This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

Dr. Russell P. Jedlicka Klipsch School of Electrical and Computer Engineering New Mexico State University Las Cruces, NM 88003 September 2002

EE521

Lecture 3

08/22/02

**Smith Chart Summary
**

A Smith Chart is a conformal mapping between the normalized complex impedance plane ( z = r + j x ) and the complex reflection coefficient plane. First, the normalized impedance is given as

zL =

Z L RL + j X L = Zo Zo

Consider the right-hand portion of the normalized complex impedance plane. All values of impedance such that R $ 0 are represented by points in the plane. The impedance of all passive devices will be represented by points in the right-half plane.

The complex reflection coefficient may be written as a magnitude and a phase or as real and imaginary parts.

Γ L = Γ L e ∠Γ L = Γ Lr + jΓ Li

Remember that 0 ≤ Γ L ≤ 1 and the p 'L is measured with respect to the positive real 'r axis. The reflection coefficient in terms of the load, ZL, terminating a line, Zo is defined as

ΓL =

Rearranging the above equation we get

Z L − Zo Z L + Zo

Page 1 of 22

The second circle is centered at 1 1. xL Page 2 of 22 . z L = rL + j x L = Substituting in the complex expression for 'L and equating real and imaginary parts we find the two equations which represent circles in the complex reflection coefficient plane.0 1 + rL whose location is always inside the unit circle in the complex reflection coefficient plane. The corresponding radius is 1 . The radius can vary between 0 and infinity. Note that the center of these circles will always be to the right of the unit circle. xL whose location is always outside the unit circle in the complex reflection coefficient plane. r Γ Lr − L + Γ Li − 0 1 + rL 2 ( ) 2 1 = 1 + rL 2 2 (Γ Lr 1 1 = − 1 + Γ Li − xL xL 2 ) 2 The first circle is centered at rL . The corresponding radius is 1 1 + rL So it is observed that this circle will always be fully contained within the unit circle. The radius can never by greater than unity.EE521 Lecture 3 08/22/02 Z L = Zo 1+ Γ L 1− Γ L 1+ Γ L 1− Γ L So we get the conformal mapping by dividing through by Zo (remember 'L is complex).

represent lines of constant real part of the load impedance (rL is constant. Above the horizontal axis is positive. We have -180° # p'L # +180°. or 'L = 0 ) are equidistance from the origin (| 'L | = constant) and are called constant VSWR circles. those centered on the real axis. Circles centered at the match point ( ZL = Zo. The circles whose centers reside outside the unit circle represent lines of constant imaginary part of the load impedance (xL is constant. The phase of the reflection coefficient is given by the angle from the right-hand horizontal axis. rL varies). xL varies). Page 3 of 22 .EE521 Lecture 3 08/22/02 The first circles. below negative. This related quantity is defined as Vmax 1 + Γ L VSWR = = Vmin 1 − Γ L Note that the VSWR can vary between 1 ≤ VSWR ≤ ∞ .

It can also be referred to as an: impedance chart admittance chart immittance chart (impedance and admittance) Page 4 of 22 .EE521 Lecture 3 08/22/02 When we place these other circles on the REFLECTION COEFFICIENT PLANE we call it a SMITH CHART.

INSERT SMITH CHART GRAPHIC HERE .

ZL.EE521 Lecture 3 08/22/02 Normalized Impedance The transmission line of characteristic impedance. the normalized load impedance is zL = 100 + j100 = 2 + j2 50 ( dim ensionless) Now enter this on the Smith Chart as shown in below. Page 6 of 22 . is terminated in a load impedance. Zo. If the characteristic impedance is Zo = 50 + j 0 S and the load impedance is ZL = 100 + j 100 S.

INSERT SMITH CHART GRAPHIC HERE .

3) is accurate to about one significant figure. place the compass center at the center of the Smith Chart ( ZL = Zo. this is shown in Figure 2 where we read off the VSWR as VSWR = 4.62 . or 'L = 0 ) and construct a circle through zL. Then the VSWR is VSWR = 1+ Γ = 4. Γ = Z L − Z o (100 + j100) − 50 = Z L + Z o (100 + j100) + 50 Taking the magnitude we find Γ = 0. note the intercept of the VSWR circle with the right-half zero reactance line (it is the horizontal line that bisects the top and bottom of the chart. To read off the VSWR on the line. compute the reflection coefficient. First. Page 8 of 22 . For the previous example.3 Let’s check this against the calculated VSWR.265 1− Γ This tells us that the graphically obtained value (VSWR = 4.EE521 Lecture 3 08/22/02 VSWR Circles To construct the VSWR circle for a lossless line.

INSERT SMITH CHART GRAPHIC HERE .

EE521 Lecture 3 08/22/02 Load Admittance The load admittance is the reciprocal of the load impedance.25 − j 0. YL = For the previous example. we find 1 ZL YL = 1 = 0.25 1 Yo 500 ( dim ensionless) We can find this more easily by noting that yL is on the constant VSWR circle at a point diametrically opposed from zL.005 Siemens 100 + j100 Normalized Load Admittance The normalized load admittance is the reciprocal of the normalized load impedance which can be expressed as 1 YL 100 + j100 yL = = = 0. Page 10 of 22 . This is shown in Figure 3.005 − j 0.

INSERT SMITH CHART GRAPHIC HERE .

