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Theme: Stories and Storytelling
Putting the Pieces Together
How would you arrange the words and phrases above to tell a story? Magnetic word blocks are fun because they let you group words together in any order. However, the words will only make sense if they are arranged in complete sentences. Sentences allow you to express complete thoughts. You can use different types of sentences to tell stories. Write Away: Story Time What do you think will happen to the porcupine? Write a brief story based on the words and phrases in the photograph. Place your completed story in your Working Portfolio.
Diagnostic Test: What Do You Know?
For each underlined item, choose the letter of the term that correctly identifies it. All societies have storytellers. In the Songhai Empire of West
Africa, griots traveled from village to village. These storytellers
informed people about historical and current events. Songhai kings
greatly valued their work. Some modern griots have continued this
(4) (6) (5)
tradition. Troubadours were European storytellers who performed a similar role during the Middle Ages. From their songs and stories flowed all kinds of information. Sometimes they would tell funny
tales, other times they would explain herbal medicine. They enlightened and entertained audiences in market places and
palaces. At one royal wedding, 426 troubadours performed!
1. A. simple subject B. simple predicate C. complete subject D. complete predicate 2. A. simple subject B. simple predicate C. complete subject D. complete predicate 3. A. simple subject B. simple predicate C. complete subject D. complete predicate 4. A. predicate noun B. predicate adjective C. direct object D. indirect object 5. A. compound predicate B. verb phrase C. helping verb D. main verb
6. A. predicate noun B. predicate adjective C. direct object D. indirect object 7. A. fragment B. run-on sentence C. declarative sentence D. exclamatory sentence 8. A. fragment B. run-on sentence C. inverted sentence D. exclamatory sentence 9. A. complete subject B. complete predicate C. compound subject D. compound verb 10. A. exclamatory sentence B. interrogative sentence C. imperative sentence D. declarative sentence
The Sentence and Its Parts 5
1 ● Here’s the Idea
In order to share ideas and information successfully, you need to use complete sentences.
A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought.
Here is a group of words.
These words cannot get a message across unless they have a structure. Here is a sentence made from the same words. Notice that the sentence communicates a complete idea..
Every complete sentence has two basic parts: a subject and a predicate.
1. The complete subject includes all the words that tell whom or what the sentence is about.
The glass slipper fits only one person.
2. The complete predicate includes the verb and all the words that tell about the verb.
The glass slipper fits only one person.
Here’s How Finding Complete Subjects and Predicates
The prince searches for its owner.
1. To find the complete subject, ask who or what does something (or is something). Who searches for its owner? The prince 2. To find the complete predicate, ask what the subject does (or is). What does the prince do? searches for its owner
6 Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics
2 ● Why It Matters in Writing
You need to write complete sentences to share your ideas with others. When you revise your writing, make sure that each sentence has both a subject and a predicate.
There are over 500 European versions of “Cinderella.” Storytellers Probably passed them around by word of mouth for appeared centuries. The first written version in 1634.
3 ● Practice and Apply
CONCEPT CHECK: Complete Subjects and Predicates Draw two columns on a sheet of paper. Label one “Complete Subjects” and the other “Complete Predicates.” Write the complete subject and complete predicate for each sentence. Cinderella in Asia 1. People around the world tell Cinderella stories. 2. The oldest version of all comes from China. 3. The main character’s name is Yeh-Shen. 4. This lovely young woman lives with a cruel stepmother and a selfish stepsister. 5. Yeh-Shen receives help from a wise old man and a dead goldfish. 6. The bones of the dead goldfish grant the unlucky maiden’s wish. 7. She goes to a party in a beautiful cloak and a beautiful pair of slippers. 8. One of the slippers falls off Yeh-Shen’s foot. 9. A king seeks the slipper’s owner. 10. You probably know the rest of the story.
For a SELF-CHECK and more practice, see the EXERCISE BANK, p. 262.
The Sentence and Its Parts 7
SIMPLE SUBJECT This tradition has inspired Pueblo potters. 2 ● Why It Matters in Writing The simple subject gives important information. CHAPTER 1 SIMPLE SUBJECT When a proper name is used as a subject. COMPLETE SUBJECT Oral tales are important in Pueblo culture. Now you will learn about the key part of the complete subject. all parts of the name make up the simple subject. Descriptive words are not part of the simple subject. Example: The clay object holds children on his lap. It tells the reader whom or what the sentence is about. and Mechanics . look out for unclear words used as simple subjects.1 ● Here’s the Idea You have learned that one basic part of a sentence is the complete subject. Revision: The clay storyteller holds children on his lap. SIMPLE SUBJECT Mary Trujillo makes clay storyteller figures. When you revise your work. The simple subject is the main word or words in the complete subject. Usage. 8 Grammar. Notice how a change in wording improves the sentence below.
descriptive words are not part of the simple subject. 5. CONCEPT CHECK: Simple Subjects On a separate sheet of paper. Example: Desert tortoises are sneaky. 4. SENTENCE PARTS B. see the EXERCISE BANK. His opponent’s twin brother met him at the finish line! For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. A Traditional Pueblo Tale 3. 9. Create four sentences by combining complete subjects with complete predicates from the table below. A big surprise awaited the rabbit. ● A nimble rabbit crossed his path one day. write the simple subject of each sentence. 8. 6. Immediately. his tricky neighbor accepted the challenge. The unsuspecting rabbit was the victim of a trick. 2. Remember. 7. The rabbit challenged the tortoise to a race.3 ● Practice and Apply A. 262. The mismatched animals agreed to hold the race four days later. 10. Simple subject: tortoises 1. p. ● A slow tortoise lived in the desert long ago. A smiling tortoise greeted him. The confident rabbit crossed the finish line. Clay Storytellers Complete Subject The storyteller figures Each Pueblo potter The colors on the storyteller figures Collectors Complete Predicate come from natural substances pay thousands of dollars for some storyteller figures are handmade and hand painted works in a different style The Sentence and Its Parts 9 . WRITING: Creating Complete Sentences Answers in column. Underline the simple subject in each sentence.
Hercules swung his club. SIMPLE PREDICATE CHAPTER 1 A verb is a word used to express an action.1 ● Here’s the Idea You have learned about the simple subject of a sentence. Hercules arrived in a foreign city. (linking) 2 ● Why It Matters in Writing The verb is the most important word in a complete predicate because it tells what the subject does or is. choose powerful verbs that will help your readers imagine the action. (action you cannot see) Greek myths are timeless. Two new heads quickly sprouted in its place. COMPLETE PREDICATE Hercules battles the nine-headed Hydra. SIMPLE PREDICATE His nephew helps him in the struggle. You also need to know about the simple predicate. Usage. even when the action cannot be seen. The simple predicate. or verb. The Hydra lunged at Hercules with one of its deadly heads. is the main word or words in the complete predicate. a condition. —Dee Stiffler 10 Grammar. He crushed the skull. and Mechanics . (action you can see) The ruler disliked Hercules. A linking verb tells what the subject is. or a state of being. When describing an event. An action verb tells what the subject does.
