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@ Extrait de le Revue "Culture", octobre 1943. E KONTHCK, CHARLES, Do la primauté du dion commun contro los porsomAlistes Le principe do 1'ordro nouveau, Québec, wditions do l'Universite Laval; liom Sucal, Editions Fides, 1943 200m XXIII-195pp. $1.26 Co Livre traito du bion comun A trois points de vue bion distincts. Dans unc proniére partie, intituldo: De 1a prinauté du dion comun contre les por sonalistos, on établit 1a primauts du bion comiun sur Te bion sigguiivy do Ig pordonre. Cotto partio comiprond trois chapitres. Dans lo promior, on aé~ noatre d'une part, que le bien commun ost supériour absolumont au bion sin-~ gulior ot neillour quo"luiy’ dt, d'autre part, qu'il est on maison mém do sa eonnmnicdbilité lo Bion le plus propre of lo plus parfait do Ja porsonno. Lo douxiimo ost consaeré A 1a réfutation doe prémissos los plus fondanontales da gorsonnalieno: fausso consoption do la dignité ot do la liborté do la porsonno, do l'ordro,do~l'univers, du bion commun do la société dans son rap~ port qux porsomos qui on sont lospartics, du bion commun qutest 1a béatitu~ do, do 1a vie spéculative, ote On y mot aussi d jour lo ofté sophistiquo do certains arguments dos porsorinalistos, qui procddont par transgression dos gonros. Coux qui cavont Lire ot qui ont parcoury la littérature’ considé~ rable of £1 est quostion do porsomalisma, do dignité hunaine, de Liberté, G'huraniome intSgral ou chrétion, a'humanieno do 1'Incarmtion, otc., auront vito compris quo if. De Koninck no s'attoquo-pas fot A des fantémos do son Imagination, ou & wo orreur do surface plutdt négligoablo, mis A uno er~ rour dos plis poraiciousos, courante, ut fort généralisco Le troisidie chapitre ost aussi do grando actualité’on.oo qu'il fait voir avec uno éviden= co & crever los youx, quo l'uno dos conséquencos los plus inmédiates du per~ sonnaliome ost précigénont co totalitarismo barbaro ‘ot inhumain quo los porsomatltstes prétondont oonbattro au nom do In Liborté ot do la dignité do la porsonno. Evautour no so contents pas tof d'oxposer uno doctrine, ot fla jugé né~ sossaire de stattaquer aux porsonnlistes. Il aurait fort bien pu mettre on exergue & son ouvrage lo texto sacré avo lequol saint Thomas ouvre sa Somme contre les gonti bouche néditera la vérité, 6 lévres_détosteront ‘Iinpis" This, au Pais, qui sont cos porconnalistus? Le Tectour attenvii™ aura aucune poine & les rosommaitro, car la procision avoc laquelle i1 for le leurs positions rend impossible tout ralentondu sur lour idontité; ile sont d'ailloure logion. Ba taisamt lour nom’. De Koninsl: ne suit~il pas L'oxomple de saint Thonas qui, dans son Contra Avorroistas ot son Contra Furnurantes, par oxemplo, va jusqu'd oitor sos adversairos sans 10a nonmor? “ane une douxidne partio, sous lo titro: Lo principe do 1'ordre nouvoau, on montro que 1a négation do ‘la primauté du bidn commun git © la racine momo do la ponséo saodornd, dopuis -la Romisseneo jusqu'd nos Jours. Cotto deuxid~ no partic se diviso ollo aussi on trois chapitros Dans 10 pronisr, 1'autour Aéduit los plus importantos qui découlont imnddintonont do ia néction do 1a primuté du spéoulatif, & savoir lo rejot do la sconce moralo ot do la pru- doneo, ot 1'émaneipation totale do “l'homme pur artifox", Dons lo douxidno on dégage 1'idéo do fond, la ratio sub qua dos prideipaux systémos philosopiii~ quos modermos, oh l'on voi% quo cos eofiséquonces ont ete progrossivoncnt vé cues ot drigées on doctrinos, ct quo "on ignorant ct on niant les chosos qui sont moilloures quo l*honmo, ot conséquommoxt 1a sagesso olle-mdno, la punsce ederno a tout simplonont ignoré ct nié co qu'il y a dodmillour dans 1*honmo lui-némo- qutolle a, on vérite, doté oo qu'il y 0 do plus infériour duns L*honme, infériour tant eu point do vuo spiritucl qu'au point do vuo arettributs quasi divins* Yous trouvons 1A sous lo titro: Au commncos lo verbo do l'hommo, dos romerquos trés profondos dos plus opportums sir iiaieno philosophique de 1a Ronaissanco, sur Descartes, ifumo, Kant, "égel, sur l'affranchissonont du langogo hunain do’ 1'intolligenee, sur la méthode historique modorno, otc. 3 lo marxisno? Tl fait l'objot du troisidmo ohapi- tro. La eritiguo qu'on fait “. Do Koninck ost sirment la plus poussiv ot on o2- dno tomps la plus intolligibjo quron ait tontéo jusqu! ied. S'appuyant sur los textos los plus décisifs des doctours mirxistos, i montro bion quo eutto orrour, issuo do 1'humanisno do la Romissanco a travors Dosoartos, ant, Fichto, Hiogel, Fuerbach, constituo 1a plus radicalo ot 1a plus épouvantablo porvorsion do 1a ponséo hunaino, tant spéoulativo quo pratiquo, tant philosophique no théologiquo. Lo marxisme, on offot, pousse 1a divinisation do la conseiorco hunaino jusqu'au nihilieme: "L'imirtolité qui mottrait l'homme sous 1a dgpon~ dance dtautre choso quo soi, qui sorait par conséquont contrairo A sa dignité, sora elle-ndno "couragousonont niéo". Quo révo-t-on oneoro dthumaniomo inségral? Yous L'avons 1A, sous nos: youx La troisiéne ot dornidro partic comprond cing appondicos intitulée: L'épa~ Rowissonont do la porsonnaltté - Chaguo porsonno désiro son bien ~ iabuclodo- Hoser, mon Sorvitour ~ Fouorbach Intorproto saint Thomas - La révodition dos Phifosophos do la naturo. 1 ya grand profi & los liro ot néiiber tous lus ‘cing, mais Tos doux dormicrs sont particulibromont brdlante d'actualits. on y vorra “quo ltanthropothéisno de Ludwig Fouerbach, "auquol Marx ot Engole ont um- pranté lour hunanieno absolu", ntost pas, loin do 18, uno orrour néf1iablo Pour nous, thonistos. Non soulomont il "nous mino bion au-dold du pélagianione! on stinoorporant 10 mal lui-méno oh "il choreho uno profondour qui rend 1!homo conmensurable & Dicu"; non sculonont il so présonto eommo lo tormo ultimo ot 1c couronnonont do 1'évolution historiguo du ohristiamismo; non sowlonont il abou- tit on fait "A loxnltation do la sonsualité soxuolle, o& staccomplit 1'homc- Guttung do manidro physique, conoréto"; maisoncore, son autour prétond trouver dans 1a Sonno théologique "los racims'istoriquos do sa coneoption", ot "il cito saint Thonts pour chaounc do sos ascortions lus plus fondanontals". On voit @'ioi Lamplour insoupgonnde quo lo dangur, aéja trée grand, do cotte doctrine rogoit do son accointance hypoorite avoe 1a plus hauto autorité thbo- Logiquo do 1'Bglisc. Hourcusomont,"". Do Koninck fait bonno justice do cotto ine torprétabion contournée de saint Thoms par Fauorbach. Bt e9 n'ost pas trop tot, oor 41 court on oortains milioux thomistos uno intorprétation do tols tox- tos do 1a Sono étrangomont sonblzble 4 collo qu'on donno l'autour do 1'Besonco du christianieme pour justifior son anthropothéismo. Quant au dornior Zppendico, Al dovreit faire réfléchir coux qui no voiont cans loa syetémvs philosophiquos guiun passo-tonps do cabinot. On y cite, pour lo commontur onsuite 4 la lunisro dos prinoipes thonistos, un toxto au podto Toino sur la philosophic cllomanio de son tomps, ot dens ldquol on prédit cont qns d'avanco lo conflit mourtrior gui so déroulo présontonont sous nos youx. Prophétio? Yon pas, mais clairvoyance Gtun ponsour qui conmissait bion los philosophos do la neturo do son pays, ot qui savait quo "lq ponsée précddo l'action comme 1'éelair 10 tonnorro". TL va do soi quo co résumé" succint no donno qu'un aporgu tris incomplot ot fo foreémont superficiol de 1a substance du Livro do 1, Do Koninol, loquel ost beaucoup trop donso ot trop formol, ot traito do son sujet & la lumidre do prin- cipos trop pou compris de nos jours, pour so préter inpunénont éxuno synth8so aussi rapido ot ausei généreliséo. Tl faut lo liro tout ontior ob 10 néaitor soignousonont, si l'on vout so fairo uno ido‘ complito ot détailléo A 1s fois du pro ct contra dos problinos qui y sont débattus, Ajoutons qu'il no faut pas y choréhoF un trasté du bien commun: lo titro du livro indiquo suffisamont quo Son autour no vout oxposor do ladoctrine aristotélico-thonisto dau bion commun que les souls aspocts diroctonont mis on eauso par l'errour porsommliste on particulicr, ot 1a penséo nodorne on général Enfin, nous attirons 1'cttontion du lectour cur 1a préfaco de son Bmimnco lo Cardinal Villencuve. Ello ost vrainont ronarquablo par lo tabloau général vt on mémo tomps précis du'ollo brosso do 1'état actuel dos osprits cnoz noc soo- lastigues contomporains. Tomarqueblo aussi par lo ori dialarmo autorisé, ob hélas trop justifié, qu'elle lanco A nos coaseioncos ondornics, ot conpiicos Lontairos dos rusos dos “onfants do co sidclo... plus habilos ontro quo 1s onfants do la lunidro". Cotto préfaco constituo pour lo livre do i. Do Koninek uno introduction on no pout plus approprigo, ot uno justification non équivoquo do so valour dootrinaly ot do son opportimits. | 4 notre humblo avis, oo livro ost do mturo A déroutor cortaino ontégoric do loctours, formés par des scolastiquos modornisants ot qui pratiguont l'art do créor choz 10 loctour toultivé' 1'illusion do tout comprondro. Tl los hourtora aussi par son rofus do rocourir A dos circonlocutions qui dimiivuont le précision toolmiquo du vogabilaire scolastiquo Signalons onfin quo ‘co ‘Livro montro quo la division choz los thonistes ost aujourd'hui boaucoup plus ‘profondo ot plus univorsollo qu'on no vout ltadnot- ro on quolquos milioux. Aussi bion, nous oroyons qu'il no sora pas au gotit do cos $homistes A-la main tonduo, ot qui sont sans cosso ngités du aédir do con- Posor avec 1a ponséo-niodorno. Goux-oi ent poussé 1d largour dtosprit jusqu’a Stindignar do coux qui aboiont contro lo porvortissomont do véribés pourtazt fondonontalos, "Los gardions d'Isrcel" sont tous avouglos, ils no savout Hon; co sont bois oe Gntond musts, GUI wo pamOm pee GOGOFT tle om “rovort, Hs so coushont, tle ainont A dormir” (Teato, 60, 16-Il)- \ Bugdn0 Babin etme 12 pldarhion de Che notiw: O3.K. Metrics fur Th- Me Kovucch. Théologie Mariale I. la mort de Marie Encore que la définition de 1'Assomption ne contienne pas le mot "mort" toute la tradition que rapporte la Constitution Munificentissimus Deus, est témoin que la mort de Marie n'a jamais été mise en doute par les Péres, les Docteurs, ou dans la liturgie. Il est vrai que S. Epiphane ne se prononce pas. Mais 1'Rglise n'a pas coutume de faire sienne 1'incer- titude d'un Pére en particulier. Et l'on sait qu'el- | le juge inadmissible bien des opinions personnelles | des Péres. | Le R.P. Jugie, qui n'a pas lui-méme voulu se prononcer sur la question, a pourtant insisté que ja féte de 1a Dormition a précéaé celle de 1*Assomption, Les auteurs dela thése dite immortaliste soutien nent que, dans 1a Constitution Munificentissimus Deus, | seules les citations qu'apporte Pie XII font mention de la mort de Marie, et que celui-ci ne s'identifie pas & cet enseignement. Contre cela, nous signalons d'abord que Pie XII efit facilement pu ne citer que les documents qui parlent d'Assomption, mais qu'il a au | contraire inclus dans son texte tout ce qui se rappor— te A la mort de la Vierge.. Bt surtout nous marquons | qu'une telle interprétation n'est en rien conforme & l'exposé qu'on lit au début d'un document qui, hors la définition elle-méne, est issu du Magistére ordi- naire de l'Eglise ; or c'est & la lumiére de cet ex— | posé que la définition doit étre interprétée. Voici Ltexposé que fait Pie XII : | Bn effet sous la direction et la conduite de leurs pasteurs, les fiddles ont appris par la sainte Bcri~ ture que la Vierge Marie a mené, au cours de son péle- | rinage ici-bas, une vie de soucis, d'angoisses et de souffrances ; ils ont su, de plus, que s'est réalisée | la prédiction du saint vieillard Siméon : qu'un glaive acéré lui transperca le coeur au pied de la croix de son divin Pils, notre Rédempteur. Et de la méme fa~ gon (Parique modo), ils ont admis sans peine que 1' Smirable Here de Dieu, tout comme son Fils avant elle, était décédé ( Quemadmodum jam Unigenam suum, ex hac vita decessisse). Mais cela sentid a audunement empSchés (Hoc tamen minime prohibuit) de croire et de professer ouvertement que son corps si saint ne fut jamais (aumquem) doumis & la corruption du tombeau et que cet au gaste tabernacle du Verbe divin ne fut pas réduit en pourriture et en poussitres. on allague aussi le fait que l'offer- toire, de méme que l'oraison de la messe de 1'As~ somption, ne mentionnent plus la mort de Marie. Ti peut paraftre plus raisonnable d'y voir un sen— iment maintenant plus explicite de i'Bglise, sa- yoir : qu'on ne peut assimiler 1a mort de Marie XY aucune autre, si ce n'est quant & l'essentiel, la séparation de 1'fme du corps mortel, sans que cette séparation, gui toujours se produit dans un seul instant, ait été précédée d'une altération corruptive et suivie d'une corruption du corps. De peur que les fidéles n'associent ces états & ce qui constitue essentiellement la mort, 1'Eglise emploie de préférence,,danc la définition de 1'As— somption, l'expression expleto terrestris vitae gursu : "le cours de sa Sib ferrestre étant terminé " fachevé ou accompli, autant de manitres de tradui- ~ re" expleto "). 