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We begin learning from others during the early days of life; and most people continue their social learning all through life (unless some mental or physical disability slows or stops the learning process). Sometimes the learning is fun, as when we learn a new sport, art or musical technique from a friend we like. At other times, social learning is painful, as when we learn not to drive too fast by receiving a large fine for speeding. Natural socialization occurs when infants and youngsters explore, play and discover the social world around them. Planned socialization occurs when other people take actions designed to teach or train others -- from infancy on. Natural socialization is easily seen when looking at the young of almost any mammalian species (and some birds). Planned socialization is mostly a human phenomenon; and all through history, people have been making plans for teaching or training others. Both natural and planned socialization can have good and bad features: It is wise to learn the best features of both natural and planned socialization and weave them into our lives. Positive socialization is the type of social learning that is based on pleasurable and exciting experiences. We tend to like the people who fill our social learning processes with positive motivation, loving care, and rewarding opportunities. Negative socialization occurs when others use punishment, harsh criticisms or anger to try to "teach us a lesson;" and often we come to dislike both negative socialization and the people who impose it on us. There are all types of mixes of positive and negative socialization; and the more positive social learning experiences we have, the happier we tend to be -- especially if we learn useful information that helps us cope well with the challenges of life. A high ratio of negative to positive socialization can make a person unhappy, defeated or pessimistic about life. One of the goals of Soc 142 is to show people how to increase the ratio of positive to negative in the socialization they receive from others -- and that they give to others. [Some people will defend negative socialization, since painful training can prepare people to be ready to fight and die in battle, put themselves at great risk in order to save others, endure torture and hardship. This is true; but many people receive far more negative socialization than they need, and hopefully fewer and fewer people will need to be trained for battle, torture and hardship.] Soc 142 shows that positive socialization, coupled with valuable information about life and the skills needed to live well, can be a powerful tool for promoting human development. We all have an enormous human potential, and we all could develop a large portion of it if we had the encouragement that comes from positive socialization and the wisdom that comes from valuable information about living. Information about both natural and planned socialization can be especially useful. Our prior socialization helps explain a gigantic chunk of who we are at present -- what we think and feel, where we plan to go in life. But we are not limited by the things given to us by our prior social learning experiences; we can take all our remaining days and steer our future social learning in directions that we value. The more that we know about the socialization process, the more effective we can be in directing our future learning in the ways that will help us most.
communication. or because of an abundant food supply. The goal of Soc 142 is to help you learn how to be most effective in directing your own socialization and self-actualization processes toward the goals that you value most. If we had too much negative socialization in the past and have learned to be too sad or inhibited. There are many causes for human aggregation. It is important to know that we all come into life with a variety of psychology systems that foster self-actualization and favor the development of our human potential. or by people who assemble where there are quantities of shell fish. . unorganized state to an organic. These are the biosocial mechanisms that underlie natural socialization. and berries. or plenty of wild game. the coming together of the population. we can take our human potential and develop the happy and creative sides of that potential. If we understand the ways to create positive socialization experiences. and organization. association. during the fishing season on the Columbia River. or shunned because their density diverts a migratory group. Special attention will be paid to exploration. knowledge about positive socialization can help minimize some of the pain and allow us to build toward a more positive and creative future. play. Aggregation. wild fruits.Because we were not able to select our parents. Once we under the natural biosocial processes. and positive reinforcement -.five centrally important aspects of positive socialization. most of which are also common to animal societies. When pastoral and agricultural pursuits began. most people learn to influence their own socialization as they gain experience in life. The study of behavior principles in everyday life is crucial to this. heterogeneous body may be enumerated as aggregation. It takes special skills to steer and direct our own socialization. THE processes by which society is changed from a simple. forests sought for their protection. combination. we can try to build strategies of self-actualization that are compatible with the natural biosocial mechanisms we are born with to make self-development as easy and rewarding as possible. determine to a degree where aggregations of people shall occur. we were not able to control much of the first 10 or 20 years of our socialization. Having a course on socialization can help us understand which skills are most effective in guiding our socialization toward the goals we most value. wisdom. creativity. A supply of good water. We can see and study natural socialization by examining the socialization of primates and other mammals. But for the purposes of analysis they are taken up in the order of their beginnings. assemble from the surrounding valleys and camp near the banks of the river. They are here named in order of their initial sequences. However. cooperation. complex. and many of us pick up some of those skills naturally as we go through life. ² By aggregation is meant the collection or massing of individuals. and that is why John and Janice Baldwin wrote a book with that name. discussed in an earlier chapter? People gather together because of a warm climate and the repulsion of a cold one. as illustrated by tribes of Indians who. Soc 142 shows how the natural self-actualization systems operate in everyday life so we can create as many good social experiences as possible. First among these are the impelling forces of physical environment.
