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**COMPENSATION OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM VOLTAGE SAG BY DVR AND D-STATCOM
**

M.H. Haque

School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Nanyang Technological University Singapore

ABSTRACT

This paper describes the techniques of correcting the supply voltage sag in a distribution system by two power electronics based devices called DVR and D-STATCOM. A DVR injects a voltage in series with the system voltage and a D-STATCOM injects a current into the system to correct the voltage sag. The steady state performance of both DVR and D-STATCOM is determined and compared for various values of voltage sag, system fault level and load level. The minimum apparent power injection required to correct a given voltage sag by these devices is also determined and compared. The maximum voltage sag that can be corrected without injecting any active power into the system is also determined. Simulation results indicated that a DVR can correct a voltage sag with much less injected apparent power compared to that of a D-STATCOM.

current determine the power injection of the DVR. On the other hand, a D-STATCOM is a shunt device that generates an ac voltage, which in turn causes a current injection into the system through a shunt transformer. The load voltage and injected current determine the power injection of the DSTATCOM. For lower voltage sags, the load voltage magnitude can be corrected by injecting only reactive power into the system [ 5 ] . However, for higher voltage sags, injection of active power, in addition to reactive power, is essential to correct the voltage magnitude. Note that both DVR and D-STATCOM are capable of generating or absorbing reactive power but the active power injection of the device must be provided by an external energy source or energy storage system. The response time of both DVD and D-STATCOM is very short and is limited by the power electronics devices and the voltage sag detection time. The expected response time is about 25 ms [6], and which is much less than some of the traditional methods of voltage correction such as tapchanging transformers. For simplicity, only the steady state performance of DVR and D-STATCOM is determined and compared in this study. This paper investigates the steady state performance of a DVR and D-STATCOM when applied to correct the supply voltage sag in a distribution system. The maximum voltage sag that can be corrected without injecting any active power into the system is also determined. The minimum apparent power injection required to correct a given voltage sag is also calculated. The performance of both DVR and DSTATCOM for various values of voltage sag, system fault level and load level is also determined and compared.

Keywords: D-STATCOM, DVR, power quality, voltage sag.

I INTRODUCTION

Voltage magnitude is one of the major factors that determines the quality of power supply. Loads at distribution level are usually subject to frequent voltage sags due to various reasons. Voltage sags are highly undesirable for some sensitive loads, especially in high-tech industries. It is a challenging task to correct the voltage sag so that the desired load voltage magnitude can be maintained during the voltage disturbances. Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) or distribution STATCOM (D-STATCOM) can be used to correct the voltage sag at distribution level [I, 2, 3, 41. A DVR is a series device that generates an ac voltage and injects it in series with the supply voltage through an injection transformer to compensate the voltage sag. The injected voltage and load

**I1 VOLTAGE SAG CORRECTION BY A DVR
**

The schematic diagram of a typical DVR is shown in Fig. 1. The circuit on left hand side of the DVR represents the Thevenin equivalent circuit of the system. The system

0-7803-7139-9/01/$10.0002001 IEEE

Authorized licensed use limited to: Sree Vidyanikethan Engineering College. Downloaded on October 27, 2008 at 12:09 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

. the DVR injects a series voltage V V through the injection DR transformer so that the desired load voltage magnitude VL can be maintained. (3). (7). (9). tan8 sin@ . cos p) (9) The right hand side of eqn.V. (9) depends on the load current. Z. cos(p . the condition must be satisfied.I. (1) can be rewritten as V. Authorized licensed use limited to: Sree Vidyanikethan Engineering College.) drops.LCZ = V. for a feasible value of 6. the angle a can also be expressed as Here a. For such a case. the desired voltage correction can be achieved with minimum apparent power injection into the system.e ) . By equating eqns. Restrictions apply. no active power injection is by the DVR is required to correct the voltage. the complex voltage injection of the DVR can be obtained from eqn. .I.impedance (Zth= Rlh+j&) depends on the fault level of the load bus. A Zero Active Power Injection (ZAPI) = vL +'rhlL -vrh (1) Here ILis the load current and is given by PL +JQL I. when the magnitude of the DVR injected voltage is minimized. The voltage correction by a DVR for the zero active power injection (ZAPI) and minimum apparent power injection (MAPI) cases is discussed in the following. injection of active power into the system is essential. eqn. the angle a of the injected voltage VDVR can be written as When VL is considered as a reference. COS@ . + Z. =qh tan8 I Fig. The complex power injection of the DVR can be written as 'DVR a = tan-' [v. After some mathematical manipulations. 1 Schematic diagram of a DVR It may be mentioned here that when the injected voltage VoVR kept in quadrature with IL. 2008 at 12:09 from IEEE Xplore.LO From eqn.. (3) with a value of 6 found from eqn. (5) and (6). / P L ) ) . J + Z. The series injected voltage of the DVR can be written as vDVR minimizes the size of the injection transformer. (4) where cl = V.8) c2 = Z. when the phase angle difference between V V and IL is kept at nI2. and 8 is the load power factor angle ( 0 = tan-'(Q. eqn. (8) can be expressed as v..q h ~ 6 (3) As mentioned earlier that.8) c. load voltage and system impedance.case + ZJ.L(P -e) . and Vth. z.. On the other hand. In this case. sin 6 + I. In this case.. / c 3 ) It may be mentioned here that. When the system voltage (v. When the magnitude of the system or Thevenin equivalent voltage (Vth) satisfies eqn.cos 6 v.=( v. no active power DR injection into the system is required to correct the voltage sag.8) . Note that V V DR can be kept in quadrature with ILonly up to a certain value of voltage sag and beyond which the qradrature relationship cannot be maintained to correct the voltage sag. the phase angle 6 of Vth can be expressed as = vDVR'*. Downloaded on October 27. &h respectively. sin( p . This aspect of voltage correction is also very important because it and y = tan-'(c. 2 (v. p and 6 are the angle of VDVR. the desired voltage correction can be achieved without injecting any active power into the system. The injected active power must be provided by the energy storage system of the DVR.I. It requires the injection of only reactive power and the DVR itself is capable of generating the reactive power.I.