11 s'agit cependant bel et béen de sa vie terrestre, et ce passage ne pourrait se traduire, sauf en forcant la note, " sa présen— ce sur la terre " ou" sa vie sur terre étant par venue & son terme ". Il. La Médifation En, vertu de sa.plénitude de grace, Marie a contribué d'une manitre active & l'oeuvre de Rédemption universelle,par son consentement, par son acception volontaire de la passion du Fils. Suivant l'expression de Pie XII, Marie,"en suppor— tant ses immenses douleurs d'une fme pleine de for- ce et de confiance, plus que tous les chrétiens, vraie Reine des martyrs, compléta ce qui_manguait sux souffrances du Christ. pour son-Corps_aui_qat ‘Eglise". Cela parait suffire pour a: irmer qu’ site Sst cause universelle, encore qu'instrumen— tale, de toutes les graces qu'elle a com-mérité avec et sous la dépendance du Christ. Joseph Ne serait-il pas opportun de rappeler L'enseignement de Léon XIII au sujet du Pateon de 1’Bglise Universelle ? Il fut manifestement L'image visible en terre du Pbre Eternel. appartenance & 1'Eglise : oe Peut-on dire qu'il est possible d'appar— + tenir invisiblement & 1'Eglise visible ? : bes enfants baptisés en dehors de 1'Bgli- * ge Romaine, de quelle manidre appartiennent-ils & 1'Eglise visible ou de quelle manitre cessent-ils aty appartenir ? College of St. Thomas Saint Boul 1, lienesota Pe Beet as Css ce "dbatuttuee", ellie" olestend", ’ 4, cyym " Whertag".. : “toot cares’, of ran sas "oof 7 Ge cg Fey ke Ape. ” Fxbuer tingale Vie fat , Fadl iin tna 6 9 Mntgh : 7 bu ei 5 ase “Higa He tanenf” nella: Cuplecd, Mraper fe oy ANI, a ai che "Ke pugua’, nelle he, , ee tin ele bag ta ety pute te God", oe Projemes “eetut, oP Cuber 1a a aert pamite,", Vein ehemsece The Mandoto cepent Socrely of fva- ram Se rea | Duco “as ieats Hes é | Pen a Sicilia Toe Unda Wb anys Urine Cae ge | ubeduote one fro’ z eae Bruty ye dine Ho a Sree eee | lusts Kiidpton doy tan our chovee Etat Cutan, by rae, by Aerie netabisatates Fp frhaw '® night of conguasl BH What cas, te Cucenrtui of Mary. adc to hae Metter hook? pp -(3-20- > Pp 2-23 corathioun CDK. Doncue tell pp. 2d 29- auhe Cope ‘ see Lg Z ‘ la Bbc Ceyele le fh. ae Fpuuick - ‘THE NATURY OF MARY'S UNIVERSEL QUEENSHIP Athough by themselves alone the Scriptures appear to afford oar faith no clear testizony of Mary's actual Quoenship, nor of ite universal scope,. that dignity of the Hother of God 1s never- theless acknowledged plainly and vith unanimas consent, by the “Gintetian Tradl tions Indeed the Church, for a long tino now and with great devotion, through the sayings of the Fathers and the Popes, the toachings of the Couneila and the prayerful strains of the | Liturgy, has not ceased to proclaim her belief in this prerogative. Tt 49 indeed a fact we would not dare to disbelieve. It is no lose a conforting truth, one whose meaning is nore than worthy of our meditation. Let us, therefore, attempt to underotand the nature of this flonour, that we may unfold tha true significance of that glorious titles Queen of Heaven and Earth ~ Regina colt, gloriosa Pagina mundi Q Within the plan of Redemption, Mary's Queonship is ono, as it were, with the Kingship of Christ. Just as the glory of the Mother of Ged is a reflection of the glory of her Son, 60 also is hor Queenship a participation 4n the royal prerogatives of Christ. Our Lady 1a Queen of that sane Kingdon of which Christ 1e King. she Sho is 60 in the proper sonse of that name, and not by a mere figure of spesch. The theologian would say 1 sensu vero et proprio, etsi ansloyico, For, when taken metaphoricelly, the torm "queen" simply mans excellence. To say that Charity is the qusen of the virtues is to say that its perfoction surpasses that of all other virtues. According to this meaning of the word, there can be no doubt that Mary is the queen of all Creations indeed, her perfection excells by far that of all other’ creatures taken together. However, when Praising her Queenship, the Church implies mch more than that. Mary deserves this titiein its most proper sonse, more so, in fact, than any other person who ever bore ‘that nama. And while in one respect sho in queen in the sonoe that te both usual and strict, over and above there is the respect in which her queonship is at the same timo quite transcendent and unique. The nae King 1s a title’ Which has ever been used, even in Scripture, to uality e person who, being the suprene authority of the land, is invested vith a threefdlé power : legislative, judiciary and executive. And this is precisely tho authority we racognize in Christ. Yow it should be plain that as queen of a reigning king, Mary does not enjoy or share in this power in the manner in which it belongs to the hoad of the realm. The role ‘of queen is not a dividing one, but should on the contrery enhanes by a new and characteristic quality the governance of the conmnity. To this intont sho mst be more than 3 mere companion, nore than a cromed partner who would share in the other's pover, the difference being one only of degree. Whatever prerogatives she my have, surely they cannot be defined as. mere attemation of the povere of a King. That her's is nevertheless a power extending to all members of the kingdom in a fashion unique and irreplaceable, all this is plain from the history of royal governance. Similarly, the Fathers, the Popes, and the Councils, when speaking of Mary's Queenship, set no bounds to’hor far-reaching powr — it is a sovereign ono, extending as 1t does both to Heaven and Warth. But what 4t 4s, whence 4 19 derived, and how it is put + Yo practice, all, that remains to be’ shom. Yet, even so vague a conception of Mary's prerogative as quesn should suffice to distinguish it as a particular quality which, hovevor intimately related, 4s not quite conveyed by that more basic character vhich is hers as the Vother of Christ. Nor 1s a woman queen for being tha mother “of a king. Neither the mother of Saul nor the nother of David were queens. Besides, it is permissible to bolieve that Mary could have been made other of God without sharing fn the work of Redomption to tha axtont that sho actuslly did, and without beconing the spiritual Mother of non or being made their Queen ~ except in a loose and wide sense. The divine Motherhood of Mary 4s in fact the foundation of all the unparalleled privileges God has showered upon her, but, in our opinion, there is not the proximate cause of her Queenehip. Tt As however worth recalling that although hia royalty 4s not in itself an inherited ono, yet it 4s owing to Mary that Christ 1e of royal eee oe was she vito brought Hin forth of royal blood, the source of the human ties that bind dim to Hie ancestor David. But thle royal lineaye hos little to do with Christ's om kingship, whose origin is divine. Wor would 1t confer upon Mary the cuality of sharing as Queen in the governance of Christ's Kingdom. Gan the theological reason of Mary's queenship be found in the relations that bind her intimately to the three Persons of the Holy Trinity? Som theologians ‘have thought 90, That Mary is the beloved daughter of God the Father, the mother of the Son and the spouse of “tha Moly Ghost, ali ‘thie dndeed accounts for the transcendent holiness that 4s hers. Still, it is not-immdiately clear that such is the- Proper reason of her queenship. Wore widely acknowledged is the opinion that this proxi~ nate foundation is to be sought in Mary's universal mediation. Which would naan, in other words, that she is Queen because she is Mediatrix. Yot even this opinion dees not seem to get to the root of the matter. For, on the one hand, if her universal. mediation could obtein without its being that of a queen, but of a mother say, the queenship could be adequately related only to a particular kind of universal mediations whereas on the other hand, if we really want to reach the rootécause of her queenship, we would ‘still have to seek the proper principle of this latter Kind of mediation which, while having the nature of cruse with regard to us, mist sti21 have a cause of its om. Upon closer examination, then, it might well turn out that her mediation is of this kind beceuse.she 1s Queen, and that this quality again has a proportionate cause, In brief, to say that she is queen because she is Mediatrix, is to say very little until wo can spocity the exact nature of her mediation. So as to proceed upon a sound basis, with clarity and order, we have chosen as our guide the following words from an allecution of His Holiness Pins XII, intended for the pilgrims to Fatima in 19l6+ "He, the Son of God, reflects on lis heaverily Mother uthe glory, ‘the majesty and the dominion of His Kingships "for, having beon associated with the King of Kartyrs in "the ineffable work of min Redemption as “other and : nGooperatrix, she ‘remains for ever associated to Him, with o Nan almost unlimited power, in the dispensation of graces . nyhich flow from tha Redemption, Jesus is King throughout "gll eternity by nature and by right of conquest; through “Wim, sdth Hin and eubordinate to Him, Mary is queen by ugrage, ty divine relationship, by right of conquest and woy singular olection. And her Kingdon is as vast as that No? her Son and dod, since nothing 4s excluded from ber "doninion™. — We shall consider in the following oréer the substance of doctrine conveyed by this comprehensive end meaningful statement + (a) Mary is Queen by singolar election. (b) Mary is Queen by graca, by divine relationship, by:right of conquest. (0) What does the Queen— ship of Mary add to her Motherhood? (a) She now enjoys the full powers of Queen in the vast Kingdom of hor Sone I - From all Eternity, Mary was destined to be Queen of Christ's Kingdom by her om choice. The account of the Annunciation revecls Mary as freely consenting to be asséeiited with the work of Redemption in a unique faghion. Her share in this @ivine work is less dependent upon’ her “consont to be the notiter of the Son of God than upon her veluntary acceptance of Him as the Saviour, i.e. Jesus, this being thé name avove all nnmes, expressing precisely the reason why He came anonget us. By giving express consent to be the nother of such a son she accepted no less the ot that was to be hers os a consequence. Sho knew ‘that by this consent she was to share in the whole work of Redemption. For, the Angel had plainly stated that this Saviour would be Kingy and that He would reign forever’. Mary's free acceptance not only made possible the one and the other but in each instance she mst be reco,nized as a "por sel cause. God