see the EXERCISE BANK. He assigned the hero a series of dangerous tasks. The second column lists a responsibility or role that each is known for. 9. or Verbs On a separate sheet of paper. Hercules once captured a gigantic wild boar. represents. 7. 1. U CU RR M ICUL The first column of this chart lists five gods and goddesses from Greek mythology. 10. Hercules held the sky on his shoulders during one of his labors. AC SENTENCE PARTS RO S S T HE B. The birds showered Hercules with sharp bronze feathers. The Greeks called these tasks the labors of Hercules. delivers.3 ● Practice and Apply A. commands. Some possible verbs include the following: protects. . 263. underline each simple predicate. He also battled a flock of monstrous birds. . p. ● Hercules is the hero of many Greek myths. goddess of wisdom and warfare protection of farmers and their crops delivery of important messages command of the seas most powerful of the Greek gods Athena 11 . for each sentence. Mythic Figures God or Goddess Athena Demeter Hermes Poseidon Zeus Known As or For . Use the information to write a sentence about each character. 3. When you have finished. For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. 4. ● He served King Eurystheus for 12 years. WRITING: Summarizing Information Answers in column. CONCEPT CHECK: Simple Predicates. 6. The king was furious over Hercules’ successes. 8. 5. The Labors of Hercules The cowardly king hated Hercules. or verb. write the simple predicate. 2.
VERB PHRASE The princess had yawned loudly. or verb.1 ● Here’s the Idea The simple predicate. can. may consist of two or more words. For more on these changes. CHAPTER 1 Her visitor talked for hours. HELPING VERB MAIN VERB Her visitor had been talking for hours. A verb phrase is made up of a main verb and one or more helping verbs. does. Notice that sometimes the main verb changes form when used with helping verbs. are. be. have. were. He will have been talking all day. (action) MAIN VERB The tale was endless. (linking) MAIN VERB Helping verbs help the main verb express action or show time. VERB PHRASE The tale might be endless. had may. been do. shall. HELPING VERB MAIN VERB Main Verbs and Helping Verbs A main verb can stand by itself as the simple predicate of a sentence. will 12 Grammar. could. and Mechanics . see pages 96–106. did has. was. am. Usage. Common Helping Verbs Forms of be Forms of do Forms of have Others is. These words are called a verb phrase. would. should. might.
6. Different versions of “The Endless Tale” have originated in various parts of the world. A poor young man did appear at the castle one day. 8. 263. Fortunately. you will find a similar hero who tells a never-ending story about rats. 9. 5. He must tell an endless tale to the royal family. see the EXERCISE BANK. The first locust could grab only a single grain of corn. The Sentence and Its Parts 13 . Her perfect suitor should be a good storyteller.2 ● Why It Matters in Writing You can use verb phrases to show when an action or event takes place. Notice how the verb phrases in this model move the action from the past to the present and the future. ● ● For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. Be sure to include all the helping verbs. 10. An Endless Tale 1.The hero of an English version can talk endlessly about locusts stealing corn. 3. Soon a second locust has stolen another grain. p. He would share a story about a well-built barn full of corn. A beautiful princess was searching for a husband. his marriage to the princess will interrupt it. In Japanese folklore. and so on. This man’s boring story might have continued forever. 7. 4. Just a single locust may fit through the barn’s only hole. 2. PAST PRESENT FUTURE —Etta Worthington SENTENCE PARTS 3 ● Practice and Apply CONCEPT CHECK: Verb Phrases Write the verb phrase in each sentence below.
or. Usage. The verbs are joined by a conjunction such as and. or but. CHAPTER 1 A compound verb is made up of two or more verbs that share the same subject. In his day. SUBJECT SUBJECT The library or bookstore will have a collection. or connecting word. 2 ● Why It Matters in Writing You can use compound subjects and verbs to get rid of unnecessary words. Notice how the writer of this paragraph combined sentences. he and myths did not write any of them down. such as and. 14 Grammar. and Mechanics .1 ● Here’s the Idea Sentences can have compound subjects and compound verbs. fables were part of the oral tradition. or retold Aesop probably created some of the stories that made him famous. He probably retold some others.They were passed along by word of mouth. However. COMPOUND VERB Fables entertain and teach. The subjects are joined by a conjunction. or but. Myths were also part of the oral tradition. VERB VERB The animal characters speak and behave like people. COMPOUND SUBJECT Caroline and Suzanne are looking for fables. or. A compound subject is made up of two or more subjects that share the same verb.
Make it flow better by using compound subjects and verbs to combine sentences. The ant gathered and hauled seeds all day long. the body parts never blamed the belly. 5. 1. 9. His foolishness and laziness taught him a lesson. REVISING: Combining Sentences Answers in column. This version of a fable by Aesop is a little wordy. Readers and listeners will probably guess what it is.The hands no longer obtained food. The grasshopper starved and suffered. 264. 2. ● The Ant and the Grasshopper 3. 8. Now the body parts understood digestion. Cold winds and icy rains arrived in the winter.Yet all meals went into the belly.The teeth stopped chewing as well. CONCEPT CHECK: Compound Sentence Parts On a separate sheet of paper. Snacks also wound up there.3 ● Practice and Apply A. The Sentence and Its Parts 15 . The belly enjoyed food.They didn’t cook it either. SENTENCE PARTS B. Soon the entire body grew uncomfortable. 6. For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. 10. p. 4.They appreciated digestion too. From then on.They also stopped complaining about it. So did the other body parts. write the compound subject or compound verb for each sentence. 7. The ant ate and enjoyed plenty of food.The mouth refused to chew. Discipline and hard work bring rewards in the future. The grasshopper relaxed or played in the meantime. The grasshopper hopped and sang. ● An ant and a grasshopper were in a field on a fine summer day. One day the body parts decided to strike. see the EXERCISE BANK.The strike was canceled.
Usage. People from all cultures enjoy humor. who is a promising writer. Asks a question. What’s wrong? I don’t understand. Miss Walker. to make a request or give a command. I don’t want to read my story. Words on a Page 16 Grammar. between a teacher and her student. or ! Exclamatory ! You’re really funny! That joke is a lot older than I am! 2 ● Why It Matters in Writing The four kinds of sentences enable you to express different feelings and attitudes in your writing. Shows strong feeling. always ends with a question mark. And I don’t want to go to Thunder Bay! INTERROGATIVE DECLARATIVE EXCLAMATORY —Keith Leckie. usually ends with a period but may end with an exclamation point. . Lenore. Four Kinds of Sentences What It Does Declarative Examples Funny stories are popular everywhere. Tells or asks someone to do something. and Mechanics . or to show strong feelings. Stop interrupting me! Makes a statement. Interrogative ? CHAPTER 1 Imperative . to ask a question. Notice the variety of sentence types used in this dialogue. always ends with an exclamation point. or conversation.1 ● Here’s the Idea A sentence can be used to make a statement. always ends with a period. Do you know any jokes? Which one is your favorite? Listen carefully.
