Management Process and Organization Behavior (MB0038

)
Assignment I

MBA 1st Semester Roll No: 521103149 Divyang Panchasara

1. Write a note on the functions of management. Management Functions are as follows: a) Planning b) Organizing c) Commanding d) Coordinating e) Controlling
PLANNING

It is the basic function of management. It deals with chalking out a future course of action & deciding in advance the most appropriate course of actions for achievement of pre-determined goals. According to KOONTZ, ³Planning is deciding in advance - what to do, when to do & how to do. It bridges the gap from where we are & where we want to be´. A plan is a future course of actions. It is an exercise in problem solving & decision making. Planning is determination of courses of action to achieve desired goals. Thus, planning is a systematic thinking about ways & means for accomplishment of predetermined goals. Planning is necessary to ensure proper utilization of human & nonhuman resources. It is all pervasive, it is an intellectual activity and it also helps in avoiding confusion, uncertainties, risks, wastages etc.
ORGANIZING

It is the process of bringing together physical, financial and human resources and developing productive relationship amongst them for achievement of organizational goals. According to Henry Fayol, ³To organize a business is to provide it with everything useful or its functioning i.e. raw material, tools, capital and personnel¶s´. To organize a business involves determining & providing human and non-human resources to the organizational structure. Organizing as a process involves: a) Identification of activities. b) Classification of grouping of activities. c) Assignment of duties. d) Delegation of authority and creation of responsibility. e) Coordinating authority and responsibility relationships.
COORDINATING

It is the function of manning the organization structure and keeping it manned. Staffing has assumed greater importance in the recent years due to advancement of technology, increase in size of business, complexity of human behavior etc. The main purpose o staffing is to put right man on right job i.e. square pegs in square holes and round pegs in round holes. According to Kootz & O¶Donell, ³Managerial function of staffing involves manning the organization structure through proper and effective selection, appraisal & development of personnel to fill the roles designed un the structure´. Staffing involves: Manpower Planning (estimating man power in terms of searching, choose the person and giving the right place). 1

a. b. c. d. e.

Recruitment, selection & placement. Training & development. Remuneration. Performance appraisal. Promotions & transfer.

COMMANDING

It is that part of managerial function which actuates the organizational methods to work efficiently for achievement of organizational purposes. It is considered life-spark of the enterprise which sets it in motion the action of people because planning, organizing and staffing are the mere preparations for doing the work. Direction is that inert-personnel aspect of management which deals directly with influencing, guiding, supervising, motivating sub-ordinate for the achievement of organizational goals. Direction has following elements: a) Supervision b) Motivation c) Leadership d) Communication Supervision- implies overseeing the work of subordinates by their superiors. It is the act of watching & directing work & workers. Motivation- means inspiring, stimulating or encouraging the sub-ordinates with zeal to work. Positive, negative, monetary, non-monetary incentives may be used for this purpose. Leadership- may be defined as a process by which manager guides and influences the work of subordinates in desired direction. Communications- is the process of passing information, experience, opinion etc from one person to another. It is a bridge of understanding.
CONTROLLING

It implies measurement of accomplishment against the standards and correction of deviation if any to ensure achievement of organizational goals. The purpose of controlling is to ensure that everything occurs in conformities with the standards. An efficient system of control helps to predict deviations before they actually occur. According to Theo Haimann, ³Controlling is the process of checking whether or not proper progress is being made towards the objectives and goals and acting if necessary, to correct any deviation´. According to Koontz & O¶Donell ³Controlling is the measurement & correction of performance activities of subordinates in order to make sure that the enterprise objectives and plans desired to obtain them as being accomplished´. Therefore controlling has following steps: a) Establishment of standard performance. b) Measurement of actual performance. c) Comparison of actual performance with the standards and finding out deviation if any. d) Corrective action. 2

2. Discuss any two learning theories in detail. There are three theories of Learning; they are Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning and Social Learning.
SOCIAL LEARNING