By means of these methods of communication millions of people may have the same knowledge. Social integration began and continued with increasing power throughout the entire process of socialization. but they establish good feeling between those who . Many of the smaller groups were forced to unite for the sake of protection. the telephone.' in which each group struggled with all others for survival. Savage tribes always express social good feeling to other tribes or to foreigners by the exchange of articles of value. and the use of the same articles has a tendency to develop homogeneity of social life. creating individuals of the same type and temperament. Foremost among these was the simple desire for companionship. In modern life our special methods of communication are the human voice and such mechanical contrivances as the post. or savageness of attack. could his mind be developed without association. a difference between the mere grouping of people together and intercommunication. There is nothing more powerful in binding a community together into one social body than this common knowledge and common thought brought about by rapid communication. But there were subjective influences as well that caused people to assemble. and therefore he had in the beginning larger resources for survival than other animals. the printing press. Moreover. the practice of trading has a tendency to develop unity of sentiment among groups. An expression of want or desire may unite people into a common organization. Only preying animals like the lion and tiger spend a great deal of their lives alone. or. Feared by people. in an open park without any effective influence upon each other until there is an interchange of feeling or thought through forms of communication. The people of similar characteristics and desires were inclined to go the same way and to be influenced by like satisfactions. Communication. made the aggregation more compact and unified. A group of people may be assembled at a fire or at a public meeting. and. nor. Moreover. they are avoided as dangerous companions.the tribes were obliged to seek the open glades. After the peaceful stage of early human society had passed into the age of conflict. under certain conditions of food supply. The individual could not cope singlehanded with his enemies. indeed. bits of cloth. ² the sine qua non of common activities. There is. ² While aggregation could scarcely be separated from the development of communication. Man is both carnivorous and herbivorous by nature. These may be mere trinkets or shells. only solitary animals can survive. for out of the latter comes the development of a common sentiment and a common intelligence. the expression of wants and desires by individuals to each other sets in motion psychical currents which are veritable social causes in the sense that they produce results in social phenomena. think the same thoughts. Through communication different individuals come to have like feelings and ideas. and per-form the same deeds at the same time. and the telegraph. Communication always leads to the exchange of commodities. An adjunct to these is the newspaper. The sexual instinct became a powerful force in the close relationships of the groups and caused a continuous and permanent association. aggregation was increased by social pressure. then. The physical influences. Moreover. indeed. Sea coasts and mountains have proved barriers preventing the dispersion of the race and confirming its habitation within limits. yet communication naturally follows aggregation. also. or weapons. as to cooperative ingenuity in enlisting the forces of nature to fight his enemies. Yet his preservation has not been due so much to fleetness of foot. and serve his need. in general.