What could the cause be? INT 7. That’s the one! E 4. For example. D 2. D 10. WRITING: Creating Dialogue When writers rewrite stories for the stage. ● I found an amusing story in a book of folk humor. see the EXERCISE BANK. Write a brief skit based on this story. Different types of sentences help writers show the different feelings and attitudes of their characters. He was wearing two completely different shoes! E 8. D 6. find the story that you wrote for the Write Away on page 4. SENTENCE PARTS B. Remind me how the story goes. D 9. exclamatory (E). or imperative (IMP). The servant told him that there was no point in changing shoes. The Sentence and Its Parts 17 . imagine what the hedgehog might say when he discovers the creature in the stove. 264. ● Was it about a well-known judge who lived in China? INT Shoe Trouble 3. The pair at home was exactly like this one! E For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. CONCEPT CHECK: Kinds of Sentences Identify each of the following sentences as declarative (D). 1. In your Working Portfolio. they often use all four types of sentences. interrogative (INT). the judge noticed that he was walking with a limp. IMP 5. One morning. p.3 ● Practice and Apply A. He asked his servant to run home and fetch a replacement. Use each type of sentence at least once in the dialogue.
however. Inverted Sentences In inverted sentences.1 ● Here’s the Idea In most declarative sentences. and Mechanics . the subject comes after the verb or between parts of the verb phrase. SUBJECT (You) Sit perfectly still. Their usual order is reversed. follow verbs. is usually you. (You) Turn down the lights. (What did surprise you? the ending) Commands The subject of a command. Questions In most questions. Often. Did the ending surprise you? The ending did surprise you. subjects can come between verb parts. Then ask who or what is or does something. Usage. Is the story suspenseful? VERB PHRASE Did you find it scary? CHAPTER 1 SUBJECT To find the subject. In some kinds of sentences. the subject comes after the verb. 18 Grammar. or not appear at all. you doesn’t appear in the sentence because it is understood. or imperative sentence. turn the question into a statement. subjects come before verbs.
The hinges creaked and groaned as she opened the door. Variety is also important in writing. She ducked just in time. Into the room rushed a large black cat. VERB SUBJECT WHAT GOES? There goes our flashlight. VERB SUBJECT 2 ● Why It Matters in Writing Most people would grow tired of eating the same meal every day. From the other side of the door came a scratching sound. To find the subject. DRAFT REVISED Miranda cautiously approached the abandoned barn. The Sentence and Its Parts 19 .Inverted Subject and Verb Normal Inverted Normal Inverted A scratching sound came from the other side of the door. She ducked just in time. the subject follows the verb. Sentences Beginning with Here or There In some sentences beginning with here or there. Miranda cautiously approached the abandoned barn. A pair of squeaking bats flew out.The hinges creaked and groaned as she opened the door. Out flew a pair of squeaking bats. You should look for opportunities to vary the order of subjects and verbs in sentences. A large black cat rushed into the room. look for the verb and ask who? or what? WHAT COMES ? SENTENCE PARTS Here comes the scariest part. Notice how inverting a sentence in the model makes the paragraph more interesting to read.
REVISING: Adding Variety Answers in column. Which revision asks for information? 6. CONCEPT CHECK: Subjects in Unusual Order In two columns on a separate sheet of paper. Are your friends afraid now? At the end of the story is a terrible surprise. Model: A headless man appears in the window. There is a mournful cry behind a tomb. 9. Rewrite the sentence to begin with There is. 4. 1. CHAPTER 1 Speak softly at first. see the EXERCISE BANK. 4. Which revisions could you use to give information? 5. 7. 1. 6. 10. 5. Turn the sentence into a question.) 3. Will you set yours in a cemetery? In the shadows appear strange figures. Now decide how your revisions affect the mood of the model sentence. p. 2. Which revision seems the scariest? 20 Grammar. Invert the sentence without using there so that the subject comes after the verb. and Mechanics .3 ● Practice and Apply A. ● Are your friends bored? 2. write the simple subject and verb (or verb phrase) of each sentence. (You) Then shock your listeners with a timely scream. 8. For a SELF-CHECK and more exercises. 265. ● Tell a scary story. Follow the instructions to revise the model sentence. B. (You) There are many scary stories. Usage. (You) What a Nightmare! 3. (Hint: Remove the verb appears.
Two kinds of complements are subject complements and objects of verbs. SUBJECT COMPLEMENT SENTENCE PARTS Common Linking Verbs Forms of be Other linking verbs am. look. SC RIBES DE Most cowboy poetry is humorous. (describes) The Sentence and Its Parts 21 . A linking verb links the subject with a noun or adjective that tells more about it. SUBJECT PREDICATE ADJECTIVE Some of the poems are sad. feel. is. A subject complement is a word or group of words that follows a linking verb and renames or describes the subject. NAMES RE A popular cowboy poet is Rudy Gonzales. taste Predicate Nouns and Predicate Adjectives Both nouns and adjectives can serve as subject complements. LINKING VERB Cowboy poetry is a Western tradition. being. A predicate noun follows a linking verb and defines or renames the subject.1 ● Here’s the Idea A complement is a word or a group of words that completes the meaning of a verb. were. are. was. sound. been appear. SUBJECT PREDICATE NOUN A predicate adjective follows a linking verb and describes a quality of the subject. seem.
veterinarian. and Mechanics . PA 3. He became famous throughout the world. PREDICATE NOUN PREDICATE ADJECTIVE —Anne Rockwell. PA 9. PA 4. he was almost as remarkable an inventor and craftsman as the god Hephaestus. Poems on the Range 1. Cowboy poets were the storytellers of the Old West. The stories of the Old West are popular once again. It was also colorful. see the EXERCISE BANK. and the cowboy life were their themes. 6. PA 7. The future looks bright for this uniquely American art form. Life was difficult on the Western frontier. Their poems still seem so vivid. 265. CONCEPT CHECK: Subject Complements Write the italicized word in each sentence and identify it as either a predicate noun (PN) or a predicate adjective (PA). “The Boy Who Flew” CHAPTER 1 3 ● Practice and Apply A. hard work. B. One of Athene’s pupils was a man called Daedalus. PN 8. The famous poet Baxter Black used to be a (3) (predicate noun) who treated livestock. Cowboy-poetry festivals are big events these days. PN 5. p. Many of them are real (2) (predicate noun). 22 Grammar. Usage. The cowboy life remains an irresistible subject. Even though he was mortal. Choose one of the following words to supply each missing subject complement below: cowboys. The cattle drives of the 1800s are legendary. ● ● PN PA For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. authentic.2 ● Why It Matters in Writing Subject complements tell the reader much more about the subject. PN 10. PA 2. It’s no wonder that cowboy poets often sound so (1) (predicate adjective). REVISING: Using Subject Complements Answers in column. Horses.