himself has willed it so, Tt 1s the Predsstinator who here reveals bis plan established by etersal decree + Mary's consont is designed as essential to the founding as vel as to the governance of Christ!s Kingdom. And it is She who in consequence freely elects this King of Sercy, thus making i possible for the Kingdon to be what it shall be. Fiat mihi secundum verbum tuum — it is in this consent to God's designs on the Son of man that Mary first appears in her intimate association with Christ the King. Consenting to become the mother of the Saviour-King, she thereby accepted to share in the work of ments salvation as dod has willed it, and not less so in the eternal reign of litm who vas to save the world and conquer hte Kingdom. In other words, it is not so much:in her consent to ‘become tho mother of the divine Son that Mery is revealed as uniquely and 20 intinately associated with the work of Redemption as such + far more to the, Point is oa acceptance of this her Son in his role of Saviour and of) "King. she has sharéd in His life of Saviour and of King to the extent where it ka no longer possible to conceive the Kingdom withéut seeing Mary by the side of her reigning Son — the Queen seated at the right hand of the King. Tt is in this scene of the Annunciation, in the simple yet gubline dialogue of the Angel and the Virgin, that the Church firat Perceives Mary's incomparable privileges, and, in Particular, the role of universal ophedeuptrix assigned to the mothor of the Saviour by the Blessed Trinity. The teachings of the Fathers bear witness to it, and ‘the Sacred Liturgy takes Pleasure in recalling it on many occasions, Tt 4S 4n the setting of Nazareth's husble abode that the New Testament: first conveys this intimation ‘of the mystery of Our lady's royal Prerogative. Seeing that the Annunciation is the revealed truth of a Special work of God, At is no wonder that one ean admire in 4ta most Perfect order. This order, being both intended end expressed, tous, by Jody is of capital importance. In it is to be found an abundant. Source of light which helps the mind to catch a glimpse of God's designs. The Angel's words and the Virgin's answer combine so as to manifest what the Sconany of Redemption will be. This Son, whom the Virgin will conceive, to whom she will give birth, shall be yreat, says ‘the Angel, and ron imow him for the Son of the Host ifivhs the Lord Sor the Son of the Most Hizhs the Lord (od will give him the throne of his father David, and Ha shall refgn over the house of Jacob eternally; his kingdom shall never have’ an end. Heneo the Virgin cannot doubt its her Son shall be the Saviour. Thou shalt call him Jesva,, the Angel said. But he shall also be King — as He himself will tell us + I ama King (Wohn, xviii. 37) ~- and reign -Miuthout ond.” . : The Angel's pronouncement 1s clearly expressed to the Blessed Vircin who Inows the Scriptures and possesses the light to understand. Sho shall be the mother of God, and this God, msde man, shall be Saviour and King. Sod eternel, in vhom all predestination is mada, proposes his desizns to-the’Virgin, and invites her to give consent. The Virgin's answer 1s simple but not less comprehensive. She accepts it‘all : Hece ancille Domini, fiat mind secundum verbum mm — Behold the handnaid of the’ Lord; let it be unto me according to thy word, She accepts and wills the person and the life of this Jesus, she wants with God overything that her Son shall be and every~ thing He shall do. In so coing she becomes e unicue associate of this Saviour in the econoxy of Pademption, accepting as she does that eading part which only sli could £111 — the share and Sanction, as it vere, of a first principle, in the establishment of her Son's Kingdom. By complying unreservedly with God's designs, she intends to acquiesce in everything God has proposed to her. Tis she becomes an agsociate of her Son in order to perform with Him the whole of. iis work end establish that roign which shall never end. All of which anounts to snying that she shall ba one with him inasmch as he 4s Hing. This alone mans that she 48 Queen of the Kingdon over vhich He rulose Tho Christian Tradition hes never interpreted differently the touching scone Of tho Amunetation and the dialogue tetweon Angol and Virgin. Tt has always seen in it the revelation of God's full designs on Ghrist and on iiis Mother. Jot us conclude this first part 1 The Annunciation intimates tolary that by divine elestion dnd in virtue of her om choice sheds to be Queen" of the eternal Kingdom. And now we shall see that sho ig also "queen by right of conquest. . . I ~ Mary is Queen by grace, by divine relationship, by right of conquest. Wo hold 4¢ as @ divinely revealed truth + in the fulness Of her grace, Mary was Conceived imnatulate. EE sundance of grace Mich ms accorted her in view of the mrite of christ mot not be understood as a quality which Perfects the Nother of God morely in Fer om porson, “Oh God — saya the Collect of tho Feast — who by ‘he Tmaculate Conception of the Virgin has propared a worthy dmelling for thy Son..." In other vords, Ante privtioge is not without special ‘Tmoard ‘0 her Son and indeed wil1 enfianee everything that n any ray Proceeds from her. As a consequence of this purity and radical inno- vatton hor share in the work of her Son and in Ale victory will be the greater. Tt rendars Mary 60 mich more ademnate to her task, acting new depth and greater glory to the whole order of Rodexptions Tere can be no doubt that in her plenituds of grace the Hegin ms mado adeqiate to that intimate association with the son in she tasks and achievements which the Angel revealed and to vhich she gave mumble assent, In that very hunility she magnifies the Lord, and in her spirit rejoices in God her Saviour because He who is mighty had done great things for her (Luke, i. 16), Christ 1s King by nature. Not, homver, according to his Gtvinity when considered in itself — except in a mtaphorical sense, by reason of his excellence —, for a King mst be of one nature with his mbjects. Nor 4e he King "ty nature" in virtue of his humanity alone : he is King by nature because his imanity is united to the divine Person. : Mary is Queen (2) "by grace" : by her Iumaculate Conception she was made to be the "worthy, dwelling-place" of this her Son even as He is Saviour and King. nd how could thie obtain unless she is as inti- sgely aosociated with the King as one cozld be? But no one is closer to the King's hoart than the quoon. ter grace, therefore, mst be propor tHonate to this dignity. (b) stio 1s queen by "divine relationship! According to saint Albert the Great, the title "Queen of Mercy is the one vitich expresses nost properly the dignity of the Blessed Virgin. But the diynity which ts hers by reason of thavuniqua relationship with the Messed Trinity — ao daughter 6f the Father, mother of the Son, and spouse of the Holy Ghost —~ would be diminished in its effect 4f she did not deserve a corresponding and therefore suprene authority in the Kingdom of her Son. Furthermore, her relaticnship with the divine Son is'not sorely that of a nothor, but‘of a nother who, full of grace, had been conceived imaculate. Therefore, the Compassion with hor Son was that of a nother, namely of sorrow, not of pty — for, as saint Thomas, says, "in tho case of those who are so closely united to us as to be part of ourselves, such as our children or our parents, we do not pity their distress, but suffer as for our om sores" ) __, st was, besides, the Compassion of the Inneculate Lother with her Son, Saviour and King. Tate is now worthy, for the pure of heart are more assimilated to, and have a totter understanding of the innocent victim than they who themselves dear guilt. Hence, withort the privilege of Imaculate Conception, the ee (x) - Ta Tao, qs 30, ae 1, ad 2. w Yother of God could not have boon so intimately associated vith Him in his Passion. (¢) Like her Son who is King, Mary is Queeny by right of conquest". The Holy Father states the reason why t she was "associated vith the King of Martyrs in the ineffable work of human Redemption as Mother and Cooperatrix", She ccoperated vith hor Son in = manner 7 proportioned to iite “quality as Saviour and King. Surely this cooper~ ation me more perfect than that of any queen with her King. Now, it is precisoly in His Passion that Chriat conquers his realm by driving cut tho devil —- the prince of darkness, by whose envy death came into 9 world (‘isdon, ii+ 2h). And Mary io tho Honan who, in compassion with the fruit of her womb, crushed tho head (Gen., ifi. 15) of this game king over all the children of pride (Job, xli. 25). To deserve ‘Tle right and title of Queen, what greater might should this womn have disployed than that by which she vanquished the SF whom it had been said that there is no power upon earth that con be compared with him who was made to fear no one he beholdeth everythings he is King over all the children’ of pride (Job, xli. 2h). IIT = What doos tke Queenship of Mary add to her Motherhood? ALL along ve hare assumed the distinction between motherhood and queenship. We met now22 more explicit. The eoncept of Vother naturally evokes that of gmgration, and that of familys whereas the concept of Queen suggests te our mind the idea of a political society. It is, indeed, em proper she parent to give the child being and Luge = to endow 4t with 66 — Just as it 4s fil propertnt! donostic society to lead the child through its development to maturity. On the contrary, civil society being, precisely, a perfect society — has the mission of endowing tte citizen, already mature, with esse perfectumt that is to say, with the perfection of his activity, with freedom (causa sul), as incorporated in the perfection of political life. ) the ct society, inasmuch as, family, on the other hand, is but an impe unaided by association in a wider commnity, it cannot attain even its om donestic end, namly the’ mental and bodily development of the onita, (2) (1) = "ss. Because man ie by nature a social animal, being in need of many things for his lige which alone he cannot provide for himself, it follovs that by natare he is part of some group by whom help may be given him for living well. This help, indeed, he needs for two things. In one respect, of course, for those things that are necessary to living, without wnich the present life cannot be lived : in this regard men receives help from ‘the domestic group, of which he isa part. For, from his parents every man has begetting and nourishment and upbringing. And, likewise, the individuals who are parts of the domestic family help one nother in procuring the necessities of life. In another respect, nan, again as a part of-a mltitude, is also helped in regard to living a perfectly sufficient lifes that “is, so that a men may not only live, but also live well, possessing all things thet suffice him for living. and in this way the civic group, of which he is a part, helps a man, not only as regards Bodily things, that is, inasimch as in a State there are many crafts for which one household cannot suffice; but also as regards moral matters, that is, in so far as arrogant youths whom paternal adnonishnent is not able to correct, are checked by fear of punishnent fron public authority". (St. Thomas, In Z Ethicor., lect. 1, (Pirotta) ne li). (2) - Hius XI, Bivint TLlius Magi stri. Now the child, of course, belongs to both family and political commnity. However, inasmuch as he has not as yet come to maturity, he is only indirectly a member of the latter, that is, through the parent who is a citizen in hie om right; and the axthority to which he remains imnediately subject, is that of the parent. a If, then, we say of the Blessed Virgin that she is Mother of God, ie. moan