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Published by: mehal33 on Jan 12, 2012
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SS7 overview • circuit-related and non-circuit applications (inter-exchange, not on access interfaces) • layered design (transport + application) • common channel signalling (associated or quasi-associated) • transport over PCM lines, ATM, IP

SS7 applications • call handling in PSTN & PLMN • mobility & roaming • IN call handling • RAN—core/RAN signalling (ISUP, TUP) (MAP, BSSAP+) (INAP, CAP) (BSSAP, RANAP, RNSAP)

over PCM over ATM over IP

SS7 network elements local / transit exchange MSC, BSC, HLR, ... SSF, SCF, ...

Classic SS7 layered structure

MTP rerouting only Application (“user part”) ex. ISUP STP Transport MTP SP LS MTP 1 – signalling data link MTP 2 – signalling link MTP 3 – signalling network

Processor ISUP ` MTP 2 MTP 3 ST

call handling message handling error control

Processor ISUP MTP 3 ST









SL: channel for signalling messages LS: all sig. links connecting two points SR: predetermined end-to-end path


PCM coded speech 8000 samples x 8 bits 64000 bps
ATM BSC BSS BSSAP CAMEL CAP GSM HLR INAP Asynchronous Transfer Mode Base Station Controller Base Station System Base Station System Application Part Customised Application for Mobile network Enhanced Logic CAMEL Application Part Global System for Mobile communications Home Location Register Intelligent Network Application Part ISDN ISUP IP LS M3UA MAP MSC MTP PCM PLMN Integrated Services Digital Network ISDN User Part Internet Protocol Link Set MTP3 User Adaptation Mobile Application Part Mobile Switching Centre Message Transfer Part Pulse Code Modulation Public Land Mobile Network PSTN PS RAN RANAP RNS RNSAP SAAL SCCP SCF SCTP

PCM line (E1) 32 timeslots x 64 kbps 2 Mbps
SL SP SR SS7 SSF ST STP TCAP TUP UMTS Signalling Link Signalling Point Signalling Route Signalling System No. 7 Service Switching Function Signalling Terminal Signalling Transfer Point Transaction Capabilities Application Part Telephone User Part Universal Mobile Telecommunications System


Public Switched Telephony Network Packet Switched Radio Access Network RAN Application Part Radio Network Subsystem RNS Application Part Signalling ATM Adaptation Layer Signalling Connection Control Part Service Control Function Stream Control Transmission Protocol

TUP. ISUP.5 sec 16 LSSU CK 5 8 SF 3 SI 2 6 LI 16 EC 8 F bits 4 3 2 1 SIO.2 sec Loss of alignment 64 -1 if 256 SUs OK +1 if faulty SU t no retransmissions of FISU and LSSU SS7_SF_02_ 060418 AERM BIB BSN CK EC F FIB FISU FSN Alignment Error Rate Monitor Backward Indicator Bit Backward Sequence Number Check bits Error Control Flag Forward Indicator Bit Fill-In Signal Unit Forward Sequence Number LI LSSU MSU MTP NI SF SI SIB SIE Length Indicator Link Status Signal Unit Message Signal Unit Message Transfer Part Network Indicator Status Field Service Indicator Status Indication Busy Status Indication Emergency alignment SIF SIN SIO SIO SIOS SIPO SU SUERM Signalling Information Field Status Indication Normal alignment Service Information Octet Status Indication Out of alignment Status Indication Out of Service Status Indication Processor Outage Signal Unit Signal Unit Error Rate Monitor .MTP level 2 functions jqmI=é~êí=f Signalling Link states Level 3 order Normal or Emergency alignment bits Proving OK 7 BSN Normal alignment (max 5X) Failure Ok Idle – Out of service SIOS Not aligned SIO Proving ⊗ SIN or SIE Aligned ⊗ MSU FISU SIB SIPO Alignment failed T U P MTP 3 MTP 2 Users I BSS BSS RAN RNS MAP CAP INAP S AP AP+ AP AP TCAP U P SCCP MTP 3b SAAL-NNI ATM MTP 1 PHY M3UA SCTP IP L1 + L2 • transmission of level 3 messages in signal units • error detection and correction • signal unit delimitation • link alignment • link error monitoring • routing label for MTP 3 • user part information 16 MSU CK for error detection • NI • SI max 8 * 272 SIF 2 2 NI 8 SIO 4 SI 2 6 LI 1 FIB 16 EC 7 FSN 1 BIB 8 F High error rate on the link national / international network SCCP. SIB 16 FISU CK •0 FISU • 1 or 2 LSSU • 2. … acknowledgements & retransmissions # of errors ⊗ AERM Emergency alignment (max 1X) # of errors 1 Failure Ok 0. SIPO.63 MSU 2 6 LI for delimitation all fields between flags require "bit stuffing": SEND: add 0 after every 11111 RECV: delete 0 from every 111110 16 EC 8 F bits ⊗ SUERM 8.. SIN. SIE SIOS.