Action verbs often need complements called direct objects and indirect objects to complete their meaning. INDIRECT OBJECT DIRECT OBJECT Verbs that are often followed by indirect objects include bring. 1. Here’s How Finding Direct and Indirect Objects Jack showed his mother the magic beans. Showed to whom? mother The Sentence and Its Parts 23 . ask. hand. and ask. ask. Find the action verb in the sentence. there are objects of verbs. Showed what? beans 3. make. lend. send. (protected whom? Jack) Indirect Objects An indirect object is a word or group of words that tells to whom or what (or for whom or what) an action is performed. write. tell. teach. To find the indirect object. A direct object answers the question what or whom. show. An indirect object usually comes between a verb and a direct object. offer. give. To find the direct object. TO WHOM? Jesse told his little cousins the story. showed 2. MB E C LI D WHAT ? Jack climbed the beanstalk. Direct Objects A direct object is a word or group of words that names the receiver of the action.1 ● Here’s the Idea In addition to subject complements. DIRECT OBJECT SENTENCE PARTS The giant’s wife protected Jack.
you can use direct objects and indirect objects to help readers understand relationships. She could have brought her hungry husband the boy. The boy saw a huge beanstalk outside his window the next morning.2 ● Why It Matters in Writing When you describe events. 2. Jack’s mother tossed the beans away. 8. 5. and Mechanics .Yet he changed his mind when he heard that the beans were magical. Jack stole a bag of gold after the giant fell asleep. p. A strange-looking man offered Jack five beans for his cow. He showed his delighted mother the gold at home. 4. The giant counted his gold coins. Instead she offered Jack her oven for a hiding place. ● ● For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. The giant’s wife served Jack some breakfast. write each object and identify it as a direct object (DO) or an indirect object (IO). Climbing the Beanstalk 1. see the EXERCISE BANK. DIRECT OBJECT INDIRECT OBJECT —Eric Scholl CHAPTER 1 3 ● Practice and Apply CONCEPT CHECK: Objects of Verbs For each sentence below. He discovered a giant’s castle at the top. 9. 24 Grammar. 3. 266. This task gave him a great weariness. Usage. 10. Jack immediately rejected this offer. 7. 6. Jack’s mother gave him a fierce scolding when he came home with the beans.
(missing a predicate) SENTENCE PARTS Tells the story of the Norman victory in England. add a subject. FRAGMENTS The Bayeux Tapestry in an ancient French town. It tells the story of the Norman victory in England. (missing a subject) From the 11th century. or both. or both.1 ● Here’s the Idea Sentence fragments and run-on sentences are writing errors that can make your writing difficult to understand. a predicate. Sentence Fragments A sentence fragment is a part of a sentence that is written as if it were a complete sentence. REVISION The Bayeux Tapestry hangs in an ancient French town. A sentence fragment is missing a subject. a predicate. (missing subject and predicate) To make a complete sentence. The Sentence and Its Parts 25 . The tapestry dates from the 11th century.
and Mechanics . Over 1.Run-On Sentences A run-on sentence is two or more sentences written as though they were a single sentence. NOTES Consists of 72 scenes and a fancy border. animals. and other figures appear in it.500 people. you often jot down ideas as fragments or run-on sentences. and Duke William of Normandy became their new king. Duke William of Normandy became their new king. animals. Scholars value the tapestry as a great work of art. use a comma before the conjunction. When combining two sentences with a conjunction. REVISION The English lost the historic battle. RUN-ON The English lost the historic battle. it is also an important historical document. Duke William of Normandy became their new king. It is also an important historical document. DRAFT The Bayeux Tapestry consists of 72 scenes and a fancy border. Scholars value the tapestry as a great work of art. It is important to change your notes into complete sentences when you write your draft. Over 1. REVISION The English lost the historic battle. 26 Grammar. Usage. and other figures in it.500 people. CHAPTER 1 2 ● Why It Matters in Writing When you take notes or do prewriting.
The thousands of details within the tapestry. REVISING: Fixing Fragments and Run-Ons Answers in column. F 10. today it ● A Storytelling Tapestry is a region of France.3 ● Practice and Apply A. SENTENCE PARTS Rewrite the exercise as a paragraph. ● William of Normandy led the Norman invasion of England in 1066. CS 2. One interesting detail the long oars within the ships. run-on (RO). SECTION 21 OF THE BAYEUX TAPESTRY Shows soldiers from Duke William’s army. The Sentence and Its Parts 27 . F 5. 1.They have just landed on the English coast. Is in many ways like a movie. 266. or complete sentence (CS). F 9. Fix any fragments or runon sentences. CS 6. Correct any fragments or run-ons so that your partner will understand your notes. Bishop Odo of the town of Bayeux. Have taught us a great deal about life in the Middle Ages. F 4. Was William’s half-brother. Answers in column. CONCEPT CHECK: Sentence Fragments and Run-Ons On a separate sheet of paper. You have taken the following notes. The Norman ships always fairly small in the tapestry. This magnificent work tells the story of the invasion. some are just getting out of their ships. The tapestry is 231 feet long. You and a classmate are working together on a presentation about the Bayeux Tapestry. Historians tell us that they were actually around a hundred feet long. RO 3. His teams of craftspeople made the enormous piece of needlework. F For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. identify each of the following items as a fragment (F). it is only 20 inches wide. Normandy was a small dukedom. RO 7. In those days. see the EXERCISE BANK. CS 8. B. p.
. As for Athena’s weaving. In writing. or express your excitement. make a request. Notice the types of sentences that Olivia E. Coolidge CHAPTER 1 A rachne was used to being wondered at. “. when she heard them murmur. could teach her anything. . Coolidge uses in retelling the Greek myth of Arachne. how could there be finer cloth or more beautiful embroidery than mine? If Athena herself were to come down and compete with me. you need these types of sentences to show emotion and give information.” DECLARATIVE SENTENCE INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE IMPERATIVE SENTENCE 28 . and it displeased her greatly that people should think anyone.” One day when Arachne turned round with such words. Therefore. . she would stop her work and turn round indignantly to say.Using Different Types of Sentences Whenever you ask a question. . Take my advice and ask pardon of Athena for your words. and she was immensely proud of the skill that had brought so many to look on her. even a goddess. “With my own ten fingers I gained this skill. Praise was all she lived for. and by hard practice from early morning till night. an old woman answered her. you use different types of sentences. ARACHNE retold by Olivia E. . she could do no better than I.
The lion.The tortoise had won. you can rewrite one of the following fables: One day a big lion caught a tiny mouse. and sat down under a tree to rest. One day. but he let her go anyway. fairy tale. The mouse heard the lion roar in frustration and hurried to him. But the tortoise kept going. sipped water from a stream.While the hare was fast asleep.R OS e CURRI CU S th L UM AC Practice and Apply WRITING: Using Different Types of Sentences L IT E R AT UR E Retell your favorite fable. he walked into a trap whose net closed tightly around him. the hare far outdistanced the tortoise. A few days later.The hare got so far ahead that he soon grew tired. the hare woke up. the tortoise kept going. or folktale. didn’t believe the mouse could ever help him. the tortoise claimed that even though he was slow. The Sentence and Its Parts 29 . Moral: Slow and steady wins the race. using at least three types of sentences. myth. but he was too late. but he accepted the challenge to race. not stopping for food. From the starting line.The mouse pleaded with the lion to let her go and promised to return his kindness one day. he ate some clover. If you like. She quickly began to gnaw through the net until the lion was able to escape.Thinking he had lots of time.The hare thought the tortoise was joking. of course. or rest. SENTENCE PARTS The hare was always making fun of the tortoise. slowly and steadily. He hurried down the road. Just before the tortoise reached the finish line. he could still beat the hare in a race. water. Moral: Even a small friend can be a great friend. He would laugh at the tortoise’s short legs and call him slowpoke.
