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Formule Mate Mat Ice Cls. v-VIII

Formule Mate Mat Ice Cls. v-VIII

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Published by: Laur Fc on Jan 12, 2012
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FORMULE UTILE PENTRU CLASA A VIII A

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FORMULE DE CALCUL PRESCURTAT (a+b)2=a2+2ab+b2 ; (a-b)2=a2-2ab+b2 ; a2-b2=(a+b)(a-b) ; (a+b+c)2=a2+b2+c2+2ab+2ac+2bc ; (a+b)3=a3+3a2b+3ab2+b3 a3+b3=(a+b)(a2-ab+b2) ; ; (a-b)3=a3-3a2b+3ab2-b3 ; a3-b3=(a-b)(a2+ab+b2) ;

PROPRIETATILE PUTERILOR an·am=an+m ; an:am=an -m ; (an)m=an·m ; (a·b)n=an·bn ; (a:b)n=an:bn ; a0=1 ; 0n=0 ; 1n=1 PROPRIETATILE RADICALILOR a⋅b = a ⋅ b ; a / b = a / b ; x2 = x ;

( y)

2

= y ; a≥0 ; b≥0 ; y≥0 ; exemple:

= 6. MODULUL Definitie : |X|=X daca X≥0 si |X|= -X daca X≤0 ; Proprietati : |X|≥0 ; |a·b|=|a|·|b| ; |a+b|≤|a|+|b| ; Exemple : |-5|= -(-5)=5 ; |7|=7 ; |-2|= -(-2)=2 ; |+4|=4 ;
FUNCTIA LINIARA f :R R , f(x)=ax+b

( 6)

18 = 9 ⋅ 2 = 9 ⋅ 2 = 3 2 ; 5 3 = 25 ⋅ 3 = 25 ⋅ 3 = 75 ;
2

(− 3)2

= −3 = 3 ;

P(x,y) ∈ Gf daca si numai daca f(x)=y ; A(x,y) ∈ Gf∩ox daca f(x)=y si y=0 ; B(x,y) ∈ Gf∩oy daca f(x)=y si x=0 ; Daca f si g sunt doua functii atunci Q(x,y) ∈ Gf∩Gg daca f(x)=g(x)=y ; A(-b/a , 0) si B(0 , b)

MULTIMI DE NUMERE Multimea numerelor naturale notata cu N : 0,1,2,3,4,…∞ Multimea numerelor intregi notata cu Z : -∞ … ,-4,-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3,4,…+∞ Multimea numerelor rationale notata cu Q: exemple -3/4 ;5/2 ;-12/4 ;0,23 ;-5,(24) ;4,20(576) ; Multimea numerelor reale notata cu R ; exemple : -3/4 ;5/2 ;-1/4 ; 7 5 ; − 6 ; -5,(24) ; 4,20(576) ; 0,202002000200… ;-5,2323323332333323… ;

a = 2 2 l=R . a=apotema poligonului . FIGURI PLANE REMARCABILE AΔABC= BC ⋅ AD AB ⋅ AC ⋅ sin A = 2 2 PΔABC= AB+BC+CA AABCD= (AB + CD ) ⋅ BE 2 PABCD= AB+BC+CD+DA AABCD= CD·AE PABCD= 2·(AB+BC) AABCD= AB·BC AC2=AB2+BC2 PABCD= 2·(AB+BC) AABCD= AC ⋅ BD 2 PABCD= 4·AB poligoane regulate : l=latura poligonului .Avem urmatoarele relatii de incluziune intre aceste multimi : N ⊂ Z ⊂ Q ⊂ R. a = l=R 2 d=l 2 =2R l 2 P=6·l 3l 2 3 l 3 A= . P=perimetrul . P=3·l l2 3 l 3 . A=aria .a = A= 4 6 l=R 3 h= l 3 3R = 2 2 P=4·l A = l2 .

BC = c.o. c2=h2+m2 si b⋅c a ⋅h = A= 2 2 functia sin cos c. BC 30° 3 3 3 60° 3 3 3 ctg x°= 45° 1 1 c. AC 30° 1 2 3 2 60° 3 2 1 2 45° 2 2 2 2 tg x°= functia tg ctg c. AC TRIUNGHIURI ASEMENEA . dreptunghic: FUNCTII TRIGONOMETRICE . Teorema lui Pitagora: a2=b2+c2 Aria tr.TRIUNGHIUL DREPTUNGHIC Teorema catetei: b2=a·n . Ac= π R 2 .a.o. Daca m ∠AOB = x o atunci : π Rx o LAB= 180 o πR 2xo AOAB= 360 o .a. BC = i.o.a. c2=a·m h= b⋅c a b2=h2+n2 Teorema inaltimii: h2=m·n . AB = c.TEOREMA LUI THALES rezulta: CERCUL AB AC BC = = MN MP NP rezulta: AB AC = AM AN Lc= 2π R . AB sin x°= cos x°= c. AB = i.

V = L ⋅ l ⋅ h d = L2 + l 2 + h 2 PRISMA REGULATĂ TRIUNGHIULARĂ PATRULATERĂ HEXAGONALĂ Al = Pb ⋅ h At = Al + 2 ⋅ Ab PIRAMIDA REGULATĂ V = Ab ⋅ h TRIUNGHIULARĂ PATRULATERĂ HEXAGONALĂ Al = Pb ⋅ a p 2 At = Al + Ab V= Ab ⋅ h 3 . V = l 3 d f = l 2.CORPURI GEOMETRICE I.www. POLIEDRE CUBUL PARALELIPIPEDUL DREPTUNGHIC Al = 4l 2 . d = l 3 At = 2 ⋅ ( L ⋅ l + L ⋅ h + l ⋅ h ) .ro FORMULE . At = 6l 2 .mateinfo.

www.mateinfo. CORPURI ROTUNDE CILINDRUL CONUL Al = 2π RG At = 2π R ( G + R ) Al = π RG At = π R ( G + R ) V =πR H 2 V= π R2 H 3 TRUNCHIUL DE CON SFERA At = π Gt ( R + r ) + π R + π r π Ht 2 2 V= ( R + r + Rr ) 3 2 Al = π Gt ( R + r ) 2 A = 4π R 2 4π R 3 V= 3 .ro TRUNCHIUL DE PIRAMIDĂ REGULATĂ TRIUNGHIULARĂ PATRULATERĂ HEXAGONALĂ Al = ( PB + Pb ) ⋅ at 2 At = Al + AB + Ab V= ht ⋅ AB + Ab + AB ⋅ Ab 3 ( ) II.

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