g. 0 – 7-246-1 point code messages sent in MSUs Signalling Area Network Code SS7_SF_03_ 060418 CIC DPC LS LSSU MSU NI Circuit Identity Code Destination Point Code Link Set Link Status Signal Unit Message Signal Unit Network Indicator OPC SANC SI SIF SIO SL Originating Point Code Signalling Area Network Code Service Indicator Signalling Information Field Service Information Octet Signalling Link SLC SLS SNM SNT UP Signalling Link Code Signalling Link Selection Signalling Network Management Signalling Network Testing User Part . 2 – 8277 NI OPC/DPC International address assigned by ITU-T e.DPC deliver or reroute SI user part Routing & load sharing 2-55 STP SLC=0 =1 2-66 STP T U P MTP 3 MTP 2 Users I BSS BSS RAN RNS MAP CAP INAP S AP AP+ AP AP TCAP U P SCCP MTP 3b SAAL-NNI ATM MTP 1 PHY M3UA SCTP IP L1 + L2 SP SP SP MTP addressing SIF SIO routing label 0: SNM 1: SNT 3: SCCP 4: TUP 5: ISUP 14 DPC 2 2 NI 2 bits SI national (2) international (0) 2-10 DPC LS 2-20 2-20 2-55 2-66 2-30 2-55 … … SLC 0 0 or 1 0 or 1 0 or 1 … 2-20 2-30 high priority load sharing (among SLs) load sharing (among LSs) 12+4 UP msg TUP and ISUP only 4 14 OPC [ CIC ] SLS for load sharing where FROM where TO SNM & SNT • Signalling link management control locally connected links • Signalling traffic management divert signalling among available links • Signalling route management distribute status & routing info • Signalling link testing after alignment and periodically Example procedures COO COA TFP RST TFA SLTM SLTA divert signalling from unavailable link rerouting to DPC=x not possible periodic test: rerouting possible? rerouting to DPC=x possible again done by both sides test bit pattern sent indicate node where UP creates/receives the message.DPC SL SLS one of SLs NI.jqmI=é~êí=ff MTP level 3 functions • message routing • load sharing • message discrimination • message distribution • signalling network management • signalling link testing NI.g. not STP address National address assigned nationally e.

•. /.g. . analogue on-hook SUS RES T2 REL T1 RLC T5 SUS suspend & resume RES e. e. . 60 sec expiry restart. on-hold. . . .. info what to do with unrecognized parameters CIC DPC ISDN ISUP OPC Circuit Identity Code Destination Point Code Integrated Services Digital Network ISDN User Part Originating Point Code SCCP SIF SIO SLS Signalling Connection Control Part Signalling Information Field Service Information Octet Signalling Link Selection SS7_SF_04_ 060418 . . . . . . . 3 min expiry release through-connect charge IAM IAM T7 ACM CPG T9 ANM T U P select circuit through-connect basic call setup ACM CPG ANM CPG called party found event. ..5 . 30s T9: max 1.g.g. cleardown) • link-by-link signalling • interworking (older ISUP and other systems) • support for basic and supplementary services fprm Example flow select circuit create message through-connect T7: max 20 .g. analogue off-hook REL RLC CGB call release O&M: block CGBA block group of circuits O&M: unblock CGU unblock group of circuits CGUA E OP K L N K K H L N H H E L E D L P P P D OP E D C B A ABC disconnect stop charging P = Pointer L = Length N = Parameter name OP = Optional Part EOP = End of Opt. . . conversation.. . 15 min expiry circuit reset • param X: notify / discard / pass / release call • param Y: . … e.. alerting connect ring tone (if speech) called party answer through-connect Message structure also SCCP SIF SIO no CIC in SCCP SLS CIC OPC DPC CPG T2: max 3 min expiry release optional mandatory mandatory message variable fixed type event. resend T5: max 5 . e.Users I BSS BSS RAN RNS MAP CAP INAP S AP AP+ AP AP TCAP U P SCCP MTP 3 MTP 2 ATM MTP 1 PHY IP L1 + L2 MTP 3b SAAL-NNI M3UA SCTP ISUP functions • circuit-related call control (setup. . . Part Interworking with other versions of ISUP Confusion message ABC CFN • unknown msg • bad param • unknown param • re-send modified message • send another message • release call Parameter compatibility info ABC • param X • param Y • param Z • param info circuit released T1: max 15 .. . forwarding.. / . /.

10 min) GT translation start of GT next node DPC GT translation (optional) SSN SCCP user Addressing in 3GPP network Call interrogation GT = MSISDN.164.. SSN = 6 HLR CR setup CC DT1 DT1 dest ref no user data DT1 IT RLSD release RLC First contact GT = MGT. NP = E.255) identifying SCCP user GT: +48… SCCP messages format same as in ISUP UDT UDT UDT UDTS UDT SCCP modes +48601… +486014… +48601445 Connectionless • address included in each message UDT • each message routed independently called addr • GT translation in each node calling addr • class 0 basic user data • class 1 sequenced delivery sent if error • used in GSM/UMTS core network CR CC DT1 DT1 DT1 IT RLSD RLC T(ias) expires send IT T(iar) expires release anything received T(iar) reset T(iar) > 2 * T(ias) Connection-oriented • addresses included in CR only • logical connection ref numbers • fixed path in the network • class 2 basic • class 3 flow controlled • used between MSC and BSC/RNC sent when idle (5 .212 E.164 E.Users I BSS BSS RAN RNS MAP CAP INAP S AP AP+ AP AP TCAP U P SCCP MTP 3 MTP 2 ATM MTP 1 PHY IP L1 + L2 MTP 3b SAAL-NNI M3UA SCTP SCCP functions • • • • addition to MTP global addressing & routing using GT non-circuit related signalling connectionless and connection-oriented p``m SCCP addresses combination of • GT • SSN • SPC routing distribution T U P GT = digits + numbering plan + translation type + nature of addr SSN = number (1.. NP = E.214 GT MGT Connectionless Connection Oriented Destination Point Code ISDN/telephony numbering plan IMSI numbering plan ISDN/IMSI numbering plan Global Title Mobile Global Title MSISDN NP RNC SSN SPC SCCP TT Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number Numbering Plan Radio Network Controller SCCP Subsystem Number Signalling Point Code Signalling Connection Control Part Translation Type .214. SSN = 6 IMSI = 260 01 1234567890 MGT = +48 603 1234567890 GMSC Other cases GT = preconfigured or received earlier MSC/VLR data transfer SCCP management • maintain status info on other nodes & their subsystems • MTP indications node status • own broadcasts & tests subsystem status SS7_SF_05_ 060418 CL CO DPC E.