DO 30 Grammar. Only then will Alligator 6. Alligator is (4) suspicious. 8. 4. (10) Sometimes he himself is the victim of a practical joke or a clever trick. According to 8. An incident in “Anansi and the Crabs” is an (1) example of Anansi’s trickery. Alligator agrees. 3. PA (5) Anansi this test. Anansi drinks the (10) water with ease! 10. IO cousins. (9) He succeeds most of the time. DO Anansi. 6. a direct object. Answers in column. and Mechanics . He tells (3) Alligator the lie that they are 3. Subjects. PN story. He 7. Therefore. 10. however. Complements Identify each underlined word as a predicate noun. the water will become even (9) hotter after 9. and Compound Sentence Parts Read the passage. PA a long rest in the sun. 5. What What What What What What What What What What kind of sentence is sentence 1? is the main verb of sentence 2? is the compound part of sentence 3? kind of sentence is sentence 4? is the helping verb of sentence 5? is the simple subject of sentence 6? is the compound part of sentence 7? is the complete subject of sentence 8? is the simple predicate of sentence 9? is the complete predicate of sentence 10? CHAPTER 1 B. (2) A king has discovered a crime in his household. a predicate adjective. Anansi fears a harsh (2) punishment from 2. or an indirect object. Anansi must drink some boiling (6) water. A Cunning Spider (1) Picture the following scene. DO Alligator. (6) Stories about Anansi originated in West Africa. 9. PA makes one (8) suggestion. DO believe him. 2. Supposedly. (8) This humorous character always tries to trick people. IO drink boiling water. 7. Predicates.Mixed Review A. At the end of the 1. Of course. He gives 4. (4) Who is this slippery trickster figure? (5) Folklore fans will recognize him as Anansi. 1. Usage. (3) The guilty one climbs and escapes as a spider. all alligators can 5. (7) Storytellers and listeners are quite fond of him. the water becomes cooler instead. Anansi seems (7) cooperative. then write the answers to the questions below it.
predicate adjective B. exclamatory sentence 8. verb phrase 6.Mastery Test: What Did You Learn? For each underlined item. inverted sentence C. simple predicate 9. A. direct object The Sentence and Its Parts 31 . Practice telling the story over and over. run-on sentence B. interrogative sentence C. complete predicate D. Have you considered storytelling as a hobby? Many students are showing interest in this ancient art. A. libraries. (10) (9) (8) (7) (6) (4) (5) (3) (1) (2) SENTENCE PARTS 1. and community centers often attract enthusiastic crowds. Some storytellers record their practice sessions on audiotape or videotape. simple subject C. predicate adjective C. compound verb C. helping verb D. complete subject B. A. complete predicate B. A. direct object D. simple predicate 3. simple subject C. use appropriate gestures and facial expressions. complete subject B. compound subject B. complete predicate D. predicate noun B. Speak clearly and directly. choose the letter of the term that correctly identifies it. indirect object D. inverted sentence D. simple predicate 4. A. A. complete subject B. Look for a good location for your performance. A. declarative sentence 10. imperative sentence D. Myths and legends are good stories for younger audiences. compound predicate C. run-on sentence 7. Schools. You should consider the age of your listeners. fragment B. A. parks. A. indirect object 5. The following suggestions may be helpful for beginners. A. complete predicate D. interrogative sentence D. run-on sentence C. declarative sentence 2. simple subject C. predicate noun C. direct object D. declarative sentence B. Even a shy person could tell stories before an audience.
knocked 32 Grammar. Find the verb(s) or verb phrase(s). Ask what the subject is or does. object object or verb complements CHAPTER 1 Subjects and Predicates Sentence Part Example Story Line How to Find It Ask who or what is or does something. simple subject simple indirect direct predicate. and Mechanics . complete subject complete predicate The girl’s mother gave her a basket. Complete subject The sly wolf slipped into the bed. Usage. Find the main word(s) in the complete subject. Simple subject wolf Complete predicate Simple predicate Little Red Riding Hood knocked on the door.A sentence has two parts: a complete subject and a complete predicate.
made sure that each sentence has a subject and a predicate? corrected any fragments or run-on sentences? combined any sentences with similar ideas by using compound subjects or verbs? used different kinds of sentences and subject-verb order for variety? used complements to make the meaning of sentences clear? The Sentence and Its Parts 33 . . SENTENCE PARTS Kinds of Sentences Declarative sentence Interrogative sentence Imperative sentence Exclamatory sentence Different Voices The story has a happy ending. How does it end? (You) Tell me how it ends.Complements Predicate noun Predicate adjective Direct object Action verbs Indirect object Finishing Touches What It Does Renames or defines the subject Describes the subject Completes the verb’s action Tells to whom/what or for whom/what the action is done Type of Complement Example Linking verbs The wolf is a killer. What a happy ending! The Bottom Line Checklist for Editing Sentences Have I . His teeth are big. She gave the wolf indigestion. He ate the grandmother. .
34 . lost a contest or competition. Nouns are the signposts in your sentences. Which name people? Which name a place? Which name things? Which names an idea? As you can see. we fin Theme: Lost Cities and Civilizations Finding Your Way Poor Carmen! She and her father lost their way while exploring the ruins of a lost civilization on the island of Crete. nouns are an important part of language. on the Greek isl e ruins looking th We wandered in of the minotaur. Look at the different nouns in her diary.” Write Away: Missing Out Think about a time when you lost something important to you. places. or ideas you write about. You need nouns to name the people. things. July and I got lost On our trip Dad and of Crete. for the mosaic kindness of a Because of the ally found it. Save your writing in your Working Portfolio. stranger. Write a paragraph that describes this important event. or missed a big opportunity. You may have misplaced a treasured item.Chapter 2 CHAPTER 2 Carmen’s Diary 23. 2001 hu T rsday. They keep you from getting “lost.
he said. noun as predicate noun D. possessive noun D. proper noun C. Other people think it was indeed a real place. noun as subject C.Diagnostic Test: What Do You Know? For each numbered item. possessive noun C. (6) (7) There may be a very simple explanation for Atlantis. A. noun as object of preposition D. noun as subject B. A. noun as object of preposition D. A. noun as direct object C. singular noun B. noun as predicate noun 7. an island near Greece. noun as object of preposition D. He wrote about an ancient (1) civilization called Atlantis. a volcano erupted on Thera. plural noun C. noun as subject B. choose the letter of the term that correctly identifies it. common noun D. singular noun B. Plato’s words have caused many (3) (4) (5) people to wonder about this lost place. noun as object of preposition 10. A. noun as object of preposition 8. NOUNS 1. proper noun 2. A. (8) The explosion completely destroyed the center of the island. common noun B. plural noun B. predicate noun D. possessive noun C. So (9) Thera may be remembered as Atlantis. noun as direct object B. Some people think Atlantis was only a legend. plural noun B. noun as predicate noun 4. noun as direct object C. possessive noun C. noun as predicate noun D. A. noun as predicate noun B. proper noun 6. plural noun 3. Atlantis had (2) disappeared beneath the waves. A. plural noun 5. noun as subject Nouns 35 . possessive noun 9. Long ago. a civilization lost to a (10) natural disaster. About 3. A. Plato was a Greek philosopher. noun as direct object C. common noun D. A. noun as subject B. proper noun D. A. noun as direct object C.500 years ago.
