithful, not the wicked. Let us fear God, not man.

[297]

Let him that is ignorant learn wisdom by humbling himself and calling upon the Lord his God, that his eyes may be opened that he may see, and his ears opened that he may hear. The Lord, D&C 136:32

Opposition From Within Present-day Folly

22

We have already documented the devolution of the Adam-God doctrine, and there is no purpose in elaborating further upon the predicament of the Latter-day Saints which has placed Adam-God where it is today. With this much said, it must also be acknowledged that there are those Latter-day Saints who will still raise objections because of the opinions perpetuated in this century and which now pervade Mormonism and its literature. For this reason we must address such works that have been written by our own people. This is a difficult task for us to undertake, for it cannot be done without plainly manifesting the folly of those concerned. This author has enough ignorance, prejudice, and weakness in his own character to repent of, without worrying about that of others. Let me make one thing very clear at the onset: I do not pretend to be better than anyone else, nor am I passing judgement upon the acts and statements of others. But if men, in their ignorance, speak upon subjects of which they should be, but are not, familiar, and promote that which is false, then it is they who have brought judgement upon themselves. As has been the rule in the rest of this book, I will above all else try to be honest and fair in presenting their teachings, and let them speak for themselves. These statements usually will not require much commentary, and in light of the previous twenty chapters, we are confident that the reader [298] will have no difficulty in understanding how we have come to be apostate with respect to the true doctrine of Deity, Adam-God. With our new-found background in the devolution of Adam-God, it becomes much easier to not only understand present-day ignorance of the doctrine, but it also becomes easier to forgive those who have led us astray in our knowledge of God. We must remember that our apostasy with respect to this truth is not the fault of any one individual, nor the fault of a group of leaders of the Church. It was the pervasive unbelief of the Latter-day Saints which would not allow the leaders of the Church to teach the truth, thus plunging us into public ignorance and prejudice. An Overview Of The Devolution From the historical record, it is quite clear that Adam-God has encountered opposition from the very day it was revealed. This opposition planted the seeds of dissension and what eventually became the rejection of the Adam-God doctrine. What we have inherited today is a legacy of unbelief and misunderstanding. We are taught today that Adam-God was never taught and that the

historical evidence corroborating the teaching is erroneous. But as we have seen, this synopsis is itself an insult to the truth, for it in no way resembles what was taught and the extent to which Adam-God was promoted as a doctrine of the Church. A brief overview of the devolution of the Adam-God doctrine will help us keep modern attitudes in a true light, giving us the perspective we need in order to understand the almost complete misunderstanding we encounter today by those who have written or spoken upon the subject. The overview is presented in chronological order: 1830 ... Michael, or Adam, the father of all, the prince of all, the ancient of days. (D&C 27:11) Michael is the father of all! And Adam called his wife's name Eve, because she was the mother of all living; for thus have I, the Lord God, called the first of all women, which are many. (Moses 4:26) Eve was the mother of all living before she came to the garden! 1835 And the Lord administered comfort unto Adam, and said unto him: I have set thee to be at the head; a multitude of nations shall come of thee, and thou art a prince over them forever. (D&C 107:55) [299] Michael has been set at the head, and he shall be over the multitude of the earth forever! 1838 Adam-ondi-Ahman ... is the place where Adam shall come to visit his people, or the Ancient of Days shall sit, as spoken of by Daniel the prophet. (D&C 116) 1839 Our Savior speaks of children and says, Their angels always stand before my Father. The Father called all spirits before him at the creation of man, and organized them. He (Adam) is the head, and was told to multiply. The keys were first given to him, and by him to others .... The keys have to be brought from heaven whenever the Gospel is sent. When they are revealed from heaven, it is by Adam's authority. (HC 3:387, 386) 1852 Now hear it, O inhabitants of the earth, Jew and Gentile, Saint and sinner! When our father Adam came into the garden of Eden, he came into it with a celestial body, and brought Eve, one of his wives, with him. He helped to make and organize this world. He is MICHAEL, the Archangel, the

ANCIENT OF DAYS! about whom holy men have written and spoken -- HE is our Father and our GOD, and the only God with whom WE have to do. Every man upon the earth, professing Christians or nonprofessing, must hear it, and will know it sooner or later... Now, let all who may hear these doctrines, pause before they make light of them, or treat them with indifference, for they will prove their salvation or damnation. (Brigham Young, JD 1:50-51; underline added for emphasis) 1853 ADAM, THE FATHER AND GOD OF THE HUMAN FAMILY. The above sentiment appeared in Star No. 48, a little to the surprise of some of its readers; and while the sentiment may have appeared blasphemous to the ignorant, it has no doubt given rise to some serious reflections with the more candid and comprehensive mind. (Millennial Star 15:801, December 10, 1853) ... It is upon this foundation that the throne of Michael is established as Father, Patriarch, God; and it is for all his children who come into this world, to learn and fully understand the eternity of that relationship. (Ibid. 15:802) 1857 Some have grumbled because I believe our God so near to us as Father Adam. (JD 5:331) 1861 I will give you a few words of doctrine, upon which there has been much inquiry, and with regard to [300] which considerable ignorance exists. Br. Watt will write it, but it is not my intention to have it published, therefore pay good attention, and store it up in your memories. Some years ago, I advanced a doctrine with regard to Adam being our Father and God, that will be a cause [curse] to many Elders of Israel because of their folly. With regard to it they yet grovel in darkness and win. It is one of the most glorious revealments of the economy of heaven, yet the world holds it [in] derision. Had I revealed the doctrine of baptism from the dead instead [of] Joseph Smith there are men around me who would have ridiculed the idea until dooms day. But they are ignorant and stupid like the dumb ass. (manuscript entitled "A Few Words Of Doctrine," October 8, 1861, Brigham Young Collection, Church Archives) 1862 The Lord told me that Adam was my father and that He was the God and Father of all the inhabitants of this earth. (Heber C. Kimball, Memorandum, April 30, 1862; Sacred History, Solomon F. Kimball, Church Archives) 1867

Adam is Michael the Archangel and he is the Father of Jesus Christ and is our God and Joseph taught this principle. (Brigham Young, December 16, 1867, Wilford Woodruff Journal) 1868 ... Adam is our God. Who his God and Father may be I have no knowledge. (A. F. MacDonald, June 8, 1868, Minutes of the Provo School of the Prophets) 1869 Some have thought it strange what I have said concerning Adam. But the period will come when this people, if faithful, will be willing to adopt Joseph Smith as their Prophet, Seer, Revelator, and God, but not the Father of their spirits, for that was our Father Adam. (Brigham Young, December 11, 1869, Wilford Woodruff Journal) 1873 How much unbelief exists in the minds of the Latter-day Saints in regard to one particular doctrine which I revealed to them, and which God revealed to me -- namely that Adam is our father and God -- I do not know, I do not inquire, I care nothing about it. Our Father Adam helped to make this earth, it was created expressly for him, and after it was made he and his companions came here. (Brigham Young, Deseret Weekly News 22:308-309, June 18, 1873) 1876 Is there in the heaven of heavens a leader? Yes, and we cannot do without one and that being the case, whoever [t]his is may be called God. Joseph said that Adam was our Father and God. (Brigham Young, Journal History, May 14, 1876, Church Archives) [301] 1889 There are two personages, the Father and the Son. God is the being who walked in the Garden of Eden, and who talked with the prophets. This revelation came to us in certainty. (George Q. Cannon, 1889, Millennial Star 51:278) 1892 ... I was at my quorum meeting where were present all the presidency and myself, as also Bro. Lyman; Geo. Gibbs, clerk. Bro. Jos. F. Smith was mouth in prayer. Thereafter some conversation followed as to whether Adam is our God or not. There are some in the Church who do not accept of the statements of President Young that such is the case... (Abraham H. Cannon Journal, May 26, 1892, Church Archives) 1895 How much longer I shall talk to this people I do not know;

but I want to say this to all Israel: Cease troubling yourselves about who God is; who Adam is, who Christ is, who Jehovah is. For heaven's sake, let these things alone. Why trouble yourselves about these things? God has revealed himself and when the 121st section of the Doctrine and Covenants is fulfilled, whether there be one God or many Gods they will be revealed to the children of men, as well as all thrones and dominions, principalities, and powers. Then why trouble yourselves about these things? God is God. Christ is Christ. The Holy Ghost is the Holy Ghost. That should be enough for you and me to know. If we want to know anymore, wait till we get where God is in person. I say this because we are troubled every little while with inquiries from Elders anxious to know who God is, who Christ is, and who Adam is. I say to the Elders of Israel, stop this. Humble yourselves before the Lord; seek for light, for truth, and for a knowledge of the common things of the Kingdom of God. The Lord is the same yesterday, today, and forever. He changes not. The Son of God is the same. He is the Savior of the world. He is our advocate with the Father. We have had letter after letter from Elders abroad wanting to know concerning these things. Adam is the first man. He was placed in the Garden of Eden, and is our great progenitor. God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost, are the same yesterday, today, and forever. That should be sufficient to know. (Wilford Woodruff, Millennial Star 57:355-356, April 7, 1895) 1897 Adam is our father and God and no use to discuss it with Josephites or any one else. (Brigham Young, Jr., Journal, December 16, 1897, Church Archives; underline added for emphasis) This, like many other points of more advanced doctrine, is too precious a pearl to be cast before swine. But when the swine get hold of them, let us rescue them by the help of the Spirit as best we can. (Franklin D. Richards, Richards Family Collection, Franklin Dewey Richards Letterbook, Church Archives) 1898 Concerning the doctrine in regard to Adam and the Savior, the Prophet Brigham Young taught some [302] things concerning that; but the First Presidency and the Twelve do not think it wise to advocate these matters. It is sufficient to know we have a Father -- God the Eternal Father, who reveals Himself by His Holy Spirit unto those who seek him; and that Jesus Christ is His Son, our Redeemer, the Savior of the world. (George Q. Cannon, Proceedings of the First Sunday School Convention of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, pp. 87-88, November 28, 1898) 1902 What is called the Adam-God doctrine may properly be classed among the mysteries. The full truth concerning it

has not been revealed to us; and until it is revealed all wild speculations, sweeping assertions and dogmatic declarations relative thereto, are out of place and improper. We disapprove of them and especially the public expression of such views. (Joseph F. Smith, Joseph F. Smith Personal Letterbook, pp. 26-27) Men had ridiculed the elders for believing that Adam was a God. We are not ashamed of this doctrine. Jesus said in speaking to the Jews in relation to Abraham, that they were Gods unto whom the word of God comes. But though we look upon Adam as a God, we worship the same God that Adam worshiped in the Garden of Eden. (Anthon H. Lund, Millennial Star 64:742) 1903 There has been much discussion in Mutual Improvement Associations, and in theological classes of the Sunday Schools, over the exact status of "the first man Adam" in the doctrines of our church. Some remarks concerning him by President Brigham Young, in a discourse delivered in this city many years ago, have been commented upon, added to, and sometimes misinterpreted in a manner that has led to considerable confusion and misunderstanding. (Charles W. Penrose, Improvement Era 5:873) 1912 Brigham Young did not qualify his remarks which were taken in longhand and there may have been some things said which unless further explained might be misconstrued... (Charles W. Penrose, Thomas Clawson Journal, April 8, 1912, Utah State Historical Society; see also Anthony W. Ivins Journal, April 8, 1912, Utah State Historical Society) Speculations as to the career of Adam before he came to the earth are of no real value. We learn by revelation that he was Michael, the archangel, and that he stands at the head of his posterity on earth. Dogmatic assertions do not take the place of revelation, and we should be satisfied with that which is accepted as doctrine, and not discuss matters that, after all disputes, are merely matters of theory. (Joseph F. Smith, Anthon H. Lund, Charles W. Penrose, Improvement Era 15:417) 1916 There still remains, I can tell by the letters I have alluded to, an idea among some of the people that Adam was and is the Almighty and Eternal God ... The notion has taken hold of some of our brethren that Adam is the being that we should worship ... I am sorry that has not been rectified long ago, because plain answers have been given to brethren and sisters who write and desire to know about it, and yet it still lingers, and contentions arise in regard to it, and there should be no contentions among Latter-day [303] Saints... Who was the person Adam prayed to? Adam prayed to God... So

Adam was neither the Father, nor the Son, nor the Holy Ghost, was he? Then who was he? Why, we are told he was Michael in his first estate, and as Adam he will stand at the head of his race... Jesus of Nazareth, born of the virgin Mary, was literally and truly the Son of the Father, the Eternal God, not of Adam. (Charles W. Penrose, Conference Report of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, April 1916, pp. 16-17, 23) 1921 As a matter of fact the "Mormon" Church does not teach that doctrine. A few men in the "Mormon" Church have held such views, and several of them quite prominent in the councils of the Church, but the Church has made announcement of no such doctrine, nor has the Church propounded it to the world or accepted it by any article of its faith. Here I invoke the principles laid down in the early part of my remarks, viz., that the Church may only rightly be charged with those doctrines which may be adduced from the official documents she herself sets forth as the sources of her doctrine, the very revelations of God that she has officially accepted; and from these sources the above may not be proven. Brigham Young and others may have taught that doctrine, but it has never been accepted by the Church as her doctrine, and she is not in any way responsible for it. (B. H. Roberts, July 10, 1921, reported in the Deseret News July 23, 1921) They (the unbelieving gentiles) mocked at Brigham Young, Adam--God, and we seek to mollify and pacify them by telling them that it is not the doctrine of the Church, but only the doctrine of Brigham Young. But we are making matters worse, for next we will have to explain that it was only an idea of Joseph Smith, and the Prophet Daniel, and of Jesus Christ, for Jesus gave this revelation to Joseph Smith. (Heber Bennion, Supplement to Gospel Problems, p. 13) 1922 Jesus of Nazareth, born of the virgin Mary, was literally and truly the Son of the Father, the Eternal Father, not of Adam. (Charles W. Penrose, Conference Report, April 22, 1922, p. 23) This overview is merely a representative sampling of the many historical references already cited in this book. As was clearly shown in chapter eleven, and here reviewed, the devolution of the Adam-God doctrine was so gradual that many of the Latter-day Saints probably didn't perceive what was happening. The passing of a century of history, however, has given our generation a perspective heretofore unknown. Today, we have no difficulty in determining what has transpired and how it happened. We have the added benefit of dozens of personal journals kept by the brethren of the priesthood who personally witnessed the events surrounding Adam-God; and many of these

records have only come to light in the last twenty years. Much more might be expected to come forth in the near future. [304] By the end of the first quarter of this century, Adam-God was an unscriptural, unsound, and untrue doctrine espoused by fundamentalist "apostate" Mormons (many of them so-called because they clung to the teachings of Joseph and Brigham). How ironic that those who would cling to the teachings of The Restoration unconditionally would be the ones who would later become ostracized by the main body of the Church, who had chosen to reject further light and knowledge. This emergence in Mormonism is not unlike "heretical" movements of early Christianity, which were criticized and hated by the mainstream Christian church, some no doubt for adhering to unpopular doctrines of the Church Jesus established. Discourses Of Brigham Young In 1925 John A. Widtsoe compiled and published Discourses of Brigham Young. None of Brigham's Adam-God teachings are contained therein, and one sermon was actually altered by Elder Widtsoe. This editing out of key remarks of Brigham Young removes any allusion to Adam-God from the sermon. This is one way in which apologists have dismissed Adam-God and perpetuated the real myth. The real myth is that Brigham did not teach it and that it is false. But if one can change the words attributed to Brigham Young, then it becomes a simple matter to deny the doctrine. This author cannot help but feel that this type of scholarship is lacking. This error has been perpetuated by those who have found Elder Widtsoe's version more supportive of their position, than the real words which Brigham Young spoke. Thus, they quote the erroneous version. The discourse which Elder Widtsoe misquoted was delivered by Brigham Young on January 12, 1862 in the Tabernacle. It is found in the Journal of Discourses 9:147-150. Said Brigham: How has it transpired that theological truth is thus so widely disseminated? It is because God was once known on the earth among his children of mankind, as we know one another. Adam was as conversant with his Father who placed him upon this earth as we are conversant with our earthly parents. The Father frequently came to visit his son Adam, and talked and walked with him; and the children of Adam were more or less acquainted with their Grandfather, and their children were more or less acquainted with their Great-Grandfather. (JD 9:148) John A. Widtsoe changed the underlined words to say "him" (see Discourses of Brigham Young, 1925 ed. p. 159; 1973 ed. p. 104), thus avoiding the question of why Adam's children would be a different generation than Adam, with respect to their divine heritage. This error was perpetuated in Joseph Fielding Smith's Answers To Gospel Questions, volume 5, pp. 121-128 and Doctrines of Salvation, volume 1, p. 104; and in the 1972-73 Melchizedek Priesthood manual pp. 20-22; and in Mark E. Petersen's ADAM Who Is He? pp. 15-16. We [305] see that we can not trust that all we are "fed" is an accurate treatment of history. For this reason we have gone back to the sources as much as is possible in order

to learn of Adam-God. Evidences And Reconciliations In 1925 Elder John A. Widtsoe of the Quorum of Twelve published his book, Evidences And Reconciliations, in which he explains "the facts concerning the so-called Adam-God theory:" Those who peddle the well-worn Adam-God myth, usually charge the Latter-day Saints with believing that: (1) Our Father in heaven, the Supreme God, to whom we pray, is Adam, the first man; and (2) Adam was the father of Jesus Christ. A long series of absurd and false deductions are made from these propositions. Those who spread this untruth about the Latter-day Saints go back for authority to a sermon delivered by President Brigham Young "in the tabernacle, Great Salt Lake City, April 9th, 1852." (Journal of Discourses, 1:50) Certain statements there made are confusing if read superficially, but very clear if read with their context. Enemies of President Brigham Young and of the Church have taken advantage of the opportunity and have used these statements repeatedly and widely to do injury to the reputation of President Young and the Mormon people. An honest reading of this sermon and of other reported discourses of President Brigham Young proves that the great second President of the Church held no such views as have been put into his mouth in the form of the Adam-God myth... A discourse delivered August 8, 1852, within four months of the discourse in controversy (Journal of Discourses, 3:94) contains the following: "The Lord sent forth His gospel to the people: He said, I will give it to my son Adam, from whom Methuselah received it; and Noah received it from Methuselah; and Melchizedek administered to Abraham." Clearly, President Young here distinguishes between God, the Father, and Adam, the first man. (Evidences And Reconciliations, pp. 68-69) Elder Widtsoe's argument is clearly lacking an understanding of Joseph's doctrine of the plurality of Gods, for it is obvious that Brigham is referring to Jehovah, who is Lord over Michael, and spoke to him: "I will give it to my son Adam." The truth is that Brigham Young at no time contradicted the Adam-God doctrine, and Adam-God is not a "well-worn myth." It is a beautiful doctrine which can only be comprehended by the honest and humble, those who yearn for further light and knowledge; they sincerely fast and pray for the Holy Ghost to testify to them of "the truth of all things." Heber J. Grant With the Adam-God doctrine "officially" and seemingly removed from Mormon theology, [306] the thrust to keep it there mounted. Officialdom continued to receive concerned appeals from members who could not reconcile the contradictions between what Brigham taught and what was now being disseminated to the Saints. On February 26, 1931 the First Presidency issued a letter, in response to a letter received by Bishop Joseph H. Eldredge, in

which the following is said: ... If what is meant is that Adam had passed on to celestial glory through a resurrection before he came here, and that afterwards he was appointed to this earth to die again, the second time becoming mortal, then it is not scriptural or according to the truth. (signed Heber J. Grant, Messages of the First Presidency 5:289-290) So, not only is Adam-God "not scriptural," it is also not true! Milton R. Hunter Lashing out at persons who expound the belief that Adam is the God of this world, Elder Hunter stated that such doctrine is false and impossible and must be destroyed. "The idea that Adam is the God of this world or that he was transplanted here from another planet is false and misleading," he declared. (Milton R. Hunter, Provo Daily Herald, March 22, 1949, p. 9) Doctrines Of Salvation In 1954 the "sermons and writings of Joseph Fielding Smith" as compiled by Bruce R. McConkie, were published under title of Doctrines of Salvation. Therein Joseph Fielding Smith only acknowledges Brigham Young's April 9, 1852 Priesthood Address as the source of the Adam-God "theory." Of this discourse, recorded in the Journal of Discourses 1:46-53, Joseph Fielding Smith concludes: In all probability the sermon was erroneously transcribed! (Doctrines of Salvation 1:96) Elder Smith then shows that Michael is "the least important" of the creation Gods, and, assuming Jehovah to be Jesus, dispels the Adam-God "theory:" President Young said: "It is true that the earth was organized by three distinct characters, namely, Elohim, Jehovah, and Michael." Here he places Adam, or Michael, third in the list, and hence the least important of the three mentioned, and this President Young understood perfectly... He (Michael) dwelt in the presence of the Father and the Son and was subject to their direction as the scriptures plainly indicate. (Ibid., pp. 96-97) [307] Unfortunately, this argument also lacks insight into Joseph's doctrine on the plurality of Gods and the true identity of Jehovah. When one understands that Jehovah is the Father of Michael, and that Jehovah also ministers over this earth, then and only then does the Adam-God doctrine become elegant and consistent. Next, Joseph Fielding Smith addresses the "celestial body" which Brigham attributed to Adam: When President Young says that Adam came here with a celestial body, he speaks the truth... I think the same can be said of all of us, if we accept the teachings of the Lord -- for we all came from the presence of God, hence had

celestial bodies, even if they were spirit bodies, as was Adam's. (Ibid.) Unfortunately for this argument, the Lord has plainly revealed that celestial bodies belong only to those who have been resurrected and exalted (see chapter two for complete discussion of this fact). Elder Smith next attempts to show that Adam was subordinate to Jesus Christ, by quoting Joseph Smith, but Joseph does not say that! What Joseph does say, however, is: The keys have to be brought from heaven whenever the gospel is sent. When they are revealed from heaven, it is by Adam's authority .... Christ is the Great High Priest, Adam next. (Ibid. p. 99) This question of who presides over whom in this creation has been covered already in chapter three, but so that the reader does not become confused by the above quote, we will here refer to what Joseph Smith said on the subject: Daniel in his seventh chapter speaks of the Ancient of Days; he means the oldest man, our Father Adam, Michael, he will call his children together and hold a council with them to prepare them for the coming of the Son of Man. He (Adam) is the father of the human family, and presides over the spirits of all men, and all that have had the keys must stand before him in this grand council. This may take place before some of us leave this stage of action. The Son of Man stands before him, and there is given him glory and dominion. Adam delivers up his stewardship to Christ, that which was delivered to him as holding the keys of the universe, but retains his standing as head of the human family. (HC 3:386-387) So Joseph informs us that "Adam presides over the spirits of all men." Not only does He preside over us, but it is Adam whom the Son of Man will stand before to be given his "glory and dominion." Joseph further explains Adam's exalted relationship to us: Our Savior speaks of children and says, Their angels always stand before my Father. The Father called all spirits before him at the creation of man, and organized them. He (Adam) is the head, and was told to multiply. The keys were first given to him, and by him to others .... The keys have to be brought from heaven whenever the Gospel is sent. When they are revealed from heaven, it is by Adam's authority. (HC 3:387, 386) All things which transpire on this earth do so by Adam's authority. Even the keys of [308] salvation are presided over by Adam who holds the keys of Presidency over this creation: The Priesthood was first given to Adam; he obtained the First Presidency, and held the keys of it from generation to generation. He obtained it in the Creation, before the world was formed... (HC 3:385-386) Elder Joseph Fielding Smith also quoted Joseph as saying: "Christ is the Great High Priest; Adam next." He uses this quote

to show that Adam was under Jesus Christ, but is this so? In what sense did Joseph mean that Adam was "next" to Christ? Is it in ascending order or descending order that Adam is "next" to Christ? If we look at the context of Joseph Smith's statement we will see that Joseph was describing an ascending order of Priesthood authority, for he lists "Peter, James, and John" before Christ: How have we come at the Priesthood in the last days? It came down, down, in regular succession. Peter, James, and John had it given to them and they gave it to others. Christ is the Great High Priest; Adam next. (HC 3:387-388) Peter, James and John, then Christ, then Adam! Nothing in the teachings of Joseph Smith runs contrary to the Adam-God doctrine. Elder Smith next deals with Adam's death and resurrection: Adam dies as the Father said he would through partaking of the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. Adam's spirit and body were separated, and he did not get the resurrection of Jesus Christ. (Doctrines of Salvation 1:105) Joseph Fielding Smith uses Adam's "death" as proof that he was subject to the atonement and resurrection of Jesus Christ the same as all mankind. This thinking is based upon assumptions which cannot be supported from the scriptures. Firstly, it is more than likely that Adam and Eve possessed the keys of resurrection since they had already been resurrected in a prior estate. And Jesus said the Father has power to "take up his body again" (see chapters fourteen and fifteen). The Bible says that Moses died too, but we learn from The Book of Mormon that Moses, and possibly Alma, were translated: Behold, this we know, that he [Alma] was a righteous man; and the saying went abroad in the church that he was taken up by the Spirit, or buried by the hand of the Lord, even as Moses. But behold, the scriptures saith the Lord took Moses unto himself; and we suppose that he has also received Alma in the spirit, unto himself; therefore, for this cause we know nothing concerning his death and burial. (Alma 45:19) Perhaps Adam's "death" was also different than we are accustomed to. Some cannot accept that Adam is our Heavenly Father because Jesus would have been Adam's Savior. They say it would run contrary to the entire plan of salvation. Many people assume that Adam's need for a Savior is demeaning. Could a son save a father and [309] redeem Him? This author will ask only one question: what better example could be set for us than for our Father to descend below His exaltation and fall, thus showing us the way? We do not know whether our Father had need of a Savior after he left this estate. But even if He did, it would not take away from the truthfulness and splendor of the doctrine of Adam-God. Do the scriptures not inform us that Jesus was the only perfect

man? But Jesus came to John the Baptist for baptism. Why? Not because he had need to be baptized, but as Jesus said: Suffer me to be baptized of thee, for thus it becometh us to fulfill all righteousness. (JS Matt. 3:43) Jesus set the ultimate example for us all to follow, not because he needed to be baptized, but because we needed to be baptized. Then why shouldn't our Father and Mother come here as the "first man" and "first woman" to set the ultimate example for us to follow? This brings consistency to the entire plan of salvation. Truly, ... the first shall be last, and that the last shall be first in all things whatsoever I have created. (D&C 29:30) And, He that is ordained of God and sent forth, the same is appointed to be the greatest, notwithstanding he is the least and the servant of all. (D&C 50:26) Mormon Doctrine In 1958, Bruce R. McConkie, in his book Mormon Doctrine, popularized the notion that it is "apostates" or "cultists" and "enemies" who believe and promote the Adam-God doctrine: Cultists and other enemies of the restored truth, for their own peculiar purposes, sometimes try to make it appear that Latter-day Saints worship Adam as their Father in heaven. In support of their false assumptions, they quote such statements as that of President Brigham Young to the effect that Adam is our father and our god and the only god with whom we have to do. This statement and others of a similar nature, is perfectly consistent and rational, when viewed in full gospel perspective and understood in the light of the revelations relative to the patriarchal chain binding exalted beings together... There is no mystery about this doctrine except that which persons ignorant of the great principles of exaltation and unfriendly to the cause of righteousness have attempted to make. (Mormon Doctrine, pp. 18-19) [310] Priesthood Instruction In the 1972-73 Melchizedek Priesthood Manual we find the following teaching of Joseph Fielding Smith: President Brigham Young did not believe and did not teach, that Jesus Christ was begotten by Adam. (Joseph Fielding Smith, 1972-73 Melchizedek Priesthood Manual, pp. 20-22) Criticism Of Factions This so-called Adam-God theory is false and contrary to all the body of revealed truth. It negates the essential features of the whole plan of salvation; belittles God, and

makes mockery of the atonement of his Son, and postulates the utterly absurd notion that Christ, his Son, had to work out an atoning sacrifice which would bring to pass the immortality and eternal life of God the Father... (Bruce R. McConkie, Criticism Of Factions) Answers To Gospel Questions Answers To Gospel Questions, by Joseph Fielding Smith, contains the following question and answer: "In the Journal of Discourses Brigham Young is quoted as saying, "Jesus, our elder brother, was begotten in the flesh by the same character that was in the Garden of Eden, and who is our Father in heaven." I am unable to harmonize this with your statement that Adam is not "the father of Jesus Christ..." Will you please clarify this discrepancy of opinion?" ... Surely we must give President Brigham Young credit for at least ordinary intelligence, and in stating this I placed it mildly. If he meant to convey the thought that the character who was in the Garden of Eden, and "who is our Father in Heaven," was Adam, then it would mean that this expression was in conflict with all else that he taught concerning God the Father, and I am bold to say that President Brigham Young was not inconsistent in his teaching of this doctrine. (Answers to Gospel Questions 5:121) Our Own Liahona President Spencer W. Kimball, in the Priesthood Session of the Fall 1976 General Conference of the Church, gave a talk entitled, Our Own Liahona. The subject of his talk was: [311] We each have a personal Liahona, our conscience, to unfailingly guide us through the wilderness and storms of life. (November 1976 Ensign, p. 77) Before President Kimball began to speak on the subject of his talk, he warned: Another matter. We hope that you who teach in the various organizations, whether on the campuses or in our chapels, will always teach the orthodox truth. We warn you against the dissemination of doctrines which are not according to the scriptures and which are alleged to have been taught by some of the General Authorities of past generations. Such, for instance, is the Adam-God theory. We denounce that theory and hope that everyone will be cautioned against this and other kinds of false doctrine. (Ibid.) So, Adam-God is lumped in with all other false theories! The Seven Deadly Heresies Bruce R. McConkie has left no doubt about his belief with regard to Adam-God. On June 1, 1980, at a Fourteen Stake Fireside