The social learning theory was proposed by Bandura. It recognizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. According to Bandura (1977), most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action. Social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences. Social learning has four processes: 1. Attention processes ± People learn from a model only when they recognize and pay attention to its critical features. In order to learn, it is required to pay attention. Anything that detracts the attention is going to have a negative effect on observational learning. If the is model interesting or there is a novel aspect to the situation, it is more likely to dedicate the full attention to learning. 2. Retention processes ± A model¶s influence will depend on how well the individual remembers the model¶s action after the it is no longer readily available. The ability to store information is also an important part of the learning process. Retention can be affected by a number of factors, but the ability to pull up information later and act on it is vital to observational learning. 3. Motor reproduction processes ± After a person has seen a new behavior by observing the model, the watching must be converted to doing. The ability to store information is also an important part of the learning process. Retention can be affected by a number of factors, but the ability to pull up information later and act on it is vital to observational learning. 4. Reinforcement processes ± Individuals will be motivated to exhibit the modeled behavior if positive incentives or rewards are provided. Finally, in order for observational learning to be successful, you have to be motivated to imitate the behavior that has been modeled. Reinforcement and punishment play an important role in motivation. While experiencing these motivators can be highly effective, so can observing other experience some type of reinforcement or punishment. For example, if you see another student rewarded with extra credit for being to class on time, you might start to show up a few minutes early each day.

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CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

Classical Conditioning is a form of associative learning process proposed by Pavlov (1927). This process involves presentations of a neutral stimulus along with a stimulus of some significance. The neutral stimulus does not lead to an overt behavioral response from the organism. This is called as Conditioned Stimulus (CS). Significant stimulus evokes an innate, often reflexive, response. This is called Unconditioned Stimulus (US) and Unconditioned Response (UR), respectively. If the CS and the US are repeatedly paired, eventually the two stimuli become associated and the organism begins to produce a behavioral response to it. It is the Conditioned Response (CR). Classical conditioning was first experimented by Russian physiologist, Ivan Pavlov, to teach dogs to salivate in response to the ringing of a bell. During his research on the physiology of digestion in dogs, Pavlov used a bell before giving food to his dog. Rather than simply salivating in the presence of meat (a response to food ± unconditioned response), after a few repetitions, the dog started to salivate in response to the bell. Thus, a neutral stimulus (bell) became a conditioned stimulus (CS) as a result of consistent pairing with the unconditioned stimulus (US ± meat). Pavlov referred to this learned relationship as a Conditioned Response. 3. Explain the classification of personality types given by Sheldon William Sheldon classified personality according to body type. He called this a personµs somatotype. Sheldon¶s Classification of Personality Types

Sheldon's Somatotype Endomorph [viscerotonic]

Character relaxed, sociable, tolerant, comfort-loving, peaceful

Shape plump, buxom, developed

visceral structure

Mesomorph [somatotonic]

active, assertive, vigorous, combative

muscular

Ectomorph [cerebrotonic]

quiet, fragile, restrained, lean, delicate, poor non-assertive, sensitive

SOMATOTYPES

In the 1940s, Sheldon proposed a theory about how there are certain body types ("somatotypes") that are associated with certain personality characteristics. William Sheldon (1898-1977) was an American psychologist who devoted his life to observing the variety of human bodies and temperaments. He taught and did research at a number of U.S.universities and is best known for his series of books on the human constitution. He was a keen observer of animals and birds as a child, and he turned this talent to good effect by becoming an avid people-watcher, and out of his observations he 4

gradually elaborated his typology.He claimed that there are three such somatotypes: endomorphy, mesomorphy, and ectomorphy. Endomorphy ± focused on the digestive system, particularly the stomach (endoderm); has the tendency toward plumpness, corresponds to Viscerotonia temperament tolerant, love of comfort and luxury, extravert. of hundreds of juvenile delinquent boys and concluded that they were generally mesomorphs (Ornstein, 1993). Mesophorphy ± focused on musculature and the circulatory system (mesoderm), has the tendency towards muscularity, corresponds to the Somatotonia temperament courageous, energetic, active, dynamic, assertive, aggressive, risk taker. Ectomorphy focused on the nervous system and the brain (ectoderm) ± the tendency towards slightness, corresponds to Cerebrotonia temperament artistic, sensitive, apprehensive, introvert.