A proper noun is the name of a particular person.1 ● Here’s the Idea A noun is a word that names a person. place. COMMON NOUNS People abandoned their home in the state. thing. place. Common Proper people Pueblo Indians home Cliff Palace state Colorado Proper nouns make writing clear and precise. PROPER NOUNS Ancient Pueblo Indians abandoned the Cliff Palace in Colorado. or idea. or idea. and Mechanics . Proper nouns are always capitalized. place. Common nouns are not capitalized. 36 Grammar. PERSONS archaeologist Theresa PLACES site Colorado THINGS pail shovel IDEAS exploration excitement CHAPTER 2 Common and Proper Nouns A common noun is a general name for a person. thing. thing. Usage. or idea.
NOUNS ● ● Label each noun that you wrote above as a person. Prp. Hot lava and ash shot out of the volcanic mountain. Com. Prp./Com./Prp. all Com./Com. 9. Ash completely covered the town. place./Com. Answers in column. all Com. 4. Slowly Found 1. 7./Com. in Italy. 8. 3. Pompeii was finally excavated in recent times. both Prp. DRAFT REVISION I saw the man slowly hike up the road with his students to see the houses last month. Notice how proper nouns make the following description more colorful and specific. The material rained down on the buildings of Pompeii. Sometimes a place disappears quickly. or idea. Some people ran to the sea and escaped in small boats./Com. 10. Com. all Com.2 ● Why It Matters in Writing Sentences without proper nouns are often too general. Families were sitting down to eat bread and fish. 6.000 years ago. This happened to Pompeii. 2. I saw Mr. and it was forgotten. 3 ● Practice and Apply CONCEPT CHECK: What Is a Noun? Write each noun. Giuseppe Fiorelli found blackened rolls in a bakery. thing./Prp. Com. p. and label it as common or proper. For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. A volcano called Mount Vesuvius erupted almost 2. both Com. Quickly Lost. 5. see the EXERCISE BANK. 267 Nouns 37 . DeLalo slowly hike up Ruins Road with Rick and Theresa to see the Cliff Palace last August.
For most nouns ending in y. 4 city stairway 5 shelf knife chief 6 deer buffalo 38 Grammar. (plural nouns) To make sure you spell plural nouns correctly. Just add -s to a few nouns that end in f or fe. or idea. and Mechanics . or idea. follow the rules in the Quick-Fix Spelling Machine. thing. just add -s. PLURALS OF NOUNS PLURAL ruins buildings trenches dishes volcanos echoes cities stairways shelves knives chiefs deer buffalo 1 2 3 ruin building trench dish volcano echo Add -es to a noun that ends in s.1 ● Here’s the Idea A singular noun names one person. place. place. A plural noun names more than one person. Add -es to a few nouns that end in o. Usage. CHAPTER 2 QUICK-FIX SPELLING MACHINE: SINGULAR RULE Add -s to most nouns. keep the same spelling. For some nouns. x. ch. sh. Add -s to most nouns that end in o. (singular nouns) Tourists walked down the cobbled streets. For most nouns ending in f or fe. thing. A tourist walked down the cobbled street. change the y to an i and add -es. When a vowel comes before the y. change the f to v and add -es or -s. or z.
. (Scientist) study mummies to learn about (disease). Suddenly it seemed too late for Tito. p. . . ordinary people were also mummified. they prepared their dead to be (mummy). Have You Seen My Mummy? order to have life after death. 7. 9.The plurals of some nouns are formed in irregular ways. Rewrite the nouns in parentheses in their plural forms. He licked Tito’s hands. . the stinging vapors tore his throat. 1. 10. pay special attention to this challenge. his feet. Notice how plural nouns are spelled correctly in the model below. In a moment Bimbo was beside him. CONCEPT CHECK: Singular and Plural Nouns Answers in column. After many (century). . 4. 5. Nouns 39 For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. For this reason. The mummies were buried with precious (object). 8. Perhaps the (story) about a mummy’s curse got started because (archaeologist) were infected by ancient germs. NOUNS —Louis Untermeyer. He could not go on. Singular Plural child children woman women man men foot feet 2 ● Why It Matters in Writing Plural nouns are the cause of many spelling errors in writing. “The Dog of Pompeii” 3 ● Practice and Apply A. 6. ● (Egyptian) believed that a body had to be preserved in 3. ● The (priest) of Egypt put the (body) of dead kings in tombs. 267. They have found (rash) and (sore) caused by (parasite). . Egyptians with many (rich) often had short (life). At first. The red hot ashes blistered his skin. When you proofread. . 2. his face. see the EXERCISE BANK. only dead (king) and (queen) were wrapped in cloth.
Garbage In. Be sure to spell plural nouns correctly. in case they’re ever seen! C. tools. Find them and write their correct spellings. lost citys do exactly that! They find artifacts that provide us with echos of the past. or dig up. An artifact is any object mans. AC RO S S T HE CHAPTER 2 ICUL U CU RR M ri Field T p Notes Social Studies artifacts tools bone brush pot pick 40 . Ten plural nouns in the following passage are misspelled. you saw the student archaeologist below. PROOFREADING: Spelling Plural Nouns Answers in column. or your baby toys! A scientist today may look at bones to see which animals people ate. Knowledge Out! Can you imagine archaeologists going through your trash? People who excavate. womans. and other objects used by ancient communities. WRITING: Describing Artifacts Answers in column. your toothbrushs. A future excavator may examine the leftover tomatos in your salad! Here’s a hint. Today’s scientists examine pottery. Write a description of the tools he used and the artifacts he found.B. and childs use in their daily lifes. On a social studies field trip. A future scientist may examine your mattresses. such as deers or buffalo. Keep your old dishs clean.
Add an apostrophe and -s. The divers waited outside the archaeologist’s tent. The divers used a robot to find the location of the ship. Notice how the revision in the model below clears up whether one or more people made the discovery. be sure you have formed the possessive correctly. QUICK-FIX SPELLING MACHINE: POSSESSIVES NOUN Singular Plural ending in -s Plural not ending in -s Mars mound temples travelers people men NOUNS RULE Add an apostrophe and -s. RELATIONSHIP You may use possessive nouns in place of longer phrases.1 ● Here’s the Idea The possessive form of a noun shows ownership or relationship. OWNERSHIP The archaeologist’s family had come to visit. . A misplaced apostrophe can confuse the reader. POSSESSIVE Mars’s orbit mound’s location temples’ treasures travelers’ postcards people’s goods men’s shoes 2 ● Why It Matters in Writing When you write. Add an apostrophe. Nouns 41 . When the archaeologists opened the wooden chests. The explorer’s discovery made headlines in newspapers across the country. ship’s location. they found priceless relics.
seamen’s. eyewitnesses’. Sing. Example: The Cliff Houses of Mesa Verde Answer: Mesa Verde’s Cliff Houses 1. The Royal Tomb of King Tut Mesa Verde’s Cliff Houses 42 Grammar. Sing. Sing. ● The Mary Rose was one of (England) finest warships. 3. 8. Alexander McKee located the (wreck) position in 1967. 1. 7. Then label each possessive noun singular or plural. REVISING: Using Possessive Nouns Answers in column. 5. battle with the French fleet in 1545. wreck’s. 10. Other weapons were found in the (sailors) cabins. Usage. The Mary Rose quickly became covered with the (seabed) mud and sand. Mary Rose’s. seabed’s. Pl. Netting kept the (Mary Rose) sailors from escaping when the ship sank. see the EXERCISE BANK. ● She sank near the Portsmouth (Harbor) seabed during a Risen from a Watery Grave England’s. 9. The Mary Rose and its artifacts tell us about the (seamen) lives on board the ship. and other (archers) equipment were found on the gun deck. Pl. Many (eyewitnesses) accounts told of her sad end. Sing. 6. The Capital City of the Aztecs 2. CONCEPT CHECK: Possessive Nouns Write the possessive form of each noun in parentheses. city’s. Harbor’s. Bows. 4. p.3 ● Practice and Apply A. and Mechanics . sailors’. Pl. The Ruins of Pompeii 3. Sing. U CU RR M ICUL Use possessive nouns to make these phrases short enough to fit on labels for a social studies project. 2. 268 RO S S T CHAPTER 2 AC HE B. The Earth Mounds of Cahokia 4. archers’. Sing. Pl. arrows. In 1982 the ship was raised and stored in the (city) dry dock. For a SELF-CHECK and more practice.