In this case. 2. zin = 2 . 5. a length R from the load. Consider the following example with ZL = 100 + j 100 S. Page 12 of 22 . Read off zin. Enter the normalized load impedance.j 1.j 1 ) * 100 = 200 . The outer scale is calibrated in wavelengths. is found via the equation.j 100 S. Remember the distance on the Smith Chart is in terms of wavelength. Zo. 4. l l Zin = 100 4 = 100 1 + j 2 = 200 − j100 Ω π j1 100 + j(100 + j100) tan 4 (100 + j100) + j100 tan π Now consider this process on the Smith Chart. starting at zL . Specifically. Travel clockwise (transform towards the generator) on the circle by a distance equivalent to the line length. which is not necessarily the free space wavelength. 1. ZL.EE521 Lecture 3 08/22/02 Input Impedance The input impedance to the line of characteristic impedance. Compute Zin = zin * Zo = ( 2 . zL = 1 + j 1 Construct the constant VSWR circle. 3. wavelength on the transmission line. One full revolution is 8/2. 2π Z L + jZ o tan λ Zin = Z o 2π Z o + jZ L tan λ Where 8 is the wavelength on the transmission line.

INSERT SMITH CHART GRAPHIC HERE .

j 100 S.002 Seimens.004 − j 0. From the example above we found Zin = 200 . 3. 2. Travel clockwise (towards the generator) from yL on the VSWR circle by a distance equivalent to the line length.2 Find Yin = yin * Yo = ( 0.004 + j 0. 1. Enter the normalized load admittance on the VSWR circle.EE521 Lecture 3 08/22/02 Input Admittance Use the Smith Chart to find the input admittance. Let’s compare the result from the Smith Chart on the next page to the analytical result. 4.2 ) / (100) = 0. Read off yin = 0. Consider the example above. drawing the VSWR circle and marking the point diametrically opposed.44 + j 0. This is accomplished by entering the normalized load impedance. Yin = 1 1 = = 0.44 + j 0.002 Zin 200 − j100 Siemens Page 14 of 22 .

INSERT SMITH CHART GRAPHIC HERE .

2π Z L + jZ o tan l λ Zin = Z o 2π Z o + jZ L tan l λ Page 16 of 22 .EE521 Lecture 3 08/22/02 Drill Problem # 1 Consider a load impedance. ZL = 100 . The line is R = 3/8 8 long. a) zL = ______________ b) c) d) e) f) g) h) \ VSWR = ______________ yL = ______________ zin = ______________ Zin = ______________ yin = ______________ Yin = ______________ Check the answer in part e) using the analytical result. Find the following quantities using the Smith Chart on the next page. connected to a transmission line of characteristic impedance Zo = 50 S.j 25 S.

INSERT SMITH CHART GRAPHIC HERE .

j 0 S. connected to a transmission line of characteristic impedance Zo = 50 S. 2π l Z L + jZ o tan λ Zin = Z o 2π l Z o + jZ L tan λ Page 18 of 22 . ZL = 0 .EE521 Lecture 3 08/22/02 Drill Problem # 2 Consider a load impedance. Find the following quantities using the Smith Chart on the next page. The line is R = 1/4 8 long. a) zL = ______________ b) c) d) e) f) g) h) VSWR = ______________ yL = ______________ zin = ______________ Zin = ______________ yin = ______________ Yin = ______________ Check the answer in part e) using the analytical result.

INSERT SMITH CHART GRAPHIC HERE .

what is the VSWR on this main line? Drill Problem #4 Use the Smith Chart to find the input impedance to the parallel connected lines Zo1 = 50 S and Zo2 = 70. Furthermore. The characteristic impedance of the main line is Zo = 50 S to which the two parallel lines are connected. The line lengths are R1 = R2 = 8/4. The characteristic impedance of the main line is Zo = 50 S to which the two parallel lines are connected. The line lengths are R1 = 8/2 and R2 = 8/4. Furthermore.7 S. ZL1 = ZL2 = 50 + j 0 S.EE521 Lecture 3 08/22/02 Drill Problem #3 Use the Smith Chart on the next page to find the input impedance to the parallel connected lines Zo1 = Zo2 = 70. ZL1 = 50 + j 0 S and ZL2 = 100 + j 0 S.7 S. what is the VSWR on this main line? Page 20 of 22 .

INSERT SMITH CHART GRAPHIC HERE .

INSERT SMITH CHART GRAPHIC HERE .

- opt_prob_10z
- Smith Chart (Introduction)
- ee
- Appendix A
- MAE 640 Lec11
- 694
- Landauer Buttiker Proof
- EXPLICIT FREQUENCY EQUATION AND MODE SHAPES OF A CANTILEVER BEAM COUPLED IN BENDING AND TORSION.pdf
- What is an Obtuse Angle
- 05259469
- Array Basics
- S. V. Iordanskiy- Fractional Quantum Hall Effect and vortex lattices
- Vol3 Iss4 376 - 381 Variational Monte Carlo Algorithm f
- Binder 1
- MIT2_080JF13_Lecture9
- Icp Stability
- Chapter08_2007
- M.tech Syllabus
- Plaxis Mum Plaxisbai Course 2012
- v58n2p333f
- HW1
- 5.73LectureNotes
- Quantum Transport :Atom to Transistor,Basis Functions, Density Matrix I
- 174189
- Report Hydrofoil
- emf_qp
- Faqs for Module8
- Gate Syllabus
- GATE syllabus for EE
- Part 3 SuperSymmetry

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd