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Determining the Molar Volume of a Gas Lab

Determining the Molar Volume of a Gas Lab

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Published by Caryn Tran
Lab on Determining the Molar Volume of a Gas Lab
Lab on Determining the Molar Volume of a Gas Lab

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Published by: Caryn Tran on Jan 11, 2012
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Tran 1 Caryn Tran Meyer AP Chem 9 December 2011 Experiment 7: Determination of the Molar Volume of a Gas The value

22.4 L/mole describes the molar volume of a gas at STP. The purpose of this lab is to experimentally find the molar volume of a gas through the usage of the ideal gas law on a reaction of solid magnesium and hydrochloric acid producing hydrogen gas.

Excess HCl was carefully poured into a eudiometer, followed by water being added all the way to the top so that the HCl was at the bottom of the tube with the water sitting as a layer on top. The excess HCl allows for the Mg to control the reaction. The water ensures that the reaction would only occur once the tube is sealed and inverted, thereby allowing measurement of the H2 gas to be collected through water displacement. A piece of magnesium ribbon was measured and suspended into the eudiometer tube by a copper wire cage (to hold the ribbon in place when the HCl sunk after the tube was inverted, speeding the reaction) that hooked to a stopper which plugged the tube so there was no air in the tube. The eudiometer tube was inverted and set into a beaker ¾ full of water so that the HCl dispersed and a gas-forming reaction occurred, where the gas formed displaced the water in the eudiometer. The displacement of the water was prompted by the pressure that the gas exerted. The displacement of water was measured and the molar volume of H2 at STP was calculated by considering values of pressure and temperature that affected the volume of H2 produced.

968 221.371 .5515 753.93 39.0020984 46.7505 20.6844 21.1 Experimental Data Length of Mg ribbon (cm) Volume of H2 (mL) Barometric Pressure (mmHg) Height of H2O (mmH2O) Temperature (K) Table 7.7 718.033943 16.2 296.6176 761.4 Trial Four 1.1 L/mol Trial Four .1 Trial Two 1.82 759.0540 Trial Two .2937 Trial One 2.02943 18.8971 741.0013962 29.0709 21.73 33.Tran 2 Table 7.1941 22.8123 21.251 .7059 Trial Three .584 .50 31.60 51.968 257.1 740.0015577 35.989 22.302 157.00 759.592 21.5 296.68 765. Molar Vol of H2 Calculations: .368 22.2868 743.037866 11.4 ⁄ ( ) .302 49.1 295.0 296.5 Trial Three 1.2 Calculated Data Trial One Mass of Mg (g) Pressure of H2Ol (mmHg) Pressure of gases (mmHg) Pressure of H2Og (mmHg) Pressure of H2 (mmHg) Theoretical Moles of Mg/ H2 H2 Vol @STP (mL) Molar Vol of H2 (L/mol) Ave.981 .051012 3.278 22.7 721.0012106 26.5 733.51 765.

. The reaction that occurred in this lab was a gas forming reaction: Magnesium is able to replace the hydrogen in hydrochloric acid because it is higher on the activity series for metals. through stoichiometry. Avogadro’s Law helps to accept the ideal gas law and the value of 22. topics explored in this lab were: stoichiometry. The volume occupied by a mole of gas is called molar volume. and therefore more active. Avogadro’s Law states that equal volumes of gases contain an equal number of molecules under the same conditions of temperature and pressure. The combined gas law uses the pressure. the Ideal Gas law.Tran 3 This lab is centered on topics pertaining to gases. which was calculated. using the mass of Mg. The pressure of the hydrogen gas from the lab is affected by the partial pressures of the water and water vapor which are accounted for through Dalton’s Law.4 L/mole to be universal for all gases. and molar volume.4 L/mole. and temperature from the experiment to find the ideal volume of the hydrogen gas produced by the reaction at STP. the molar volume of H2 gas was experimentally determined and calculated by the ideal gas law PV=nRT which reduces to the combined gas law for the lab as the number of moles of H2 is constant. 22. volume. After determining the Phydrogen gas and using it to find the ideal volume of the hydrogen gas produced by the reaction at STP. where Pvapor + Pwater + Phydrogen gas = Pbarometric . This produces the experimental molar volume of H2 at STP which is used to compare with the accepted value of 22.4 L/mole is the theoretical molar volume for gases at STP. the ideal volume of the hydrogen gas produced by the reaction at STP was divided by the moles of H2 produced in the reaction. or 760 mmHg and 273 K. Avogadro’s law. In this lab. Dalton’s law.

so the volume of hydrogen at STP also deflates. these trapped gas bubbles contributed to the volume of the liquid. therefore. the overall value of the volume of hydrogen at STP also decreases with the recorded volume of H2. they did not contribute to the volume of H2 recorded at room temperature and pressure. The experimental molar volume value determined by this lab is 22. According to the graphs of http://www.html.34% of error.0016 grams of H2 gas dissolve in 1 kg or 1 L of water for temperatures between 20 and 30 degrees Celsius. the molar volume is less than the accepted value by using these deflated values in the calculations. which were where the temperatures of the lab were.com/gasessolubility-water-d_1148. some of the gas bubbles were too small and were trapped in the liquid. These errors account for the experimental value for molar volume being slightly less than that of the accepted value.engineeringtoolbox. Compared to the accepted value of 22. gas bubbles rose. which was not taken into account for this lab. . The decreased volume of hydrogen at STP leads to a smaller molar volume for H2 gas. indicating the hydrogen gas rising to the top of the eudiometer tube since it has a lower density than water. increasing the height of the water.4 L/mole.1 L/mole. Again. This is due to the fact that many influences to the lab were accounted for in the calculations and there were many trials to average from. This is not a very large amount of H2. This affects the calculations by decreasing the volume of hydrogen at STP. Instead.Tran 4 During the reaction. the recorded volume of H2 is deflated. since the recorded volume of H2 is part of the numerator. about . there is only a 1. However. If everything else is held constant. Another minor error comes from the solubility of H2 gas in water.0015 to . but by amounts of H2 being dissolved into the water.

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