and feeling. In the stir and emotional tension of such critical moments in games men throw off the reserve which usually separates them from each other as if by a wall. having acquired many social relationships as a result of habitual companionship. still there is a particular use to which it properly belongs. Community of residence leads to an association in which persons regard each other as permanent members. The church in which exists a common sentiment thrives. Common religious belief. The process of socialization ² that process whereby the many are welded together into a unity ² goes on most effectively in play.exchange the gifts. As religion is a social rather than a personal matter. not only in their personal habits. a great force in the establishment of social order and in the establishment of unity of thought and feeling. there is little opportunity for social unity. Here we have represented intimate relationship in thought. its religion declines. Their association becomes more intimate for the time being . it is doubtful whether any religious system would prevail for any length of time with-out community of worship. It is evident from this and other observations that religion is much more a social function than we are generally willing to admit. For an example. Games connected by mimicry with the most important vicissitudes of savage life stir the deepest emotions. When tribes have reached the stage of development where communication is possible and desirable. Wherever nations or tribes will not exchange commodities. With the stimulus of social games the process of socialization went rapidly on. Among settled forms of association that of family relationship should be mentioned first. it is observed that as soon as any group ceases to worship together. Such games are usually imitations of the critical moments in chase or battle and as such call forth the liveliest emotional stimulation. Association. springs up through association. but it declines when its members begin to hold diverse religious beliefs. but permanent association can scarcely take place without it. then a later stage is reached when it is recognized as advantageous to adopt foreign customs. they understand each other better. They are released from their narrowed selves and enjoy the expansion of personality which the emotional " spree " provided . ² While the term " association " might in general apply to all acts of socialization. We have many evidences to show that the love and affection exhibited in the family life depend largely upon close association in the home. Not all peoples have had educational systems. but all have had games. They relieve and relax the nervous organism and at the same time lift people out of the dead monotony of their humdrum lives. We have but recently come to have a proper appreciation of the social value of recreation. people naturally played together. This idea is exemplified in the fact that people closely related by blood or marriage frequently lose their interest in one another after years of separation. When once people adopt the same social custom. they become more alike from day to day. Gathered together in a common territory and living in close association. they are ready to adopt the customs and habits of one another through imitation. People may be collected in a body and communicate with one another without having community of residence. as well as practical cooperation in all forms of social life. while perhaps their next-door neighbors may be taken into a close social relation because of their proximity. This is done more or less unconsciously at first. This could not come about without more or less permanent association. but also in their larger social life. sentiment.
Among every primitive people of which we have any evidence feast days were very numerous and played an important part in the formation of social unity. that no great project is launched. no occasion for securing cooperation among men. is complete without a dinner or a luncheon or a banquet. while others form a segment of a circle and drive the fish towards the riffles. did much to solidify the feelings of the group. the women doing certain things and the men . Bands of animals like wolves hunt in packs. each individual seeking his own immediate interest was.by the game affords.2 This at a time when blood relationships counted much in social relations made for social cooperation. Primitive man made such gatherings the occasion for breaking over the ordinarily accepted sex taboos which sexual jealousy had established. and group actions were set forth in the lyric dance. In the pleasure experienced during these games the basis of social cooperation is laid. Moreover. With primitive men the feast counted even more in the development of a social mind. and mammoths. while abhorrent to our sense of the proprieties. So ingrained in the very roots of the race is the habit of eating together and so effectively does it. Wife lending and a promiscuity of sex relations prevailed at such times to a degree which was not tolerated at other times. as Giddings has pointed out. The bones of extinct species of animals were found near the bones of the prehistoric man recently exhumed in France. This must have begun very soon after people began to assemble into groups. household and community meals did much to cultivate that common feeling and idealism which makes possible cooperation. cave bears. This liberality. in a measure. Unconsciously they acquired the habit of working together in procuring food and shelter. It must have been very early in the development of group life. who to begin with may not be agreed upon a program. genetic relationships in consequence of these irregularities became complicated.' It seems certain that prehistoric man assisted the members of his group in capturing the larger animals upon which he lived. -some of them stationing themselves at riffles in the river. in the offense and defense of war primitive men found it necessary to work together. was in the nature of a social re-lease from the rigidity of established custom for the individuals and at the same time cultivated friendliness between those of the same sex who otherwise might not have been brought into social relations with each other. and it is more than probable that the cave dwellers of this period worked together to capture such animals as wild horses. conduce to the cultivation of sociability. Cooperation. or perish. that individuals united in the hunt. Community of interests in war essentially led to cooperation in other affairs.' Not only association in active games. but association around the camp fire at night in the groupai settlement. Moreover. in connection with games and feasting there was usually to be found another influence making for cooperation. When the division of labor first appeared it was between the sexes. even in our highly artificial society. Furthermore. Moreover. perhaps even before man had developed from the animal precursor. After social order was well established in the community. The strife which prevailed so universally in the age of conflict made it necessary for an individual to attach himself to a group and join with his fellows in defense. Stories were told and songs were sung recounting the deeds of famous heroes and mighty warriors. Even pelicans have been observed to fish in bands. ministering to the welfare of all.