Address at Brigham Young University, he delivered "The Seven Deadly Heresies." He said heresy number six is: There are those who believe, or say they believe that Adam is our Father and our God, that he is the father of our spirits and our bodies and that he is the one we worship. The devil keeps this heresy alive as a means of obtaining converts to cultism. It is contrary to the whole plan of salvation set forth in the scriptures. Anyone who has read the Book of Moses, and anyone who has received the temple endowment, and who yet believes the Adam-God theory does not deserve to be saved (laughter from audience). Those ensnared by it reject the living prophet, and close their ears to the Apostles of their day. "We will follow those who went before," they say. And having so determined, they soon are ready to enter polygamous relationships which destroy their souls. (Bruce R. McConkie, The Seven Deadly Heresies, BYU cassette tape; underline added for emphasis) Interestingly, Elder McConkie's printed version is not so harsh. It was changed so that the underlined part read instead: ... anyone who has received the temple endowment, has no excuse whatever for being led astray by it. (BYU Devotional Speeches of the Year, 1980, p. 78) Mark E. Petersen In the Fall 1980 General Conference of the Church, Elder Mark E. Petersen spoke on the doctrine of Adam-God, wherein he said: [312] Adam was not our God...Adam was the Savior's progenitor only in the same sense in which he is the ancestor of us all ... Then was Adam our God, or did God become Adam? Ridiculous! Adam was neither God, nor the Only Begotten Son of God. He was a child of God in the spirit as we all are. (November 1980 Ensign, pp. 16-18) Enemies Of The Church? If Bruce R. McConkie is correct, then it is enemies of the Lord's work who put forth the Adam-God doctrine. This being the case then, Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball, Joseph's two most faithful and trusted Apostles would be the worst enemies of this dispensation. Can we really bring ourselves to believe that Elder McConkie is versed in Adam-God, when he shows an obvious lack of understanding toward the doctrine? As we have seen, many have been outspoken about Adam-God when they, in reality, knew very little about the doctrine. The ignorance of those who have misunderstood Adam-God should not offend us, for we have clearly seen that our lack of knowledge and our prejudice toward the doctrine has been inherited. But we are justified in defending Brigham Young's teachings, and, as the people of God, we are under an obligation to do so. Latter-day (including to live by manner can we were to Saints should never criticize the beliefs of others the prophets of God). Humility is required if we are the promptings of the Holy Ghost. And only in this we comprehend and discern the beliefs of others. If speak against any beliefs, while remaining totally

ignorant of those beliefs, we would demonstrate a total disregard for the respect of others. To act thusly is behavior unbecoming a Latterday Saint. In attributing the Adam-God doctrine to fundamentalist groups, Mormon spokesmen have created a stigma which bears little semblance to the truth. For the most part, those people who promote and perpetuate the Adam-God doctrine today are not legal members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. These people who advocate the doctrine of Adam-God have been labeled, "apostates," "fundamentalists," and "cultists" by condescending members of today's Mormon Church, and have been criticized, ostracized, or excommunicated from the body of the Church. Most Mormons today have been taught that Adam-God and polygamy are inseparably connected, and that both are evils. By its very nature this fundamentalist movement represents a threat to the contemporary Church. Why? Because it threatens to draw away the faithful, for it is the faithful who recognize Adam-God for the truth that it is and who become, as Bruce R. McConkie has called them, "converts to cultism." This is a primary reason why President Spencer W. Kimball would caution: [313] We warn you against the dissemination of doctrines which are not according to the scriptures and which are alleged to have been taught by some of the General Authorities of past generations. Such, for instance, is the Adam-God theory. We denounce that theory and hope that everyone will be cautioned against this and other kinds of false doctrine. (November 1976 Ensign, p. 77) We see what a frightening prospect the brethren find themselves in; to reject Adam-God is to alienate many faithful Latter-day Saints (perhaps the most faithful -- for only by personal revelation does a testimony of Adam-God come), and to espouse the doctrine is to chance offending many Latter-day Saints who are not spiritually mature enough to comprehend and accept it. This is all complicated by the fact that many Church spokesmen, because they have misunderstood the subject, have publicly condemned and rejected the doctrine, branding it false. Their outspokenness on the subject has "painted the Church into a corner," so to speak. It's unfortunate that we have chosen to associate a revealed truth with a category of people other than ourselves, which people have chosen to seek religious fulfillment in the teachings of Joseph Smith and Brigham Young. Shouldn't we be the people with whom this truth is associated? It must be admitted, at least to some degree, that we have failed as guardians of the true doctrine of Deity. We now must ask, what is to be done? How can we right the wrong that has been done? Once inherited, tradition takes on the guise of dogmatic truth. We become afraid to question our inherited beliefs. The legacy of anti-Adam-God sentiment in Mormonism has pyramided out of control and can only be rescued with some big changes. A prophet of God revealed it, and nothing short of learning and embracing the truth will do for us. We are the people of God. We must humble ourselves and learn the Lord's will, not "the wisdom of

[our] wise men" which "shall be brought to naught." We must admit that some of us have seriously erred in doctrinal matters, and this is a difficult and sensitive situation to remedy without offending many Saints, both rank and file. There is really nothing to fear from our enemies today, regarding our honest approach to Adam-God. Since we are already criticized for once believing and now rejecting the doctrine, it seems reasonable to assume that there is little more which they could attack by our being honest about the doctrine. Ironically, our honesty would cause these enemies to have greater respect for the Church today, even if they did not agree with our teachings, because a major part of their criticism is that we refuse to honestly accept responsibility for the doctrinal teachings of Joseph Smith and Brigham Young. Isn't it time for us to be faithful and true to the guardianship of the doctrines of The Restoration and erase this legacy of misunderstanding from among us? Is there no one who will stand for justice and truth? Where is that faithful servant who knows the Lord and is anxious to do His will? The Lord looked and was displeased that there was no justice. [314] He saw that there was no one, he was appalled that there was no one to intervene; so his own arm worked salvation for him. (Isaiah 59:15-16; NIV) This excerpt from Isaiah suggests that the Lord will have to intervene if his people refuse to administer justice. George Q. Cannon felt that there would be severe consequences for the Latter-day Saints refusal to "listen:" I feel that if we do not listen to the counsels that are given to us, God has a scourge in store for the Latter-day Saints. (JD 12:290) An Honest Approach It is refreshing to find humble and honest Latter-day Saints who can admit they do not understand Brigham Young's Adam-God pronouncements. Such is Stephen E. Robinson, who, in his book, Are Mormons Christians?, states the following: An anomaly is something unexpected that cannot be explained by the existing laws or theories, but which does not constitute evidence for changing the laws and theories. An anomaly is a glitch... Just as there are anomalies in the world of science, there are anomalies in the realm of history. By historical anomalies in the LDS tradition I do not mean doctrines that are little known or seldom taught. Mormonism has both, but these are not anomalies. By LDS anomalies I mean reported statements of leaders of the Church that cannot be understood even by the Church, and that cannot be reconciled to the official doctrines of the Church... A classic example of an anomaly in the LDS tradition is the so-called "Adam-God theory." During the latter half of the

nineteenth century Brigham Young made some remarks about the relationship between Adam and God that the Latter-day Saints have never been able to understand. The reported statements conflict with LDS teachings before and after Brigham Young, as well as with statements of President Young himself during the same period of time. So how do Latter-day Saints deal with the phenomenon? We don't; we simply set it aside. It is an anomaly. On occasion my colleagues and I at Brigham Young University have tried to figure out what Brigham Young might have actually said and what it might have meant, but the attempts have always failed. The reported statements simply do not compute -- we cannot make sense out of them. This is not a matter of believing it or disbelieving it; we simply don't know what "it" is. If Brigham Young were here we could ask him what he actually said and what he meant by it, but he is not here, and even expert students of his thought are left to wonder whether he was misquoted, whether he meant to say one thing and actually said another, whether he was somehow joking with or testing the Saints, or whether some vital element that would make sense out of the reports has been omitted. (Are Mormons Christians?, pp. 18-20) Unfortunately, Brother Robinson then resorts to the following common LDS argument: For the Latter-day Saints, however, the point is moot, since whatever Brigham Young said, true or false, [315] was never presented to the Church for a sustaining vote. It was not then and is not now a doctrine of the Church, and -like the chemist who can neither explain nor reproduce her results -- the Church has merely set the phenomenon aside as an anomaly. (Ibid.) This author is under the impression that the issue concerning Adam-God is not whether it was "presented to the Church for a sustaining vote," but whether it is true or not. Is it not our declaration of belief that states: We believe all that God has revealed, all that He does now reveal, and we believe that He will yet reveal many great and important things pertaining to the Kingdom of God. (Joseph Smith, Ninth Article of Faith) And: -- We believe all things, we hope all things, we have endured many things, and hope to be able to endure all things. If there is anything virtuous, lovely, or of good report or praiseworthy, we seek after these things. (Joseph Smith, Thirteenth Article of Faith) Joseph said we "are ready to believe all true principles that exist:" ... the most prominent difference in sentiment between the Latter-day Saints and sectarians was, that the latter were all circumscribed by some peculiar creed, which deprived its members the privilege of believing anything not contained therein, whereas the Latter-day Saints have no

creed, but are ready to believe all true principles that exist, as they are made manifest from time to time. (HC 5:215) Many of us make a big fuss over whether Brigham Young had intended for the Adam-God doctrine to be official Church doctrine. This position is indicative of the general lack of spirituality which seems to pervade our day. The obvious issue is not whether Brigham Young presented the doctrine to the Church for sustaining vote, but whether the doctrine is true or whether it is false. If false, then we should reject it. If true, then we should embrace it! What has happened to us that we are now more concerned about public perceptions and doubts that Brigham Young was a prophet capable of revealing God's will and truths? Why are we not more concerned with our own lack of faith in the revelations God has given us? How long will God be patient with our misguided course? Many aspects of the gospel receive our sustaining as members of the Church. We sustained all of the General Authorities at the last General Conference of the Church. We sustain our local leaders at our ward and stake conferences each year. We sustain each individual in the Church before they enter their callings. We sustain leaders, philosophies, and covenants each time we attend a temple recommend interview. But do we, the body of the Church, necessarily have to sustain all things in the Church? Ask yourself: Did we ever sustain the precept or doctrine that we have a Heavenly Mother? No. "But it's not a doctrine!" you say. Why is it in our Church hymnal then (O My Father, [316] Hymn 292, 1985 Hymn Book)? Regardless, you and I cannot change the truth of our having a Heavenly Mother. You see, it is not important to the people of God whether or not a precept has been etched in stone by the finger of God. We care about truth regardless of where it is found. To argue about whether a truth is a doctrine misses the mark! Truth is truth! And we seek after it! Follow Dead Prophets? Because of the 140 year-old debate over Adam-God, and in spite of the reversal of official support for the doctrine, there are still faithful members of the Church who hold to the teachings of Joseph and Brigham, while rejecting today's condemnation of Adam-God. The brethren know this and occasionally remark about it. Indicative of these remarks are those uttered in Elder James E. Faust's Fall 1989 General Conference address entitled, "Continuous Revelation:" For some strange reason it seems easier for many to believe the words of dead prophets rather than those of living prophets. (November 1989 Ensign, p. 9) As we have seen, it is not really "strange" at all why people would be confused about who to follow. Confronted with the opposing teachings of our founding prophets and the opinions of this century, what are we to do? Who should we follow? Does it matter that prophets have differed about who God is? We have only one question: Why have faithful Mormons been placed in the position of having to choose between living and dead prophets? I

believe the answer to this question is: our recent prophets, probably because of tradition, have misunderstood the Adam-God doctrine. However, none of us may remain ignorant any longer and enjoy innocence before God, for the truth is now before us. Beyond The Understanding Of Some The reason Adam-God was lost was because men who lacked understanding of the doctrine were the only ones who were publicly speaking or writing upon the subject. It has been the experience of this author that most men have a tendency to speak beyond their knowledge and understanding. Brigham Young warned: Men may believe alike, and endeavor to teach alike, but my counsel to all is, meddle not with doctrine you do not understand... [317] Unless a man is full of the visions of eternity, he has no business to meddle with matters that pertain to eternity. I wish you to pay particular attention to this, and practice the principle throughout your lives. You can teach things which you believe, but teach them as matters of your individual belief, and not as things acknowledged by this people as a Church and forming a part of their religious faith. Every man must be responsible for his own belief, inasmuch as it cannot be substantiated by the principles and doctrines of the Church of God. A belief in a certain principle is one thing, and to know it is true, is another. (Brigham Young, February 19, 1854, Church Archives) Brigham's meaning is clear; men should remain silent about things they know nothing about! It is more than clear to us now; it is a fact of historical record that many of our members in this century have been hasty in their judgement of Adam-God. Perhaps it was with a vision of these things that Brigham Young spoke the following: How much unbelief exists in the minds of the Latter-day Saints in regard to one particular doctrine which I revealed to them, and which God revealed to me -- namely that Adam is our father and God... I told the people that if they would not believe the revelations that God had given he would suffer the devil to give revelations that they -- priests and people -- would follow after... I told the people that as true as God lived, if they would not have truth they would have error sent unto them, and they would believe it. What is the mystery of it? (Deseret Weekly News 22:308-309, June 18, 1873) Leave The Mysteries Alone? Before we undertake to discuss the "mysteries," let us define the word so we know what is meant by the "mysteries." The LDS Bible Dictionary has this to say concerning "mystery:" "Mystery." Denotes in the New Testament a spiritual truth that was once hidden but now is revealed, and that, without special revelation, would have remained unknown. It is

