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THIN S DOGEN (o Nguyn Hy Huyn) S T TNG TO NG NHT BN

Tm Thi ---o0o--Ngun http://thuvienhoasen.org Chuyn sang ebook 5-8-2009 Ngi thc hin : Nam Thin namthien@gmail.com Link Audio Ti Website http://www.phatphaponline.org Mc Lc
Lch s tng To ng Cuc i ca Dgen Tin trnh tu hnh ca Dgen Cng cuc hong php Nhng tc phm ca Dgen Shbgenz (Chnh php nhn tng) Php tu ca Dgen Ta thin So snh gia shikantaza v thin "mc chiu" ca Trung hoa

---o0o--Thin s Nht Dgen Kigen (o Nguyn Hy Huyn) (1200-1253), cng thng c gi l Eihei Dgen, l v t sng lp tng To ng (Nh: St) ti Nht. Hin nay Thin tng (Zen) ti Nht c hai tng thnh hnh nht l tng Lm T (Rinzai) v tng To ng. Nh c gio s Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki (1870-1966) vit nhiu sch bng Anh ng t khong nm 1900 nn Ty phng c bit nhiu v Thin tng Nht bn nhng ch yu v tng Lm T. iu cng hiu c l v Suzuki tu theo tng Lm T v chng ng thin l nm 27 tui, v vy ng ch chuyn vit v tng Lm T.

Tuy nhin gn y th tng To ng cng c bit n v nhiu thin s Nht ti M truyn php, m thin vin, cng lc nhiu tc phm ca cc thin s Nht thuc tng To ng c dch ra ting Anh. Hin nay tng To ng ti Nht c khong 15.000 ngi thin vin v 8 triu Pht t. Ti M: thin s Nht Soyen Shaku, cng t l Nyogen Senzaki n M nm 1905. Gio s D. T. Suzuki, t ca Soyen Shaku, n New York nm 1951 v bt u ging v Thin. Thin s tng To ng Shunryu Suzuki ti M nm 1959 v lp Thin vin San Francisco. Ti Vit Nam th tng To ng c truyn qua t u th k 17 do thin s Thy Nguyt, hiu Thng Gic (1637-1704) t min Bc Vit Nam qua Trung hoa nm 1644 v th php ca thin s Trung hoa l Nht C Tri Gio, i th 35 tng To ng. S c n chng l t th 36 v c php v Vit Nam truyn tng To ng (HT Thch Thanh T: Thin s Vit Nam, trang 366). ---o0o---

Lch s tng To ng
Tng To ng do hai thin s Trung hoa sng lp: v khai t l Lng gii ng sn (807-869), v t l To sn Bn Tch (840-901). Danh t To ng l gm hai a danh To sn v ng sn nhp li. Lng gii ng sn l t ca Vn nham, thuc dng Hnh t Thanh Nguyn l mt trong s t ca Lc t Hu Nng. Trong i nh ng (618-907) th Thin tng Trung hoa chia lm 5 phi thuc 2 h thng khc nhau: h thng Nam Nhc c Lm T v Quy Ngng, h thng Thanh Nguyn c To ng, Vn Mn v Php Nhn. Trong s gi l Thin Tng Ng Gia. Tng To ng sau ny cn c gi l Thin Mc Chiu (Silent illumination zen, Mokusho zen) do thin s Tan hsia Tzu Chun (an H T Thun, 10641117) khi xng. Sau tng ny khng pht trin mnh Trung hoa v khng c t no xut sc ni ting. Nh c Dgen qua Trung hoa th php v v truyn b ti Nht vi mt ng li c bit nn tng To ng ngy nay vn c pht trin mnh. ---o0o---