² Naturally. unconscious cooperation of individuals in a community. developed in quite another way. in primitive development. For government. who later became. is but a result of the simple. Some killed the game. growing out of these cooperative activities combinations of groups developed in some cases. It is probable that in the earliest times before conflict was produced by pressure upon food supplies. Many of these methods find full expression in modern cooperation. first. when groups were organized for a specific purpose. while others completed the structure. Often an eponymous ancestor was invented to account for the fact of union. or races. In fact. Then came new occupations. and then were admitted to all the privileges. the making of the clothing. Whenever multiplication of the number of the population once reached the point where there was a pressure upon the food supplies. The more important combinations. however. all the ethnological and anthropological evidence we have points to such a process long continued before the historic races were formed. such as the keeping of flocks and herds. which had come into contact in friendly relations. from the standpoint of social evolution. such as arrowhead makers. So intermixed had become the various peoples at the dawn of history that it is now almost impossible to say what the human race. fishing. A part of this great process is revealed to us when the curtain of history rises. many such simple groupings arose out of the sheer social enjoyment as well as the greater social protection afforded by large numbers. and there is some evidence that there were sometimes guilds of citizens. the care of the home. This amalgamation commenced in the taking of the women of the conquered as wives and concubines of the conquerors and the production of a class of half-breeds. being a form of social order. so complex and so universally organized. Very much later in the development of social order came the combination of different groups by agreement for the establishment of government. Combination. Some carried water.following different pursuits. as new pursuits sprang up. Our modern economic life. the enslavement of the conquered and their subsequent amalgamation by degrees with the conquerors. on the whole the social feeling developed was such that normally there grew up closer relations and ultimately a combination of the two or more groups concerned. however. and fighting. Sometimes a combination of different groups. is . slaves. There is no reason to suppose that it had not been going on for a long period anterior to the time when written records were made. and still others cooked it.' In this way all the great historic peoples were formed. There came a time. It has been continuing ever since. the carrying on of commerce. While conflicts sometimes arose in the occasional meetings mentioned above. Such groups were the result of conflict. were like which developed in the original home. and later. the making of tools and weapons. Such numbers necessitated the conquest of other food supplies. then trusted inferiors. and frequently the building of the home fell to the lot of woman. But as industries became diversified. some brought the timbers for the building of the home. of the race. there gradually appeared a more general division of labor. men did most of the hunting. the preparation of the food. Thus the immediate care of children. On the other hand. These separate groups were all worked for the common good of the community. forming thus a new race.' The groups arising under such conditions coalesced into a group both larger and more closely organized. agricultural pursuits which caused people to divide into groups. was made permanent by an exchange of women begun in the festivities referred to above. then migration had to begin either amicably or by force. such as the building of highways. or homes.
