Some Relations-1      

One BSC=6 BCSU (Base control signaling unit). One BCSU = support 110 TRX. 1 TRX= 8 time slots. Total no. of TRX = 110 *6=660 TRX in single BSC One BSC = One LAC One BSC= 660* 8 = time slots but if dual rate is implemented that it consider as two slots. One BSC= two Lac also but for city one LAC b/c it effects SD blocking and LAC updation on that channel.

Some Relations-2

One BSC= 1 to 248 BCF. One BSC= 1 to 248 BTS One BTS means = one sector of any configuration One BCF means= one site of three or four sector BCF= Base control function. BTS= Base transceiver system. NSEI= is hardware and software device which supports the GPRS in n/w      

Some Relations-3         

One NSEI= supports 64 BTS and 128 TRX if any one of them is full then we can assign second NSEI port in same BSC 1TRX=117 subscriber 1 subscriber=25 m erlangs (TCH) 1 subscriber=.004 m erlangs(SD) 1 TRX=2.94 erlang(2% GOS ) 2 TRX=8.2 erlang(2% GOS ) 3 TRX=14.6 erlang(2% GOS ) 4 TRX=21.2 erlang(2% GOS ) If BSC 3VI, OSS is 4 and System is S11 then max capacity of BSC is 660 TRXs. If OSS 4.2 and system S12 is using then max capacity of BSC will be 2000TRXs

KPI·s to be monitored       SD Blocking SD Drop TCH Blocking TCH Assignment TCH Drop HOSR .

5 98.5 98 3 92 .7 0.5 1.KPI·s to be monitored Parameter SD Blocking SD Drop TCH Blocking TCH Assignment TCH Drop HOSR Showcase Threshold 0.2 0.5 1.25 1.5 95 Non-Showcase Threshold 0.

Phone SD Blking SDCCH Seizer TCH Blking CSSR or TCH Assignment Call completion Rate (TCH Drop call) . TCH Conn.Call Establishment Get Service Get SDCCH Establish SD Channel Est. Call Phone Ref.

If the Call is disconnected in a normal Fashion then Clear Message with cause code Call Control is sent. This could be caused by software errors.HW problems or many other reasons. It is important to establish what types of calls are failing. a Clear Request is sent to the MSC .  . then we have a call drop scenario. C7 link failures.What is Dropped Call?  All cell resources are available but calls are failing. If a call is abnormally disconnected. congestion. and over what percentage of the network it is occurring.

.SDCCH CHANNEL :  SDCCH is a dedicated channel which is using for LAC updation. It works in UL & DL. Call setup. SMS in idle mode.

SD Blocking:  SD blocking means that you are not getting SD resource for the call origination. After¶s called as SD Blocking. . There are no of reasons for that.SDCCH is provided but if SDCCH is not provided at this time due some problems or due to unavailable of SD by BSC . When MS connects with NW then RACH and AGCH are provided.If such a case arises the customer will not be able to originate any call.

but they differ from each other. If at a particular time call is attempted and it fails then it known as Blocking. If all the SD resources are full and not available for SD assign then its come into congestion.Difference Between Blocking and Congestion:  It is very important to know difference between blocking and congestion. . Some people think that both are same.

.Reasons for SD Blocking: Some of them are  LAC boundary. HW Prob.

If location update is more then change the LAC of that site and set C2 and HYS. Here are some steps by which we can reduce SD BlockingCheck the No. if less then increase SD channel taking care that there is no TCH Blocking. of SDCCH channel Available. 5.Solutions for removal of SD Blocking:  1. 2. 3. 4. Check LAC boundary. Use of Dynamic SDCCH (It is a BSC parameter and will be applied on whole BTS). . Hardware check / shift SD to new time slot Some times BMA and HYS parameters are useful to remove SD Blocking.

130 for SD congestion.Usefull Reports For SD Blocking:   Use 182 to analyses SD Blocking reasons. .

It occurs between allocation of SD and before TCH allocation.SD Drop:    As per diagram shows when we assigned SD for call origination and at that time due to some problem or any mismatch comes by which SD loss occurs. change the values of RXP. shift the SD time slot . orient that antenna . If SD drop is high plz look on parameters likeovershooting . Sometimes SD drop occurs because queuing is not activated in the system. it is called as SD Drop. interference. may be hardware issue. may be issue of uplink or downlink issue in that cells for UL put a TMA in that cell and for DL provide tilt .

If SD Drop is high: If SD drop is high plz look on parameters like Overshooting  Shift the SD time slot  Hardware issue  Interference  Change the values of RXP PMAX  It may be uplink or downlink issue in which cells for UL put a TMA in that cell and for DL provide tilt  Re orient that antenna .