Cuc i ca Dgen
Dgen sanh nm 1200 trong mt gia nh qu tc ti Kyoto, thn ph ca Dgen l Kuga Michichika gi chc v quan trng trong triu nh. T nh Dgen t ra rt thng minh. Mi 4 tui Dgen bit c nhng bi th bng ch Hn, nm 9 tui c bn ting Hn cun Abhidharma (Thng php). Cuc i kh khn v cha mt khi Dgen mi ln 2, m mt lc 7 tui. Mt ngi trong h l Minamoto, mt v quan trong triu nh, em Dgen v nhn l con nui v tnh dy d Dgen theo con ng khoa bng sau ny ni nghip. Nhng v hon cnh m ci sm gy xc ng mnh khin Dgen thy r l v thng nn quyt nh xut gia tm hiu ngha v vn sinh, t. n nm 13 tui Dgen xut gia ti ni Hiei vi thin s Ken thuc tng Thin Thai, v c ban cho php danh l Buppb Dgen. Trong khi tu tp Dgen vn thc mc, nghi hoc vi vn : theo cc kinh in th tt c chng sanh u c Pht tnh, vy ti sao phi kh cng tu hnh chng t c Pht tnh v gic ng. Khng tm c s gii p ni v tr tr Ken nn Dgen ri n thin vin Mii-deraji vi v tr tr l Kin nhng v ny cng khng gii p c v c khuyn Dgen n gp thin s Myan Eisai (Minh Am Vinh Ty) ti thin vin Kenninji (Kin nhn) Kyoto. Thin s Eisai (1141-1215), qua Trung hoa v em tng Lm T v truyn b ti Nht, c coi l v t khai sng Thin tng ti Nht. Nh s ch dy ca Esai nn Dgen sng hiu phn no nn quyt nh li theo hc Eisai. Tic thay nm sau th thin s Eisai qua i. Dgen tip tc li thin vin theo hc thin s Myzen (1184-1225) l ngi k tha Eisai. Ni y Dgen c ch dn tu tp theo php mn tng Lm T v ri b tng Thin Thai. Nm 1223 Dgen lc c 23 tui, theo thy Myzen qua Trung Hoa tip tc tu hc. Trc ht Dgen n tu vin Ching-te ti ni T'ien t'ung (Thin ng) th gio v tr tr Wu-chi, thuc tng Lm T. Dgen c nhiu tin b trong s hc hi v Thin tng, nhng vn cha hon ton tha mn nn sau li i tham vn nhiu thin s khc. Tht vng v vic i tm hc lu m cha em n kt qu, Dgen c nh tr v Nht th tnh c c bit l v tr tr T'ien t'ung qua i v v k nghip l Juching (Thin ng Nh Tnh, Tendo Nyojo) (1163-1228), v t th 13 tng To ng, rt ni ting, nn Dgen quay tr li .

Thin s Ju-ching t chc thin vin rt l nghim chnh, c bit ch trng vo vic ngi thin. Nng theo gng ca s ph nn Dgen ngi thin chm ch ngy m. Nh s ch dy ca Ju-ching nn t c c vng v chng ng, nn trong cc tc phm sau ny Dgen lun ghi nh cng n . Sau khi c chng ng Dgen vn cn li tip tc tu hnh thm 2 nm na. Nm 1227 Dgen quyt nh tr v Nht truyn b Thin tng. Ju-ching chp thun vic v c tng cho Dgen chic o c sa ca Fu-jung Tao ch'ueh (Ph dung o giai) (1043-1118), mt v t tng To ng, v hai cun sch ni ting ca tng To ng: Pao ching San Mei (Hky Zammai, Bo cnh Tam mui) v Wu wei Hsien chueh (Goi Kenketsu) (Goi: ng sn ng v) cng mt bc ha chn dung ca mnh. (Yokoi, tr. 32) Sau khi tr v Nht Dgen tr li thin vin Kenninji. c 3 nm Dgen tht vng thy tnh trng tu hnh ca tng on qu suy thoi so vi trc. S k li l thy cc tng phng ring, c sang trng, qun o l lt, thch ni nhng danh t hoa m, cn th qun c nghi l, chnh php. S t gi thin vin Kenninji v dn ti thin vin An'y-in. Sau s dn ti thin vin Kshji v lp thin ng hun luyn tng ni cng cc c s. V nhu cu nn s phi lp thin ng c ch hun luyn nhng s vn lun nhc nh l vic xy cha ln nguy nga khng phi ng nhin l dn ti gic ng. D trong mt chi nh, di gc cy m c theo hiu c li Pht dy v hnh tr theo ng php th Pht gio mi thnh hnh c. Trong bui khai mc thin ng s ni l qua Trung Hoa th s ng c l "mt ngang, mi dc", "tay khng" khi tr v Nht, s khng em theo mt cun kinh no. Trong thi gian thin vin Kshji, Dgen tip tc vit nhiu bi ging thm v Thin tng, mc du s t cng ngy cng ng khin s khng c nhiu th gi nh trc. Ngoi ra tng phi ca s cn b cc tng ca tng Tendai (Thin Thai), ang c nhiu th lc lc , v ganh t thy ting tm, nh hng ca s mi ngy gia tng nn kim cch ngn cn, ph ri ti mc l ra lnh ph thin vin Kshji. S v mt s t phi di n mt ngi thin vin nh l Yoshimine-dera. Ni y nh s bo tr ca qun trng Yoshishige c th lc v rt sng bi o Pht. Sau ng qun trng xy mt ngi thin vin vnh vin cho