RESULT Message type tag Message length Transaction Id tag Transaction Id length Transaction Id Component portion tag Component portion length Component type tag Component length Invoke Id tag Invoke Id length Invoke Id Operation code tag Operation code length Operation code ex.services) CONTINUE 123 RET. RET. CONTINUE. RET. ERROR invoke id n Tag Length    what IT is how long IT is here IT is Tag Length Application Entities Network Service Part INAP TCAP MAP MSC TCAP MTP+SCCP MAP VLR TCAP Content TCAP + MAP message Transaction sublayer messages: BEGIN. RESULT BEGIN 456 INVOKE Cancel location (IMSI) END 456 RET.1 and BER • higher layer protocols complex data types • separate notation (ASN.MSC/VLR addr) CONTINUE 123 INVOKE Insert subscriber data (MSISDN.1 BER HLR IMSI INAP Application Entity Abstract Syntax Notation One Basic Encoding Rules Home Location Register International Mobile Subscriber Identity Intelligent Network Application Part MAP MS MSC NSP TCAP VLR Mobile Application Part Mobile Station Mobile Switching Centre Network Service Part Transaction Capabilities Application Part Visitor Location Register SS7_SF_06_ 060418 . END transaction id nnn TCAP + MAP example new subscriber in VLR: location update new VLR HLR old VLR BEGIN 123 INVOKE Update location (IMSI.Users TCAP functions T U P I BSS BSS RAN RNS MAP CAP INAP S AP AP+ AP AP TCAP U P SCCP MTP 3 MTP 2 ATM MTP 1 PHY IP L1 + L2 MTP 3b SAAL-NNI M3UA SCTP q`^m ASN.  ex. IMSI. RESULT. 123  ex. MSC/VLR addr END 123 RET. INVOKE  ex. BEGIN  ex. RESULT Update location (HLR addr) AE ASN. Update Location Operation parameters  ex.1) from coding (BER) • complex types made from basic types primitives & constructors • generic services for application entities • transaction-oriented communication • component handling • dialogue handling TCAP user operations Protocol model Component sublayer components: INVOKE.

Rel-5) • MAP also for: location services (R99).2. DUSSD requests from MS MAP operation (sent in component) UPDATE LOCATION fixed part: “ETSI mobile GSM MAP AC” AC version (sent in TCAP dialogue portion) 4–0–0–1–0–1–3 F “IN” C gsmSCF H: triplets requests (not standardised) EIR HLR Gd: SMS transfer H AUC AC name: “networkLocUpContext” 1 name few operations (1.MAP interfaces in GSM/UMTS E: • inter-MSC handover or relocation • SMS transfer C: • interrogation at MT call (GMSC) • interrogation at MT SMS transfer E SMS-GMSC SMS-IWMSC j^mI=é~êí=f B: internal (not standardised) T U P Users I BSS BSS RAN RNS MAP CAP INAP S AP AP+ AP AP TCAP U P SCCP MTP 3 MTP 2 MTP 3b SAAL-NNI ATM MTP 1 M3UA SCTP IP L1 + L2 MSC B VLR G: IMSI and triplets retrieval E G D: location and subscriber data management (CS) MAP “versions” PHY MSC B Every operation comes with Application Context version VLR C “IN”: MS state/location requests.7) Version negotiation version (1..3. Gateway Location Register (GLR) • SCCP CL class 0 and 1 used. Gf: IMEI verification Gd SGSN Gr Gc GGSN BEGIN OPEN AC v3 INVOKE OP-X (…) ABORT ABORT AC v2 initial version based on dest addr (or default) operation component optional alternative version offered Gr: location and subscriber data management (PS) Gc: interrogation at networkrequested packet session (optional) Notes • MSC MSC server if split architecture (Rel-4) • HLR+AUC+other database Home Subscriber Server (HSS. SSN mandatory AC AUC CL CS EIR GGSN GMSC GPRS BEGIN OPEN AC v2 INVOKE OP-X (…) CONT/END ACCEPT AC v2 INV/RET OP-Y/X (…) Application Context Authentication Centre Connectionless Circuit Switched Equipment Identity Register Gateway GPRS Support Node Gateway MSC General Packet Radio Service HLR IMEI IMSI IN IWMSC MAP MSC MT new dialogue version OK dialogue portion not used later NP PDP SCF SGSN SSN USSD VLR Numbering Plan Packet Data Protocol Service Control Function Serving GPRS Support Node SCCP Subsystem Number Unstructured Supplementary Service Data Visitor Location Register SS7_SF_07_060418 Home Location Register International Mobile Equipment Identity International Mobile Subscriber Identity Intelligent Network Interworking MSC Mobile Application Part Mobile Switching Centre Mobile Terminating .4) Gf F.