generally used along with words denoting revelation or publication (e.g., Rom. 16:25-26; Eph. 1:9; 3:3-10; Col. 1:26; 43; 1 Tim. 3:16). The modern meaning of something incomprehensible forms no part of the significance of the word as it occurs in the New Testament. See also Alma 12:9-11; 40:3; D&C 19:10; 42:61-65; 76:5-10. On the other hand, there is no spiritual gain in idle speculation about things the Lord has not revealed. See Deut. 29:29; Alma 37:11. "The modern meaning of something incomprehensible forms no part of the significance of the word [mystery] as it occurs in the New Testament." Therefore, if we perceive "mystery" to be something which cannot be explained or learned, we fail to comprehend the way in which God and His servants use the word. According to our definition, a mystery is "a spiritual truth that was once hidden but now is revealed, and that, without special revelation, would have remained unknown." Adam-God is clearly a mystery, for "it is a spiritual truth that was once hidden but now is revealed." At least two prophets, Joseph and Brigham, received "special revelation," without which Adam-God "would have remained unknown." Further, "something [318] incomprehensible forms no part of the significance of the word [mystery]." Here,Adam-God again complies with the definition of "mystery," because there is nothing incomprehensible about the doctrine which Joseph and Brigham revealed. The Lord has said He will reveal all mysteries to those who keep His commandments and serve Him faithfully: But unto him that keepeth my commandments I will give the mysteries of my kingdom, and the same shall be in him a well of living water, springing up unto everlasting life. (D&C 63:23) And: For thus saith the Lord -- I, the Lord, am merciful and gracious unto those who fear me, and delight to honor those who serve me in righteousness and in truth unto the end. Great shall be their reward and eternal shall be their glory. And to them will I reveal all my mysteries yea, all hidden mysteries of my kingdom from days of old, and for ages to come, will I make known unto them the good pleasure of my will concerning all things pertaining to my kingdom. Yea, even the wonders of eternity shall they know, and things to come will I show them, even the things of many generations. And their wisdom shall be great, and their understanding reach to heaven; and before them the wisdom of the wise shall perish, and the understanding of the prudent shall come to naught. For by my Spirit will I enlighten them, and by my power will I make known unto them the secrets of my will -- yea,

even those things which eye has not seen, nor ear heard, nor yet entered into the heart of man. (D&C 76:5-10) Unto those who keep the commandments and serve the Lord "in righteousness and in truth unto the end," He will "reveal all mysteries, yea, all the hidden mysteries." Even "things which eye has not seen, nor ear heard, nor yet entered into the heart of man." No where does the Lord ever discourage His faithful from learning the mysteries of the gospel. In fact, He does encourage us to investigate the mysteries; He wants to share all of His hidden mysteries with us. "He that will not harden his heart, to him is given the greater portion of the word, until it is given unto him to know the mysteries of God until he know them in full." (Alma 12:10) Is it wrong to seek to know the mysteries of God? If it is wrong then why would God bless the faithful with a knowledge of the mysteries? Obviously, the mysteries are a blessing from God; they are not to be considered undesirable or in any way contrary to the kingdom of God. It is an apostate people who are afraid to learn the truths of God; and it is ignorance which breeds fear in the hearts of mankind. Nephi has told us that we will lose what [319] knowledge and testimony we have if we put limits upon what God can reveal to us (2 Nephi 28:28-30). There is only one sense in which the Latter-day Saints have been counseled to avoid the mysteries, and that is in the mission field: "Oh, ye elders of Israel, hearken to my voice," the Prophet said, "and when you are sent into the world to preach, tell those things you are sent to tell; preach and cry aloud, "Repent ye, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand; repent and believe the gospel." Declare the first principles, and let mysteries alone, lest ye be overthrown. Never meddle with the visions of beasts and subjects you do not understand." (Mormon Doctrine, p. 524) So, we are instructed not to delve into the mysteries when teaching the gospel to investigators, but in every other case we are encouraged to learn as much as we can about God and His mysteries. Why then do we have people in the Church today who condemn such learning of the things of God? Is it because we are threatened by things which we do not understand? The Lord Himself has given us "a commandment:" And I give unto you a commandment that you shall teach one another the doctrine of the kingdom.. Teach ye diligently and my grace shall attend you, that you may be instructed more perfectly in theory, in principle, in doctrine, in the law of the gospel, in all things that pertain unto the kingdom of God, that are expedient for you to understand; Of things both in heaven and in the earth, and under the earth; things which have been, things which are, things which must shortly come to pass; things which are at home, things which are abroad; the wars and the perplexities of the nations, and the judgments which are on the land; and a knowledge also of countries and of kingdoms -- (D&C

88:77-79) Is it not our sacred obligation to "teach one another the doctrine of the kingdom?" We are the people of God. Paul said: Ye are all the children of light, and the children of the day: we are not of the night, nor of darkness. (1 Thessalonians 5:5) Why would any Latter-day Saint choose darkness rather than light? The Saints have been instructed to become perfect in all things, including the knowledge of God: That they may be perfected in the understanding of their ministry, in theory, in principle, and in doctrine, in all things pertaining to the kingdom of God on the earth, the keys of which kingdom have been conferred upon you. (D&C 97:14) These "keys which have been conferred upon" us, in these latter days, are through "the power and authority of the...Melchizedek Priesthood." It is this "power and authority" which grants us "the privilege of receiving the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven:" [320] The power and authority of the higher, or Melchizedek Priesthood, is to hold the keys of all the spiritual blessings of the church -- To have the privilege of receiving the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, to have the heavens opened unto them, to commune with the general assembly and church of the Firstborn, and to enjoy the communion and presence of God the Father, and Jesus the mediator of the new covenant. (D&C 107:18-19) This privilege is given to all who hold the Melchizedek Priesthood and honor it (see Doctrine and Covenants 121:34-46). Let us be grateful for this privilege instead of denying it. Let us not fear the truths of God, but accept them with unfailing faith. Let us continue on the path to perfection as Joseph instructed: I advise all to go on to perfection, and search deeper and deeper into the mysteries of Godliness. (HC 6:363) God shall give unto you knowledge by his Holy Spirit, yea, by the unspeakable gift of the Holy Ghost, that has not been revealed since the world was until now; Which our forefathers have awaited with anxious expectation to be revealed in the last times, which their minds were pointed to by the angels, as held in reserve for the fulness of their glory; A time to come in the which nothing shall be withheld, whether there be one God or many gods, they shall be manifest. (D&C 121:26-28) With our eyes now open, is it appropriate that we should leave the mysteries alone? No!

For he that diligently seeketh shall find; and the mysteries of God shall be unfolded unto them, by the power of the Holy Ghost, as well in these times as in times of old, and as well in times of old as in times to come; wherefore, the course of the Lord is one eternal round. (1 Nephi 10:19) Let us be faithful to the religion God has given us. Let the light of truth dispel the clouds of darkness created by our ignorance. Let us "plant the seed" of Adam-God and nurture it. Let us add to our faith, thus becoming the children of light. No One But The President Of The Church The doctrine of God's Church concerning the promulgation of revelation and new doctrine for the Church has been plainly set forth. Bruce R. McConkie has compiled a worthy treatment of this subject: As used in the gospel, "revelation signifies the making known of divine truth by communication from the heavens."... [321] Our Lord's true Church is established and founded upon revelation. Its identity as the true Church continues as long as revelation is received to direct its affairs, for the gates of hell can never prevail against that power of faith and righteousness which pulls down revelations from heaven... But the Lord's house is a house of order and not a house of confusion (D&C 132:8). Where the Church is concerned revelation comes only through the appointed channels. No one but the President of the Church, who holds and exercises the fulness of the keys, can announce revelation to the Church. "No one shall be appointed to receive commandments and revelations in this church excepting my servant Joseph Smith, Jun., for he receiveth them even as Moses .... For I have given him the keys of the mysteries, and the revelations which are sealed, until I shall appoint unto them another in his stead." (D&C 28:2-8; 25:9; 90:14; 94:3; 100:11; 107:91-92) It is true that all members of the Council of the Twelve are appointed and sustained to serve as prophets, seers, and revelators to the Church (Teachings, p. 109), but as with all of the keys of the kingdom which they receive in connection with the holy apostleship, the power to receive and promulgate revelations for the church lies dormant in them unless and until one of them becomes the President of the Church. Since keys are the right of presidency, they can only be exercised in their fulness by one man on earth at a time (D&C 1-32:7)... This system of promulgating revelations through the established head of the Lord's earthly work is so unbending and inflexible that it stands as a test to establish the truth or falsity of purported revelations. "There is none other appointed unto you to receive commandments and

revelations until he be taken," the Lord said of the Prophet. "And this shall be a law unto you, that ye receive not the teachings of any that shall come before you as revelations or commandments; and this I give unto you that you may not be deceived, that you may know they are not of me." (Mormon Doctrine, second edition, pp. 643-7) No one but the President of the Church can announce revelation to the Church, not even the members of the Council of the Twelve. These powers can only be exercised in their fulness by one man on earth at a time. Sadly, the Adam-God devolution shows that it was primarily members of the Council of the Twelve who disputed President Brigham Young's authority to promulgate Adam-God. And it is the statements of these men which comprise the vast majority of anti-Adam-God sentiment. Remember, it all started with Orson Pratt's rebellion. Later generations, ours included, relied upon these prior opinions until the passing of time elevated them to the status of doctrinal truth. Even prophets have added to this confusion. On July 7, 1954 President J. Reuben Clark, Jr. gave a talk to LDS Seminary and Institute teachers at Brigham Young University entitled, "When Are Church Leaders' Words Entitled to Claim of Scripture?" Therein President Clark quoted Joseph Smith's statement that "a prophet was a prophet only when he was acting as such (HC 5.265), and then declared: Even the President of the Church has not always spoken under the direction of the Holy Ghost, for a prophet is not always a prophet... In our own Church, leaders have differed in view from the first. (President J. Reuben Clark, Jr., Deseret News, 31 July 1954, 2F) Clearly, we have been "deceived" by those who did not have authority from God to falsify Brigham's revelations, but who nonetheless did falsify them because they failed to [322] comprehend that revelation for the Church comes through "no one but the President of the Church:" O hearken, ye elders of my church, and give ear to the words which I shall speak unto you. For behold, verily, verily, I say unto you, that ye have received a commandment for a law unto my church, through him whom I have appointed unto you to receive commandments and revelations from my hand. And this ye shall know assuredly -- that there is none other appointed unto you to receive commandments and revelations until he be taken, if he abide in me. But verily, verily, I say unto you, that none else shall be appointed unto this gift except it be through him; for if it be taken from him he shall not have power except to appoint another in his stead. And this shall be a law unto you, that ye receive not the teachings of any that shall come before you as revelations or commandments; And this I give unto you that you may not be deceived, that

you may know they are not of me. (D&C 43:1-6) Correct And Forgive Those Who Have Erred As was already discussed in chapter three, Brigham Young's presidency was forced to publicly correct Orson Pratt for publishing false doctrines about the nature and character of god. In their published correction, the First Presidency stated: Personal feelings and friendships and associations ought to sink into comparative insignificance, and have no weight in view of consequences so momentous to the people and kingdom of God as these. (Millennial Star 27:659) In other words, our relationship with and feelings for others should not stand in the way of exposing false doctrine. Our first duty is to God and His kingdom. But in correcting our brother we must not criticize nor offend; we are to forgive. The Prophet Joseph said we are to: Ever keep in exercise the principle of mercy, and be ready to forgive our brother on the first intimations of repentance, and asking forgiveness; and should we even forgive our brother, or even our enemy, before he repent or ask forgiveness, our heavenly Father would be equally as merciful unto us. Again, let the Twelve and all Saints be willing to confess all their sins, and not keep back a part; and let the Twelve be humble, and not be exalted, and beware of pride, and not seek to excel one above another, but act for each other's good. (HC 3:383; underline added for emphasis) [323] The clouds of error disappear Before the rays of truth divine. Parley P. Pratt, Hymn 1

ADAM Who Is He? ADAM Who Is He?