s tr tr, l thin vin Daibutsu, m sau c i tn l thin vin Eiheiji (Vnh Bnh, Eternal Peace) l mt trong hai t nh ca tng To ng v cng l ngi cha Thin tng c coi nh ln nht ca Nht. S mt nm 53 tui ti Kyoto vo ngy 28 thng 8 nm 1253. ---o0o---

Tin trnh tu hnh ca Dgen


T khi xut gia nm 13 tui cho ti khi c tip xc vi tng To ng, s chuyn i t tng Thin Thai qua tng Lm T, nhng mi "i nghi" (great doubt) ca s v Pht tnh (bussh, buddha-nature) vn cha c gii p. S t hi theo kinh in i tha th tt c chng sanh u c Pht tnh, nhng ti sao phi tu hnh kh khn, kh hnh t c gic ng. Nh vy dng nh c s mu thun gia ci sn c, bm sanh, vi s chng c. Vi s thnh tm quyt tm cho c cu gii p s ht lng i nhiu ni mong gp c v "chn s" (shshi, authentic teacher) m s cho l cn thit t mc ch. (Trong nhng tc phm sau ny, s lun nhn mnh n vai tr ca v chn s. S ly v d nh c khc g qu nhng nu khng c ngi iu khc gii th khng th c c mt pho tng tt). im i nghi ca Dgen phn no c sng t khi Esai, v s t tng Lm T Nht ging: "Tt c ch Pht ba thi u khng thy l mnh c Pht tnh, nhng mo, b u thy l chng c Pht tnh". (Yokoi, tr. 28) Nh c Esai khai m nn Dgen thy c con ng tu tp. Cng nn ghi l Esai hai ln i Trung hoa mi thnh cng v c n chng, tr nn s t tng Lm T ti Nht. Sau khi Esai tch th Dgen li tu vin tip tc theo hc Myzen l ngi k tha ca Esai. Dgen rt knh phc Myzen v chm ch tu tp theo php tu ca tng Lm T, nhng vn cha tha mn trong vic gii p mi i nghi. Khi qua Trung Hoa s may mn gp c thin s Ju-ching, mt v t tng To ng. Mc du s l ngi Nht nhng s c Ju-ching thng mn v ht lng ch dy. Ngay ngy u tin khi c yt kin Ju-ching, sau khi trnh by s nguyn ca mnh s c Ju-ching chp nhn vo thin vin. S cho l iu ht sc may mn nh phc c t kip trc. (Takashi, tr. 53). Ju-ching cn c bit cho php s c tham vn bt c

lc no. S coi l mt bc chn s m s ao c c gp t khi c i nghi. Php tu ca Ju-ching ch yu l shikantaza (just sit, singleminded intense sitting, nht tm chuyn ch ta thin). Dgen vit:" Ju-ching dy:"Hc thin vi mt v thy l bung x thn v tm (drop the body and mind); l ta thin chuyn ch, nht tm, khng c thp nhang, th cng, nim Pht, sm hi, tng kinh" (Takashi, tr. 58). Mc du ngoi 60 tui, Juching vn ta thin cho ti hn 11 gi m v thc dy 2 gi ri hoc 3 gi tip tc ta thin, mi m nh vy, khng thiu m no. Nhng thin sinh no m ng gt trong khi ta thin th b Ju-ching thng tay nh p v trng pht. K lut ti thin vin ny ni ting l nghim ngt so vi nhng thin vin khc, Mt bui sng sm trong khi i kim sot trong gi thin Ju-ching thy mt thin sinh ng gt nn ry: "Vic tu tp ta thin (zazen) l phi bung x thn v tm. Nay ngi ng gt nh vy th t c g?" Dgen nghe thy vy th tc thi i ng. Dgen i ti tht ca Ju-ching thp nn hng v qy trc mt Ju-ching trnh kin gii v c n chng. l vo nm 1225. Trong mt bui l Ju-ching chnh thc trao cho Dgen giy chng nhn n chng vic truyn php ca tng To ng. Sau khi c n chng, s li thm 2 nm tip tc tu tp ri mi tr v Nht. S k li: " sau khi tu hc vi s ph Ju-ching ti ng rng i mt nm ngang v mi dc, khng cn b ai la na". S ni: "Gn y ti tr v qu nh vi hai bn tay khng. V nh vy sn tng ny khng c Pht php." (trch Eihei-koroku (Vnh Bnh qung lc), tp 1, do Okumura & Leighton dch) Theo tc gi Takashi, vic tr v "tay khng" c ngha l Dgen tin rng mnh th nhp c Pht php sau khi c s ph truyn php nn khi cn n cc kinh sch. Chnh php c truyn t c Pht Thch Ca, qua cc v T ri n Dgen. ---o0o---