4. What are the factors influencing perception?
The Situation

‡ ‡ ‡

Time Work setting Social setting ‡ ‡ ‡ Perception ‡ ‡ Attitudes Motives Interests Experience Expectations

The Perceiver

The Target

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Novelty Motion Sounds Size Background Proximity

Perception is our sensory experience of the world around us and involves both the recognition of environmental stimuli and actions in response to these stimuli. Through the perceptual process, we gain information about properties and elements of the environment that are critical to our survival. Perception not only creates our experience of the world around us; it allows us to act within our environment. 5

A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes distort perception. These factors can reside: a) In the perceiver. b) In the object or target being perceived or c) In the context of the situation in which the perception is mad 1. Characteristics of the Perceiver: Several characteristics of the perceiver can affect perception. When an individual looks at a target and attempts to interpret what he or she stands for, that interpretation is heavily influenced by personal characteristics of the individual perceiver. The major characteristics of the perceiver influencing perception are: a) Attitudes: The perceiver's attitudes affect perception. For example, suppose Mr. X is interviewing candidates for a very important position in his organization - a position that requires negotiating contracts with suppliers, most of whom are male. Mr X may feel that women are not capable of holding their own in tough negotiations. This attitude will doubtless affect his perceptions of the female candidates he interviews. b) Moods: Moods can have a strong influence on the way we perceive someone. We think differently when we are happy than we do when we are depressed. In addition, we remember information that is consistent with our mood state better than information that is inconsistent with our mood state. When in a positive mood, we form more positive impressions of others. When in a negative mood, we tend to evaluate others unfavourably. c) Motives: Unsatisfied needs or motives stimulate individuals and may exert a strong influence on their perceptions. For example, in an organizational context, a boss who is insecure perceives a subordinate's efforts to do an outstanding job as a threat to his or her own position. Personal insecurity can be translated into the perception that others are out to "get my job", regardless of the intention of the subordinates. d) Self-Concept: Another factor that can affect social perception is the perceivers' selfconcept. An individual with a positive self-concept tends to notice positive attributes in another person. In contrast, a negative self-concept can lead a perceiver to pick out negative traits in another person. Greater understanding of self allows us to have more accurate perceptions of others. e) Interest: The focus of our attention appears to be influenced by our interests. Because our individual interests differ considerably, what one person notices in a situation can differ from what others perceive. For example, the supervisor who has just been reprimanded by his boss for coming late is more likely to notice his colleagues coming late tomorrow than he did last week. If you are preoccupied with a personal problem, you may find it hard to be attentive in class.

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f) Cognitive Structure: Cognitive structure, an individual's pattern of thinking, also affects perception. Some people have a tendency to perceive physical traits, such as height, weight, and appearance, more readily. Others tend to focus more on central traits, or personality dispositions. Cognitive complexity allows a person to perceive multiple characteristics of another person rather than attending to just a few traits. g) Expectations: Finally, expectations can distort your perceptions in that you will see what you expect to see. The research findings of the study conducted by Sheldon S Zalkind and Timothy W Costello on some specific characteristics of the perceiver reveal a) Knowing oneself makes it easier to see others accurately. b) ii. One's own characteristics affect the characteristics one is likely to see in others. c) iii. People who accept themselves are more likely to be able to see favourable aspects of other people. d) iv. Accuracy in perceiving others is not a single skill. These four characteristics greatly influence how a person perceives others in the environmental situation. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TARGET Characteristics in the target that is being observed can affect what is perceived. Physical appearance plays a big role in our perception of others. Extremely attractive or unattractive individuals are more likely to be noticed in a group than ordinary looking individuals. Motion, sound, size and other attributes of a target shape the way we see it.The perceiver will notice the target's physical features like height, weight, estimated age, race and gender. Perceivers tend to notice physical appearance characteristics that contrast with the norm, that are intense, or that are new or unusual. Physical attractiveness often colours our entire impression of another person. Interviewers rate attractive candidates more favourably and attractive candidates are awarded higher starting salaries. Verbal communication from targets also affects our perception of them. We listen to the topics they speak about, their voice tone, and their accent and make judgements based on this input. Non-verbal communication conveys a great deal of information about the target. The perceiver deciphers eye contact, facial expressions, body movements, and posture all in an attempt to form an impression of the target .As a result of physical or time proximity, we often put together objects or events that are unrelated. For example, employees in a particular department are seen as a group. If two employees of a department suddenly resign, we tend to assume their departures were related when in fact, they might be totally unrelated. People, objects or events that are similar to each other also tend to be grouped together. The greater the similarity, the greater the probability we will tend to perceive them as a group.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SITUATION
The situation in which the interaction between the perceiver and the target takes place, has an influence on the perceiver's impression of the target. E.g. meeting a manager in his or her office affects your impression in a certain way that may contrast with the impression you would have formed, had you met the manager in a restaurant. The strength of the situational cues also affects social perception. Some situations provide strong cues as to appropriate behaviour. In these situations, we assume that ie individual's behaviour can be accounted for by the situation, and that it may not reflect the individual's disposition. This is the discounting principle in social perception. For example, you may encounter an automobile salesperson who has a warm and personable manner, asks you about your work and hobbies, and seems genuinely interested in your taste in cars. Can you assume that this behaviour reflects the salesperson's personality? You probably cannot, because of the influence of the situation. This person is trying to sell you a car, and in this particular situation, he probably treats all customers in this manner.