that she conceived and gave birth to lin according to His human nature. Likewise, by her title "Mother of grace and of mercy" we mean to express, not only that che is Mother of the One who is grace and mercy, but also that it is to her spiritual motherhood that each of us owes the divine life we receive through the Sacraments. More precisely, it is in Baptism that we receive our esse, so to speak, in the supernatural order; and the Eucharist is spiritual nourishment. Now it is she who, as a mother, has caused us to be born to the life of grace and who, thenceforward, watches over us with delicate care so that the grace of adoption ;which has made us children of God should seunats gard LE Eine in oar souls On the other hand; when invoking the Queen of mercy we turn to Mary as her to vhom has been entrusted the care of watching, in her om fashion of woman, over tho unfolding of divine life in that most perfect of all societies which is the Kingdon of Christ. Furthermore, when raising our eyes to this Queen endowed "with an almost unlimited power", why should we not think more particularly of her care for the confirmed : that is, those who receive and enjoy the sacrament of spiritual maturity — of the fulness of grace? For it is they who, in a rigorous sense of the term, bear the character of citizens in the City of God. They are the soldiers of Christ, who possess the strength to confess publicly and to defend the divine truth against the enemy. (3) As such, they, more strictly than the rest of the baptized, are obliged to serve the Queen in the very measure of their devotion to the cause of the King. Conoives et domesiici, citizens, yet brothers, in the realm of Christ the King, the confirmed have the full duty of doing everything in the power given tliein, to maintain and extend the universal rule of (3) = For this particular comparison of Baptism and Confirmation, see, especially, IIa Pars, qe 72% a. 1, c. et ad 3; a 2, c. et ad 2 asl, ad 3} Be 5, Gey ad Let 23a, 11, c. ot ad 2. ="... Sacranentum baptismi est efficacius quam hoc sacranentum (confirmationis), quantum ad remotionem mali, eo quod est spiri- tualis generatio, quae est mutatie de non esse in esse. Hoc autem sacranentun est efficacius ad proficiendum in bono, quia est quoddam spirituale augnentum de esse _imperfocto ad esse perfectun". a. ll, ad 2. "Hono autem, cum ad perfectan aetatem pervenerit, incipit jam con~ mintoare entiones. rang ai alios} antea vero quasi singulariter wit". a. 2, ¢ TESTERS catur ad optritualen vitam oimplictter consequen dam... Sed hoc sacramentum (confirmationis) datur ad plenitudinem consequendam Spiritus Sancti, cujus est mltiformis operatic". ibid., ad 2. "Nam in baptismo accipit hono potestatem ad ea agenda quae ad roprian pertinent salutem, prout scilicet secundum seipsum vivits EEG in contirnatione acpipit hono potestatem ad agendin ea quae pertinent ad pugnan spiritualem contra hostes fidei..." as 5, ce ",.. Confirmatus accipit potestatem publice fidem Christi vorbis profitendi, quasi ex officio". ibid., a “Hoc autem confirmationis sacramentum est quasi ultima consunma~ tio sacranonti baptismi, ita scilicet quod per baptism aedifi- catur homo in domun spiritualem, et conscribitur quaedam spiritu- alis epistolas sed per sacranentum confirmationis, quasi dome aedificata in tenplum Spiritus Sancti, et quasi epistola consorip~ ta signatur signo crucis". a. 11, c. ",.. In hoc sacramento homo... insignitur signo crucis, stcut miles signo duciss.." a. 9, ce — Baptism is indeed the most "necessary" of the sacraments, but we should never forget that Confirnation is more perfect: "Unde etiam pueri confirnati decedentes majorem gloriam consequuntur, sicut et hic majorem obtinent gratiam™. a. 8, at "Wt 4deo 4114 qui habent curam pueroran debent miltum esse solli- citi quod confirnentur, quia in confirmatione confertur magna gratia. Et si decebat, majorem habet gloriam confirmatus, quam non confirnatus, quia bic habuit plus de gratia”. Saint Thomas, Expositio super Synbolo apostolorun. christ — not of course, by may of directing e mltitude or by performing official public acts, for this is a porer conferred only by the éacranent of order. and they will act in a manner befitting the confirmed according as they are able to place thonseives devotedly in the service of the Tma- culate Queen whose mission it is to perfect, by merciful intercession, ‘the governance of the Kingdom thanke to her unique association with the King who is also her Sons Hence, in this perspective, the universality of Mary's Hother- hood and that of her Queenship are not quite the same. When we say that hiery 1s Hother of divine grace, in the sense in which it is taken fn this chapter, ve donot mean to confine this maternity to the grace conferred in Baptism. Nor is it to be understood that, although the confirmed are her subjects in a very special manner, sho is not Queen of all the baptized. Lt is characteristic of a good queen -- such a Gaint Elizabeth of Hungary —- that she visits te families in need and pestons maternal tenderness upon the Little ones. For it is an essential task of political society to help the family attain its own perfection of familys Yet there remains a dense in vnich Mary's Queenship extends farther than her spiritual Motherhood, which is confined to man, She is called Queen of the Angels, nob Mother. the extent of her Queenship is in proportion with the Kingship of her Son. For although Christ aia not merit the grace of the Angels, which was given them from the beginning, yet iis authority extends to them all, for He is the head of every Prinei- pelity and Power. (Coloss., ii. 10) Tts masure is the working of (God's) 18 Bighty power, which he has wrought in Christ in raising him from the dead, | and setting him at his right hand in heaveri above every Principality and Power and Virtue and Domination -- in short, above every name that is Ramet, not only in thie world, but algo in that which 4s to come. ‘tnd all things he made subject under his feotee. (Ephes., i. 20). Through Christ | te King, with Him end subordinate to jim, Mary's*Kingdom is ae vast as that of her Son and God, since nothing is excluded from her dominion", Saint Thomas points out specifically that Christ is not only ‘the head of tho faithful, but also of the Blessed ho see dod, "inasmuch a8 He hag grace and glory most funy". (l)) But even Mary's present vision of God 4s and ever will be both in eitinsion and intension far superior | te that of all the Blessed -~ whether Angel or man == taken together. mst point out, however; that just as Christ himself is, | An virtie of « connon human nature, sore properly King of man than of Angel, Wary, too, is nore strictly Queen of our race, But in no respect Goce this diminish either her! general superiority or her particular authority over the heavenly Hierarchies and Orders. And now, let us compare the titles Mother of mercy" and "Queen | of mercy". We cannot stop heve at their nore profound maning — namely frat she is Mother and Queen cf the One who is mercy itself — but mst be mediately concerned with the Nother and Queen sho is tonards ‘us by perelAll intercession in car behalf. Ae wp have already mentioned, the | Parent's compassion with the child is not called pity, for pity applies | only ¥0 one who is not so close to us as to be part of ourselves. In this respect, we mst understand, 4 seems, that Mary intercedes for us | (i) ~ Hie Pars, 9. 8, ae hy ad 2 with Christ inasmch as He 1s her Son. And thie she undoubtedly doss. But there is also the respect in which she is our spiritual mother who begs christ to be merciful towards us, her children, in the manner in which the wonan implored the nercy of Salomon, king and judge, to spare her child. Yet, there 4s no doubt that the title "Mother of mercy" enbraces at once both these neanings. In either Anstance, however, the torn "nother"! refers strtetly to the ordér of generation. But that does the title "Queen of mercy" add to the former? Ie nothing new, then all has been expressed by the title "Mother of” mercy". Yot, a queen as queen does not intercede with the King as would a mother — even though, as in the present case, the queen is also the mother of the king and can, as she does, intercede no less as such —~ but requests for her subjects a favour which only the king can bestow qua King. And so we ask + What are the powers of, a king? ‘The porers of Christ the King have been clearly defined by Pius XI in the Bnoyelica) guas Prinas.(5) But our problem is + How does the queen share in the legislative, judiciary and executive powers which are those of the one and undivided head of the realm? In virtue of her own conguest she has the right to implore the mercy of Christ with regard to the laws He establishes or nodifies for His peoples she may beg Him to mitigate in our behalf the equitable judgment He is about to passs she cen stay the arm of her Son, to whon belongs the power to execute the sentence. All this she does as Queen — whose intercession could only gain in efficacy, when she is ab the sane time His nother. ee (5) = Denzinger, Enchiridion symbolorum, nn. 219h-2196 18 the Blessed Virgin was prefigured by Balssa, ho by another tow, Esther, a Jowess, was queen of ‘the Persian name was called Esthe: ing Assierus, and implored his merey 4p favour of the chosen people to non she herself belonged. This ts significant, for, whereas the Person of Christ is divine, that of jiary is one with oar own, Now, $0 petition gor por people, and for her country, Esther stood, in her glorious appar Gi; tefore the King, Wieie he sat upon his royal throne, clothed with his royal robes, and glittering with gold and precious stones. And when he had Lifted up bis countenance, and with turning eyes had shen the wiath of his heart, +++ God changed the King's spirit into mildness; and all in maste and in fear, he Loaped fron hie thrones: Peer not, he ‘said, for "this lan is not made for thee, but for all others" (ore 1s the dng sont’ a letter to all the proviness of his Kingdom, and in it, we note this pertinent passage + Nelther mst Yt think, if we comand different 9-13)+ And as a result, ‘eninge, that it comath of the levity of our minds but that we give sentence according to the quality end necessity of times, as the profit of the common wealth requireth (Book of Esther, 2rte 9)+ Ye do not see why Mary should be endowed, as Queens with any pover over the King's prerogatives other than that of merciful intercession+ yerey, "the mightiest of the mightiest", is Likened to ofl not only because ky cottles atop other Liguds — Miserationes eJus Super omnia opera ejus (ps. exliv) — but also because of fs penetrating virtue. Such might, watch Uary acquired by right of conquest in her co-redeeming Compassion, extents, in its om subtle and delicate fashion, to every royal power of her Sone and such being the nature of her share in governance, the Virgin's antverssl might as Queen in no way divides the unity of the throne of Davide 20 Even here apply the words of Ezechiel : and my servant David shall be king over them + and they shall have one shepherd (mxcvii. 2h). It is all this we man in the invocation : Salve, Regina, Mater nisericordiae. 