and sensuous enjoyment. and fix the status of each for the advantage of the former. the landowners. when distinct groups became united for either particular or general purposes. and the laborers. but hope of the more substantial rewards of primitive wealth. which appeared in most striking manner in tribal and civil feudalism. the adjustments went on in both legal and in customary relations. Nevertheless. After conquest had taken place organization proceeded very rapidly. the conquerors and the conquered. its development also owed much to leaders. or. it had gone a long way toward permanent organization. as it might be more formally stated. brought about by all the processes enumerated above. those who governed and those who were governed. The industrial conflicts which are a feature of our day are not without significance for social development. gradually the organization was perfected. the social position of those supposed to be nobly born was firmly established. The development of leadership. However. ease. for they have united large groups of people into a common economic life. brought to bear upon human endeavor ² not only the motive of aristocratic prestige. These motives aroused with tenfold greater power the desire to emulate and surpass in achievement. once scattered and not conscious of their common interests and of the value of their united cooperation." and greatly hastened the growth of organization. Together with these more formal expressions of organization there went on at the same time the development of private voluntary organizations within each group. Likewise. organization of relationships. if the process worked out to its logical social conclusion. as government has grown into a system. Consider what motives leadership. is undeniable. gave a decided spur to what Mallock has called " the struggle for domination. through the process of integration. until. That modern industry has solidified each of the various economic classes. ² Out of even the natural combination of groups on the basis of blood kinship and social sympathy there developed organization. They gave a decided impetus to the inventive spirit . The status of the individual in the home was determined. An example may be seen in the organization of the tribes of the interior of Australia. organization has found its largest field in industry. Organization must begin at once in order to determine the relations of the two groups. those who led and those who followed. In more recent periods. democracy developed. in the sense in which Cooley uses the term. one must not shut his eyes to the fact that the modern system of industry which combines labor and capital in the productive process has also made for the formation of classes which are to a degree antagonistic to each other. As soon as society divided itself into two groups. To a degree these developments have made socialization possible. there must have been a tacit or formal agreement between them. enforcing the domination of others. and that more subtle. but none the less real. until finally there developed a complete social machinery for the regulation of the two groups. for. While organization was inevitable. Sovereignty and obedience were established. It is easy to see that this combination must have been an implied or real contract for the protection of the whole group. formal institutions appeared and customs and ideals were modified to meet the changes consequent upon the amalgamation of the two peoples. based upon ability. the capitalists. This occurred piecemeal and rather slowly at first. the entrepreneurs. and also the relation of the slave to the master was recognized.also a method of cooperation. which expresses itself in customs and social relation-ships in the more general sense of the term. Organization. In this field large bodies of men have combined to accomplish certain economic results. They also teach the members of each group organization of government and thus make them more efficient.
but on a different plane. or to the neighboring city to business. In the mixing of ideas and ideals in a new aggregation of people there is bound to be some clashing.of man. Again. The struggle for more culture or wealth leads them to choose permanently some other field for their endeavors. Sometimes it takes a considerable lapse of time to heal the wounds made by such quarrels. and the old conflict of ideas takes place all over again. Old age upholds old customs. They gave direction to the latent energies of large numbers of men. sometimes to return with a stock of new ideas which start the process of social leavening of the community ideals. The result is that unless the new comer . appearing dark only because it has so often survived into an age when it has ceased to be consonant with developed democracy. and for some reason the emigrants return to the home community. Before the end is reached in the process thus started there will be compromise and the amalgamation of the two ideals. People who might be on fairly friendly terms together if they were not brought into close association will on closer contact reveal essential differences. They secured a development of the division of human labor and made each man more efficient in his social relationships. and to the modern spirit of cunning that reaps where others have sown. In their places others from elsewhere come into the old community. in communities sometimes by reason of close contact. In the end a social ideal becomes established in the customs of the place . While this autocratic organization and direction had its dark side. it occurs when from any community there is an exodus to a new mining field or a new agricultural community. Out of the conflict will come toleration and a new ideal with a broader outlook than would have been possible otherwise. also. and it will end in the more complete democracy of which the best minds of the present dream. Some. Now out of this social differentiation which occurs constantly in all dynamic societies. are ready to listen to the call of opportunity elsewhere. but of fear of a directing mind. Some tire of the conflict and move away. however. Side by side with the development of social unity there is generally seen the growth of groups closely united in opposition to some important individual or another group. in older communities there is constantly going on a process of differentiation growing up out of the fact that some people in that community go out of it and come back with new ideas. the ranging of people on different sides. Established wealth secures a large following. It appears. ² In the processes which we have described no mention has been made of a phenomenon which often appears in modern societies as they grow from inchoate groups into a real community. the old process of debate. it was a beneficent phase in the development of social cooperation. traditions are set forth as the criterion of conduct and opinion. Moreover. If the returning members of the community are aggressive. They return with new ideas and a new outlook. Sometimes in the early days of a community this strife of groups within the neighbor-hood is so sharp that the development of a community spirit is very difficult and may be long delayed. because of it. there results social selection. to his capacity for organization. Men who were not spurred by them were forced to labor under the stern whip. Out of it has grown the more humane and democratized organization of our day. Examples are to be seen in frontier and mountainous communities where communication is interrupted and association is difficult. This serves the useful purpose of diversification of the mental and social ideals of their community. Differentiation. The young people go away to school. The same thing occurs when men go off to war. not of natural need.