Wrong Parameter Planning. High Path Loss. Interference. Overshooting. Outage. High TR Fail. Due to ICM Band(CDMA) High LAPD Utilization Heavy blocking and DR feature being used extensively . MAIO mismatch. Bad Coverage.Reasons of SD Drop:              Hardware Fault. Abis Drop.

Check clean BCCH by frequency scanning. Co-BSIC & Co BCCH. Check interference by Interference scanning. Use latest ND 111 and MapInfo to find out proper frequency to reduce interference. Arrange Drive Test:    .Solutions for removal of SD Drop: Interference:    Check the BCCH Plan (C/I or C/A). The best way to find the real issues for Interference makes DT.

Check the sample log according to TA. If a cell is picking call from long distance.Overshooting:      LAC Planning. Cell orientation need to be defined according to clutter. Mount position Effective Tilt. .

Bad Coverage:  If the drop call is due to low signal strength uplink. check the receive path of this particular TRX. Check receiver sensitivity. then.  . feeder and etc. feeder connection and etc.  If the drop call reason is due to low signal strength downlink. Drops due to Low Signal Strength. check the transmit path. Check cards. Use MapInfo or Google Earth to find location of sites.Cont« High TR Fail:  Check and clear TR fail from OSS end. VSWR.

.  Some times you will find issues on BCCH TRX.  VSWR of the Cell..Cont.In this case BCCH shift from one to other TRX will reduce SD drop. and define 32 kbps signaling instead of 16kbps Hardware Fault:  Check Alarms. High LAPD Utilization:  Check LAPD util report from OSS.  TRX condition.  Check Path Imbalance.  Connector Connection.

Cont« Due to ICM Band(CDMA):  Some time SD drops takes place due to near sites of CDMA.    . Use BPF (Band pass filter). Check the ICM band value of that site. Use the spectrum analyzer.

Cont.    .. Check for parameter:  Check the Timer T 3101 Check the Timer T 200(20ms) T11 Expired(10 s) MAIO check.

62 for Adj cell having same or adj freq. ND 111 for freq plan. Use report 216 for detail SD Drop. 232 report for TA report. Use 163 report for SD drop. 204 for BTS and cell report.Useful Reports for SD Drop:          Use report ZEOL to find the alarms. . Use 208 for Path loss analysis. Use 196 for UL-DL Interference.

. It is the failed call attempts which the MS user can notice.TCH Blocking:    When TCH is not allocated to the user after SD allocation . It takes place due to lack of TCH is TCH Blocking.

.Reasons for TCH Blocking: Some of them are High Utilization of TCH  Time slot faulty.  Lock TRXs.  HW Problem.

Solutions for removal of TCH Blocking:     Implement half rate or Dual rate. Add another TRX. Check FRL & FRU. try to share the traffic of that cell with the neighboring cell by changing tilt or orientation. . If TRX addition not possible.

Useful Report for TCH Blocking:  135 TCH Congestion .

For the best KPI TCH assignment should tend to 100%.TCH Assignment:     It¶s a process of by which TCH is assigned to the MS. It degrades due to HW problems. . After the SD request MS gets TCH successfully and the call transfers to TCH it means TCH assignment is successful.

Combiner.Duplexer.Reasons for TCH Assignment failure:        Hardware Fault(TRXs.Cables) VSWR High Path Loss. Faulty TMA. DR being used extensively . High TCH Blocking. Loose connections.

.TRXs connections. Connection from BTS to Antenna Connector connection Check TMA.Multicuppler etc.Solutions for removal of TCH Assignment:          Clear VSWR IF TRXs are faulty lock them and try to replace them soon to avoid blocking Path Imbalance clear. Check Duplexer.Combiner. Check BOIA card. Check BB2F Card.

Reports for TCH Assignment:     ZEOL to check alarms 208 for path imbalance 196 for UL-DL interference ZAHP for Flick report .

TCH drop occurring. For TCH drop first cross check the BCCH of that cell.neighbor defined. Find out there is any interference . . change RXP and RLT value.TCH Drop:   Drop during conversation is known as TCH drop. It takes place after connect ACK msg on TCH. hardware issue may be.

Due to ICM Band(CDMA) . High TR Fail. Due to Low Coverage. Overshoot.Reasons for TCH Drop:         Wrong Parameter Planning. Hardware Fault. BAD HOSR. Outage.

. Co-BSIC & Co BCCH.Solutions for removal of TCH Drop: Check Parameter:    Check the BCCH Plan (C/I or C/A). Check the sample log according to TA. Mount position should be check . Site Orientation. Check the Timer T 100(should be 20 ms) Check Overshooting:     If a cell is picking call from long distance. Effective tilt should be check.