23

ADAM Who Is He?, published in 1976, was written by Apostle Mark E. Petersen. Elder Petersen gives his reasons for writing the book on the first page: Adam, the first man, is a controversial figure in the minds of many people. So is Eve, his wife. Together, they are probably the most misunderstood couple who ever lived on earth. This is hardly to be wondered at, though. Misconceptions and far-out theories have been bombarding the public concerning our first parents for centuries past. Probably the most to blame are teachers of religion themselves. Not knowing the facts about Adam and Eve, they have foisted

their own private notions and uninspired creeds upon the people, with the result that a mass of confusion has mounted year after year... Adding to the confusion are some who have so completely misunderstood gospel truths concerning the Garden of Eden that they assume that Adam was Deity, a thing completely at variance with both ancient scripture and modern revelation. (Adam Who Is He?, p. 1) Mark E Petersen, here, gives us his opinion that those who "assume Adam was Deity" are "completely at variance with both ancient scripture and modern revelation." As we have seen, Elder Petersen's opinion demonstrates that he did not do his homework. [324] The Official Response Inasmuch as Mark E. Petersen's ADAM Who Is He? is the most recent book written by an Apostle for the purpose of refuting the Adam-God doctrine, it may honestly be considered, or at least perceived, to be the official Church position on Adam in Latter-day Saint theology. For this reason it deserves our scrutiny. Our Certain Guide "Our Certain Guide;" this sounds like the Holy Ghost, doesn't it? Mark E. Petersen and Joseph Fielding Smith looked at it a little differently: OUR CERTAIN GUIDE * We accept the ancient and modern scriptures as the word of God. They are our unerring guides. But some teach doctrines contrary to the scripture. Under these circumstances it is well to remember President Joseph Fielding Smith, who said: "If I ever say anything contrary to the scriptures, the scriptures prevail." It is so with everyone. It is hoped that this book will be read with that choice bit of wisdom in mind. (ADAM Who Is He?, Introduction) Let us not fall into this same fallacy which caused Joseph so much concern. Joseph was obviously worried about the attitude which says: There are a great many wise men and women too in our midst who are too wise to be taught; therefore they must die in their ignorance, and in the resurrection they will find their mistake. Many seal up the door of heaven by saying, So far God may reveal and I will believe. (HC 5:424) But if the prophet reveals anything contrary to their tradition, what happens? Said Joseph: I have tried for a number of years to get the minds of the Saints prepared to receive the things of God; but we frequently see some of them, after suffering all that they have for the work of God, will fly to pieces like glass as

soon as anything comes that is contrary to their traditions: they cannot stand the fire at all. How many will be able to abide a celestial law, and go through and receive their exaltation, I am unable to say, as many are called, but few are chosen. (HC 6:185) This author came into the Church because the Holy Ghost "hit me in the back of the head like a ton of bricks." Of course, I read some scriptures in my conversion process, but never, in the process, did it occur to me that the standard works constituted doctrinal authority. I wonder if Joseph knew that the Saints, as a whole, would never allow the prophet to be a real revelation-giving prophet. If we allow the prophet of God to reveal only that which [325] fits our understanding of the scriptures, then we have no need of prophets, but only scriptorians. Michael The Archangel Elder Petersen insists that Adam could not be Deity because "he was an angel." We would like to know where Elder Petersen learned that the Archangel is precluded from being Deity. The scriptures only speak of one Archangel. Oscar W. McConkie, in his book, Angels, says: Michael is designated as an archangel. An archangel is a chief angel. Michael is the only angel so designated in the scriptures. This appellation is repeatedly used both in modern scripture and in the New Testament. In terms of rank he is thus the most prominent of all angels. He is the ranking angel. There is no angel of higher status. He is the first angel in the celestial hierarchy. (Angels, p. 42) The scriptures do little to help us understand who and what the Archangel is, however they do give us examples of the power and authority which Michael possesses: he contended with the devil over the body of Moses: Yet Michael he disputed against him thee. (Jude the archangel, when contending with the devil about the body of Moses, durst not bring a railing accusation, but said, The Lord rebuke 9)

In what was probably a similar experience of Joseph Smith, Michael also detected "the devil when he appeared as an angel of light" on the banks of the Susquehanna River (D&C 128:20). Our modem prophets have enlightened us to the fact that the Archangel is not only the chief angel and our superior, but he is our superior by parentage. Elder Petersen's opinion, however, states: Adam and Eve had preexisted, as we did. They lived before this earth was made. But in that preexistent life, who was Adam? Had he really achieved the rank of Deity, which some dissidents believe? There is no scripture anywhere that indicates that Adam had done so, but there is abundant scripture that points to the contrary. He was an angel -- a preexistent spirit like all the rest of us -- except that he had reached high

distinction, a place of importance and prestige; but he was an angel nevertheless... Adam, then, was the chief angel, but not Deity. He embodied most fully the qualities of an angelic existence. He was preeminent among the angels. He was their leader, and his name at that time was Michael. But, we repeat, he was an angel. (ADAM Who Is He?, p. 7) [326] Jehovah-Christ Fallacy Is Alive And Well We have already clearly shown, beyond dispute, that Jehovah of the creation account is not Jesus Christ, and Joseph never once referred to Jehovah as Jesus Christ, or vice versa (see chapter thirteen). Joseph taught that Jehovah is a patriarchal superior to Jesus Christ, and Brigham Young identified Jehovah as Michael's Father, Jesus Christ's Grandfather. However, Elder Petersen contends: Another indication of the fact that Adam was the archangel, the leader of all the spirits in the pre-earth life -- but always subservient to Jehovah, who was Christ -- is that it was he, Michael, who led the armies of heaven in ejecting the rebellious Lucifer from the heavens when he chose to fight against God. Lucifer, it will be remembered, was also an "angel of God who was in authority in the presence of God." But he "rebelled against the Only Begotten Son whom the Father loved and who was in the bosom of the Father." (Ibid. p. 8) Lucifer did not rebel against Jesus Christ, he rebelled against our Father. It was Michael who led the armies of heaven in ejecting Lucifer (see Revelation 12:7-9), and when the scriptures inform us that Lucifer "rebelled against the Only Begotten Son whom the Father loved," it is Jehovah's Son, Michael, whom Lucifer rebelled against. It will be remembered that this is consistent with Joseph's accounts of the first vision, which have Jehovah and Michael, Father and Son, appear to open the last dispensation, over which Michael presides (see chapters twelve and three). The Holy One The lack of understanding about the patriarchal hierarchy of Gods which preside over our creation is the cause of all false teachings and rebellion against the teachings of Joseph and Brigham. Elder Petersen asserts: To Adam, after he was driven from the Garden of Eden, the plan of salvation was revealed, and upon him the fullness of the priesthood was conferred. As Michael, the prince, he holds the keys of all dispensations, which appointment he received under Jesus Christ, "Who hath appointed Michael your prince, and established his feet, and set him upon high, and given unto him the keys of salvation under the counsel and direction of the Holy One, who is without beginning of days or end of life." (See D&C 78:16) (Ibid., p. 9)

Doctrine and Covenants 78:15-16 has been misunderstood by many students of the scriptures, but because of Joseph's creation teachings and his preliminary revelations on the plurality of Gods, we now see what the scriptures teach, instead of seeing what we teach in the scriptures. Although Brigham's teachings have not, in general, been accepted by the Latter-day Saints, they nonetheless are the missing link to our comprehending Joseph's teachings in full. It is Jehovah who is thus spoken of: [327] That you may come up unto the crown prepared for you, and be made rulers over many kingdoms, saith the Lord God [Jehovah], the Holy One of Zion, who hath established the foundations of Adam-ondi-Ahman; Who hath appointed Michael your prince, and established his feet, and set him upon high, and given unto him the keys of salvation under the counsel and direction of the Holy One [Elohim], who is without beginning of days or end of life. (D&C 78:15-16) It is not Jesus Christ who has appointed our Heavenly Father, Michael, but Michael's Father who has appointed him. Elder Petersen's assumption is common, for the scriptures do not plainly set forth the hierarchy of Gods, although a careful, prayerful study of them reveals the consistency of Joseph's and Brigham's revelations. President Of The Resurrection Elder Petersen quotes Doctrine and Covenants 29:26, and still fails to understand that it is Michael who holds the keys and presides over the resurrection: But, behold, verily I say unto you, before the earth shall pass away, Michael, mine archangel, shall sound his trump, and then shall all the dead awake, for their graves shall be opened, and they shall come forth -- yea, even all. (D&C 29:26) In Section 29 it is Jesus Christ who delivers the words of Jehovah, the Lord God. Jehovah here informs us that Michael will initiate the resurrection. Michael And His Angels How is it that we fail to comprehend Michael's exalted relationship to us? The scriptures clearly teach that it was Michael who waged war against Lucifer. Now, who would possess the power to overcome our rebellious brother, but our Father? And there was war in heaven: Michael and his angels fought against the dragon; and the dragon fought and his angels, And prevailed not; neither was their place found any more in heaven. And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world: he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out

with him. (Revelation 12:7-9) [328] And another great war will take place as part of the winding-up scene, and who is it that will battle and overcome the devil in this war? And so on, until the seventh angel shall sound his trump; and he shall stand forth upon the land and upon the sea, and swear in the name of him who sitteth upon the throne, that there shall be time no longer; and Satan shall be bound, that old serpent, who is called the devil, and shall not be loosed for the space of a thousand years. And then he shall be loosed for a little season, that he may gather together his armies. And Michael, the seventh angel, even the archangel, shall gather together his armies, even the hosts of heaven. And the devil shall gather together his armies; even the hosts of hell, and shall come up to battle against Michael and his armies. And then cometh the battle of the great God; and the devil and his armies shall be cast away into their own place, that they shall not have power over the saints any more at all. For Michael shall fight their battles, and shall overcome him who seeketh the throne of him who sitteth upon the throne, even the Lamb. (D&C:88:110-115) Clearly, it is our Father who, in a last battle, will "overcome him who seeketh the throne." Remember, Lucifer's rebellion was in direct opposition to the will of the Father. Thus, Satan seeks to overthrow the Plan of Salvation, and his jealousy is focused upon all who were faithful in the first estate. Satan rebelled, saying: Behold, here am I, send me, I will be thy son, and I will redeem all mankind, that one soul shall not be lost, and surely I will do it; wherefore give me thine honor. (Moses 4:1) Brigham's Statements Have Been Misunderstood Mark E. Petersen, in an attempt to show that Brigham Young did not teach that Adam is our Father and God, quotes the following excerpts from some of Brigham's discourses which show that Adam had dealings with "God" or "Heavenly Father:" In a discourse in the Salt Lake Tabernacle on April 17, 1870, President Young said this: "The world may in vain ask the question: `Who are we?' But the Gospel tells us that we are the sons and daughters of that God whom we serve. Some say, `We are the children of Adam and Eve.' So we are, and they are the children of our Heavenly Father." (JD 13:311) In remarks also in Salt Lake City on July 8, 1863,

President Young said: "We believe in God the Father and in Jesus Christ our elder brother. We believe that God is a person of tabernacle, possessing in an [329] infinitely higher degree all the perfections and qualifications of his mortal children. We believe that he made Adam after his own image and likeness, as Moses testified..." (JD 10:230-231) At another time President Young said: "Adam was as conversant with his Father who placed him upon the earth as we are conversant with our earthly parents. The Father frequently came to visit his son Adam, and talked and walked with him; and the children of Adam were more or less acquainted with him..." (JD 9:148) On April 9, 1852, President Young said: "It is true that the earth was organized by three distinct characters, namely Elohim, Yahovah, and Michael, these three forming a quorum..." (JD 1:50) Then could Adam possibly be Elohim, as some say? These were three distinct persons. On November 6, 1864, President Young said: "Three years previous to the death of Adam, he called Seth, Enos, Cainan, Mahalaleel, Jared, Enoch, and Methuselah, who were all High Priests, with the residue of his posterity who were righteous, into the valley of Adam-ondi-Ahman, and there bestowed upon them his last blessing. And the Lord appeared unto them, and they rose up and blessed Adam, and called him Michael the Prince, the Archangel." (JD 10:355) (ADAM Who Is He?, pp. 15-16) As we have already seen, Joseph's and Brigham's teachings that our Heavenly Father has a Father, and so on ad infinitum, clarify Brigham's usage of words in the previous excerpts. Since Adam and Eve have a Father (Jehovah), is he not our Father also in a patriarchal sense? And this fact is clearly shown in Brigham's actual words which Elder Petersen misquoted in Journal of Discourses 9:148 above. As we saw in the last chapter, this excerpt was first altered and printed by John A. Widtsoe in Discourses of Brigham Young. The correct wording is as follows: How has it transpired that theological truth is thus so widely disseminated? It is because God was once known on the earth among his children of mankind, as we know one another. Adam was as conversant with his Father who placed him upon this earth as we are conversant with our earthly parents. The Father frequently came to visit his son Adam, and talked and walked with him; and the children of Adam were more or less acquainted with their Grandfather, and their children were more or less acquainted with their Great-Grandfather. (JD 9:148; underlined words were changed or left out by Mark E. Petersen) Thus, we see that sometimes Brigham did go into detail about the Gods, but often, because he had previously revealed the doctrine of Deity, he assumed his listeners understood. Therefore, if one takes Brigham Young's statements by themselves, without giving full consideration to all of his teachings, they will appear confusing and contradictory. But if we embrace all of Joseph's, Brigham's and the scripture's testimony, we find a beautiful harmony which makes Adam-God the only piece of the puzzle which

will fit. Regarding Elder Petersen's above argument, Rodney Turner has written: A careful, detached study of his available statements, as found in the official publications of the church, will admit of no other conclusion than that the identification of Adam with God the Father by President Brigham Young is an irrefutable fact. [330] While there are a great many of his expressions which may appear to contradict this, they fail to reveal his views on this particular subject with the clarity, objectivity, and absence of equivocation which would permit them equal weight with his other pronouncements. At best, it may be said that they becloud his more direct statements; but in all honesty, it must be admitted that they fail to actually deny them. We cannot ignore or subvert those of his ideas which were expressed in undeniably specific terms, in order to justify and sustain uncertain interpretations of his intent in general ones. (Rodney Turner, The Position of Adam in Latter-day Saint Scripture and Theology, pp. 54-58) Another misconception which has contributed to our misunderstanding is the Adam-Elohim fallacy, which states that the Adam-God doctrine teaches that Adam must be Elohim. Anyone who would insist that Adam would have to be Elohim in order for the Adam-God doctrine to be true has failed to comprehend the doctrine. To insist such is to put words into Joseph's and Brigham's mouths. The false teaching that Elohim is the proper name and unique title of our Father in heaven is an analogue of the Jehovah-Christ theology introduced and promoted this century (see chapter thirteen). The Charles C. Rich Concoction Mark E. Petersen attempts to discredit the published historic Priesthood discourse of the April 1852 General Conference of the Church (JD 1:46-53) by submitting the following evidence: Elder Charles C. Rich, of the Council of the Twelve, was present on a day when President Young gave an address that was wrongly reported as saying Adam was Deity. In the copy of the Journal of Discourses that he had, Elder Rich referred to the misquotation as it appears in the Journal of Discourses, and in his own hand he wrote the following as the correct statement made by President Young: "Jesus our elder Brother, was begotten in the flesh by the same character who talked with Adam in the Garden of Eden, and who is our Heavenly Father." (This signed statement is in the hands of the Church Historian.) Some of the reporters at the Tabernacle in those days were not as skilled as others, and admittedly made mistakes, such as the misquotation of President Young as above, which was corrected by Brother Rich and which has caused some persons in the Church to go astray. The erroneously reported statement had been made to read: "Jesus, our elder brother, was begotten in the flesh by the same character that was in the garden of Eden, and who is our Father in Heaven." (JD 1:51)