5. Mr. Solanki is the VP- HR of a leading Financial services company. He is having a meeting with Ms. Ramani leading HR consultant. Mr. Solanki is concerned about creating an environment that helps in increasing the job satisfaction amongst employees. Assume that you are Ms. Ramani, the HR consultant. What suggestions you will give to Mr. Solanki, for creating an environment that increases job satisfaction
i) Mentally Challenging Work: Employees tend to prefer jobs that give them opportunities to use their skills and abilities and offer a variety of tasks, freedom and feedback on how well they are doing. Under conditions of moderate challenge, most employees will experience pleasure and satisfaction. ii) Personality-Job Fit: People with personality types congruent with their chosen vocations should find they have the right talents and abilities to meet the demands of their jobs; and because of this success, they have a greater probability of achieving high satisfaction from their work. It is important, therefore to fit personality factors with job profiles. iii) Equitable Rewards: Employees want pay systems and promotion policies that they perceive as being just, unambiguous, and in line with their expectations. When pay is seen as fair based on job demands, individual skill level, and industry pay standards, satisfaction is likely to result. Similarly, employees seek fair promotion policies and practices. Promotions provide opportunities for personal growth, more responsibilities and increased social status. Individuals who perceive that promotion decisions are made in a fair and just manner are likely to experience job satisfaction. iv) Supportive working conditions: Employees prefer physical conditions that are comfortable and facilitate doing a good job. Temperature, light, noise and other 8

environmental factors should not be extreme and provide personal comfort. Further, employees prefer working relatively close to home, in clean and relatively modern facilities and with adequate tools and equipment. v) Supportive Colleagues: Employees have need for social interaction. Therefore, having friendly and supportive co-workers and understanding supervisor's leads to increased job satisfaction. Most employees want their immediate supervisor to be understanding and friendly, those who offer praise for good performance, listen to employees' opinions and show a personal interest in them. vi) Whistle blowing: Whistle-blowers are employees who inform authorities of wrongdoings of their companies or co-workers. Whistle blowing is important because committed organizational members sometimes engage in unethical behaviour in an intense desire to succeed. Organizations can manage whistle blowing by communicating the conditions that are appropriate for the disclosure of wrongdoing. Clearly delineating wrongful behaviour and the appropriate ways to respond are important organizational actions. vii) Social Responsibility: Corporate social responsibility is the obligation of an organization to behave in ethical ways in the social environment in which it operates. Socially responsible actions are expected of organizations. Current concerns include protecting the environment, promoting worker safety, supporting social issues, investing in the community, etc. Managers must encourage both individual ethical behaviour and organizational social responsibility. viii) Job enrichment It is a deliberate upgrading of responsibility, scope, and challenge in the work itself. Job enrichment usually includes increased responsibility, recognition, and opportunities for growth, learning, and achievement. Large companies that have used job-enrichment programs to increase employee motivation and job satisfaction include, AT&T, IBM, and General Motors (Daft, 1997).

Given below is the HR policy glimpse of the ³VARKLEARNING´ a learning and training solutions company 1. It offers cash rewards for staff members 2. It promotes the culture of employee referral and encourages people to refer people they know may be their friends, ex. Colleagues batch mates, relatives. 3. What all needs do it takes care off according to maslow¶s need hierarchy 4. It recognizes good performances and give fancy titles and jackets to the people who perform well and also felicitates them in the Annual Day of the company. What all aspects does it takes care of according to the Maslow¶s Need Hierarchy ?
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According to Maslow¶s Need Hierarchy they take care of Esteem, Social, Selfactualization needs respectively. These needs are explained below. Esteem needs: Includes internal esteem factors, such as, self-respect, autonomy, and achievement; and external esteem factors, such as, status, recognition, and attention Social needs: Includes affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship Self-actualization needs: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming; includes growth, achieving one¶s potential, and self-fulfillment

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