the shunt injected current Ish corrects the voltage sag by adjusting the voltage drop across the system impedance &h. the injected complex voltage and apparent power of the DVR can again be obtained from eqns. . (3). the same voltage correction can be achieved with minimum apparent power injection into the system. (1 5). Restrictions apply.6 ) v. the complex power is injection of the DVR can be found from eqns. When the shunt injected Thus.I . the D-STATCOM is not injecting any active power into the system. Authorized licensed use limited to: Sree Vidyanikethan Engineering College. 2 (at load side) can be written as [7] Once the value of 6 is known. sin@ . I11 VOLTAGE SAG CORRECTION BY A D-STATCOM The schematic diagram of a D-STATCOM is shown in Fig.-Vh( 6 . the magnitude of the injected apparent power of the DVR depends on the magnitude of the injected voltage.the desired voltage correction can again' be achieved without injecting any active power into the system. respectively. Note that the injected apparent power will have only the reactive component.I. (4) and it will have only the reactive component. 2 Schematic diagram of a D-STATCOM 6 = tan-' Z. The above constraint can be rewritten as 'fh The complex power injection of the D-STATCOM can be expressed as 'sh = 'L1.p = L f VL 'fh (13) must be satisfied. when the value of Ish is minimized. 2008 at 12:09 from IEEE Xplore.L . the injected complex current and apparent power of the DSTATCOM can easily be found from eqns. respectively. Downloaded on October 27. (1 1) can now be solved for the value of 6 and is given by Fig. For such a case. (18).. On the other hand.h (14) It may be mentioned here that the effectiveness of the DSTATCOM in correcting voltage sag depends on the value of Zhor fault level of the load bus. the condition -cosp+VL K h 'L F h'L I I or.p ) + . Eqn. cos(p . + z. (13) and (14). The voltage sag correction by a D-STATCOM using the above two techniques is discussed in the following. when the system voltage magnitude satisfies eqn. Thus the entire load active power (P.Once the value of VDVR known. the condition D-STATCOM F. b[ converter -. ( 3 ) and (4). From eqn. 2. In this diagram. B Minimum Apparent Power Injection (MAPI) For a given load current.. the D-STATCOM can correct the voltage sag without injecting any active power into the system.e) 1 A Zero Active Power Injection (ZAPI) In this case. . IShLq I L L .- must be satisfied.. The shunt injected current Ish can be written as PL =-?h 'L 'th From eqn. the angle 6 can be expressed as For a feasible value of 6.)must be provided by the Thevenin equivalent of the system. the magnitude of the injected voltage can be expressed as current Ish is kept in quadrature with VL. The active power flow through the Thevenin impedance of Fig. The value of Ish can be controlled by adjusting the output voltage of the converter.8 . Thus for the minimum voltage magnitude (or minimum apparent power) injection.