gsmSCF. service management BI CI Activate SS Get password HLR VLR (components sent C RR Get password to/from MS) E RR Activate SS USSD request B I Process USS req received from MS E RR Process USS req code required e. at call setup BI Check IMEI EIR E RR Check IMEI return white/grey/black MSC to/from SMSC: not MAP MT Forward SM E RR Forward MT SM BI deliver SMS E RR MT Forward SM suppl. data B= BEGIN C= CONTINUE E= END I = INVOKE RR= RETURN RESULT T U P update location info in HLR & get subscriber profile BI Cancel location E RR Cancel location C RR Insert subsc. TMSI used) BI Send Identification return IMSI & unused triplets HLR E RR Send Identification BI CI Update location Insert subsc.Example MAP procedures VLR j^mI=é~êí=ff MSC VLR Users I BSS BSS RAN RNS MAP CAP INAP S AP AP+ AP AP TCAP U P SCCP MTP 3 MTP 2 ATM IP L1 + L2 MTP 1 PHY MTP 3b SAAL-NNI M3UA SCTP MSC location update (new subscriber. HLR. or elsewhere sent to all VLRs and SGSNs on HLR reload loc. for barring services MSC HLR SGSN BI Reset BI Reset gsmSCF BI Process USS req request handled in E RR Process USS req MSC. data E RR Update location BI BI Send routing info delete subscriber record SGSN SMS-IWMSC SMSC BI SMS via GPRS from MS GMSC MO Forward SM BI Forward MO SM E RR MO Forward SM E RR Forward MO SM Provide roaming no HLR allocate & return MSRN E RR Provide roaming no incoming call with MSISDN E RR Send routing info continue call with received MSRN SMS-GMSC return serving MSC address BI Send routing info for SM B I Forward MT SM E RR Send routing info for SM VLR check phone e.g. update redone on radio contact for all IMSIs from HLR SS7_SF_08_060418 B/C/E I / RR IMSI MO MSISDN MSRN BEGIN / CONTINUE / END INVOKE / RETURN RESULT International Mobile Subscriber Identity Mobile Originated Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number Mobile Station Roaming Number MT SM SMSC TMSI USSD Mobile Terminated Short Message Short Message Service Centre Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity Unstructured Supplementary Service Data .g.

MSISDN dialled 2-10 2-20 2-30 2-40 SCCP relay jçÄáäÉ=qÉêãáå~íáåÖ=`~ää=bëí~ÄäáëÜãÉåí 2-50 2-60 SCCP relay 2-70 LE MTP: OPC=10 DPC=20 MTP: OPC=20 DPC=30 OPC=30 DPC=40 IAM UDT {BEGIN-INVOKE (Send Routing Info)} TE MTP: DPC OPC=40 DPC=60 SL SCCP: GT DPC MTP: DPC SL GMSC STP HLR IAM OPC=60 DPC=70 dialled no route ISUP: select circuit prepare message MTP: DPC SL dialled no interrogate MAP+TCAP: start dialogue called addr = MSISDN transaction id invoke id AC ver called addr (GT=MSISDN.SSN=7) calling addr (GT=HLR. TMSI area id cause/channel CR (Paging response) Establishment of signalling radio connection Paging response TMSI or IMSI start SCCP connection no GT src ref no dest ref no dest ref no backward call indicators [echo control info] DT1 (Setup) Setup CC Authentication and start of security functions LE TE [bearer capabilities] [calling party number] DT1 (Call confirmed) Call confirmed [bearer capabilities] ACM ACM ACM Establishment of traffic connection Awaiting answer indication (e. SSN= 254 if BSSAP 142 if RANAP IMSI.SSN=6) UDT {BEGIN-INVOKE (Provide Roaming No)} IMSI MSC addr [service info] UDT {END-RETURN RESULT (Provide Roaming No)} MS attached? allocate MSRN MSRN IMSI start timer continue call setup with MSRN MSRN UDT {END-RETURN RESULT (Send Routing Info)} MSRN 2-90 dialled no MSRN series MSRN IMSI release MSRN IMSI registration area IAM UDT (Paging) dialled no route ISUP: select circuit prepare msg MTP: DPC SL called party no = MSRN now BSS / RNS allocate & setup: SDCCH if GERAN SRB if UTRAN “Paging” no GT src ref no no GT.SSN=6) calling addr (GT=GMSC.g.SSN=8) 2-80 SCCP: GT DPC MTP: DPC SL MSISDN GMSC capabilities interrogation type [service info] MSISDN IMSI SCCP: • [GT deliver] • SSN MAP-HLR MSC/VLR addr called party number fwd call indicators nature of connection transmission medium requirement [calling party number] [service info] MSC VLR called addr (GT=VLR. ring tone) DT1 (Alerting) CPG CPG CPG allocate & setup TCH if GERAN RAB if UTRAN Alerting ringing — event info (=alerting) ANM ANM ANM answer DT1 (Connect) Connect — DT1 (Connect Ack) Connect Ack backward call indicators Traffic — SRB TCH UTRAN Signalling Radio Bearer Traffic Channel Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network GERAN MSRN RAB SDCCH GSM EDGE Radio Access Network Mobile Station Roaming Number Radio Access Bearer Stand-Alone Dedicated Control Channel SS7_SF_09_060418 .