Cng cuc hong php


Sau khi ng o t Trung Hoa v th Dgen tr li thin vin c l Kenninji, 3 nm v bt u cng cuc hong php. Trc ht s vit bi Fukanzazengi (A universal recommendation for Zazen, Ph khuyn ta thin nghi). Trong s ging rt chi tit v vic ta thin, t l do, mc ch n cch thc hnh. S nhc li vic c Pht Thch Ca ngi thin trong 6 nm, cn t B t Ma quay mt vo vch ngi thin trong 9 nm, vy m cc hnh gi ch chy theo ngn ng c kin gii tri thc thi th lm sao chng c c. Phi ta thin mi c th t ti gic ng vin mn. l s hin l ca thc ti ti thng. Sau Dgen di v thin vin An'y-in v bt u vit tc phm Shbgenz. Mt ln na Dgen di v thin vin Kshji. S tng chng v c s theo hc rt ng nn s phi khi cng xy ct thin ng. Nhn dp ny s tho ni quy v thin ng rt k lng. Bn ni quy ny c 20 iu, sau y l vi im c bit: - khng ra khi thin vin, tr khi c iu khn cp, - khng c sch, k c nhng sch v Thin tng, - khng ni xu ngi khc, khng tm li ngi khc, - khng mang trng ht, - khng c v tng kinh. Trong s t ca s c nhng v c sc l Ej, Skai, Sen'e, Ekan, Gikai, Giin, Gien, Gijun. c bit l Koun Ej (C Vn Hoi Trang) (1198-1280) rt thn cn vi s, v ny sau ny c cng trong vic thu thp nhng ng lc ca s v lm cun Shbgenz Zuimonki. Sau Ej ph gip Dgen trong vic xy dng thin vin Eiheiji v c c lm ph tr tr v khi Dgen tch th Ej c c l v t th 2. Sau ny ngi ni ting sau Dgen l v t th t Taiso Keizan (Onh Sn Thiu Cn), ngi xy dng ngi thin vin Sojiji, ln th nh ca tng To ng. Trong thi gian 10 nm thin vin Kshji, Dgen c coi nh t ti inh cao nht trong cuc i tu hnh ca s. Ti s sng tc c nhiu tc phm chnh ca mnh, v truyn b php Thin em t Trung Hoa v v thm vo nhng ng li tu hnh c o ca s to dng nn tng phi St c bit ca Nht bn. Thin vin Kshji c xy dng theo mt kin trc khc hn, v t chc sinh hot cng c bit v