236 pu). 5 indicates that.8 lagging power factor and the fault level of the load bus is 10 pu with a X/R ratio of 2. the complex current and apparent power injection of the D-STATCOM can again be obtained from eqns. P" Fig. For this system it is found that the maximum voltage sag that can be corrected by the DVR without injecting any active power into the system is 0. the voltage correction without injecting any active power is achieved at an expense of higher apparent power injection into the system (compared to the MAPI case).6 I 01 IV SIMULATION RESULTS The simple system of Fig. for the MAPI case.O pu for both ZAPI and MAPI cases is shown in Fig. 5 Minimum apparent power injection of the DVR for various load levels (S). for a given load level. 4 that. Restrictions apply. Once the value of 6 is known. Fig. 4 that. Sinj increases rapidly with voltage sag. (19) provides the following Thus for a given load.O pu during the voltage sag conditions. 5. It can be observed in Fig. (20). X/R ratio of system impedance and load power factor. The variation of apparent power injection (Sjnj) against the voltage sag to maintain the load voltage magnitude of 1. . 0 02 03 04 05 Voltage sag.B Minimum Apparent Power Injection (MAPI) As mentioned earlier that. a: ZAPI case. the minimum apparent power injection of the DVR is independent of system fault level. 3 A simple system with a DVR or D-STATCOM A DVR First a DVR is used to correct the system voltage sags. when the magnitude of the injected current is minimized. 0. load level. 4. 2008 at 12:09 from IEEE Xplore. DVR or D-STATCOM 05 Rest of the system Fig. 3 is used to demonstrate the steady state performance of a DVR and D-STATCOM when applied to correct voltage sags.0 pu at 0. The injected apparent power of the DVR for various values of fault level. It is considered that the load of the system is 1. for a given voltage sag. (13). However. b: MAPI case. for the ZAPI case. Thus the condition of minimum apparent power injection is db An analytical expression of Ish can readily be obtained from eqn. Downloaded on October 27. load power factor and X/R ratio of system impedance is also studied in detail. Sinj varies linearly with the voltage sag. However. (13) and (14). The various results found for a DVR and D-STATCOM to satisfy the above criterion are briefly summarized in the following. and the solution of eqn. 4 Variation of injected apparent power of the DVR against voltage sag.236 pu. It is found that. pu Fig. Sinj for the MAPI case depends on the load level as can be seen in Fig. the D-STATCOM can correct the voltage sag with minimum apparent power injection into the system. the value of 6 can easily be found from eqn. Authorized licensed use limited to: Sree Vidyanikethan Engineering College. It can also be observed in Fig. for lower voltage sags (< 0. 5 Voltage sag. the injected apparent power of the DVR increases as the load level is increased. It is assumed that the voltage magnitude of the load bus is to be maintained at 1. respectively.

Saadat. The minimum apparent power injection of the DSTATCOM is found to be very insensitive to load level but sensitive to the system fault level. on PD.S. 51-57.. pp. for the MAPI case. P” Fig. However. Weissbach. 2000.B D-STATCOM V CONCLUSIONS The steady state performance of a DVR and D-STATCOM to correct the supply voltage sags is determined and compared in this paper.6 Variation of injected apparent power of the DSTATCOM against voltage sag.. Vol. N.. “Dynamic voltage restorer with minimum energy injection”. Jenkins. Flexible AC Transmission Systems. No. 14. R. for the ZAPI case. 465-471.. The main reason of that is a DVR corrects the voltage sag only on the downstream side. 6 shows the variation of injected apparent power of the D-STATCOM against the voltage sag. On the other hand. Morgan. of the Canadian Conf. G. Voltage sag. Song. 15.H. Vol. B.3. IEEE Trans. and Vilathgamuwa. R. on Power Systems. 2000. Results for both ZAPI and MAPI cases are shown in the Figure. Sinjis slightly higher than that of MAPI case. Proc. Fig.. No. Downloaded on October 27. A. It is also found that Sinj. G. S.S. load power factor and X/R ratio of system impedance. on ECE. and Joos. Karady. 1999. pu Fig. Authorized licensed use limited to: Sree Vidyanikethan Engineering College. Vol. the performance of a DVR is found to be superior to a DSTATCOM. Simulation results on a simple system indicated that the amount of apparent power injection required by a D-STATCOM to correct a given voltage sag is much higher than that of a DVR.nj is again varies linearly with voltage sag for the MAPI case.G. 1999. VI REFERENCES Woodley. IEEE Trans. It can be observed in Fig. Choi. Chen. 1. 7 Minimum apparent power injection of the DSTATCOM for various fault levels (FL). “Power system analysis”. 19981500. S. 7. pp. Li. 1999. b: MAPI case. Vol.. Y.563 pu without injecting any active power into the system and which is much higher than that found for the DVR (only 0. the minimum apparent power injection of the DVR is observed to be very insensitive to the fault level but sensitive to the system load level.236 pu). whereas a D-STATCOM corrects voltage on both sides. L. a: ZAPI case. It can be observed in Fig. 311-317. is independent of load level. . Voltage sag.. pp. H. No. IEE. Techniques of correcting the voltage sags with zero active power injection as well as minimum apparent power injection are also discussed. “Series and shunt active power conditioners for compensating distribution system faults”. However.H. McGraw Hill. “Experience with an inverter-based dynamic voltage restorer”. and Johns. 1182-1186. on Power Delivery. pp. 2. For this system the D-STATCOM can correct the voltage sags of up to 0. and Sindaram. and Farmer. Restrictions apply.. Ref. 1998. 2008 at 12:09 from IEEE Xplore. IEE Colloquium. It is also found that a DSTATCOM can correct much higher voltage sags without injecting any active power into the system compared to that of a DVR.G. 14.. “Power electronics applied to the distribution systems”. 1181-1186. 6 that. 2. In terms of minimum apparent power injection or size of the coupling transformer. 1999. A. N. “Flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS)”.H. S. NO. “Dynamic voltage compensation on distribution feeders using flywheel energy storage”. Sinj is very sensitive to the system fault level as can be seen in Fig. pp. 7 that Sinj increases with the increase of system fault level (FL).T. IEEE Trans.

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