we can guess that others see us as intelligent or stupid. 2. It is a lifelong process which starts from childhood till to the death of a person.glass self theory" in the year 1902. We imagine how we appear to the others. To answer this controversial question. An infant comes in this society having only bones. or wealth. rules. what is established will remain undisturbed and he will go where his talent finds more congenial fields of endeavor. A man learns ways of attitudes. languages. So. According to Cooley. If this very infant kept in isolation for several years. he/she cannot be able to speak even a single word. culture becomes broader. nurture or social environment is so much important that it converts an animal into a social animal.and the iconoclast is very well intrenched in social prestige. Heredity provides those essential things which are important to grow up but social environment is far important than heredity through which a children learns the language. Cooley and the looking-Glass self Charles Hurton Cooley was a renowned social scientist who thought that our sense of self develops from interaction with others.' In this way variety is added to the stock of ideas and ideals of a community. For example. Language is a source to create relationships and to take part into the social interaction. and cultures of a society through the process of socialization. or unless he is unusually persistent. For example. Socialization is a vital process of learning through which the society exists. and personalities with the widest social interests are developed. 1. there are three elements in the looking-glass self theory. We develop a self-concept. we develop feelings and ideas about ourselves. he/she socializes according to the characteristics of American society. After the reactions of others. . the spirit of the community more tolerant. values and attitudes of society. flesh. Some scientists think that nature plays an important role in the socialization while others view that nurture is only the way through which a member can be socialized. and breathing system. Cooley coined the term "looking. regulations. Nevertheless. Do they like us for being intelligent? Do they dislike us for being stupid? 3. To describe this process. What is human nature? The debate of "nature" (heredity) and "nurture" (the social environment) is being made since decades. behaviors. Each and every society socializes its members according to its own values. Without the concept of language a member cannot create relationships with others. In the same way. the children of Russian societies are being socialized according to the characteristics of Russian societies. Socialization is a process of learning norms. if a baby enters in American society. one can give logical reasons that human beings do not have natural language. We interpret others' reactions. We may come to know that how others evaluate us. the mingling of new ideas with old by reason of the change in the population is bound to continue in all places where ingress and egress is easy and where the economic opportunity is inviting.