nghim ngt hn cc thin vin khc. S t tng ln rt nhiu, ngoi ra s rt ch ti vic ging dy cho cc c s na. Dgen tip tc hon tt cun Shbgenz (Chnh php nhn tng), tc phm ln nht v quan trng nht ca s. Cun ny c vit bng ting Nht, l iu c bit v thi cc ti liu Pht php khc u vit bng ch Hn. Cun ny gm 95 chng, gm cc bi vit theo tng ch khc nhau, ch khng phi l mt ti liu thng nht. Vn php ca s rt linh hot, su sc, t nhin v hp dn nn c cc gii Pht hc cng nh vn hc khen ngi. n nm 1243 s v mt s t ri Kshji n vng Echizen, mt vng ho lnh min bc. Vic ri i kh t ngt v gy ra thc mc cho cc hc gi sau ny a ra nhiu lun on v gi thuyt khc nhau. Ti ni ny s xy dng nn thin vin Eiheiji, v s thng t xng danh trong cc bi vit vi tn Eihei, cho nn sau ny s c ku l Eihei Dgen. Theo ng ch trng ca s ph Ju-ching nn s khng mun lin lc vi cc quan chc triu nh. Tuy vy n nm 1247 s li nhn li mi ca Hj Tokiyori, mt v v quan trong triu nh, v n Kamakura, gn Tokyo hin nay, ging dy v Pht gio. Sau mt thi gian s tht vng nn sm tr v thin vin. Theo Heinrich Dumoulin, gio s ngi c nghin cu k v lch s Thin Tng, th l bt u thi k "suy gim" ca Dgen. Khng r v l do g nhng nhng bi vit sau ny cho thy c s thay i v quan im ca s v mt s vn . Th d nh lc trc s rt khen ngi v tng Lm T m s chng kin khi i tu hc Trung Hoa, trong c thn phc v thin s i Hu Tng Co (1089-1163). Nhng sau s li vit nhiu bi ch trch mnh m i Hu. Lc trc s ch trng ci m v cho rng cc c s v phi n u c th thnh o c, nhng sau s li ch trng ch c nhng ngi xut gia mi c th thnh o c. l vi th d m cc hc gi a ra kt lun l thi k Echizen chng t c s thay i quan im ca s theo chiu hng suy gim so vi s pht trin mnh m trong thi k s cn Kshji. ---o0o---

Nhng tc phm ca Dgen


Nhiu bi ging php ca Dgen do chnh Dgen vit hoc do cc t ghi li vo khong 120 bi ghi trong 8 tc phm chnh. Nhng tc phm ca

Dgen c coi l xut sc trong nn vn hc Pht gio v c ngay trong nn vn hc Nht bn. Sau y l mt s tc phm thng c nhc ti: -Shbgenz (True Dharma Eye Treasury, Chnh php nhn tng). -Shbgenz Zuimonki (Chnh php nhn tng ty vn k), -Shbgenz sambyakusoku (Chnh php nhn tng tam bch tc) -Hky ki, cun nht k ghi chp nhng li dy ca Ju-ching trong thi k s i tm o ti Trung hoa 1225-1227. -Tenz kykun (in ta gio hun, Instructions for the Cook) -Eiheiji kroku (Vnh Bnh qung lc), cng c gi l o Nguyn Ha thng qung lc (Dgen sh kroku). Dgen l v thin s Thin tng vit nhiu nht, khc hn cc thin s khc thng vit vn tt, hoc ch do cc t ghi li. S thng t tay vit cc bi ging trc khi trnh by cho t hoc qun chng. im c bit l cch hnh vn ca s thng dng cc t ng thi , thm vo vic s rt ch vo vic ging dy k lng, nh nhng bi trit hc nn sau ny vic phin dch rt l kh khn v kh hiu. Cng v t tay vit nn ty thi k tin trin ging dy, s c khuynh hng sa i cc bn vit, cho nn c bi vit m li c nhiu bn khc nhau, i khi c tng i chi nhau, khin cho cc hc gi si ni bn ci. Tuy vy cc hc gi u thn phc v cng nhn ti nng v Pht hc cng nh v vn ha ca s. Thomas Cleary, ngi dch rt nhiu ti liu v Pht gio ra ting Anh, vit l cun Shbgenz l mt tuyt tc khng nhng Nht m "cng ng hng u vi cc tc phm vn chng ton th gii". (trch: Rational Zen- The Mind of Dgen Zenji). Heinrich Dumolin, hc gi ngi c vit rt nhiu sch v Pht hc, vit: "c cun ny ngi ta phi ngc nhin nhn thy rng Dgen lun gi c mt chnh l nhn c mi vt 'nh l c Pht nhn' (butsu no kata yori), mt thnh qu t c khi ta thin. T ci nhn ny nn mi mi kha cnh ca i sng c nhn r - t nhng vic i sng thng ngy, vic tu Thin, khung cnh thin vin, Pht php, l nghi cho n c thc ti tuyt i.", "Nhng bi vit ca s v Pht gio v lch s tn gio c nhiu trit gia Ty phng say m. T tng ca s c so snh vi Heidegger. D so snh th no th Dgen vn hon ton ng vai Pht t v cng l mt nh nghin cu trn vn." (trch "Zen Buddhism: A History- Japan). ---o0o---

Shbgenz (Chnh php nhn tng)


