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Published by: Dan Ataniel Ensalada on Jan 12, 2012
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HUMAN NEEDS THEORY  The explication of human needs in the concept of personhood and nursing.

 Need motivates the behaviour of a person.  According to Maslow, basic needs are inactive or functionally absent in the people.

*Basic needs met = Health *Basic needs not met = Illness  Needs are hierarchical.  Maslow also specified cognitive and aesthetic needs. Cognitive Needs • • • • • • To know and understand To be curious To explain To organize To analyze To look for relations and meanings

Aesthetic Needs • • • • Order Symmetry Closure Beauty

Application to Nursing:  Recognition of human needs is crucial in nursing care.

families.  Systems can be explained thru HOLISM or SYNERGISM.  Holism or Synergism – the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. GENERAL SYSTEMS THEORY  A way of viewing a person.  It was introduced in 1928 by Ludwig Von Bertalanfy.  The need to maintain life and physical integrity is the first priority when it’s in jeopardy. energy. separates the system from their environment. The behaviour of the client reflects their needs. and society. Example.  Psychiatric nurses must also integrate clients’ cognitive needs. biological and social systems.  Boundaries keep out not necessary and bring in necessary.  A system is a set of components or units interacting with each other within a boundary that filters the kind and rate of flow of inputs and outputs to and from the system. . groups.  Systems are arranged in hierarchical manner. • Nurses must coordinate interventions to promote need attainment  The theory has been used in organizing nursing curricula and in assessing health and giving care. difficult to delineate in social systems.  Nurses must not only focus on physiologic needs. Open System – open to the exchange of matter. easily defined in physical and biological systems.  Systems are capable of self-regulation thru feedback. 2 Types of System 1. and information about their environment.

 Inputs are resources needed by the system.  Inputs are transformed in a process called throughput and are exported as output. .  Feedback can be Positive or Negative.Characteristics:  In a dynamic relationship with the environment.  Characterized by equifinality which indicates that goals or purposes may be achieved by many potential means.  Seeks equilibrium and homeostasis thru feedback that results to healthy steady state.  Engenders Negentropy.  It receives input.

2. Closed System  Engenders Entropy.  Family involvement is an essential component of client’s system.  Clients are open systems and must not be treated isolated.  Nurses must assess family’s knowledge about patient’s condition.  Nurses must enlist family’s input on the treatment plan.  Repetitious.  Mental illness is viewed as the result of inadequate resources and neurobiological processes and systems gone awry. Cerebrum .’ Application to Nursing:  Each client is viewed holistically. 3 Parts of the Brain: 1. with a direct cause and effect relationship. PSYCHOBIOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology  Nervous System • • Central Nervous System – brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System – nerves and ganglia  Brain – 3 to 4 pounds in weight and contains 100 billion neurons. health practices and strength to evaluate family’s capability and needs for teaching.

5 cm long anterior to cerebellum. 1. emotion and sexual pleasure.moderates body temperature. thirst. Composed of:   • Red Nuclei Substantia Nigra Pons – bridge between midbrain and medulla oblongata. The hemispheres are composed of: a) Nervous System Pathways b) Cerebral Cortex c) Limbic Structures d) Basal Ganglia  Diencephalon Composed of: • Thalamus – major relay nuclear area to and from the cerebral cortex. • Hypothalamus – maintains homeostasis and controls the autonomic nervous system. 2. 2. . • Epithalamus – contains pineal body. . Brainstem Composed of: • Midbrain – continuation of CNS below cerebrum. -controls hunger. endocrine system. gastrointestinal and cardiovascular activity.5 cm in length and is narrow. It is divided into 2 hemispheres that are connected to each other by Corpus Callosum.

Neurotransmitters 1. Metabolized by Monoamine Oxidase. • • • 2. • Medulla Oblongata – 3 cm long and connects cervical spine to the brain. Norepinephrine – noradrenaline. sensory integration. Modifies movements through sending final signal to cerebral motor cortex via thalamus. 3.  Reticular Formation – scattered neuronal pathway on brainstem responsible for regulatory functions. D3 – improves cognitive and emotional function. alcohol and opiate. and emotional behaviour. Dopamine – responsible for motor movement. Precursor of epinephrine Fight or flight . cognition. memory. Cerebellum – has 2 hemispheres separated by a central portion called vermis. related to dopamine. D2 – inhibits adenylate cyclase and has an increased affinity with dopamine. Adrenergic 5 significant receptors: • • D1 – converts ATP to CAMP by stimulating adenylate cyclase. Results to brain reward syndrome with cocaine. Projects motor and posture information to cerebellum.- Some pathways from cerebral cortex terminate here. D4 – like d2 and d3 D5 – like d1 Receives sensory input from muscles and signals from cerebral cortex indicating directions. Synthesized at substantia nigra.

Hypofunction results to schizophrenia and anxiety. dopamine preventing disorganized an frenzied responses to stimuli.- Alteration causes anxiety. Decreased GABBA results to anxiety disorders or panic symptoms. Clinical Application  Schizoprenia enlarged ventricle size related to neurodevelopmental reasons which is characterized by failed developmet of brain surrounding the ventricles and occupation of ventricles of empty spaces by enlarging or also known as increased ventricular brain ration (VBR). limbic system and cerebral cortex. Altered or decreased dopamine. Alteration causes depression. planning. . 5. problem solving. Targets basal ganglia. Gamma.Aminobutyric Acid Inhibitory neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. Conteracts norepinephrine. Decreased cerebral blood flow to prefrontal areas of the cortex resulting to declined frontal cognitive functions such as organizing. and critical thinking. Serotonin – secreted by upper pons. 4. learning. Modulates wakefulness and alertness and transmits oain. Activates ionotropic receptors including N-methyl-Daspartate. 3. Glutamate and N-methyl-D-aspartate Major excitatory neurotransmitter in mammals. Pharmacological treatment is aimed at restoring these on their optimum levels. - -  Mood Disorders Decreased norepinephrine and serotonin.

Over sympathetic stimulation by increased levels of norepinephrine. Anxiety Disorders Decreased GABBA. narrowed gray matter. . The attack on white matter is the reason for frequent misjudging of AIDS to multiple sclerosis.  Anorexia Nervosa Damaged hypothalamus. Enlarged ventricles. Loss of cholinergic problems which plays a major role in memory problems.  Dementias Brain atrophy which manifests microscopically as neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques. widened sulci and decreased width of gyri. and rigidity.  AIDS/HIV Disease HIV attacks the brain in by weakening and destruction of T4 lymphocytes which results to exposure of brain to pathogens and by direct attack on neuronal cell bodies and white matter. This leads to bradykinesia. tremor. epinephrine and dopamine. -  Degenerative Diseases Degeneration of basal ganglia] Deterioration of substantia nigra which is the chief synthesizing site of dopamine in the brain.

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