for prepaid timer. # of digits Disconnect Forward Connection – Connect called party number Release Call cause BCSM Basic Call State Model CAMEL Customised Application for Mobile network Enhanced Logic CAP CAMEL Application Part CS Circuit Switched CSE CAMEL Service Environment CSI CAMEL Subscription Information D-CSI Dialled Services CSI DP Detection Point DTMF Dual Tone Multiple Frequency IMS IP Multimedia Subsystem IMSI International Mobile Subscriber Identity IN Intelligent Network INAP Intelligent Network Application Part ISD MAP Insert Subscriber Data LA Location Area set up SSF-SRF connection inband interaction ask for DTMF digits release SSF-SRF connection route call to specific destination clear down at any phase MSC VLR CAMEL Subscription Info: zero/one/many per IMSI • trigger DP or list (O-/T-/VT-/GPRS/SMS-CSI) • mobility event or list (M-/MG-CSI) • SS code or list (SS-CSI) • service key • gsmSCF address • default call handling • dialled num (D-CSI only) CSI sent in ISD at GPRS loc. service key. Service Invocation Notification CSI Service Switching Function Terminating CSI Virtual Private Network Visited MSC Terminating CSI . simple VPN Ph 2: prepaid. call ref no Req Report BCSM Event armed DPs service logic execution starts monitor call event(s) incoming call leg • flexible call handling • in G/MSC and SGSN gsmSSF CAP orders • service logic and execution • in Home PLMN event handling Apply Charging e. GPRS prepaid Ph 4: IMS support. update GPRS sessions attach/detach/RA update MO/MT SMS via GPRS SGSN call actions IS D CSI sent in ISD at location update all/selected MO/forwarded calls MT calls attach/detach/LA update MO/MT SMS SS invoke notifications D IS SS7_SF_10_060418 M-CSI MG-CSI MO MT O-CSI PLMN RA SCF SRF SRI SS SS-CSI SSF T-CSI VPN VT-CSI Mobility Management CSI Mobility Management for GPRS CSI Mobile Originating Mobile Terminating Originating CSI Public Land Mobile Network Routing Area Service Control Function Specialised Resource Function MAP Send Routing Info Supplementary Service Supp.Users I BSS BSS RAN RNS MAP CAP INAP S AP AP+ AP AP TCAP U P SCCP MTP 3 MTP 2 ATM MTP 1 PHY IP L1 + L2 MTP 3b SAAL-NNI M3UA SCTP `^jbi=~åÇ=`^m R96 R97/R98 R99/Rel-4 Rel-5/Rel-6 Ph 1: basic call rerouting. info] Apply Charging Report duration. IMSI MSISDN. tone? release? A/B? Continue – proceed with suspended call ISUP gsmSRF gsmSCF reports/ack’s outgoing call leg announcements and tone receivers Event Report BCSM Event event notification event [.g. active/released charging notification SRF interaction IN triggering CSI sent in SRI response MT call forwarding of MT call GMSC MAP SRI HLR Connect To Resource gsmSRF num Prompt And Collect User Info msg/tone id. GPRS improvements gsmSSF gsmSRF T U P Example CAP procedures for CS call handling gsmSCF CAMEL introduction trigger Initial DP B#. DTMF and announcements Ph 3: call handling improvements.

except: • max SIF size is 4095 octets (was 272) • new SNM procedure: extended changeover "simulation" of signalling link link status control SSCS sequence and error control flow control connection-oriented transmission jqm=çîÉê=^qj more than 4 octets MTP 3b SIF SIO Users Message handling T U P I BSS BSS RAN RNS MAP CAP INAP S AP AP+ AP AP TCAP U P SCCP MTP 3 MTP 3b SAAL-NNI M3UA SCTP IP L1 + L2 4 octets SSCF PDU SSCF 4 oct Trailer SSCOP 0.3) • N(S) – 24-bit send seq num Trailer: • CRC for error detection • Length of Info • User-to-User Info not used • CP Indicator by SSCOP SAR PDU • uses ATM User-to-User Indication bit: last/not last segment in Payload Type in ATM header error detection padding to m*48 octets CP AAL 5 n*48 octets sent as n ATM cells no header / trailer added SAR SAR PDU payload for one ATM cell SSCF & SSCOP procedures Normal link alignment alignment order BGN BGAK link proving: repeat 1000 times max 30 sec alignment successful SD POLL STAT SD POLL STAT (In Service) (Normal) ignored polling every 100 ms other side does the same SD N(S)=1 N(S)=2 N(S)=3 N(S)=4 Error control SD N(S)=6 N(S)=7 N(S)=8 N(S)=9 error detected ATM CP CPCS CRC NNI N(R) N(S) PDU SAAL SAR SDU SIF SIO SNM SSCF SSCOP Asynchronous Transfer Mode Common Part CP Convergence Sub-layer Cyclic Redundancy Check Network Node Interface Receive sequence Number Send sequence Number Protocol Data Unit Signalling ATM Adaptation Layer Segmentation And Reassembly Service Data Unit Signalling Information Field Service Information Octet Signalling Network Management Service Specific Coordination Function Service Specific Connection Oriented Protocol POLL N(S)=5 STAT N(R)=3...47 Pad 48*m octets 48 octets 48 octets SSCF PDU max 65535 Info max 4096 Info MTP 2 ATM MTP 1 PHY SAAL-NNI Sent in Sequenced Data PDU Trailer: • PDU type (= SD here) • Pad Length (0..3 Pad 4*n octets 8 oct CPCS Trailer 0. lost list SD N(S)=7 N(S)=8 N(S)=10 N(S)=11 SS7_SF_11_060418 . lost list SD N(S)=3 N(S)=4 N(S)=5 reply to polling USTAT N(R)=7.Functional overview as classic MTP level 3.