Tc phm ny c coi l quan trng nht trong vic hc hi hoc tm hiu v Dgen. Tc phm ny gm nhng bi do Dgen vit v nhng bi php m s ging cho cc t hoc cho nhng bui thuyt trnh cho cc gii. y khng phi l tc phm trnh by th lp, lin kt, c h thng, m l nhng ti ring bit ca mi ln thuyt php nhng thi im khc nhau, v c th nhng trng thi tinh thn khc nhau na. im kh khn trong vic nghin cu cun Shbgenz l c nhiu bn khc nhau. Bn c x dng nhiu nht l bn c 95 chng. Bn ny c tho ra vo i Genroku (1688-1703) v c khc g nm 1816. Nh vy tc l bn ny xut hin sau thi Dgen hn 500 nm. Nhng bn khc u l chp bng tay. Sau ny ngi ta li pht hin ra bn 75 chng m cc hc gi cho l chnh Dgen t tay vit bn ny. Cuc bn ci vn cn tip tc v c kin li cho rng bn 12 chng mi l ch thc ca Dgen. l 3 bn chnh c bn ci nhiu nht. Cn c nhng bn khc na, nh l 12, 28, 60 84, 87, 88 chng. l cha k n vic lc cui cuc i Dgen ang sa li cun ny thnh 100 chng m cha hon tt. (Trch: Gudo Wafu Nishijima, Understanding the Shbgenz, 1992). Nay s ng thng dng bn 95 chng lm ti liu chnh. Vic tm c cun Shbgenz rt l kh khn, xin tm dng vic nghin cu ca gio s Nishijima tm tt, ngi t nhn nghin cu cun ny hn 50 nm. Cun ny c th chia lm 4 ti: 1. Tm: nhng chng lin quan n tm, l thuyt, t tng, tn gio. (gm 23 chng) 2. Cnh: vt th, thin nhin, ngoi cnh, khng gian. (gm 26 chng) 3. Hnh: s ng nht gia thn v tm, gia tm v vt, hin ti, hnh ng. (gm 27 chng) 4. Thc ti (reality): s phc tp ca thc ti, biu tng ca thc ti. (gm 19 chng) Theo gio s cun ny trnh by trit l v thc ti, l mt vn khng th thc hin c v Thc ti khng th dng tri thc t hay din t c, nhng Dgen lm c vic ny. ---o0o---

Php tu ca Dgen
Ta thin Dgen cho rng ch yu trong vic tu hnh ca o Pht l ta thin. Tuy vy php ta thin ca s khc hn vi php ta thin ca cc tng phi khc trong o Pht, k c cc tng phi khc trong Thin tng. S lun nhc nh cc t l trong vic tu hnh th ta thin (zazen) l iu quan trng nht. S dy: "Pht php c trc tip truyn tha t cc c Pht v cc T l shikantaza." S dng danh t Shikantaza phn bit php ta thin ca Thin To ng vi cc php Thin khc. (shikantaza' ( , just sitting) "Shikan" c ngha l "ch c" c dch ra ting Anh l "just" hoc "nothing but". (Shikantaza= just sitting). Danh t ny c dch ra ting Vit l "Ch qun ta" (Chn Nguyn, trang 90). ---o0o--So snh gia shikantaza v thin "mc chiu" ca Trung hoa "Mc" c ngha l yn lng (silent). "Chiu" c ngha l gic ng (illuminate, enlightened state, satori). Php ny c 3 c tnh: 1- nhn mnh v "t tnh thanh tnh", theo nh li dy ca Lc t Hu Nng, 2- khng c vn chng c, 3- nhn mnh ta thin l php hnh ca v Pht bm sanh. (Kiyozumi Ishii, trang 2)

Dgen cng theo ng ng hng , nhng cho rng mt s ngi hiu lm thin Mc Chiu v cho rng nh vy khng cn phi tu tp g c. Trong bi Fukanzazengi (Ph khuyn ta thin nghi) s nhn mnh vic ta