On the face of it the mistake is obvious and was quickly noted by Elder Rich, who was present and heard the sermon. Hence the correction that he made. (ADAM Who Is He?, pp. 16-17) Was Apostle Charles C. Rich in attendance at that historic Priesthood Session of General Conference? Did he record in his set of the Journal of Discourses the "corrected statement made by President Young?" Was Brigham Young misquoted? Lest we forget, many of the brethren in attendance at this session, including Wilford Woodruff, recorded the [331] teachings of Brigham Young in their diaries. Wilford Woodruff recorded the statements of Brigham Young in his journal as follows: Who begat the Son of God? Infidels say that Jesus was a bastard, but let me tell you the truth concerning that matter. Our Father begat all the spirits that were, before any tabernacles were made. When our Father came into the garden, He came with His celestial body and brought one of His wives with Him and ate of the fruit of the garden until He could beget a [mortal] tabernacle -- and Adam is Michael or God and all the God that we have anything to do with. They eat of this fruit and formed the first tabernacle that was formed. And when the Virgin Mary was begotten with child, it was by the Father and in no other way -- in no other way, only as we were begotten. I will tell you the truth as it is in God. The world don't know that Jesus Christ our elder brother was begotten by our Father in Heaven. Handle it as you please, it will either seal the damnation or salvation of man. He was begotten by the Father and not by the Holy Ghost. (Wilford Woodruff Journal, April 9, 1852) Wilford Woodruff only in the George D. Watt another of the Elders account was much more confirms everything we have already read report (JD 1:46-53). Hosea Stout was present who recorded the meeting. His brief, but consistent all the same:

Friday 9th April 1852. Stormy morning. Attended conference. House much crowded, did not stay in the house long. Afternoon was not in because of the crowd. Another meeting this evening. President Brigham Young taught that Adam was the father of Jesus and the only God to us. That he came to this world in a resurrected body and etc. more hereafter. (Hosea Stout Journal, April 9, 1852) Samuel Holister Rogers was also there and recorded in his journal the following: April 16, 1852, Conference commenced on the 6 and continued until the 11, it was held in the new tabernacle, adjourned until the 6 of next October. We had the best Conference that I ever attended. During the time of the Conference, President Brigham Young said that our spirits were begotten before that Adam came to the Earth, and that Adam helped to make the Earth, that he had a Celestial body when he came to the Earth, and that he brought his wife or one of his wives with him, and that Eve was also a Celestial being,

that they eat of the fruit of the ground until they begat children from the Earth. He said that Adam was the only God that we would have, and that Christ was not begotten of the Holy Ghost, but of the Father Adam. that Christ, was our elder brother. (Samuel Holister Rogers Journal, April 16, 1852) Thus, we see that President Young was not misquoted. So why does Charles C. Rich's Journal of Discourses show that he was misquoted? Let us look at the assertion that Charles C. Rich was present at the historic discourse of April 9, 1852. On March 24, 1852, Apostle Charles C. Rich was leaving San Bernardino, California on his way to Salt Lake Valley (see Charles C. Rich, Mormon General and Western Frontiersman, p. 173, by Leonard Arrington). And it is recorded that Elder Rich arrived in the Salt Lake Valley on April 21, 1852, twelve days after Brigham Young's historic revelation on Adam-God (see Journal History April 21, 1852; Deseret Weekly News May 1, 1852). Not [332] only is Elder Petersen's assertion that Brigham Young was misquoted in error. But his unresearched opinion that Charles C. Rich was at the historic discourse is also in error. But, there is more! Not only was Charles C. Rich not there to hear Brigham Young, but the note found in his Journal of Discourses at the bottom of page 51 of volume one was not even written by him. The note reads: As corrected above is what Prest. Young said as testified to me by my father C.C. Rich, (signed) Ben E. Rich. So it was the son of Charles C. Rich who made the correction based upon what he believed his father's belief was. This evidence calls into question the entire Charles C. Rich argument. The note in Charles C. Rich's Journals is only the private opinion of an individual and has no power to refute the revelations of Joseph Smith and Brigham Young. Adam-God remains the true doctrine of Deity as revealed and taught by our prophets. Mine Only Begotten Mark E. Petersen quotes Moses 4:28, which says: And I, the Lord God, said unto mine Only Begotten: Behold, the man is become as one of us to know good and evil. (Moses 4:28) Elder Petersen concludes that this verse of scripture: ... should refute any and all claims that Adam was the Father of Jesus Christ, or that he was Deity at all, for "the man" spoken of was Adam, fully separate and apart from the Father and the Son. (ADAM Who Is He?, pp. 21-22) Latter-day Saints know this scene involves Elohim and Jehovah, who preside over the earth while Adam fulfills his earthly mission. It has already been shown, despite the traditional Jehovah-Christ theology, that Jehovah of the creation account, Michael's Father, is not Jesus Christ! It is redundant for us to deal with this objection again. However, the answer to this is

that Elohim and Jehovah are patriarchal superiors to Michael, not Father and Jesus Christ (see chapters thirteen and nineteen). Anytime Adam's God or Father is spoken of, it is Jehovah or Elohim. Redeeming Value? Mark E. Petersen's teachings stand by themselves. It is left for the reader to decide [333] whether or not his teachings concerning Adam-God are in harmony with the first prophets of The Restoration. To his credit, Elder Petersen does include some good and credible material in his book, but because the book fails to comprehend the teachings of Joseph and Brigham, it has many erroneous opinions scattered throughout. Until someone who is conversant with the true doctrine of Deity comes along and rewrites it, ADAM Who Is He? will not be an enlightened work about the first man. Failure To Address The Real Issue The really troubling aspect of ADAM Who Is He?, like most of the responses to Adam-God today, is that it fails to address even a hundredth part of what was revealed and taught by our early prophets. The real issue is that Joseph first revealed the Adam-God doctrine, Brigham Young, finding himself "in a suitable place to tell it," enlarged upon Joseph's public teachings, numerous members and leaders of the Church espoused and taught the doctrine, and today, because of prevalent misunderstanding, the general membership of the Church is in total darkness about Adam-God. We need no more apologists to explain away the teachings and revelations of our first prophets. We need courageous and confident Saints who will not be influenced by the opinions of the world, men who live by the Spirit and walk by faith. We do not need professors and businessmen of scripture, we need men of God who live by the visions of eternity, and who fear God, not man. [334] [335] (Blank Page) And the great and glorious angel is Michael, who has power over this people and governs them; for this is he who put the law into the hearts of those who believe. Therefore he looks after those to whom he gave it to see if they have really kept it. The Shepherd of Hermas III 8:25 24

Be Not Deceived

Be Not Deceived We introduce this chapter by quoting from the front flap of the book cover of Elwood G. Norris' Be Not Deceived: Apostates from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints have embraced the erroneous doctrine that God, our Heavenly Father, is none other than the man Adam. They assert that Adam is the God and father of the spirits of all mankind, that he is the father of both the spirit and physical body of Jesus Christ. This belief is commonly known as the "Adam-God theory." Representatives of apostate sects have attempted to infiltrate Latter-day Saint congregations and to spread this and other doctrines, while posing as members of the Church in good standing. Through lying and deception, they have sought to lead astray the uninformed and the unwary. Be Not Deceived is an essential reference book for every Latter-day Saint home, but it will be of particular value to those who have been approached by proponents of this false theory. In this book, for the first time, the "Adam-God theory" is subjected to intense scrutiny and to detailed comparison with the scriptures -- the canonized word of God. The theory is carefully weighed in the balance and [336] found wanting. Item by item, each aspect of the Adam-God theory is examined. Flaws in the logic used by the theorists are pointed out. Inconsistencies are demonstrated in their reasoning and interpretation. Many dozens of passages of scriptures and statements by the Prophet Joseph Smith are used to weave an unbreakable wall of evidence refuting the theory. In contrast, the true concept of Deity, as taught in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, is clearly taught and substantiated. Be Not Deceived is not a vindictive assault, but it refutes the errors of the theorists with a calm, penetrating clarity that will leave the reader with no room for doubt on this important subject. Here, then, is a book which will teach, inspire, and strengthen the faith of all who read it. For many, it will be a guide to added knowledge and growth, for others, it may prove an effective anchor when they are driven and tossed by the stormy winds of falsehood and error. (Be Not Deceived, front flap of book cover) Brother Norris' thrust is that Adam-God is a conspiracy kept alive and fueled by modern-day Gadiantons (Helaman 6:26-31; Ether 8:18-21) who use their Church membership to "lead astray the uninformed and the unwary" to join "apostate sects." This author does not dispute the likelihood that there are men and women, in and out of the Church, who use many deceptive practices to satisfy their own personal ambitions. Because of its current status as a taboo subject in Mormonism, the Adam-God doctrine does possess the power to confuse and mislead. This author sincerely hopes that by bringing Adam-God out of the

closet, it will lose any power it once possessed to harm people or lead them astray. Scriptural Folly We have already established the folly of making the standard works our authority in doctrinal matters. The scriptures come alive in the hands of holy men and women, and are revelation to them, but the scriptures are not the standard against which we gauge doctrine. Our prophets of The Restoration have revealed the doctrines our Father in Heaven gave to them, and desired that we should have. Although there seems to be more members of the Church today who do not understand this, than members who do, it nonetheless remains a fact that prophets possess keys and authority while scripture does not. God speaks to prophets when it is necessary to accomplish His purposes. He reveals His will through prophets. We have shown, and it should be obvious, that if the scriptures are our authority, then we are a dead church. And if we require the revelations of a prophet to comply with our understanding of the scriptures, we plainly "wrest" the scriptures. It is the revelations of the prophets which guide our understanding and interpretation of scripture, not the inverse. Anytime we believe we are justified in rejecting the revelations of the prophet, we may say [337] Amen to revelation altogether, for the Lord will send no more revelation to a people who have turned from His prophet. Unfortunately, Brother Norris has chosen to do this very thing, to "wrest" the scriptures in an effort to discredit the revelations of Brigham Young. Brother Norris writes: The approach of this book is not to analyze the quotations from Brigham Young and several of his contemporaries which speak of the idea. No attempt will be made to dissect their statements in an effort to explain away the theory. Instead, it will be shown that the Adam-God theory is in direct conflict to God's revealed word as found in canonized scripture and, therefore, cannot be true. (Be Not Deceived, pp. 18-19) Brother Norris has wisely chosen "not to analyze the quotations from Brigham Young and several of his contemporaries." I say, "wisely chosen" because in this way he avoids confronting Brigham Young's teachings, and thus does not directly oppose Brigham Young. Instead, he has chosen to use the stratagem called the straw-man fallacy. The straw-man stratagem builds an argument based upon a false premise, and then easily destroys the argument. For example, if you were new to America, and I wanted to convince you that democracy is an undesirable form of government, then I might first tell you that democracy is something which it really isn't. I might tell you that there would be no poor and no crime in a democracy. Then I would proceed to make democracy look bad by showing you the crime and poverty of America. However, an honest approach would be for me to tell you everything about democracy, while admitting that crime and poverty do exist, but that they are a result of having the freedoms we possess under this form of government. Unfortunately, Elwood Norris does not approach Adam-God honestly by telling us everything about the subject, but instead tells us what he wants us to know. He first claims that, for a doctrine

to be true, it must be substantiated in the scriptures. Then he proceeds to show that the scriptures do not support the Adam-God doctrine, and by misinterpreting them, makes them disagree with Brigham Young's revelations. We have shown beyond doubt that Joseph withheld Adam-God from the Saints because, as he said, he wasn't "in a suitable place to tell it." Joseph said that the teachings about God that he knew (and chose not to reveal) were not to be found in the standard works. The Lord has said that in this dispensation He intends to reveal things which have never before been had or known since the foundation of the world. But, we Saints have proven that we, as a body, are unworthy of the greater light and knowledge God desires to share with us. Why? Because we have rejected that which He has given us through His prophet. Clearly, it is folly to elevate the scriptures above the prophet. Doctrine -vs- Theory Some people who are antagonistic toward Adam-God claim that a distinction should be [338] made between doctrine and theory. They make a big fuss over this distinction, claiming that Adam-God was only Brigham Young's opinion and he never intended it to be considered a doctrinal precept of the Church. To support this pretext they will say, "Brigham Young never presented Adam-God to the Church for sustaining vote. Therefore, it was and is not binding upon the Church." They insist that it is significant that President Young did not present Adam-God for sustaining, but this type of thinking detracts from the real issue. Simply put, this is the issue: 1) Brigham revealed that Adam is our Heavenly Father. 2) He said, "I have told you the truth so far as I have gone." 3) He always spoke of Adam-God as a doctrine, not a theory. 4) He said that Joseph also knew this doctrine to be true and that he taught it to them. 5) He said, "I told the people that if they would not believe the revelations that God had given, He would suffer the devil to give revelations." It is not at all significant that Brigham never advanced Adam-God as a revelation to be added to the Doctrine and Covenants, anymore than it is significant that Joseph never advanced the doctrine of a plurality of Gods as a revelation to be added to the Doctrine and Covenants. Where do the standard works clearly tell us that the Father of Jesus Christ has a Father? They don't, but this is what Joseph taught in his last great sermon on the plurality of Gods (HC 6:476-477; see chapter fifteen). Those who ignore the real issue of Adam-God, and instead choose to persecute the revelations of God, fail to recognize the nature and calling of prophet of God and the revelations he reveals. How can a Latter-day Saint say that Adam-God is false without calling Joseph and Brigham doctrinal bunglers? Joseph and Brigham were shown visions of the eternities, and although we may not comprehend all or part of their teachings, this is not grounds to persecute and falsify those teachings. Our ignorance of the things of God should humble us to inquire of

the Lord. Some men, however, when they fail to understand something, will become hostile toward that thing, allowing their arrogance to control them. We will again repeat: God knows infinitely more than we do. The only way we can approach the knowledge of God is by doing as Alma has instructed: Now, we will compare the word unto a seed. Now, if ye give place, that a seed may be planted in your heart, behold, if it be a true seed, or a good seed, if ye do not cast it out by your unbelief, that ye will resist the Spirit of the Lord, behold, it will begin to swell within your breasts; and when you feel these swelling motions, ye will begin to say within yourselves -- It must needs be that this is a good seed, or that the word is good, for it beginneth to enlarge my soul; yea, it beginneth to enlighten my understanding, yea, it beginneth to be delicious to me. Now behold, would not this increase your faith? I say unto you, Yea; nevertheless it hath not grown [339] up to a perfect knowledge. But behold, as the seed swelleth, and sprouteth, and beginneth to grow, then you must needs say that the seed is good; for behold it swelleth, and sprouteth, and beginneth to grow. And now behold, win not this strengthen your faith? Yea, it will strengthen your faith: for ye will say I know that this is a good seed; for behold it sprouteth and beginneth to grow. And now, behold, are ye sure that this is a good seed? I say unto you, Yea; for every seed bringeth forth unto its own likeness. Therefore, if a seed groweth it is good, but if it groweth not, behold it is not good, therefore it is cast away. And now, behold, because ye have tried the experiment, and planted the seed, and it swelleth and sprouteth, and beginneth to grow, ye must needs know that the seed is good. And now, behold, is your knowledge perfect? Yea, your knowledge is perfect in that thing, and your faith is dormant; and this because ye know, for ye know that the word hath swelled your souls, and ye also know that it hath sprouted up, that your understanding doth begin to be enlightened, and your mind doth begin to expand. O then, is not this real? I say unto you, Yea, because it is light; and whatsoever is light, is good, because it is discernible, therefore ye must know that it is good; and now behold, after ye have tasted this light is your knowledge perfect? Behold I say unto you, Nay; neither must ye lay aside your faith, for ye have only exercised your faith to plant the seed that ye might try the experiment to know if the seed was good.