SSN. backup addrs] [ DATA ] [ DATA ] TSN. packet-oriented error-free. backup addrs] tag Y. use backup also sent to inactive primary restored SS7 over IP options classic SS7 AS CS IP IPS M2PA M2UA Application Server Circuit Switched Internet Protocol IP-based Server MTP2 User Peer-to-peer Adaptation MTP2 User Adaptation M3UA MGW SCTP SG SP SSN MTP3 User Adaptation Media Gateway Stream Control Transmission Protocol Signalling Gateway Signalling Point Stream Sequence Number SUA TCP TE TSN TUA SCCP User Adaptation Transmission Control Protocol Transit Exchange Transmission Sequence Number TCAP User Adaptation SS7_SF_12_060418 . gaps DATA DATA retransmissions to backup addr too many retrans. TSN • other fields one or more in packet (“chunk bundling”) • verification tag • src + dest port num • checksum primary Example packet flow IP-based Servers (IPS) Application Servers (AS) if point-to-point if via SG Signalling Points (SP) 0 INIT X INIT ACK Protocol overview standardised for UTRAN and core net SCCP User User Part MTP 3 M2UA SCTP IP L1+L2 User Part MTP 3 M2PA SCTP IP L1 L2 User Part SUA M3UA SCTP IP L1+L2 SCTP IP L1+L2 SCTP IP L1+L2 TUA TCAP User MAP/ /CAP TCAP SCCP MTP 3 MTP 2 MTP 1 backup start association cookie = encrypted protocol state data tag X [. duplicates.ppT=çîÉê=fmI=é~êí=f Some SS7 over IP interfaces IP-based UTRAN IP-based CS core network non-IP PLMN/PSTN MAP HLR HLR Users I BSS BSS RAN RNS MAP CAP INAP S AP AP+ AP AP TCAP U P SCCP MTP 3 MTP 2 ATM MTP 1 PHY IP L1 + L2 MTP 3b SAAL-NNI M3UA SCTP SCTP functions • based on TCP • acknowledged. … DATA DATA Y COOKIE ECHO cookie X COOKIE ACK Y DATA Y DATA X SACK Y DATA Y DATA Y HEARTBEAT X HEARTBEAT ACK Y DATA TSN. nonduplicated data transfer • data segmentation • resistance to blind attacks • multi-homing support (primary + backups) SCTP packet G/MSC T U P RANAP RNC MSC server MAP ISUP GMSC server SG VLR RNSAP ISUP traffic RNC MGW MGW TE if DATA • type. cookie [. flags Chunk[s] Header • stream id • SSN. payload data. length.

status RCs. DPC RC. mode NTFY RCs. RCs M3UA SCTP AS SG REG RESP RKs. mode DAUD DAUD DAVA ASPAC ACK RCs. DPC RC. SIF. DPC RC. SIF. RC SIO. DPC remote SP up remote SP down RCs. SIF. status MTP3 primitives M3UA SCTP M3UA SCTP NTFY IPS IPS AS ASP CIC DPC IPS MTP3 User Adaptation Originating Point Code Routing Context Routing Key Stream Control Transmission Protocol SG SI SIF SIO SP Signalling Gateway Service Indicator Signalling Information Field Service Information Octet Signalling Point SS7_SF_13_060418 . RC if load sharing MTP3 primitives M3UA SCTP MTP3 MTP2 ASPUP ACK ASPUP ASPUP ACK REG REQ RKs.Users I BSS BSS RAN RNS MAP CAP INAP S AP AP+ AP AP TCAP U P SCCP MTP 3 MTP 2 ATM MTP 1 PHY IP L1 + L2 MTP 3b SAAL-NNI M3UA SCTP ppT=çîÉê=fmI=é~êí=ff Addressing & routing • point codes still used (also for IP nodes) Routing Key DPC SI list optional OPC or list CIC range 1:1 Routing Context 32-bit integer SCTP association IP addr(s) Param • type • length • value(s) … Param Header • version • message class & type • length M3UA message T U P M3UA introduction • emulates MTP functions over IP+SCTP • supports multi-homing primary + backup(s) load sharing • two modes AS—SG IPS—IPS AS—SG (“border” signalling) User Part n:1 • one SCTP association one or many RCs • dynamic RK registration possible Example message flows Establishment of association ASPUP ASP id User Part data transfer DATA DATA ASP id DATA SIO. RCs IPS—IPS (“peer-to-peer” signalling) ASPAC User Part User Part optional RK registration mode: • override • loadshare • broadcast status: • inactive • active • pending Application Server Application Server Process Circuit Identity Code Destination Point Code IP-based Server M3UA OPC RC RK SCTP Network management DUNA RC. RC SIO.