thin l s hin l ca thc ti ti thng. Ngay khi ta thin th chnh php t hin l. Trong cun Bendwa (Bin o thoi) Dgen gii thch k lng hn na v php ta thin. Cun ny gm 18 cu hi-p. V cu hi ti sao Pht php c nhiu phng php tu hnh m nay s cho l ch c ta thin l chn php. S p: "c Thch Ca truyn diu php ny tu hnh t o, v cc c Nh Lai ba i (qu kh, hin ti v v lai) cng t o do ta thin. Cho nn ni l chnh php. Ngoi ra cc t t n v Trung hoa cng t o do ta thin." Cun sch ghi tip: "Quan nim rng ch cn ln ting, vi ci li c ng m cho rng c th snh c cng c hnh tr ca c Pht th tht l vic khng c ngha l, cn xa, rt xa vi Pht php", "mun t o bng cch tng c triu ln th cng v ch nh mun i v phng nam m xe li hng i v phng bc", "Cho rng hnh tr v chng ng l hai vic ring bit th l ci nhn ca ngoi o. Trong Pht php, hnh tr v chng ng l mt v nh nhau", "Pht php ch r rng thn v tm l mt, th v tng khng hai". Trong chng Genjkan (c dch theo l: spontaneous relization, n ng) thuc cun Shbgenz, Dgen tm tt: "Hnh Pht o l phi bit r mnh. Bit r mnh l phi qun mnh. Qun mnh l phi ng c mun php. Ng c mun php l phi bung x thn v tm mnh v ngi." (Yasutani dch) Thin s Keizan (Onh Sn, 1268-1325), v t th t tng To ng Nht, trong bi "Ta thin dng tm k" vit rt r rng v php ta thin ny: "Nay ta thin chnh l vo bin Pht tnh, tc l nu by ci th ch Pht, ci diu tnh minh tm sn c c hin tin. Ch Pht v mt i s nhn duyn xut hin ra i l ch thng chng sanh m by ng nhp tri kin Pht. Ci diu thut c tri kin Pht l ta thin. Ta thin tc l ci tam mui ch Pht t th dng, cng gi l tam mui vua tam mui. Pht ni: "Nghe (vn), suy ngh (t) nh ngoi ca, to thin chnh l tr v ngi an n trong nh". Tht vy, nu nghe, suy ngh cc kin gii cha dt, tm a cn rng buc, cho nn nh ngoi ca, ch c ta thin b ht tt c khng cn ch no chng thng, nn t ngi tr v ngi an n trong nh.

Bung b tm thc, dt ht nim tng qun, ch mong lm Pht, ng ngh th phi, kho gn gi qu tic ngy gi nh cu la chy du. Khng dng thp hng, l bi, nim Pht, tu sm, xem kinh, tr tng, ch ch trng ta thin l ." (HT Thch thanh T, "Thin n ng") Sau y l mt bi vit ca thin s Ksh Uchiyama (1912- ), trch trong cun "Nothing is hidden" ca Jisho Warner. "Shikantaza c ngha l "ch c" ta thin. Nhng thc s chng ta thc hnh nh th no khi ta thin? Ch "tm" (Nh: shin) l c mt vn , ty theo chng ta hiu ngha ch ny th no th vic hnh thin nh vy. Trc ht "tm" thng c hiu nh l ci tm ca tm l hoc thc (citta). Khi hiu nh vy th "tp trung tm vo ci g" c ngha l hng tt c tm vo ci . Php thin ca ngoi o v cc tng phi ban u ca o Pht u hnh nh vy. Tm ca chng ta lc no cng ri lon v hnh gi dng php lm cho tm yn tnh. Dgen ni r l php ta thin ny khng phi l kim ch tm. Dgen ni: " T dy rng th tm nh con co xo tr cn hn l dn dt n vo con ng cht hp ca vic kim ch". Tm ny l ci tm c truyn tha r rt t c Pht: "mt tm l mun php v mun php l mt tm". Tm v php l mt, ch khng phi nh cc phng php tp trung, kim ch tr thnh v tm hay v nim nh ngi ta thng dng. V vy khi ngh rng phi km, dp tt c ngh khi ln lc hnh thin th khng phi l php ta thin ca Dgen. R rng khi ngh khi ln v ta chy theo chng th khng phi l ta thin. Ngay khi chng ta c gng ngn chn khng cho tm khi ngh th cng ch l thc tc dng, cng khng phi l ta thin. Chng ta khng chy theo tm , cng khng dng tr dp b chng, nhng ch chng t do ni ln v t do tan bin. Chng ta nhn tt c nh quang cnh v thc ti ca i sng. Chng ta l sinh vt c b c. Nh vy khi ta thin nhng ngh sanh ri dit ch l iu t nhin. ch l s hot ng ca b c.