And behold, as the tree beginneth to grow, us nourish it with great care, that it may it may grow up, and bring forth fruit unto behold, if ye nourish it with much care it and grow up, and bring forth fruit.

ye will say: Let get root, that us. And now will get root,

But if ye neglect the tree, and take no thought for its nourishment, behold it will not get any root; and when the heat of the sun cometh and scorcheth it, because it hath no root it withers away, and ye pluck it up and cast it out. Now, this is not because the seed was not good, neither is it because the fruit thereof would not be desirable; but it is because your ground is barren, and ye will not nourish the tree, therefore ye cannot have the fruit thereof. And thus, if ye will not nourish the word, looking forward with an eye of faith to the fruit thereof, ye can never pluck of the fruit of the tree of life. But if ye will nourish the word, yea, nourish the tree as it beginneth to grow, by your faith with great diligence, and with patience, looking forward to the fruit thereof, it shall take root; and behold it shall be a tree springing up unto everlasting life. And because of your diligence and your faith and your patience with the word in nourishing it, that it may take root in you, behold, by and by ye shall pluck the fruit thereof, which is most precious, which [340] is sweet above all that is sweet, and which is white above all that is white, yea, and pure above all that is pure; and ye shall feast upon this fruit even until ye are filled, that ye hunger not, neither shall ye thirst. Then, my brethren, ye shall reap the rewards of your faith, and your diligence, and patience, and long-suffering, waiting for the tree to bring forth fruit unto you. (Alma 32:28-43) The Book Of Moses Joseph Smith restored the original writings of Moses as Moses recorded them. These writings were given to Joseph by revelation in 1830 as he began to translate the Bible. With respect to Adam-God and the Book of Moses, Bruce R. McConkie has said: Anyone who has read the Book of Moses, and anyone who has received the temple endowment, and who yet believes the Adam-God theory, does not deserve to be saved. (The Seven Deadly Heresies, see chapter twenty-two) The Book of Moses is a primary source of confusion concerning the Adam-God doctrine. Critics have misinterpreted the Book of Moses in an effort to contradict the Adam-God doctrine. The reason for this lies in the fact that the Gods who are therein described, and quoted, are not the same Being. Joseph did not see fit to tell us all he knew concerning the Gods spoken of in the Book of Moses, but through a careful analysis we may safely

arrive at some conclusions. The Book of Moses opens with the following: The words of God, which he spake unto Moses at a time when Moses was caught up into an exceedingly high mountain, And he saw God face to face, and he talked with him, and the glory of God was upon Moses; therefore Moses could endure his presence. And God spake unto Moses, saying: Behold, I am the Lord God Almighty, and Endless is my name; for I am without beginning of days or end of years; and is not this endless? And, behold, thou art my son; wherefore look, and I will show thee the workmanship of mine hands; but not all, for my works are without end, and also my words, for they never cease. Wherefore, no man can behold all my works, except he behold all my glory; and no man can behold all my glory, and afterwards remain in the flesh on the earth. And I have a work for thee, Moses, my son; and thou art in the similitude of mine Only Begotten; and mine Only Begotten is and shall be the Savior, for he is full of grace and truth; but there is no God [341] beside me, and all things are present with me, for I know them all. (Moses 1:1-6) We are informed here that Moses "saw God face to face, and he talked with him." Who this God was is not certain, for He is not identified by name, but we might conclude that it was not Jesus Christ since He says to Moses: "thou art in the similitude of mine Only Begotten; and mine Only Begotten is and shall be the Savior." (Moses 1:6) We also learn that this is the same God who called to Moses out of the burning bush: And he also gave me commandments when he called unto me out of the burning bush, saying: Call upon God in the name of mine Only Begotten, and worship me. (Moses 1:17) Is this God Michael, our Father, who commands Moses: "Worship me?" (Ibid.) Next, Moses is visited by Satan, and after "calling upon God, he received strength, and he commanded, saying: Depart from me, Satan, for this one God only will I worship." (Moses 1:20) After Satan had departed, Moses again called upon the name of God, and the glory of the Lord was upon Moses, so that Moses stood in the presence of God (Moses 1:24-31). The Lord God then told Moses of His creations: And by the word of my power, have I created them, which is mine Only Begotten Son, who is full of grace and truth. And worlds without number have I created; and I also created them for mine own purpose; and by the Son I created them, which is mine Only Begotten. And the first man of all men have I called Adam, which is

many. (Moses 1:32-34) This God does not appear to be Michael, our Father, but his patriarchal superior, and it is perhaps Michael who is here referred to as Jehovah's "Only Begotten Son." (Ibid.) We arrive at this conclusion because Joseph revealed that Elohim, Jehovah, and Michael created this world, and we here read that one of these three (none of whom are Jesus) created: "worlds without number" and "by the Son I created them, which is mine Only Begotten." (Ibid.) For this reason it appears that Jehovah, or possibly Elohim, is "the Lord God" who Moses next "talked with ... face to face." (Moses 1:31) In the Book of Abraham Joseph clarifies much of the confusion by stating simply: "the Gods went down" to create all things (Abraham 4:27). The essence of this simplification is that many Gods were involved in the creation of this earth, but their identities are not to be fully comprehended by just a reading of the scriptures. Acknowledging this fact will help us not to wrest the scriptures, and to be patient for the further light and knowledge we seek. It is of interest to note that there is a consistency in the use of the titles of Deity as they appear in the Book of Moses. For example, we see that it is "the Lord God" who, in the creation account, presides over Adam and Eve (Moses 5:1), but with Adam and Eve's children (Moses 5:2), "the Lord God" operates differently: [342] And the Lord God called upon men by the Holy Ghost everywhere and commanded them that they should repent. (Moses 5:14) Adam and Eve's descendants are "called upon by the Holy Ghost." Notice that hereafter it is "the Lord," not "the Lord God," whose voice ministers to the inhabitants of the earth (Moses 5:17). "The Lord" is the only God who deals with Adam's children, while prior to this it is "the Lord God" who, with his Only Begotten, deals with Adam. We learn further that "the Lord" spoken of in the Book of Moses is not Jesus Christ (Moses 7:50,54-55). We also learn that "the Lord" will "come again upon the earth." (Moses 7:59-62) Remember that this is not Jesus Christ. Joseph Smith clarifies this passage for us: Daniel in his seventh chapter speaks of the Ancient of Days; he means the oldest man, our Father Adam, Michael, he will call his children together and hold a council with them to prepare them for the coming of the Son of Man. He (Adam) is the father of the human family, and presides over the spirits of all men, and all that have had the keys must stand before him in this grand council. (HC 3:386-387) The Lord informed Joseph that this will take place soon: Spring Hill is named by the Lord Adam-ondi-Ahman, because, said he, it is the place where Adam shall come to visit his people, or the Ancient of Days shall sit, as spoken of by Daniel the prophet. (D&C 116:1) It is apparent to us that the interchangeability of the roles and titles of Deity make it treacherous to try to prove which

God is which from the scriptures. As we have seen, Jesus speaks for the Father when he deals with mankind; for this reason, any passage which appears to be the Father speaking may in reality be Jesus Christ speaking for the Father in the first person. And Jehovah spoke for Michael while Michael filled the office of Adam. Clearly, we must be very careful not to use the scriptures to prove who is who among the Gods, and trust our prophet to teach us these things as God reveals them. Proving who these Gods are is not important to the subject of Adam-God. But what is important is that we vindicate Joseph and Brigham as prophets capable of advancing and teaching doctrine. The Book of Moses makes one thing very clear: many Gods are involved in the creation, peopling, saving, and exalting of this world and its inhabitants. In the creation account Elohim (possibly representative of more than one God), Jehovah, and Michael are revealed to have initiated the creation, peopling, saving, and exalting of this world. Michael helped to create this world with his Father, Jehovah, under the direction of Elohim. Nothing that Joseph or Brigham have revealed goes contrary to this, but only as our narrow interpretations pervert that which has been revealed. [343] I, the lord, am bound when ye do what I say; but when ye do not what I say, ye have no promise. The Lord, D&C 82:10 Israel In The Wilderness Today While discussing the ancient Israelites in a gospel doctrine class on the Old Testament, a member of my ward suggested that the Latter-day Saints are not much different today than that Israel which was led by Moses. A sister, whose husband had been stake president for many years, interrupted and said, "I don't appreciate being compared to those ancient Israelites, because we are too much like they were; it's too close to home." At the time I must have wondered what she meant by this, but I have since understood why this good sister felt as she did. She had been a member all her life, and had seen first hand the influence which living in the wilderness had had upon the Latter-day Saints. Concerning ancient Israel's transgression, Joseph taught: We find also, that when the Israelites came out of Egypt they had the Gospel preached to them, according to Paul in his letter to the Hebrews, which says: "For unto us was the Gospel preached, as well as unto them: but the word preached did not profit them, not being mixed with faith in them that heard it." (see Heb. iv:2). It is said again, in Gal. iii:19, that the law (of Moses, or the Levitical law) 25

was "added" because of transgression. (HC 2:17) Because the ancient Israelites were unwilling to embrace all that God had revealed, choosing not to trust in Him, that generation was forbidden to enter the promised land. The [344] consequence of their choice not to listen to Moses was that they would tarry in the wilderness for forty years. Today, Adam-God is just one of several factors which contribute to modern-day Israel's being in the wilderness. Our choice, over a hundred years ago, to reject the words of God through His prophet, choosing instead to believe that we know better, has resulted in our promulgating doctrine which would be foreign to Brigham Young and Joseph Smith. There is a saying which states: "The will of the people is the best law." For the people of God, the will of the people is the only law. If the people choose less than God offers, that is exactly what they get. The people of God chose to reject Adam-God and they have inherited a legacy of ignorance, prejudice, and unbelief. To a degree, the heavens have withdrawn themselves: That they [the rights of the priesthood] may be conferred upon us, it is true; but when we undertake to cover our sins, or to gratify our pride, our vain ambition, or to exercise control or dominion or compulsion upon the souls of the children of men, in any degree of unrighteousness, behold, the heavens withdraw themselves; the Spirit of the Lord is grieved; and when it is withdrawn, Amen to the priesthood or the authority of that man. Behold, ere he is aware, he is left unto himself, to kick against the pricks, to persecute the saints, and to fight against God. (D&C 121:37-38) Can we doubt that those who fight against the truth of God, no matter who they are, member or non-member, cause the heavens to "withdraw themselves?" The Wheat And The Tares Joseph Smith received a revelation in which the parable of the wheat and the tares was explained: Verily, thus saith the Lord unto you my servants, concerning the parable of the wheat and of the tares: Behold, verily I say, the field was the world, and the apostles were the sowers of the seed; And after they have fallen asleep the great persecutor of the church, the apostate, the whore, even Babylon, that maketh all nations to drink of her cup, in whose hearts the enemy, even Satan, sitteth to reign -- behold he soweth the tares; wherefore, the tares choke the wheat and drive the church into the wilderness. But behold, in the last days, even now while the Lord is beginning to bring forth the word, and the blade is springing up and is yet tender --

[345] Behold, verily I say unto you, the angels are crying unto the Lord day and night, who are ready and waiting to be sent forth to reap down the fields; But the Lord saith unto them, pluck not up the tares while the blade is yet tender (for verily your faith is weak), lest you destroy the wheat also. Therefore, let the wheat and the tares grow together until the harvest is fully ripe; then ye shall first gather out the wheat from among the tares, and after the gathering of the wheat, behold and lo, the tares are bound in bundles, and the field remaineth to be burned. (D&C 86:1-7) Many have misunderstood the meaning of this parable, thinking that the wheat represents the Church, and the tares represent the world. But Joseph taught that the tares will be in the Church: "Another parable put He forth unto them, saying, [which parable has an allusion to the setting up of the Kingdom, in that age of the world also.] The Kingdom of Heaven is likened unto a man which sowed good seed in his field, but while men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares among the wheat, and went his way. But when the blade was sprung up, and brought forth fruit, then appeared the tares also; so the servants of the householder came and said unto him, Sir, didst not thou sow good seed in thy field? From whence, then, hath it tares? He said unto them, An enemy hath done this. The servants said unto him, Wilt thou then that we go and gather them up? But he said, Nay; lest while ye gather up the tares, ye root up also the wheat with them. Let both grow together until the harvest; and in the time of harvest I will say to the reapers, Gather ye together first the tares, and bind them in bundles to burn them, but gather the wheat into my barn." Now we learn by this parable, not only the setting up of the Kingdom in the days of the Savior, which is represented by the good seed, which produced fruit, but also the corruptions of the Church, which are represented by the tares, which were sown by the enemy, which His disciples would fain have plucked up, or cleansed the Church of, if their views had been favored by the Savior. But He, knowing all things, says, Not so. As much as to say, your views are not correct, the Church is in its infancy, and if you take this rash step, you will destroy the wheat, or the Church, with the tares; therefore it is better to let them grow together until the harvest, or the end of the world, which means the destruction of the wicked, which is not yet fulfilled... (HC 2:267; Messages of the First Presidency 1:63-64) We learn from Joseph that the tares are the "corruptions of the Church." And the tares, or "corruptions," must remain with the wheat "until the harvest." And this is why "the greater portion" of God's word has been rejected: The tares choke the wheat and drive the church into the