8 4V ~ "Queen assumed into Heaveni" This is the invocation which, after the solemn definition of ‘the Assumption, the Holy Father himself added to the Litany of the Blessed Virgin + Regina in Cooluim'sstumptal Thanks to the Living Voice of the Ghurgh, we now Inow quite explicitely, as a divinely revealed truth, that Mary, having reached the érid of her earthly life, was assumed body and soul into heavenly glory ~~ "Bxpleto terrestris vitae cursu, fuisse corpore st anina ad coclestem gloriam assumptan", Why should the Virgin's Assumption be particularly relevant to her actual Queenship? Because unless sho is there "body and soul", sho could not now be Queen. Fer "Queen," Like "Virgin", or "Mother", is an attribute, not of the body or of the soul taken separately, but of the complete human person, nanely the composite of body and soul. Our chief authority here will be the Apostolic Constitution Mutiificentissims Dous. We have in mind, more particularly, a passage quoted by the Holy Father from saint Bonaventure, and anotner from saint John Danascene. The first reads as follows + "Since her Dlessedness would not be complete unless she ‘were there (i.e. with her beloved) as a person (nisi persona~ , end the person is not the soul, but the "conjunct, it is plain she is there according to the conjunct, "i.e. in body and soul + otherwise, her fraition would not be "complete". It is therefore thanks to the Assumption that the Mother herself intercedes for us in her om person and that to Christ she can say even now "wy Son", The si will hold for her Queenship, for if she were there only in soul, she could not intercede for us in her very person as Queen. The soul does not constitute the species, and a queen, like the king, mst be one in species with her subjects. And if the soul of Mary were called queen, this name would be used only ina metaphorical sense. * In other words, if Christ wanted Mary to be associated with Him, and exercise, as Nother and as Queen, the poner which che merited during her life on earth, it was necessary that her very person be with Him in His préseRt glory, ives body and soul. As a consequence of the Assumption, the substance of the nanes "Wary" "Virgin", "Mother", and "Queen" is now physically present, whereas in the case of the other Blessed in Heaven, being there only in soul, the substance of the nane "Peter", say, is actually now a being of reason that refers to the person who was. True enough, we pray St. Anne and St. Peter. Yet in thess.cases "it is because the saints while living mrited to pray for us, that we invoke them under the names by which they are better knom in this life, and by which they are better imo to us + and also in ordet to indicate our belief in the ressurrection, according to the saying of Exodus 1ii. 6, Iam the God of Abraham, ete. (6) So that in the special case of:the Blessed Virgin we invoke the Mother and Queen as she now exists -- in her present person. A.v., it is the very person of Mary who, "having beén associated with the King of Martyrs in the ineffable work of human Redemption as Mother and Cooperatrix, ... remains forever associated with Him, with an almost unlimited power, in the dispen- sation of graces which flow fron the Redemption". Tt is owing to the Assumption that the Queen is there "personaliter'. The second passage, quoted this tine from saint John Danascene, conveys essentially the same idea. "It was fitting that she, who had kept her virginity intact n childbirth, should keep her om body free from all corruption “oven after death. It was fitting that she, who had carried the (6) = Tia Tag, a. 83, a 11, ad 5. "Greator as a child at her breast, should dwell in the divine Ntabernacles. It was fitting that the spouse, whom the Father nhad taken to Himself, should live in the divine mansions. It twas fitting that she, who had seen her Son upon the cross and who had thereby received into her heart the sword of sorrow tyhich she had escaped in the act of giving birth to Him, "ghould look upon Him as He sits at the right hand of the Father. "Tt was fitting ‘that God's Mother should possess what belongs ‘to her Son, and that she should be honoured by every creature ‘as the Nother and as the Handmaid of God". In other words, it is thanks to the Assumption that the Mother of the Creator dwells in the divine tabernacles; that the spouse lives in the divine mansions} that she who stood at the foot of the Gross now Looks upon her Son as He sits at the right hand of the Fathers nor could she #M@enwiae now be honoured by every creature in her person as the Mother and Handmaid of God. If only her sox were in Heavén, thése titles could refer only to her person of the past or of the future. Again, it is because of the Assumption that we can say 1 "He, the Son of God, reflects on His heavenly Mother the glory, the majesty and ‘the dominion of His Kingship," and that the Queen of Heaven and Earth now enjoys in person the fulness of her might over the Kingdoms @. The Modem an Ure tf Syrmbate ot Fete pp daes- arkiele fer hetale Mame Refer Ae Manges Mad an fr me oue. (7 "Tame, Baporcboter » tile Duferaie Nearer, #72 The Spmubolin pogicer ancl of Metheunatice, ad The Syoabete of Algibn, p82 BA SD O te Tetcee aut Yas. of Symbele on Seceute enact oe 2 opin ERE pore Fattan Qithouy Buouk Get assed Yrerebebiy paella i O &E aud ™nenabiliy - + +€henea de erufes. — 5 ff mauuscritea @ ” ” Fhe dackye “Lea frites tes iebitehibe’ "WE ouset arable : et OB Note on Hes . ont Aucltouk des borage A thadiaul, tak i “CLK. In the beginning of hie commentary on the Posterior Anglyties St, Thonas says!"poctae est inducere ad ali Cette sxSnfgsantatt ones! oA a PCr io tn et to at A aE A nin we gre to take St, Thongs formally, Meeting that rs " | _® sqroh——td servet a moral purpose, that” there is q necessary connection between the work of the poet and disposing tyongrd virtue. It is not usual to take | him 20 > at his word. Many have insisted that,sines art as such is distingr fron pradence , it is only as a man and not as 9 post. that a given writer 4s bound On to consider the moral ost in relation to his work, feto-thd purpose of~thts x frente tease Ine’ eT ce of St, Thomas's own view ana the insufficiency of the Sat exptenations . the Arphi Decl First, it mst be clear that | did not regard postry as a ‘didactic | instrunent”in the ordinary sense, He is perfectly clear that the poet doas *t seances/by ae in those ae which because mtr oath te ‘of the doctrines to | eel ni use. argusant 4a,shotories posts, fetoasing anf tation Cec © | readurecl 4 oe? erred Ze Whanem terelene <4 “ not proceed by argunont, Z, gen ok ae ‘thatr lack of truth tans tie, Raat (2) me is not the nethod of argument, but rather a uebhod that involves the appetite theough imaginative representations, through poetic Initation,in other words, = a | Cre is necessary to polnt this out lest any one should think St, Thomas did not mow what is proper to poetry, nenoly that it should seduce. ay Wh steel 7 Secondly, pootty feumaaitaey initato: himan actions fe-suey it tl 4 ordained wanifestpud this action in its enchainnent, as well as the consequent expression of passion and the relation of both action and passion to the comparatively i, (2) fixed element of human character, Now, the inportant point about human action is that it is either good or bed. This is alo true of human character, and tnredan 00 of the concrete expression of passion in men, Henoo, poetry is n concerpned with these elenonts,it is necessgrily concerned with morality, that is to say the distinction between good and evil in human actihy 4s a consequence , one can say that an art which represents a good action as bad or vice-versa is bad ext. tobe tothe ordinis trehitur a 12) The es tak very purpose of pootry 1s to nantfest human action throfgh, imitation. Thus, it | is not precisely because he is a man subject to the rules of morulity that an Ufatrinds wow tarhin les a pone artist Keeo wrong then” he och Mae basco een saadsantnantly Te | primarily true to say that he has offenddd against the very nature of his art. It 4s possible that his error ceftbe a*purely speculative one, and this is the case when the artist is deceived about the moral value involved. Indeed, | it is only on this speculative error that g critic has a right to pronounce. | an orithen » except of the purely technical elements wotld be impossible if A efok's it were necessary to judge the Incormmicable act of prudence, o&the-arttst. Obviously, even a work of art that is substantially bad because of Om fpren lainey vou schon, a represngs object badly , can have much incigdental beauty in the way | o of elegant metaphors and gll the rest that relates to the perfection of the means. | nr chinacley, ft fnn 09 What has been seid of poetry ‘applies to tks other cnet eoncerned with human action, W passion, Poetry itself ts a term that can include al imaginatave writing concer{ned with hui,n ection, To this we can add the drema, music and the to sone degtes dance, end even/all the fine abbs except architecture, ie must now return to the question of how the fine arts lead to virtue. It is beeguse they rerresént the real order or disbrder in the enchainment of involve human action in an imaginative way that they are able to ames the lower appetite and make it follow the way of reason rather than the randon law of instinct, This AselpLine of the lower appetite reffces the struggle between reason and shaun sense, and enlists at least temporarily the lower appetite in the service of the nigher. (3) sunmerize whut has been sald ve can assert that the, intrinste end of the the ovbr or disorer in fine arts under consideration is the manifestation of/hunan actions through pleasin/imitations and that their extrinsic end is to induce the-lover apretite to follow the order discovered by reason. b ‘The extrinsic end spoken of here 4s,of course, not remote but rather proxiinates Lk Since thn it cannot ba said that the fine arts thet imitate human action gre contrne & endant of morality, the artist must Bee hingestte-be-gaiied ‘by the Ande; fate in order to discern the character of the actions to be imitated, Those who have spoken of this matter 9a 1f nothing more were involved than the relations of art and prudence condlude’gs we have seen that the work of grt es such has only » per accidens relation to morality, that namiky which arleee because the artist es «nm ts subject to the law of prudence, Theybase | themselves on certain texts in the Prima Secundse whore St, Thomas 4s concerned with the relationship between art in all ite generality end prudence, and so Wf contrasts prudence whch 4s eonogrned with the good of man and grt which 4s concerned ith the good of the work, gakie cdontm thet the work of art ge such ds distinct | fron yruiammm the work of prudence because the end of each is different.(7) | That 1s sutd of grt in all its gonorality, ngnely that , Sts end being sipe Alstninet Sin prudence, it need not take morality into account except accidentally, cannot be setd of artsEat ty their fery nature aro concerned with fat tattagee 4 hunanactions, Here. the object is not independent of morslity, and so neither are | the arts in question, | Notes 1, InT lib, Post, Anal, Arist, lectio 1, mB | In I 1b, Sebt, Prol, Q. I, art 5, ad 3 wel’, 3. In I lib, Post, Anel. Ledte 1, n. #6 (yet 4s Ta Ilae, a. 18, art 9 corphs 6. An an‘ogous case ( we the one on which this distinction is based) is that of nS theology. St, Thongs 84y8/4 Bt Ys the noblest tm of the practicel sciences because it leads us to the highest cael namely the vision of God, In snswer to the objection that theology as such does not lead to heaven, Cajetan distinguishes between the inktinsie end of theology, whivh is knowledge and theextrinsie ( though proximate) end , which ie salvation.