Improve HOSR:  Check the Hopping plan.Cont..  High TR Fail:  . Check the Neighbor Plan Check and clear TR fail from oss end.

then. Mount position should be check..     . Check receiver sensitivity. check the transmit path. Effective tilt should be check. feeder and etc. If the drop call reason is due to low signal strength downlink. Drops due to Low Signal Strength. Check cards. feeder connection and etc. VSWR. Bad Coverage:  If the drop call is due to low signal strength uplink.Cont. check the receive path of this particular TRX. Use MapInfo or Google Earth to find location of sites.

 Connector Connection.  Check the Hopping plan.Cont.  Check VSWR..  Check TRXs.  Check TMA .  Path imbalance.  Check Slips.  Check BB2F card. Check HW:  Check Alarms on site.

.Cont. Down Time of the cell. TRX condition. then check the slips on A-ter.  If drops are on all sites connected to a single link. BTS should not getting the temperature alarm continuously.     . then go for a check for that particular even attach with that site. If Drops are distributed on all site of the BSC. then check the slip or interference on that Abis interface. Drop Reason because of HW Issues:  if drops are only on one site.

. 196 for UL-DL Qul. 204 for BTS report. 216 for all parameter.Reports for TCH Drop:          166 for TCH Drop ZEOL for alarms. 232 for TA report. 208 Path Imbalance report. ZAHP for Flicks. 62 for Adj cell having same or adj freq.

 . If Handover success rate degrades call drop rate will take place.HOSR: Hand over success rate:  If HOSR will be good TCH drop will also be good.

HW Issues. LAC boundary.Reasons for HOSR:            Improper Neighbor planning. CO-BCCH-BSIC issues in Neigh. SL value. Low Coverage . HSN clash. DAC value mismatch. Syn mismatch. Parameter Check. Overshoot.

Try to retune neighbors Avoid CO-BCCH-BSIC neighbors. If there are high fail delete and recreate neighs.By DT it is very easy to find the fail between cells.Solutions for removal of HOSR: Arrange Drive Test:  The best way to find the real issues for HO fail make DT and check layer 3 msg gor HO fail. Delete long distance neighs. Neighbor Tuning:       . Check neighs are defined form both ends. Avoid extra neighs.

Retune LMRG. 2. LUR. IDR.It can change bw -90. IUR. 4. PMRG. 3. If DAC value is high or low tune it at the TH value. .-95.Cont. Parameter Check: Retune SL. Retune LDR.  1. QMRG.. It should be 2050. 5. Check HSN. Check SYN.  1. DAC value Check: Check DAC value.-105.

High fail takes place there will be Inter BSC cells. Overshoot:  When neighs are far away then chances of HO fail increases. High fail takes place there will be Inter MSC cells.. So it the inter distance is high its batter to del that kind of neigh.Cont. LAC Boundary    . Define proper LAC in neigh cells. Check LAC boundry. In this case ping-pong HI takes place by which fail takes place.

Clear 67. Clear ZEAT.Cont. HW Issues:     Clear HW issues. Check TRXs. Clear 61. Check outages. Clear 60. Because if it is faulty incoming and outgoing HO will be fail.. Check BOIA Card. Clear Reports:     .

Reports for HOSR :             153 reports for HO fail bw two cells. 150 for high HO fail. 61 for one way neigh. 158 for intra BSS HO observation. . 157 for high HO attempt and call ratio. 67 for Sync report. 60 for discrepancy. ZELO for inter MSC HO report. 154 HO analyses. 62 for Adj cell having same or adj freq. ZEAT for CO-BCCH-BSIC neighs 74 for HO definition report.

Software synchronization. if there is a lot of random access failures try to check hardware too. filter check etc) . IDB Setting and reloading.High RACH Failures:  Other reasons look for Random access statistics. It includes thorough hardware audit including CF Reloading.

It shows VSWR on cell. Ex-TCH Interference (7744)-TRXs faulty or back plan problem. TRX Operation Degraded (7607)-It shows critical alarm on TRXs. LAPD Fail-TX link fail. Antenna Connection Faulty (7606)-Shows faulty in cable connections.Its for the ratio of SDs. Working SD Ratio Below TH level (7712).. . Channel Fail Rate (7745)-It shows faulty TS on TRXs. High Temp Alarm-TRXs begins fluctuating. BCF Operation degradation ()-It shows DAC value alarm. Mean Holding Time(7743)-to detect faulty channels.Some Important Alarms:           BTS Operation Degraded (7604) .

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