students find peer groups for themselves and they start learning from those peer groups. school. the students are linked with each other for common interests. Agents of socialization Agents of socialization are the people and groups which influence our emotions. clubs. sisters and brothers. While entering into a school and peer group a member starts learning new norms and characteristics like athletics ability. Family. the process of looking-glass self plays an important role in the process of socialization. and manners which are suitable for us in formal occasions. Apparently. Day care process stimulates the intellectual personality of children. workplace is place where an individual serves as an employer and earns a few . religion. Day care Day care is another agent of socialization in which the children are being socialized and benefited by the others. mother. peer groups and workplace are the agents of socialization that prepare us to take our place in society. Slowly and gradually a children learns the roles of family members. The school and peer groups The school and peer groups are the agents of socialization where a child meets with a large group of people of similar age. speech. He/she recognizes the roles of father. day care. Family Family is an important agent of socialization where a child starts learning the language of family. Apart from education. We can judge our personality by feedback of others. attitudes and behavior etc. This process of self development clearly shows us the image of our personality. It has been become a tradition in every society to hire a person for daily wages to take care of the children. coolness. Religion Religion is also an important agent of socialization where an individual learns about right and wrong. toughness physical appearance and attraction etc. So. Religion teaches us about the way of dressing. Friends. and the neighbors are some examples of the peer groups. Religions provide basic ideas of morality which become the part of our life in future. In this way of sharing ideas and common interests. It has been seen that most of the children follow the roles of others like putting on glasses and reading newspapers as their parents do. gangs.Looking-glass self theory is like a "social mirror" in which a person can see his/her reflection. The workplace Workplace is another agent of socialization in which an individual enters into a mature age.
The school can be described as a safe haven for all the children. The socialization process aims at improving the knowledge of people by instilling vital values. The things which are taught in the childhood remain with the children throughout their lives. More on self-improvement. Therefore. pride and ambition to chase their dreams. However. Teachers too. Apart from the academic subjects. once students step out in the outside world by taking admission for higher learning. However. Overcoming these challenges and difficult times becomes possible due to the stability of mind achieved over the years. end up being the winners in the fields which they choose in their later life. It has been often observed that children who have a good environment which is conducive for learning at home. In the case of a newborn child. But. The result of this interaction is that children are able to learn new things by indulging in group activities and games. school. In the school. The atmosphere which the parents provide the child at home has a lot to do with the child's overall progress. there are five main agents such as family. It can be said that it is a sort of rehearsal for future activities. The next phase in the life of these children is the school phase. an employer has lot of opportunities to learn essential things for future. These can be both-related to studies and with social life. The socialization process does not end here. customs and traditions. it is proved that workplace is an agent of socialization where an individual has the opportunity to learn a lot. Important Aspects of the Process of Socialization The development of an individual is a slow and steady process. day care. values. its parents are the first one who shoulder the responsibility of training it in the best possible way till the child becomes joining years old school.dollars. It has been seen that co-workers always advise about the future plans and lifestyles. The job of these teachers involves finding out the strengths and weaknesses in their students. proper training. As far as the agents of socialization are concerned. attitudes. peer groups and workplace. religion. Human beings are believed to be the most intelligent creatures on the earth. Charles Hurton Cooley presented the looking-glass self theory which contributes largely in the process of socialization. play a vital role in the child development process. Summary Socialization is a lifelong process in which an individual learns the essentials of society. thoughts and folkways are being transmitted from one generation to another with the help of socialization. This is because the atmosphere in schools is very protective. The learning of values from parents can also be called primary socialization. This generates a lot of self confidence. guidance and motivation is essential for them to understand what is good and bad for them. They suggest innovative ways to improve the weaknesses and prepare the children for the future challenges. Besides this. mores. they have to deal with big challenges. A Child brings only few things with him/her in heredity but social environment provides the totality of life with the help of socialization. teachers at school encourage their students to participate in non curriculum activities and programs which can bring out the best in them. The norms. socialization process can be beneficial only if it is positive. Socialization process of the workplace can help a person acquire new skills and be able to tackle emergencies. the children interact with much more people than they do in the days before joining school. The process of learning can never .
The socialization process continues from childbirth till old age. In fact. Hopefully. A person becomes ready for this process when he is convinced that what he did earlier was not the ideal behavior. The use of methods such as punishment. a person attempts and successfully changes his ways of behavior to suit the prevailing circumstances and situations. such kind of socialization can be termed as negative socialization.be successful by the use of force. In re-socialization. criticism and force will never help to make the learning simple. you are satisfied with the explanation given in this article. All the best! . In order to do away with negative socialization. re-socialization can be extremely useful.
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