- 4 knowledge of the truths of faith is in tesere oral to gutaliy ua practieally tn the service of God, : "rrey (edeeon)y 7. Ta Tae, qs 57, atte Ly of, also'art 3 Note on History Tn the Booties Aristotde says that postry 18 more philosophic and more stevated than history because itis more universal (1). St. Thonas speaks of hise tory as qussdan narrati!] rurther, 1t 1s often eaid that postry is Anfina doctrina(3). Obviously then if history 4s Jess phtlocspite then poetry end Poetry 1s infima Goctrina, thm history is not doctrina at all, This opinion has scandalized most modern writers on the nature of history, 454 recult many scholastics feel thenselves obliged to diminith the force. of Shao the statenents of Artototle and St, Thomas, and, 1f possible, to explain ‘them away, co Tt 4s connon to point ot works like those of Thucydides where the arrangement and selection of facts tend to mantfost certain untversel tenddneles in the grow end decline of natfons and about the nature of government. Tt 49 seid that the views of drfetotle and St, Thonas apply to the works of chroniclers, men who make noff attempt at scientific selection, but merely recount all that they hve learned about a given set of happenings, on the other hend 4t mould be false to apply such Judgements to serious end nature works which stone can be called bistories precisely because the whee selection§ of us to underétend political life, 74 bas teen further potnted out that history can playa dechsive rote even jm Hhtlescply, The study of the works of his predecossors can be regarded as of inportence for Aristotle, Even today, it 1s asserted, Sts. Thomas can test he understeod against the background f his sourdes, This would show that philos 'y and that those who relegate history to en infve-sedentific role of mere narration do ncMapprectate ttetory oT in its true impotence, In order to see the error of these critics of Aristotle and St. Thomas it ee eS (2) is necessery to allude to the notion of intelectual light. The general principle, quoted Byon St, Paul and used by St. Thomas, is ome quod Aimee nani festetivum lumen est. (4) The application of this principle is most clear in demonstration where the definition is seen as causing the proper passion of the subject. The definition is a light whereby the ibherence of the passion in the subject is made knonn to ua. i : In a lesser degree dielectical reasoning illustrates the sane thing. Here the manifestation 1e at least partially through beings of reason, that is principles formed not fron the nature of the subject but fap the mind itself, such principles can be used t: show the probable inberence of sone predicate in a subject. Even in poetry there is still sone manifestation. Events in the life of the rex fictus, Oedipus or another, ere ordered according to possiblity of probability. A kind of necessity ih the midst of the contingent order is thereby nenifested. ‘Paesmimi, The mind forms the events dn such a way that the reason is seduced into accepting the probability of the necessity of the order, There is here a selection ané 2 formation of the personages that constitutes thes in a certain universality, the jroper stamp of the mind, Tus pootry involves a Kind of light, # principle of manifesting one thing through sonething elee, It is a very inferior light, end it cannot be better because of the defect of truth in its onjeot at is the order of contingent events, of human actions. Tt only eueceeds in being a doctrine by neglecting much that belongs to the object and constructing-for itself scenthing “ith a certein universality, The historian does not heve this refuge of the post. He cannot construct the events of bis record or reamrango then so that a Kind of necessity will appygr. Very often the events that he must record have very little connection between one (3) other beyond the fact thet they happened at the sane time, Many of the most importent events he records have no intrinsic necessity. They cone about through the action of sone great man, who might tery well have acted other= wise, Others are eqused r—~s—s—S—S—C—=CSN floods and plagues. With these elements it is impossible to construct a chgin of necessity, Tictetertnicnsccomthat the Mstortin must be content with nerretion and tie he cannot properly, es historien, manifest anything. Like postry, history deals with objects that are deficient in trutti, contingent. Unlike pootry, history cannot even inperfectly escaptjsh-irrationalness in things dy constructing them so that they possess dn intélligitdlity supplied by the minds How then eqn we explain a book like thet ‘of Thucydides which so arranges events thet, in away, the sourse of all merchant empires is made clear; where the unfortunate effedts of all revolutions are shonn ? The ansver 4s, as so many authobs who reject Aristotle and St. Thomas say, that Thucydides hes made a wise selecticn of facts, However, fur from proving that history is more then narration, Lt proves thrt @ great historian of the stemp of fiucydides must kmow poli.tleal sclence ani be guided ty it, The Imowledge of the difgerent types of state and hat Ls proper to each engbles hin to select, fron the multitude of things that happen thebe ovents that manifest the rise and fell of merchant states and the effects of revolition, The Imowledge of the different types of state and the definition of revolution is something that only political science can give. Once these noticns gre supplied they ean be used to illuninate history, Thus, it is not history but cnother disctyline that guides the selection of facts, The case is somewhat complicated because political science itself can only be learned by a careful consideration of history and of actual political institations, | Aristotle composed one hundred and fifty treatises on the constitution of various states as part of the inductive study that founded his treatise on polities. The Constitution of Athens , which has surivived, 1s only one of these. However, such () Aw wigombomniciagakin to chronicles, temmee the terminology of our fos exer Porponents. They are listings of facts, not selections based upon a sophisticated knowledge of the nature of political institutions, Thus there is'a sort of eréséifertilizgtion of these disciplines, History, in the trus senss of narratio 1s necessary to xmpiam the acquisition of the sclence of politics, which relies so Hevtly on induction, Once acquired, the science of polities eqn gulds q uriter in the selection of facts that will 11lustrate certain generel politicel notions, The important thing to note here 4s that the universel light, the principal of selection, belongs not to history but to political science. = does not possess the hebitus of philosophy wishes to edit the text of some philo- Sonething very similar is true of the history of Philosophy, -If someone who sopheryxomartheximckoopen he may do so, provided no judgnent of the work £s involved, Even such e problem as the cholce between two readings may involve dif= fleulties thet the historian as such cannot resolve, He may be adgquate if the question is one of orthogrephy or punctudtion, provided the solution is not in ters of the fundenental meaning of the. text. The historian mommbalarx as such cannot decide upon the truth or even the relative probability of conflicting opinions, For this reason he cannot order philosophical writers according to their importance. Furthermore, he cannot decide upon the meaning af a disputed passage in the work of even a minor philosopher, much Jess St, Thonas of Aristotle, Aristotle was able to order and judge the work of Acceute hoe his predecsssors and his contemporaries in relation to his om thought ofliic ielaiGh chcoitmmeerraions sclentifie hebktue neceasery for accenplishing this, | Thus he end St, Thomas smmbsitensoafctiadoocstsnos as well as those of lesser stature who know the truth ean judge the opinions of others, but no historian can judge then. It 4s simply tmpudenos for someone having no equiyment beyond grammar to presune to say that sumy St. Thomas, for example, has misunderstood Aristotle or (5) ‘St. Augustine. Such a judgnent involves a penetration into the thought of these writers, and it is not given in terms of grammar alone, but of r-ofound | philosophical and theological science. In the process of learning philosophy a student may be obliged to proceed dia- | lectieally by assigning a more orm Jess probable meaning to the texts he is studying. — Indeed, in the beginning he “has no other alternative even if he follows the best and most authorized comentabors, He must work toward gn understanding of their thought on the basis of an imperfect and even nominal grasp oeROErypueey: | If this stage of the intellectual life is necessary, ,5 1t 1s, so 1s extreme nodesty in expressing any judyuent on the meaning of the texts studied during this period of lestning, This ts the tine of ,pprentlesship, not of judgent. | For exenple, any one who would try to interpret texts on the formal object of metayhystes must do so in virtue of the definition of a formal object, Tate involves knowing very precteely the nature of science and the other intellectual | virtues, not to mention the nature of Imowledge itself, These notions can be | grasped only by sone one who mows philosophy, They are quite beyond the peleographer o gremmarien as suoh, and consequestly they are beyond the historian, for it is only of such instruments thet he can détpose independently. \ Notes (1) Poetics, Cap. 9 (3 (3, | St, Paul to the Ephesians V, 13 | 5) I, q.B, art. 9 ad 1 TalIac, q, 101, art, 2 ad 2 rarvars of. Ee ae toa main. Mont mae Ah Yuwa bossere © sivas] Aghuy 2 Coeveroia LP 4#7GS oF Aut § Morbid SAINT MARY'S COLLEG! NOTRE DAME, INDIANA ME: Rech taho fackleliame : ' —@ dehamunehin, m He reargn, 6 Hinpy : Mab tar: fe adh “inde btn a ofan, Ba nak. £7, Kamate, Sentai, man fia- (ib tein, bi has bk oe — ghatih a purfethan of the ant, eek pds sya fe tt hoon i Ke g00d.of lu winters, To see. Wha His Theawea, lee Causa? coracolen : con 0 hab, f His tach, Aeon: yor. ¢ frat. hat) how + ow 1 prarkeal huh, {ata nig Bu makivp, Ky xohhude of Ae Syehle ts tobe "rapt aes pood.ofke amt, tee Kua ad depos ma yb soceute, Me preter He ah : Ae poor] wpeeatin 4 He ill. Wine, Ky abil bo aay SAINT MARY'S COLLEGE Acs He yon Mest ona he ln, Aehin, doiup, up, alto on vp Mig iy ef & Ke aspeat, te, din, Kiacerp, Mri, He joo Me ah 4 ai He aptei. Fe hu, order, | lag He Dipth lilt, tote @ foodk pena. 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Gmeoh) SAINT MARY'S COLLEGE NOTRE DAME, INDIANA, x [Foc he manpst Henke mah stich br teme fincemtel Mather? vo fay fe wie a Ae Antsy kapaned. es A ene eee be taitahed 5 6. ehat a 22 novel Shpulet Me cramahe ~~ seaek, Hat He good. aburep'hiurptis, Wis wrrtet ee fun aes 4 elk. fe Ke Well knguy rath. (Eater) eet ei iy Pa je) ae eee eee sine a Yar ct, human aching ee Yc, Hues a foure tirana haroude wal achin, AA Wwe sour y 1 Tadees tes spt abort, auc. jrevo a from. the eonfianieht ff fase Gh Wee we 0 Ho te May refer fore Lh, abt He afr Witoon tp wat je 2 tethosen tishry asset the dramahiyahin #5 ‘ Mepel, Arar. fe 5 bo duupachic Halrive race sey. Peruminn Cteon Wilde, Pind, Gide . Art and Morality In the first lesson of his commentary on the Posterior Analytice St. Thonas states that it pertains to the poet "to edd toward sonething virtuous, not by a process of rea- soning, but by means of a suitable represen- tation, so thet the representation itself will incline’ hunan reason to adhere to one part of an opposition rather then to the other.(1) he paseage 1n question states clearly that pootry serves a moral purpose. Yet, many have insisted that because art is quite distinct from prudence, it can only be ae a man, not hovever as a poet, that the latter aust conform to the moral order in his work. Our purpose is to point out briefly the importance of St. Thomas's own. doctrine as well as the inadequacy of the ‘now current interpretation. (1) "Quandoque vero sola existimatio declinat, in aliquam parten contradictionis propter aliquam repraesentationen, ad modum quo fit homini abominatio alicuius cibi, si reprassentetur ei sub sinilitudine alicuiue abominabilis. 