Mobile Application Part activateSS activateTraceMode alertServiceCentre anyTimeInterrogaton (R1996) anyTimeModification (R1999) anyTimeSubscriptionInterrogation (R1999) authenticationFailureReport (R1999) beginSubscriberActivity (Ph1 only) cancelLocation checkIMEI deactivateSS deactivateTraceMode deleteSubscriberData deregisterMobileSubscriber (Ph1 only) eraseCC-Entry (R1997) eraseSS failureReport (R1997) forwardAccessSignalling forwardCheckSsIndication (Ph2) forwardGroupCallSignalling (R1997) forwardSM (Ph1 Ph2 only) getPassword (Ph2) informServiceCentre (Ph2) insertSubscriberData interrogateSS istAlert (R1999) istCommand (R1999) mo-forwardSM (R1996) mt-forwardSM (R1996) noteInternalHandover (Ph1 only) NoteMM-Event (R1999) noteMsPresent (Ph1 only) noteMsPresentForGprs (R1997) noteSubscriberDataModified (R1999) performHandover (Ph1 only) performSubsequentHandover (Ph1 only) prepareGroupCall (R1997) prepareHandover (Ph2) prepareSubsequentHandover (Ph2) processAccessSignalling processGroupCallSignalling (R1997) processUnstructuredSS-Request (Ph2) processUnstructuredSSData (Ph1 only) provideRoamingNumber provideSIWFSNumber (R1997) provideSubscriberInfo (R1996) provideSubscriberLocation (R1998) purgeMS (Ph2) readyForSM (Ph2) registerCC-Entry (R1997) registerPassword (Ph2) registerSS remoteUserFree (R1997) reportSmDeliveryStatus (Ph2) reset restoreData (Ph2) secureTransportClass1 (Rel4) secureTransportClass2 (Rel4) secureTransportClass3 (Rel4) secureTransportClass4 (Rel4) sendAuthenticationInfo (Ph2) sendEndSignal sendGroupCallEndSignal (R1997) sendIdentification (Ph2) sendIMSI (Ph2) sendParameters (Ph1 only) sendRoutingInfo sendRoutingInfoForGprs (R1997) sendRoutingInfoForLCS (R1998) sendRoutingInfoForSM setMessageWaitingData (Ph1 only) setReportingState (R1997) SIWFSSignallingModify (R1997) ss-Invocation-Notification (R1997) statusReport (R1997) subscriberLocationReport (R1998) unstructuredSS-Notify (Ph2) unstructuredSS-Request (Ph2) updateGprsLocation (R1997) updateLocation M3UA MTP Signalling Network Testing SLTM SLTA Signalling Link Test Message Signalling Link Test Acknowledgement message SSCOP BGN BGAK BGREJ END ENDAK RS RSAK ER ERAK Begin SD Begin Ack POLL Begin Reject STAT End USTAT End Ack UD Resynchronise MD Resynch Ack Error Recovery Error Recovery Ack Sequenced Data Status Request Solicited Status Response Unsolicited Status Response Unnumbered Data Management Data PDUs not required by SSCF are marked in italics. SCCP CR CC CREF RLSD RLC DT1 DT2 AK UDT UDTS ED EA RSR RSC ERR IT XUDT XUDTS LUDT LUDTS --xx --xx --xx --xx --xx --x---x ---x xx-xx----x ---x ---x ---x --xx --xx xx-xx-xx-xx-Connection Request Connection Confirm Connection Refused Released Release Complete Data form 1 Data form 2 Data Acknowledgement Unitdata Unitdata Service Expedited Data Expedited Data Ack Reset Request Reset Confirm PDU Error Inactivity Test Extended Unitdata Extended Unitdata Service Long Unitdata Long Unitdata Service ASPAC ASPAC ACK ASPDN ASPDN ACK ASPIA ASPIA ACK ASPUP ASPUP ACK BEAT BEAT ACK DATA DAUD ASP Active ASP Active Ack ASP Down ASP Down Ack ASP Inactive ASP Inactive Ack ASP Up ASP Up Ack Heartbeat Heartbeat Ack Payload Data Destination State Audit DAVA DEREG REQ DEREG RSP DRST DUNA DUPU ERR NTFY REG REQ REG RSP SCON Destination Available Deregistration Request Deregistration Response Destination Restricted Destination Unavailable Destination UP Unavailable Error Notify Registration Request Registration Response Signalling Congestion Unused messages shown in italics. APM CON CRG FAA FRJ FAR OLM PRI SAM USR Application Transport Connect Charge information Facility accepted Facility reject Facility request Overload Pre-release Information Subsequent address User-to-user information ANSI only. The GSM/3GPP phase/release in which an operation was introduced is given in parenthesis.MTP Signalling Network Management CBA CBD CNP CNS COA COO CSS DLC ECA ECO LFU LIA LID LIN LLT LUA LUN LRT RCT RSM RSR RST TFA TFC TFP TFR TRA UPU Changeback-acknowledgement signal Changeback-declaration signal Connection-not-possible signal Connection-not-successful signal Changeover-acknowledgement signal Changeover-order signal Connection-successful signal Signalling-data-link-connection-order signal Emergency-changeover-acknowledgement signal Emergency-changeover-order signal Link forced uninhibit signal Link inhibit acknowledgement signal Link inhibit denied signal Link inhibit signal Link local inhibit test signal Link uninhibit acknowledgement signal Link uninhibit signal Link remote inhibit test signal Route-set-congestion-test signal Route-set-test message Route-set-test signal for restricted destination Route-set-test signal for prohibited destination Transfer-allowed signal Transfer-controlled signal Transfer-prohibited signal Transfer-restricted signal