wilderness. (D&C 86:3) And the Lord has said that this condition will exist until He separates the tares from the wheat: Therefore, let the wheat and the tares grow together until the harvest is fully ripe; then ye shall first gather out the wheat from among the tares, and after the gathering of the wheat, behold and lo, the tares are bound in bundles, and the field remaineth to be burned. (D&C 86:7) [346] In the Fall 1988 General Conference of the Church, President Ezra Taft Benson has testified that this polarization, or separation of the wheat from the tares, will occur soon: I testify that throughout the ages God has spoken to His children through His prophets. (See Amos 3:7; Hel. 8:13-20.) Only when His children rejected the prophets were the prophets taken out of their midst, and then tragedy followed. (See 1 Ne. 3:17-18; 7:14; Hel. 13:24-27.)... As the issues become clearer and more obvious, all mankind will eventually be required to align themselves either for the kingdom of God or for the kingdom of the devil. As these conflicts rage, either secretly or openly, the righteous will be tested. God's wrath will soon shake the nations of the earth and will be poured out on the wicked without measure. (See JS-H 1:45; D&C 1:9.) But God will provide strength for the righteous and the means of escape; and eventually and finally truth will triumph. (See 1 Ne. 22:15-23.) I testify that it is time for every man to set in order his own house both temporally and spiritually. It is time for the unbeliever to learn for himself that this work is true, that The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the kingdom which Daniel prophesied God would set up in the latter days, never to be destroyed, a stone that would eventually fill the whole earth and stand forever. (See Dan. 2:34-45; D&C 65:2.) It is time for us, as members of the Church, to walk in all the ways of the Lord, to use our influence to make popular that which is sound and to make unpopular that which is unsound. We have the scriptures, the prophets, and the gift of the Holy Ghost. Now we need eyes that will see, ears that will hear, and hearts that will hearken to God's direction. (November 1988 Ensign, p. 86-87) President Benson has here testified that: Only when His children rejected the prophets were the prophets taken out of their midst, and then tragedy followed. (Ibid.) Will the prophets be taken out of our midst? The "tragedy" which will follow will cause "all mankind" to "align themselves" with either the righteous or the wicked. The result of this polarization will provide a "test" for the righteous while separating them from the tares, so that the tares may be "bound

in bundles," and "burned." Remember, Joseph said that the tares are "the corruptions of the Church." (HC 2:267) Brigham Young's testimony agrees with Joseph and President Benson: Now to know the only wise God and Jesus Christ whom He has sent, Will put the man, woman, congregation, or nation in possession of Eternal Life. Are the hearts of the Latter-day Saints prepared to have Eternal life given to them enmass, and say there shall be no more apostasy, but bring them all up that they may know and understand the Gods, Eternities, Creations, Heavens, Hells, Kingdoms, Thrones, Principalities and Powers? It cannot be done. The sheep and goats are together, the wheat and the tares are growing together; the good and the bad are mixed; and they must so remain until the time when Jesus Christ will say, "gather my sheep into my fold; gather my wheat into my garner, and let the tares, and chaff, and stubble be burned." That is not yet. (Brigham Young, Oct. 8, 1854, Afternoon Session of the General Conference of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Church Archives; see chapter five for entire discourse) [347] It is the teaching of our prophets that the parable of the wheat and the tares has to do with the Church of Jesus Christ. Some (the wheat) will be separated from the "corruptions of the Church," and then the tares will be destroyed along with the rest of the wicked. President Benson reassures us: But God will provide strength for the righteous and the means of escape; and eventually and finally truth will triumph. (November 1988 Ensign, pp. 86-87) Assimilation: The Religion Of The Tares There is, in the Church, a mentality or philosophy, which desires to befriend the world. The reasons for this thrust are many, but it is the enemy who has cast these seeds of the tares. The cost? The cost of befriending the world is forfeiting the right to God's promised blessings and covenant. It may be difficult for Latter-day Saints to comprehend this principle, but Jesus and the prophets have clearly spoken upon the subject. On April 8, 1862 Brigham Young said: There is nothing that would so soon weaken my hope and discourage me as to see this people in full fellowship with the world, and receive no more persecution from them because they are one with them. In such an event we might bid farewell to the Holy Priesthood, with all its blessings, privileges and aids to exaltations, principalities and powers in the eternities of the Gods. (JD 10:32) One has to wonder what prophetic impression led the Prophet Brigham to make such a warning to the Saints. Two years later, on May 15, 1864, Brigham said: I do not want "Mormonism" to become popular; I would not,

if I could, make it as popular as the Roman Catholic Church is in Italy, or as the Church of England is in England, because the wicked and ungodly would crowd into it in their sins. There are enough of such characters in it now. There are quite a number here who will apostatize. It needs this and that to occur to make some leave. If "Mormonism" were to become popular, it would be much as it was in the days of the early Christians, when no one could get a good position unless he was baptized for the remission of sins; he could not get an office, without he was baptized into the church. Suppose this Church were so popular that a man could not be elected President of the United States, unless he was a Latter-day Saint, we would be overrun by the wicked. I would rather pass through all the misery and sorrow, the troubles and trials of the Saints, than to have the religion of Christ become popular with the world. It would in such case go as the ancient Church went. I care not what the world thinks, nor what it says, so they leave us unmolested in the exercise of our inherent rights. Take a straightforward course, and meet the jeers and frowns of the wicked. Unpopular. "Oh dear, how they are despised and hated, those `Mormons!'" Did not Jesus say that His disciples should be hated and despised? Said he, "They hate me, and they will hate you also." Has it ever been otherwise? He said, "In the world ye shall have persecution, but in me ye shall have peace..." [348] Would we not rather live as we are living, than to become one with the spirit of the world? Yes. Do not be anxious to have this people become rich, and possess the affection of the world. I have been fearful lest we come to fellowship the world. Whatever you have, it is the Lord's. You own nothing, I own nothing. I seem to have a great abundance around me, but I own nothing. The Lord has placed what I have in my hands, to see what I will do with it, and I am perfectly willing for Him to dispose of it otherwise whenever he pleases. (JD 10:297-298) But we must become accepted by our neighbors in order to do our Father's work! Brigham said: The greatest desire in the bosom of our Father Adam, or in his faithful children who are co-workers with God our Father in Heaven, is to save the inhabitants of this earth. (JD 8:174-175) To say, "The greatest desire in the bosom of our Father Adam, or in his faithful children is to save the inhabitants of this earth," is not the same as to say, "It is the greatest desire of our Father and His faithful children to convert the world to Mormonism." Forsaking the truths of The Restoration and teaching what is popular to obtain converts was a principle of apostate Christianity in the decades following the deaths of Jesus' Apostles. Although it would be wonderful if we could convert the world by sacrificing just a portion of the truths of The Restoration, this road would end in complete apostasy, for the

seeds of the tares are planted in this exact manner. The inhabitants of this earth will be saved or damned by their own choices. Our duty is to teach them the truth and let them govern themselves. One does not have to look far to find that this world falls far short of the Zion we Latter-day Saints are seeking. We may be anxiously engaged in politics, PTA, or other civic interests with the hope of bettering our world. We may be on missions to teach the pure in heart. We may be immersed in educational pursuits which challenge our intellects. We may be in careers which demand all our time. We may have large families which require our constant attention. We may be in the depths of poverty, or basking in the lap of luxury. Although there may be many demands upon us, this does not excuse us from our obligation to seek after truth and consecrate all that the Lord has blessed us with, or which He may bless us with, to the building up of Zion on earth. And the building up of Zion requires the sacrifice of material possessions, the living of celestial laws, and the embracing of eternal truth. Instead, what do we find? We Latter-day Saints have acquired material possessions in excess, rejected celestial laws (i.e., the Patriarchal Law of Marriage and the Law of Consecration), and we ridicule, ostracize, and excommunicate those who embrace eternal truths such as Adam-God. Idolatry And Apostasy The greatest work upon the subject of modern-day Israel's journey in the wilderness has [349] been prepared by Avraham Gileadi. Brother Gileadi's writings are a gift from the Lord to our day. These works depict our apostate condition in terms of truth and understanding, and the Holy Ghost bears strong witness of his conclusions. This author insists that the reader become familiar with his book, The Last Days, for in it is spelled out in detail the general idolatry and apostasy of our day, and our people. Brother Gileadi says: ... when the calamities of the last days appear at the door, that will be because idolatry and other forms of apostasy have grown prevalent among us. For in the last days all types come together, whether for good, as in the restoration of keys and blessings of former dispensations, or for evil, as in the idolatry of Israel that precipitates the great and dreadful day of the Lord. In setting out these scriptural types of idolatry, I may seem presumptuous. The types, however, incriminate none but the offenders themselves, those who do not learn the lessons of history. We must remember that such offenders cannot, nor ever will, constitute grounds for our growing disaffected with the Church. The great paradox, the test the Saints endure in our day, surely consists of remaining true, while all around people indulge in idolatry. Every parallel possesses this moral. Brother Hugh Nibley serves us as an inspiring example of such faithfulness to the Church. Although he recognizes the great good and the many evils in the Church, he stands aloof from all disaffection. He scrupulously maintains the

fine line between discontent -- often voiced openly to inspire us to higher things -- and malcontent. From him, malcontent, a sure path to apostasy, receives not so much as a whisper... We cannot ignore certain types, even though they might be painful to us. We then would not learn our lesson but would exemplify the folly of man that they teach. Seeing these parallels surely must not cause us to point the finger at others. Rather, it should help us take the attitude, "Let him who is without sin cast the first stone" (compare John 8:7). More than that, aberrations existing within a people's leadership, whether political or religious, tend to be symptomatic of the general condition: our leadership reflects what we ourselves are, both at our best and at our worst. Those who blame the country's and the Church's leaders for various problems, therefore, put the cart before the horse. Problems begin at the grassroots level and work their way up. Although they then may manifest themselves on higher levels, to the chagrin of the people who spawned them, that does not mean a people's leaders alone are at fault or even that all leaders are implicated. It does mean that society as a whole suffers the effects of a people's unrighteousness, and such unrighteousness includes idolatry. To omit the last two parallels, then, would render this study incomplete and thus defective. I call the eleventh form of idolatry elitism-Pharisaism because it simultaneously partakes of social pride and hypocrisy. It constitutes idolatry because it puts the institution or peer group before the individual: a person serves the corporate entity, not vice versa. It involves worship, in effect, of the system or organization to which people belong and thus is a kind of self-worship. Typifying this sort of idolatry are the Pharisees of the New Testament period, a group whose elitist tendencies we know well from Jesus' discourses with them. Book of Mormon examples of the same sort of idolatry include the priests of King Noah and the Zoramites (Mosiah 11:1-12:37; Alma 31:1-32:5). Just as none of these groups represented the leadership of the entire people, so modern Pharisees will not represent all church leaders. Pharisaic persons display a form of godliness that lacks the power thereof (2 Tim. 3:5). They harbor a presumptuousness about being a chosen and elect people (Luke 3:8). They consider others, even their [350] humble brethren, a lost and fallen people, worthy to be despised as lesser mortals (John 7:47-52). A paradoxical aspect of the elitist-Pharisaic phenomenon is that its pastors and teachers do in fact possess authority to teach and instruct. The biblical type shows that the Lord requires that his people obey them (Matt. 23:1-3). In reality, however, they have taken away the key of knowledge and shut up the kingdom, neither entering it themselves nor letting others enter (Matt. 23:13; Luke 11:52). As a result, they cannot answer difficult religious questions nor recognize the signs of the times (Matt. 16:2-3; 22:46).

They are blind leaders of the blind, yet they assume they see things aright (Matt. 15:14; John 9:41). They confuse their priorities and what is real (Matt. 23:16-24; Luke 11:42). They cancel the good effect the word of God has in people's lives, overruling spiritual worship with human conventions (Matt. 15:3; Mark 7:13). Yet, observant in their religion and esteemed by men, they consider themselves righteous by their own standards (Luke 16:15; 18:11-12). But their religion consists only of what appears in public (Matt. 23:5). Their private words and thoughts tell another story (Luke 12:1-3). Outwardly they appear righteous, but inwardly they raven as wolves; they yield to wickedness, oppression, excesses (Matt. 23:25-28; Luke 11:39). Though they believe in Christ, they care more for people's praise than for God's (John 5:44; 12:42-43). Like leaven in bread, hypocrisy permeates their establishment (Luke 12:1). Their hypocrisy, likewise, inspires their communal prayers (Matt. 23:14). They love for others to call them by ecclesiastical titles, to greet them publicly and hold them in admiration (Matt. 23:7; Luke 11:43). In token of reserved seats in the kingdom of heaven, they take the foremost places at meetinghouses and banquets (Matt. 23:6; Luke 14:7-8). Yet quickly they find fault with those not conforming to their exterior of worship (Mark 2:18,24; 7:2,5; Luke 6:7). While they themselves covet the things of the world, they despise those who mingle with sinners in attempting to rescue them (Matt. 9:11; Luke 7:33-34; 16:14). Their fear of political repercussions outweighs their love of spiritual obligation (John 11:47-48). In the end, they disfellowship those who love and confess Christ (John 9:22; 12:42). The converts to their form of religion, whom they go to great lengths to gain, they make twofold more children of hell than themselves (Matt. 23:15): so much hypocrisy governs their lives that it appears incurable (Matt. 23:29-33). To assure themselves that their religion is well founded, the elitist-Pharisaic faction makes frequent mention of a key prophet or forebear on whom they base their authority (see Matthew 3:9; 19:7; Luke 20:28; John 9:28-29). So far have they departed from the prophet's message, however, that if some came among them who taught as he did, they would seek to kill them, as did their forefathers (Matt. 23:30-34; Luke 11:47-49). Were their acclaimed prophet to confront them, he would be the first to assert that neither God's love nor God's word abides in them (John 5:38,42,45). Thus, the most righteous among them -- one like their acclaimed prophet -- they call a deceiver and make a scapegoat (Matt. 27:63; John 11:50). At that point, the Lord removes the kingdom from them, giving it to a people who will bring forth its fruit (Matt. 21:43). In summing up this somber biblical type, we see among the ancient elitist Pharisees many forms of priestcraft that Jesus and his Apostles predicted would corrupt the church

of the last days. This is not to say that these problems are widespread among us today. They should, however, serve to forewarn us, as Jesus and the Apostles intended. Indeed, the things they prophesied that would befall us repeat the Pharisaic phenomenon as nearly as any scriptural type. Just as the love of the ancient elitist Pharisees had waxed cold because of iniquity among them, so will [351] the love of many in the last days wax cold because of iniquity (Matt. 24:12). As they l