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Answers to Multiple choice for all of Unit Four Chapter 20 (in review book; 22 in text) 20.3 A. biogeography B.

endemic island species and mainland species or neighboring species in different habitats C. fossil record D. Ancestral and transitional forms E. comparative anatomy F. vestigial structures G. Homologous structures H. Comparative embryology I. ontogeny J. Molecular biology K. DNA and proteins L. Descent from a common ancestor 1. The two major components of Darwin’s evolutionary theory are that all life has descended from a common ancestral form and that the modification of that form has been the result of natural selection by the reproductive success of the individuals best adapted to the environment. The theory of natural selection is based on several key observations and inferences. The overproduction of offspring in conjunction with limited resources leads to a struggle for existence and the differential reproductive success of those organisms best suited to the local environment. The unequal survival and reproduction of the most fit individuals in a population leads to the gradual accumulation of adaptive characteristics in a population within a particular environment. MC: 1. a 2. c 3. d 4. c 5. c 6. e 7. a 8. d 9. b 10. b 11. b 12. c 13. a 14. b

Chapter 23 1. mutation and migration are negligible. This Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium provides a null hypothesis to allow population geneticists to test to mircroevolution. mating is random. The Hardy-Weinberg theorem states that allele and genotypes frequencies within a population will remain constant from one generation to the next as long as the population is large. a. 1) e 2) c 3) d 4) c 5) c 6) e 7) a 8) d 9) b 10) b 11) b 12) c 13) a 14) b . and no selective pressure operates.

Chapter 23 15) e 16) c 17) d 18) c 19) c 20) e 21) a 22) d 23) b 24) b 25) b 26) c 27) a 28) b .