Traffic-restart-allowed signal User part unavailable signal (national options are in italics) ANSI only TCP TCR TCA RCP RCR TRW Transfer-cluster-prohibited signal Transfer-cluster-restricted signal Transfer-cluster-allowed signal Signalling-route-set-test cluster-prohibited signal Signalling-route-set-test cluster-restricted signal Traffic restart-waiting signal jÉëë~ÖÉ=äáëíë ISDN User Part Common messages ACM ANM BLO BLA CPG CGB CGBA CQM CQR GRS GRA CGU CGUA CFN COT CCR FAC FOT IDR IRS INF INR IAM LPA LOP NRM PAM Address complete Answer Blocking Blocking ack Call progress Circuit group blocking Circuit group blocking ack Circuit group query Circuit group query response Circuit group reset Circuit group reset ack Circuit group unblocking Circuit group unblocking ack Confusion Continuity Continuity check request Facility Forward transfer Identification request Identification response Information Information request Initial address Loop back ack Loop prevention Network resource management Pass-along REL RLC RSC RES SGM SUS UBL UBA UCIC UPA UPT Release Release complete Reset circuit Resume Segmentation Suspend Unblocking Unblocking ack Unequipped CIC User Part available User Part test ITU-T ISUP CON CRG FAA FRJ FAR OLM SAM USR Connect Charge information Facility accepted Facility reject Facility request Overload Subsequent address User-to-user information ANSI ISUP CRM CVR CVT EXM Circuit Reservation Circuit Validation Response Circuit Validation Test Exit ITU-T and ETSI messages for national use only are marked in italics. reserved messages are in italics.1. . ANSI ISUP includes all these messages. SSCF OS PO IS NM EM ANS MI PE PNS Out of Service Processor Outage In Service Normal Emergency Alignment Not Successful Management Initiated Protocol Error Proving Not Successful TCAP Messages (ITU-T) Unidirectional Begin Continue End Abort Messages (ANSI) Unidirectional Query with Permission Query without Permission Response Conversation with Permission Conversation without Permission Abort Components Invoke (ITU-T) Invoke Last (ANSI) Invoke Not Last (ANSI) Return Result Last Return Result Not Last Return Error Reject SCTP ABORT Abort COOKIE ACK Cookie Acknowledgement COOKIE ECHO State Cookie CWR Congestion Window Reduced DATA Payload Data ECNE Explicit Congestion Notification Echo ERROR Operation Error HEARTBEAT Heartbeat Request HEARTBEAT ACK Heartbeat Acknowledgement INIT Initiation INIT ACK Initiation Acknowledgement SACK Selective Acknowledgement SHUTDOWN Shutdown SHUTDOWN ACK Shutdown Acknowledgement SHUTDOWN COMPLETE Shutdown Complete Unused.227).2. SCCP Management SSA SSP SST SOR SOG SSC Subsystem Allowed Subsystem Prohibited Subsystem Status Test Subsystem Out-of-service Request Subsystem Out-of-service Grant SCCP / Subsystem Congested Dialogue PDUs (ITU-T only) AARQ AARE ABRT RLRQ RLRE AUDT Dialogue Request Dialogue Response Dialogue Abort Release Request Release Response Uni-Dialogue Second column indicates protocol class(es) (0.3) where given message may be used Messages in italics used only over MTP-3b SS7_SF_14_060418 PDUs in italics are not used and included for completeness only (aligned with X. 3G specific operations are shown in italics. removed from ITU-T CMC CMR CMRJ CSVR CSVS DRS FAD FAI Call Modification Completed Call Modification Request Call Modification Reject CUG Selection & Validation Request CUG Selection & Validation Response Delayed Release Facility Deactivated Facility Info ETSI ISUP CAMEL Application Part ActivityTest ActivityTestGPRS (Ph3) ApplyCharging (Ph2) ApplyChargingGPRS (Ph3) ApplyChargingReport (Ph2) ApplyChargingReportGPRS (Ph3) AssistRequestInstructions (Ph2) CallGap (Ph3) CallInformationReport (Ph2) CallInformationRequest (Ph2) Cancel (Ph2) CancelGPRS (Ph3) Connect ConnectSMS (Ph3) ConnectToResource (Ph2) Continue ContinueGPRS (Ph3) ContinueSMS (Ph3) ContinueWithArgument (Ph3) DisconnectForwardConnection (Ph2) DisconnectForwardConnectionWithArgument (Ph4) DisconnectLeg (Ph4) EntityReleased (Ph4) EntityReleasedGPRS (Ph3) EstablishTemporaryConnection (Ph2) EventReportBCSM ReleaseCall ReleaseGPRS (Ph3) ReleaseSMS (Ph3) RequestReportBCSMEvent RequestReportGPRSEvent (Ph3) RequestReportSMSEvent (Ph3) ResetTimer (Ph2) ResetTimerGPRS (Ph3) ResetTimerSMS (Ph3) SendChargingInformation (Ph2) SendChargingInformationGPRS (Ph3) SpecializedResourceReport (Ph2) SplitLeg (Ph4) EventReportGPRS (Ph3) EventReportSMS (Ph3) FurnishChargingInformation (Ph2) FurnishChargingInformationGPRS (Ph3) FurnishChargingInformationSMS (Ph3) InitialDP InitialDPGPRS (Ph3) InitialDPSMS (Ph3) InitiateCallAttempt (Ph4) MoveLeg (Ph4) PlayAnnouncement (Ph2) PlayTone (Ph4) PromptAndCollectUserInformation (Ph2) The CAMEL phase in which an operation was introduced is given in parenthesis.

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