1 ● Here’s the Idea You use nouns every time you talk or write. it may be a predicate noun. Spanish soldiers destroyed Tenochtitlán during their conquest of Mexico. they are found in different places in sentences. Because nouns have many jobs. and the ideas you have. The Aztecs gave the Spanish gold and other precious goods. Spanish soldiers defeated the Aztec Empire in 1521. Nouns 43 . or an indirect object. the sights and sounds you experience. When a noun is a complement. the places you visit. a direct object. NOUNS Nouns as Complements A complement is a word that completes the meaning of a verb. The Aztec Empire was located in the area now known as Mexico. Nouns as Complements Predicate noun Direct object Indirect object renames or defines the subject after a linking verb names the receiver of the action of the verb tells to whom or what or for whom or what an action is done The Aztecs were fierce warriors. Tenochtitlán was the capital of the Aztec Empire. Notice the following sentences in which nouns act as subjects. Nouns name the people you meet. Nouns as Subjects A subject tells whom or what the sentence is about. Invaders entered Tenochtitlán in 1519.
4. PREPOSITION OBJECT OF PREPOSITION Aztec merchants traded with distant lands./OP 44 Grammar. Cuzco was their capital. CONCEPT CHECK: Nouns and Their Jobs Identify each underlined noun as a subject. S 2.Nouns as Objects of Prepositions An object of a preposition is the noun or pronoun that follows the preposition. Among their valuable goods were gold and silver. and Mechanics . a complement. They invented the quipu to keep track of their goods. Nouns often appear in sentences as objects of prepositions. or an object of a preposition. For this reason. Comp. Notice how the highlighted nouns in the model below add information to the sentences. they built their capital on an island. Comp. Usage. Aztec warriors guarded the ends of the causeways. CHAPTER 2 The Aztecs had many enemies. 2 ● Why It Matters in Writing Using nouns in their various jobs can help you write a detailed explanation of any subject. The Aztec people settled in central Mexico. ● ● Roadbuilders in the Sky 1. The Inca lived in the Andes Mountains in South America. 3. In this way causeways provided the Aztec people protection. Long causeways led from the mainland to the island. The Inca were excellent record keepers. S/Comp. Causeways are raised roads built across water. SUBJECT DIRECT OBJECT INDIRECT OBJECT PREDICATE NOUN OBJECT OF REFLEXIVE PREPOSITION REFLEXIVE 3 ● Practice and Apply A.
Nouns 45 . 10. Aztecs worshiped Quetzalcoatl Working Portfolio: Revising Find your Write Away paragraph from page 34. B. Write a caption for a museum exhibit based on the information provided. Quetzalcoatl: Feathered-Serpent God The photograph below shows Quetzalcoatl. 268. Identify each complement in the exercise above as a predicate noun. a direct object. 9. 6. S/Comp. NOUNS 1./OP Clerks tied knots in the strings in different patterns. Quetzalcoatl = both snake and bird 2. Some roads are still used today by Andean people. see the EXERCISE BANK. 7.The quipu was a long cord with many strings./Comp./OP Officials gave runners messages to carry hundreds of miles. WRITING: Creating a Caption Answers in column. Quetzalcoatl = god of learning 5. Their system of roads carried runners across deep gorges. long emerald feathers of quetzal highly valued 4. S/Comp. 8. 5. Comp. Quetzal = brightly colored bird found in forests of Central and South America 3. Revise your paragraph by adding specific complements that add to your explanation. The Inca also built excellent roads. complements. Comp. Answers in column. S For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. Include nouns as subjects. and objects of prepositions. S/Comp. p. or an indirect object. a god worshiped by the Aztecs.
and Mechanics . (1) (2) (3) (4) 46 Grammar. For example. Notice the nouns used to label the pine tree. chances are you use nouns. or structures. are common to most plants. Usage. needles CHAPTER 2 cone trunk roots ilar to a A flowering plant is sim coniferous plant. or identify specimens for science. one coniferous plant (a pine tree) and one flowering plant (a rosebush). The illustrations show two types of plants. nouns label the parts of the coniferous tree in the illustration. Some parts.Using Nouns in Science When you label diagrams.
like the needles on a pine tree B. How are they alike? How are they different? Use the nouns you have learned in this lesson to refer to the parts that are alike and different. like the trunk of a pine tree roots hold the plant in the soil and absorb water and nutrients from the soil to feed the plant flower holds the seed of the plant. Copy the diagram of the rosebush on a separate sheet of paper. Use the labels on the pine tree diagram as a guide.R OS e CURRI CU S th L UM Practice and Apply A. like the cone of the pine tree leaves make plant food from sunlight and chlorophyll. WRITING: Compare and Contrast in Science NOUNS A flowering plant carries its seeds in its flowers. Nouns 47 . USING NOUNS AC SC IENCE Look at the diagrams of the pine tree and the rosebush. Write a paragraph in which you compare and contrast a pine tree and a rosebush. Then use the nouns below to write the words that label the rosebush. A cone-bearing plant carries seeds in its cones. stem holds the plant upright.
the same underlined noun is used in different ways. Nouns and Their Jobs In each group of sentences. dinosaurs’s pet 5. © The New Yorker Collection 1999 Gahan Wilson 1. The most popular animals in museums are dinosaurs. predicate noun. What happened to the dinosaurs? 3. 4. Which of the following is a common noun? Science Times. indirect object. things 2. Label each noun as a subject. Which of the following is a proper noun? Earth. or object of a preposition. 9. dinosaur’s pet. However. 8. Earth. and Mechanics . Write a sentence telling what is going on in the cartoon. 1.’ things would have turned out quite differently if that meteor had hit Earth. Finding food was easier for these mammals. meteor. Underline the nouns. Other animals on Earth were mammals. things. no blockbuster movie features small mammals! 48 Grammar. meteor “Anyhow. direct object. Which of the following is a plural noun? Science. Did an asteroid or other disaster kill the dinosaurs? 6. Ancient mammals were much smaller than the huge dinosaurs. We must give dinosaurs credit for surviving 160 million years. 2. 7. according to the ‘Science Times. The dinosaurs had no cities or civilizations.Mixed Review A. 10. 5. Which of the following is the correct possessive? dinosaurs’ pet. Usage. meteor 4. An earth without dinosaurs gave mammals much more space. and answer the questions. and identify how they are used. Kinds of Nouns Look at the cartoon. B.” CHAPTER 2 3.