Khi ta thin, tm khng cn b rng buc vo bt c s tc no, ngay c nhng ngh nh "ti mun gic ng", "ti mun an nh tm" " Thin s Sekkei Harada (1926- ), v tr tr thin vin Hosshinji, trong cun: "The essence of Zen" vit: "Khng can thip vo s hot ng ca tm" c ngha l cho nhng cm xc h huyn, nhng vng tng, nhng quan nim v tt v xu, ng v sai t chng tri chy t nhin. ng can thip vo nhng ngh v chng ch l s hot ng t nhin ca tm (b c). " Thin l qun tm. Tm th lun lun chuyn ng. Hot ng l chc nng ca tm. Nh vy c ngha l mt sai lm ln nu ai mun dng ch chn ng hot ng t nhin . Khng c l do lm cho tm tr nh cy, nh . Cn thit l cho tm hot ng theo chc nng ca n (as-itis), tc l cho n tri chy lin tc. " Ti thy rng c nhiu ngi s ngh nh vy: "Ta phi ngng mi ngh" v h gng ngn chn mi ngh khi ln. l iu lm ln ln. H ang ngn chn dng lu chuyn t nhin ca cc php. ng c cho rng phi ngn chn mi ngh. Khi tc : "Khng ngh, khng ngh" th mt ci bn cht t nhin ri. "Thin khng phi l hu nim hay v nim." Dgen gii thch thm v l do ta thin: "Nu cc ng ch bit qun Pht php bng "tm" thi th d c ngn kip sng c th chng ng c khng? Nhng nu cc ng bung x tm v t b nhng tri thc, hiu bit th c th chng ng c. Nhng ngi chng o khi nhn thy hoa n, hoc nghe ting chi vo cy u chng ng do ni "thn". V vy nu cc ng bung x hon ton cc ngh v khi nim trong tm v ch ch tm vo ta thin th s tin xa trong vic tu o. Vic chng ng tht s ch t c vi "thn". Cc ng cn ch vo ta thin." (Masunaga, tr. 47) Dgen lun nhc nh l vic ta thin l cch tu hnh tt nht theo ng vi chnh php ca c Pht. Php ta thin ca s c im c bit l phi thy r vic tu tp v gic ng l mt, khng th ni tu tp " c" gic ng. Tnh "nh nhau" gia tu tp v gic ng l iu khng thy cc php mn khc trong o Pht. Hiu c c im ny mi hiu c ti sao

tng To ng Nht t trng tm vo vic to thin. Dgen cn c vo kinh in, thc chng v nhn mnh vo tnh bn nguyn ca s gic ng, ca Pht tnh. S coi iu l cn bn cho s tu hnh. S vit mt bi rt di (chng Pht tnh) trong cun Shbgenz gii thch r v vn ny. Vic tu hnh khng phi l phng tin t cu cnh l gic ng. Nu cho rng vic gic ng ch t c sau khi tu hnh th khng th ni l bn nguyn c. S nhc li l ci "bn lai din mc" (original face), ci t tnh m t Hu Nng ni trong Php Bo n Kinh, cng cn c gi l Pht tnh. *** Ti liu trch dn: - Thch thanh T, "Thin s Vit Nam". - Thch thanh T, "Thin n ng", Pht hc vin quc t, 1984 - Chn Nguyn & Nguyn tng Bch, "T in Pht hc", 1999 - Takashi James Kodera, "Dogen's Formative Years In China", Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980 - Takashi James Kodera, "The Buddha-nature in Dgen's Shbgenz". Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 4 December 1977. - Yh Yoki, "Zen Master Dgen- An introduction with selected writings", Weatherhill, 1976 - Heinrich Dumolin, "Zen Buddhism: A History- Vol. 2: Japan", Macmillan Publishing Company, 1990 - Jisho Warner, ed. "Nothing Is Hidden", Weather Hill, 2001 - Reih Masunaga, "A Primer of St Zen- A Translation of Dgen's Shbgenz Zuimonki", An East-West Center Book, 1971 - Hakuun Yasutani, "Flowers Fall - a commentary on Zen master Dgen's Genjkoan", Shambala, 1996 -Kiyozumi Ishii, "What Kind of Zen Did Dogen Create from Chinese Chan?" - Sekkei Harada, "The Essence of Zen", Kodansha International, 1993 -Hin nay h thng St-zen c mt ti nhiu ni trn th gii, ring ti M c khong 40 Trung tm. (danh sch y ti: http://www.sotozen-net.or.jp/kokusai/e_jiin.htm ). ---o0o--HT