3t aa hoc ordinatur Postica: nan poetae est inducerenpa aliquod virtuosum per aliquam de- centem repraesentationem. Omnia autem haec ad Retionalen Philosophiam pertinen: inducere enim ex uno in aliud rationis est." (edit- leon-) a. the position held by most contemporary Thontste is in keeping vith thetr confusion of the speculative truth of formally precticel imovledge and the practicalAe! prudence. (1) the tnorel erder® then oxbraces, indtetinctly oth sorel sclence and prudence, so thet if a yoom ts to be morally good, “ably the prudent, the good man, can write good poetry. this being patently felse, they conclude that there can be no essentiel connection between nora- ity and poetry qua poetry. Gn the contrary, we believe that while the good post may bela prudent man— and the good man a poor poet —, the practical truth of his work depends upon Ste confermity vith the speculative truth tn a —™C—C—CSCON a rrrrC~—~—s™—S—SCCCSCS for the fenctioning of the etecneengine -- to compose a metaphore, would be, in that essential respect, a bad poem: ve could not fail to regret the post's Lmorance, Tike wise, a vork representing deopair or bestia- Lity as a good, vould be intrinstéatly and perse, false ert, just as =uch ac an inextly 2 sleonstructed house, however fine the quality « “of the material employed. QY Jacques. de Monléon, Wote sur la division de 1a connaissance pratique, in Revue de Philosophie, Paris 1939, n. 3, pp. 189-198; Henri Pichette, Gonsiaérations sur -guelaues principes fondamentaux de la doctrine du spéoulatif at du pratique, in Laval théologique et philosophique, 1945, vol. I, n. 1, pp. 52-70. ad vei the abi din Hing Bebaaeal ice atiare fresno doubt about cause was hota fatigue. "This in itelf did Hot prove that the gute Greta ad ni iin ote same thing. ‘Theoretically, they were much too young. But the one sure Thing about masta fatigue le that ‘no one ean foretell with certainty when it teil strike. Im Novil Shute's seve, No Highway, which, became x popular RR || movie slarring Jimmy Stewart, Inro-eciontist predicts that an airplane ‘wil fll bocatoo of fatigue, andy afbar iy_| | intricate calculations, puts his boffinish nyt foger onthe erat moment: According Fuge | to Dr. Perey B. Walker, Farborough’s fatigue expert, such prescionce is im- z possible. No two aircraft, even sister 10 Aireraft like the Comets, aro alike in Bh ‘their fatigue characteristics Anaverage Je fatigue life may be calculated. But bers ‘specimen of the metal may Inst 29H | | only one third as tong as the average, ‘while a strong specimen may live three times as long. ‘e'make || By now Hall and his colleagues felt thseips | | that if only they could recover the ac- woth TTenal neement of the cabin that had Cuil an in genera? oP was Aion’ 9 opr & berm Seernnele agpehle Bhs imifher eK vl, an peta, Heat hare ¢ trnafer Anibehing lamasctin parc . Rin poten of Mest, . kins Quin ral, ? Agger tehavrins . aa Dah. Mucral Seduce ! pecntehce hug, { merel achin : poached baa, Aly eisea. kasinany athin, red? tonprrm, & speeatater huh ee probititd hin f petulebice clechrine oy 7. (frachick , wrbetdir Ahabvick or Mirek, Ey, bmets) Ha Ape tacypth Kar wit 5 pod pee ibn, (Evin Grerg 5p Haale loess HS.) Mies wit tnuase Hat iby food achel, 8. lms tehecl. Jago, Piihank @, Yeden, fro onan bak arhip, bad ons Mew wih core ticswin wchtn abr heer achin, Faucet (Le eomberiche, sy. Wee Gorucah in ot triton & Kewl ¢ barton. QD ™ high compere pom yr eich eee Guurdtatnn de Chak O Ox tit recamey par Inge dasrarch OD aie dat. (20pp) dee tH @ @ Qe bo, pluctere pie - 34p. 4, Q Ment Lele de Ck. te deat, OD thir dunce CH. Wocrguee, OF” Fransmetes fox rrp Gneut. GD "A Ae Pee Meo fennel at fae 25 ff. Mnnace pets Vausrcgnemnent © he humasiite’ , | fret he herria’ & be mone fo gue por fe plclneplce an Ruoda de Mémoire sur l'enseignement des Humanités eee ee Proposer des réformes est aisé. Les réaliser, généralement plus difficile: elles dérangént en effet nos habitudes; eljes vont souvent & 1encontre de nos intéréts personnels; elles sont, presque toujours, longues & produire leur fruit. Cette réforne s'avere particuliérement. ardue quand elle a pour objet des choses qui constituent la part la meilleure et 1a plus né- cessaire de tous les biens temporels de 1a con~ munauté politique. Liinstabilité foneibre et le caracttre dlurgence des temps présents nous engagent & remettre A plus tard la solution de probldmes qui ne semblent pas intéresser innédiatement le pain quotidien et le salut public, mais sont, néanmoins, d'une importance capitale pour 1a vie & tous les degrés, L'éducation de 1a jeunesse est l'un de ces problémes. n2e Quoi qu'il en puisse @tre de l'efficacité de nos propos sur un aussi grave sujet, c'est en toute 1iberté' que. nous parlerons au nom des huma- nités classiques ot de la philosophie. Généralités Nous présupposons admis le principe d'un enseignenent respectu@ux du droit naturel des parents, et répondant aux exigences du bien commun de la communauté civile. L'étatisation de l'enseignement comporte les pires dangers pour 1a formation des citoyens libres. surtout & une époque ob l'homme politi- que a tendance A ne s'ocouper que des biens maté- riels, et & ne’ voir, dans 1a poursuite des biens spirituels, qu'un obstacle aux fins purement éco- nomiques qu'il:se propose. Aussi, les totalitarismes de toute espace qui ne manquent pas de sens pratique, placent-11s en téte de leur politique le monopole absolu de 1'édueation A tous les degrés. On doit done, afin d'éviter une médtocrité sans nom, sauvegarder 1a liberté de 1'enseignenent. Sur le réle de 1'état dans ce domaine, on ne saurait trop méditer tteneyeltque Divint dllius Magistrt de 5,3, Pile XI sur 1/Eaucation chrétienne de 1a Jetinesse, TL stagit pour nous aujourd'hut plus quten ®weun autre temps, de maintentr le niveau moral ct intellectuel au-dessus du matériel et de co a LCLrt~—~S~S antononase "selentifique", or 16 fond de toute notre civin esthétiques et norales, Les oeuvres qu'elle Propose sont universellenent Teconnues comme 1a fleur de notre Civilisation, zlies Sont exemplai-_ res, éprouvées par 1e temps et irremplagables, ate Cherehant & former avant d'instrutre, com portant moins.de.savoir utilitaire, elle rend apte & découvrir 1'essentiel en tout, & bien po- ser 1'état d'une question, & hiérarchiser et A -coordonner les fins et les moyens. Que si une telle étude ne donne pas toujours ce que nous attendons d'elle, 41 faut en chercher 1a cause en dehors de la valeur intrinséque des ceuvres étudiées. Nous savons que certains pays ont eru bien faire en négligeant les études classiques pour le savoir utilitaire, ‘Ils ne s'étaient pas rendu compte des biens supérieurs qu'i1s mettaient ainsi en péril, Les présidents des Universités de Harvard, de Yale, de Columbia, de Princeton, de Californie, des savants éminents admettent aujourd'hui qu'on a commis une grande erreur en laissant les études tra- ditionnelles & l'option des éltves. “After a gene- ration of trial and error the free elective system is falling into discredit." (1) Les dénocraties, trop souvent exposées & n'étre que des machines — (1) The Humanities in Canada, p, 203, économiques entre les mains de politiciens sans prineipes profonds, ont un pressant besoin de choses exemplai#es. On revient vers les arts libéraux. On en comprend mieux 1a nécessité depuis que 1a barbarie menace nos institutions libres et rend possible 1'horreur d'une société oh les techniciens seuls seraient reconnus comme eitoyens. Des_professeurs La question des maitres dépasse en impor- tance celle des programmes et des manuels. Or il arrive que des professeurs sotent appelés & donner un enseignement auquel 115 sont loin d'étre suffisamment préparés. Ce fait est lourd des pires conséquences et pour l'enfant et pour 1a société tout entitre, Faute de professeurs dans le plein sens du terme, les disciplines les plus fondamen- tales deviennent, en effet, les plus vaines et les plus encombrantes, Dans une matire aussi délicate, nous nous appuyons sur le témoignage de l'un de nos éducateurs les plus autorisés. “Or, 11 y a deux questions essentielles aux- quelles se trouve 1ié tout le progrés de notre en- seignement secondaire, et qui ont été plusieurs fois -6- agitées, non pas officiellement, mais offi- cleusement, — et, malgré cela, nous l'espérons, non inutilement — dans plus d'un groupe de con- gressistes: c'est 1a question de 1a formation des professeurs, ét celle du renouvellenent ou per- fectionnement des méthoies. Celle-ci est méme subordonnée A celle-18: attendu qu'il est malaisé de persuader de 1'opportunité ou de la supériorité de telle ou telle méthaie un esprit qui par sa for- mation est resté dtranger & ces méthodes, et qui - pour cela serait assez embarrassé de les’pratiquer, On se heurte alors A des résistances invincibles."’ (1) Nous eroyons done que le, premier souci de nos éducateurs devrait @tre 1a formation de maitres d'expérience, de haute et de solide culture. C'est 18, croyons-nous, le point qui résume tous les autres. Nous n'exceptons pas ici les professeurs des classes élémentaires de nos humanités dont le réle est d'importance primordiale. Nous recomman- dons 1a formation d'un corps professoral de carritre, clest-a-dire A la,fois stable,‘ compétent et bien rémunéré. ",..Quand on voit quelles exigences nouvelles réclame notre état de société et le besoin que 1'on éprouve partout d'égaler notre culture A celle des autres peuples, ou de 1a faire moins inférieures quand on sait ce qui se passe en d'autres pays, & quoi y tient le prestige de l'enseignement secondaire et universitaire, quel prix on y attache A la compé- tence des maitres; quand on se rend compte que le maitre doit étre non pas égal, aais supérieur & sa t&che, et que tout enseignement tend & baisser ou A s'immobiliser dans la routine s'il ne se retrempe et ne se renouvelle sans cesse, par ses maitres, (1) Mgr Camille Roy, Nos probldmes d'enseignement, pp. 18-19, dans une discipline intellectuelle plus élevée; quand on songe & tout cela, on ne peut s'empécher de déplorer les conditions qui paraissent expli- quer encore chez.nous les trop grandes lenteurs de la préparation professionnelle." (1) Nous ne saurions-trop insister sur les deux faits suivantsi a), que nous avons, dans nos uni- Versités, des institutions d'enseignement supé- rieur spécialement dévoudes & cette fin; b) qu'elles ne sont cependant fréquentées que par un petit nombre de futurs prof esseurs. "c'est pour assurer cette vie pédagosique toujours en mouvement vers le progrés que le Conseil de l'Université a créé il y a quatorze ans, en 1920, 1'Ecole Normale Supérieure; 11 1'a eréée pour procurer des moyens plus faciles de formation spéciale, supérieure, aux professeurs des collges classiques. Persuadés que le pro- grés n'est guére possible si les maitres n'ont pas regu eux-mémes une culture qui fasse entrer plus de lumitre et de meilleures méthodes dans leur enseignement, le Conseil de l'Université et la Procure du Séminaire de Québec n'ont pas reculé devant d'imnenses sacrifices d'argent pour créer et maintenir 1'Ecole Normale Supé- rieure. Et cette Ecole 2 rendu déji de trés précieux services. Me permettra-t-on d!inviter encore les supéricurs et directeurs de nos mai- sons d'enseignenent classique A mieux ou & plus utiliser cette Ecole Normiu™, (2) Nous constatons avec plaisir que nos jeunes maitres lafques sont de plus en plus associés & l'enseignenent des humanités. Nous ne voyons pas, (1) Mgr Camille Roy, ibidem, p. 119. (2) Mer Camille Roy, ibidem, pp. 128-129. 8 Sependant, pourquoi les vertificats quion exige deux dans-nos: collages ne devratent pas atre exigibles de tous ies professeurs sang distinction, Des éldves général, trop nombreux dans nos maisons d'ensetgne- ment secondaire, La Vocation aux études classiques créé en faveur des élaveg Pauvres, de nos milieux Turaux, en particulier, Nos écoles moyennes d'agriculture et nos écoles techniques devraient @tre accessibles au grand nombre, La formule artisanale, entre toutes, nous semble excellente, Tres apte & former L'esprit dlinitiative et le goft du tra- vail bien fait, elle est’appelée & jouer un grand réle dans 1'économie de la nation. Cet enseigne- ment artisanal, s'il soit s'enrichir de toutes les techniques maiernes, doit @tre avant tout basé sur la plus solide tradition. Wous dirons au cha- pitre du folklore ce que nous pensons que devrait Stre l'éducation artistique dans toutes nos éeoles méme primaires. Des’ programnes Une révision et ure adaptation des programues s'imposent. Dune fagon générale, les programmes sont de plus en plus surchargés de matitres qui re- gardent plutét les spéctalistes et sont d'une valeur éducative fort contestable. "...The humanities need to be thought of, not as tool subjects, but as Liberalizing disciplines." (1) (1) The Humanities in Canada. Les méthodes encyclopédiques sont des signes de décadence. Nous ne proposons pas de grandes innovations dans le domaine des études classiques. Nous eroyons, au contraire, qu'une aécadence du niveau intellectuel est assurée, si l'on ne s!ap- plique point davantage A l'enseignement des disci~ plines élémentaires au premier et au second degré de l'enseignement. 11 faut retourner vers les notions les plus simples et les plus fondamentales, et encourager toute formule qui permet A 1'élave de se développer harmonieusement dans le sens de ses aptitudes. Nous n'oublions pas ici la culture de la mé- moire considérée non comme une simple faculté de se rappeler, en vue d'un, examen, les idées et les notions exigées par le programme, mais comme un moyen de meubler 1'intelligence de pensées et de formes exenplaires. |Lire sur ce sujet les conseils uw que Joseph de Maistre adressait dans ses lettres Asa fille. Lire aussi un remarquable article: On learning by heart, by J. Lewis May, The Tablet, February 11th, 1950. ws Résumé des remarques générales Pour assurer 4 1'éducation tous les biens qu'elle exige autant que pour 1a préserver des dangers qui’la guettent, nous eroyons qu'une coopération beaucoup plus étroite et constante devrait: exister entre l'Université et les col l&ges de 1'enseignement secondaire. - De plus, nous estimons qu'il serait non seulement profitable mais nécessaire et urgent qu'une coordination soit établie par un conseil supérieur de l'enselgnement & tous les degrés. Des humanités in speot De la Sainté Keriture. Pour dé multiples raisons, d'ordre naturel et surnaturel, 11 convient que nos étudiants apprennent A mieux connattre et aimer la Sainte Eeriture: Ancien et Nouveau Testament. L'étude de textes saerés choisis devrait, pensons-nous, &tre inserite au programme de toutes nos classes dthumanités. <1 De_1a_philosophie Lensetgnenent de 1a philosophie, dans nos coll&ges, est loin de donner les résultats voulus. Ctest un fait déplorable qu'un grand nombre “a! é& eves et parmi les meilleurs n'en gardent qu'un trés_mauvais souvenir. Nos classes de philosophie sont beaucoup trop nonbreuses. Les étudiants deviennent passifs et se contentent d'apprendre en vue du baccalauréat, des th8ses qu'ils pourront répéter sans les com- prendre."Non attingunt mente, licet dicant ore." Tis sont, en outre, assez mal préparés, par une formation trop livresque, & ce genre d'étude. Ils doivent, avec un minimua de connaissances con- erates, aborder les problémes les plus ardus. Il faut ajouter aussi que la philosophie, telle qu'enseignée, est beaucoup trop abstreite au sens péjoratif de ce terme. Elle semble n'avoir rien & faire avec la réalité; n'exister que dans Les réponses viennent avant les les livres. questions, des questions qu'on ne s'est jamais rrr — poser, semble- teil . On digeute de probldmes en termes emprun- és & des langues étrangbres ot mortes, termes qu'on devraity d'abord s'appliquer A approfondir et & comprendre. as le professeur. Ti ne Gelui-ci doit étre Le manuel ne erée Pi peut renplacer le prof esseur. forné aux sources. Et par sources; nous entendons les textes originaux des grands philosophes anciens et modernes, textes (les principauxs du moins) avec lesquels nos colt8eiens| eux-mémes devraient étre en contact dane chacune des branches de la philosophie. Cette question des professeurs pont-ness-even4 fegh-paskéy pias heat] est particulitrement grave, Map or, B.1a Faculté de Philosophie de 1'Université Laval, le plupart des étudiants sont des étrangers+ Tout se passe comme s'il n'y avait point d'avenir pour nos philosobhes canadiens dans nos maisons a'enseignement. | Bt pourtant, si les hommes n'apprennent pass | as leur jeunesse, jes éléments au moins 1es plus | humbles d'une saine philosophie, il est extréme- ment improbable qu'ils puissent retourner plus tard aux principes véritables et premiers pour nous. La philosophie-s'avére plus importante au- Jourd'hui que jamais. Et pour tous. Son ensei- gnement ne doit done pas stadresser aux seuis futurs professeurs, mais aussi & tous ceux qui jouent un rOle important dans notre société. Nous pensons, a/v Le fpnal, GO we ‘it des grandes faiblesses de nos honnes d'état est cette ignorance philosophique qui les Moun aire a he fait iti pe tig on empéche de voir lés dangers les plus manifestes et les rend causes indirectes de l'inséeurité qui Nous pensons aussi aux littérateurs, écrivains, critiques et aux journalistes en parti- culier auxquels 8.S. Pie XII disait dernitrements "\..la presse a un réle éminent & jouer dans 1'édu- cation de liopinion, non pour la dicter ou la régen- ter, mais pour la servir utilement. Cette tache délicate suppose, chez les membres de la presse ca- tholique, la compétence, une culture ginérale surtout philosophique et théologique, les dons du style, le tact phychologique.”” -15- De l'étude des langues. Du_gree..., Lthistoire littéraire a son utilité; mais elle’ Aé peut renplacer 1a leéture et 1'explica~ tion des oeuvres. . Tl est fondamental de mettre nos étudiants A L'excellente éeole des grees, et de leur in- culquer le gofit d'y revenir plus tard. L'étude de 1a langue constitue, sans doute, le meilleur noyen de s'approptier le génie d'un peuple; mais vu le temps de plus en plus limité qu'on accorde & 1'étude de la langue grecque, et le caractére trés fragmentaire des textes traduits, on devrait, au moins, nous semble-t-41, faciliter la lecture des grandes oeuvres classiques dans une bonne traduqtion. or, si-nous sommes bien informés, ces traduc- tions sont quelquefois inaccessibles aux él&ves. L'étude de l'art grec, architecture et sculp- ture surtout, est rigoureusement complénentatre de celle de la littéreture grecque. ~lé= Les rémarques faites cl-dessus concernant la lecture des traductions s'appliquent aux auteurs latins: (Pour ue connaissance sérieuse du francais & la souree principale, il serait de premiare im portance qu'on insistat davantage sur 1'étyologie x , Les Peres de-l'Eglise grecque et -latine, parce lating qu'ils représentent une assinilation du génie anti- que par le christianisme,devraient avoir dans nos programmes la place qu'ils ont occupés dans notre cigilisation chrétienne. Au sujet de le langue naternelle, nous ne seurions mieux faire que de citer les paroles de N.S. Pbre le Pape Pie XII dans son discours & la jeunesse italtenne du 30 janvier 19h9. Aprés avoir souligné 1a place méritée du latin dans les études, le Saint Pare poursuivait: "Gardez-vous cependant d'interpréter Nos paroles comme si elles étaient 1'indice d'un moindre intér&t pour les autres branches de vos études. Wul plus que Nous n'est cohvaineu que -17- quiconque est appelé & assumer la responsabilité d'une fonction, que quiconque veut éerire ou par- ler, doit posséder parfaitenent et dans toute sa pureté, sans inutilités et sans barbarismes, sa propre langue maternelle." Ltenseignenent des beaux-arts fait partie de toute culture sérieuse. Il est éminennent propre & former le gofit, & éveiller des vocations. Cet ensedgnement ne doit pas se limiter & 1a musique. Tl est & souhaiter qu'on mette sous les yeux de nos él&ves quelques-uns, au moins, des chefs-d'oeuvre exemplaires de l'art et qu'on les leur explique. Cette connaissance par 1!imge est particu- ligrenent importante dans un pays comme le nétre privé des Wiiiwenerits de la grande tradition artis- tique. . Un programme d'éducation artistique sagement approprié A chacun des degrés de 1'enseignement assurerait A la culture canadienne une continuité digne de tradition. -18- Nous eroyons qu'un tel programme doit étre envisagé comme le complénent nécessaire d'un musée national et d'une bibliothtque nationale. De l'histoire et de la géographie Le passé et le pays sont des biens ‘excellents que 1a piété naturelle nous oblige de connattre et dtainer. Nous recommandons, comme nous l’avons fait pour les autres disciplines, que des prof esseurs viennent se préparer dens les Instituts a!nistotre et de géogrephie de nos universités. De _l'enseignement de la tradition Ltenfant est un chainon dans le eontinuité. ti est Héritier d'un patrimoine qu'il doit enrichir et transnettye A son tour. Clest-a-dire qu'il doit atre pieux. L'éducateur doit comprendre que son @isciple a le devoir et le droit de connaitre la matitre de cette piété. Reuplir 1a ménoire d'un enfant de ce qui s'est fait et gerit ailleurs sans lui enseigner sa propre tradition, c'est le frustrer d'un bien naturel, etest l'appauvrir et souvent le dévoyer. Crest ‘pour cette raison que l'enfant doit apprendre I'histoire de son pays. Mais 1histoire ne suffit pas. (Cf. Archives de Folklore, 1'Histoire et le Folklore, vol. Ty pe lh). T1 feut enseigner les traditions. Nous enten- dons par ce’ mot tout ce qui proctde du génie popur Jaire: idges, moeurs, sentinents, créations, inven- tions, expressions; tout ce qui, dans le peuple, vient authentiquement du peuple par la tradition, par Ltexemple, par l'imitation; tout ee qui jaillit encore de sa nature et de son expérience. =20- Ces traditions méritent d'étre connues et conservées. Elles ont leurs qualités intrin- sbques de sagesse, de beauté, de culture natu- relle authentique. ‘Dé plus, la discipline du folklore est des plus propres & corriger les abus d'une formation livresque et & développer 1'esprit de recherche. La fréquentation du peuple traditionnel qu'exige cette discipline pout contribuer de fagon tres efficace & 1a formation du sens social de nos Jeunes gens. Nous ne saurions trop recommander les cours de folklore qui se donnent A la Faculté des Lettres de l'Université Laval. ~21- Nos biblioth’ques de colltges devraient tre mieux pourvues et dotées. Les Cercles de jeunes naturalistes, les Clubs 4-H, le scoutisme peuvent étre d'ex- eellentes initiatives qui développent 1'es- prit de recherche et d'observation. Les sports doivent @tre considérés non comme une fin en soi mais comme un moyen a'établir un parfait équilibre entre le aéveloppew nt du corps et celui de l'esprit. = 22— Conclusions Ti est indéniable que nos colltges ont fait beaucoup pour 1'éducation, et au prix des plus grands sacrifices. Pour mener a bonne fin, l'oeuvre qu'ils ont entreprise, ils ont besoin d'aide finan- citre. Il faut done les adder, tout en respectant la liperté de 1'enseignement. L'oeuvre primérdiale, urgente A laquelle cette aide doit leur permettre de s'appliquer est la for- mation d'un corps magistral, stable et justement rénuméré. Nous recommandons, en outre, la création d'un systtme de bourses, ds les dernitres années, au moins, du cours secondaire. (Lire & ce sujet The Humanities in Canada, chapter XII). A telles fins que le prdsent ménoire s'est proposées, nous insistons sur les rapparts plus étroits et plus constants qui, pour la solution de tant de graves et délicats problémes, devraient s'établir entre les universités et leurs colltges. Yu ls Ar Ronin. fs dow