proper noun B. Some historians believe the colonists (9) (10) went to live with local Native American people in their villages. White found no (5) colonists. A. In 1587 (1) English colonists started a colony on the island. plural noun C. NOUNS 1. A. The disappearance of the (8) colony is a great mystery. However. possessive noun D. noun as predicate noun C. A tree near the fort had (6) (7) the name CROATOAN scratched in its bark.Mastery Test: What Did You Learn? For each numbered item. only the colonists’ possessions. noun as object of preposition B. A. predicate noun 5. noun as subject B. noun as predicate noun C. A. noun as object of preposition D. noun as subject B. White’s ship Hopewell returned to (3) (4) England in 1587 to get more supplies. A. A. noun as indirect object C. In 1590 the ship was bringing supplies to the new colony. A storm prevented the ship from reaching Croatoan Island. plural noun C. noun as direct object 8. A. possessive noun D. proper noun B. common noun B. A. predicate noun 7. noun as direct object B. possessive noun B. proper noun 3. possessive noun D. A. common noun D. noun as object of preposition D. John White was (2) the leader of the colony. proper noun C. choose the letter of the term that correctly identifies it. common noun C. plural noun 2. noun as direct object C. noun as direct object D. possessive noun D. noun as indirect object C. A. noun as object of preposition 6. noun as predicate noun Nouns 49 . noun as predicate noun 10. noun as direct object B. singular noun B. possessive noun 9. noun as indirect object 4. noun as indirect object D. plural noun C. Roanoke Island lies off the coast of North Carolina. singular noun D.
For most nouns ending in y. ch. Archaeologists in Egypt discovered a cemetery filled with mummies’ tombs. and Mechanics . Just add -s to a few nouns that end in f or fe. change the y to an i and add -es. When a vowel comes before the y. For most nouns ending in f or fe. Add -es to a few nouns that end in o. place. sh. thing. 4 discovery roadway 5 leaf half belief 6 sheep salmon 50 Grammar. x. just add -s. or idea.A noun names a person. Common Noun Proper Noun Singular Noun Possessive Noun Plural Noun QUICK-FIX SPELLING MACHINE: CHAPTER 2 SINGULAR RULE Add -s to most nouns. or z. PLURALS OF NOUNS PLURAL tools teams boxes wrenches radios tomatoes discoveries roadways leaves halves beliefs sheep salmon 1 2 3 tool team box wrench radio tomato Add -es to a noun that ends in s. Add -s to most nouns that end in o. keep the same spelling. For some nouns. change the f to v and add -es or -s. Usage.
There were rows of mummies. . Subject Predicate Noun Direct Object Indirect Object Object of a Preposition Examples The cemetery is more than 2. Add an apostrophe. NOUNS The Bottom Line Checklist for Nouns Have I . Add an apostrophe and -s.000 years old. . Dr. . chosen specific nouns? spelled plural nouns correctly? used possessives to show ownership or relationship? used complements to provide specific details in explanations? Nouns 51 . He visited a tomb. He handed his assistant a flashlight. . Salwah is an archaeologist.QUICK-FIX SPELLING MACHINE: POSSESSIVES NOUN Singular Plural ending in -s Plural not ending in -s Venus skull explorers princes children sheep RULE Add an apostrophe and -s. POSSESSIVE Venus’s skull’s owner explorers’ discovery princes’ crowns children’s games sheep’s pasture e desert? n th ’s i W hat Nouns and Their Jobs Nouns as .
Adam Lara. Place your work in your Working Portfolio. Use pronouns to make the most of your limited space. your friends may misunderstand your messages. we. S smart. and she. We had a great soccer year! See you in soccer camp. you. Be careful how you use them. Later -Kenna Lara. Write Away: Thanks for the Memories! Write a brief yearbook message for one or more of your friends. like I. What if you couldn’t use pronouns. You have a writing space about the size of a large postage stamp. Otherwise. 52 . but had to use everybody’s name instead? Could you make your message fit? Pronouns are little words that make a big difference. though.” Tha t’s you! Your friend. You and Elena and me— the Three Sisters forever! Luv. Jill CHAPTER 3 Theme: Friendship A Little Help from My Friends A good friend has asked you to sign her yearbook. she was New York he came from City.Chapter 3 Lara. “She was pretty.
youre C. its B. A. Kevin and I B. PRONOUNS like the rest of us. (2) Peer means “equal in age or rank. This C. A.Diagnostic Test: What Do You Know? Choose the letter of the best revision for each underlined word or group of words. Who B. they’re D. Peer pressure can be negative. theirs C. himself B. These D. there B. The coach. Correct as is Pronouns 53 . Correct as is 3. Him and Daniel pressured me to sign up too. Correct as is 10. A. is enjoying ourselves!” (10) 1. Me and Kevin C. A. Which C. Me and them buddies D. it D. he and I D. but it’s positive too. myself D. Correct as is 2. Whose D. He and Daniel D. Correct as is 5. Them buddies B. him and I C. Daniel and them C. Correct as is 8. Daniel and him B. its’ C. That there B. A. yours B. A. A. (1) Lourdes asked him and me to do an oral presentation in class. A. your D. This here is why peer pressure is (4) (5) (6) so powerful. We buddies C. Kevin and me did a report on peer pressure. A.” Whom can resist the (8) (9) pressure of two friends? “I’m glad I joined the team. Correct as is 7. Correct as is 6. Correct as is 9. Correct as is 4. Us D. People want to (3) be accepted by their peer group. he and me B. A. (7) Us buddies always do things together. Our teacher Mrs. One boy we interviewed said. “My buddy signed up for the basketball team. theirselves C.” Peer pressure is the influence that people in you’re own age group have on you.
and possessive. Unlike nouns.1 ● Here’s the Idea A pronoun is a word that is used in place of a noun or another pronoun. We left early. object. Like a noun. or cases. depending on how they are used in a sentence. You are all leaving. Subject: Object: Possessive: He just started middle school. and it are called personal pronouns. or idea. them. Pronouns can be singular or plural in number. The word that a personal pronoun refers to is called its antecedent. Usage. number. and case. They came by car. a pronoun can refer to a person. I. Now Scott is his best friend. place. In the chart on the next page. Scott met him on the first day. She is so funny! Alexis read her jokes to the class. second person. R RS EF E TO Personal Pronouns CHAPTER 3 Pronouns such as we. You left too. He came by bus. Case Personal pronouns change their forms. You’ll learn more about each case in the next three lessons. thing. Person and Number Personal pronouns have different forms for first person. personal pronouns change their forms to reflect person. number. and case. Each pronoun has three cases: subject. 54 Grammar. notice how personal pronouns change according to their person. he. and Mechanics . ER S TO REF Alexis is a great friend. Singular First person: Second person: Third person: Plural I went out. and third person.
Father. it us you them Possessive my. It shows one boy carrying a smaller boy. the narrator of the passage below would need to repeat her friend’s name and her own name several times! Instead. mine your. . “The Southpaw” 3 ● Practice and Apply A. yours his. she. hers. CONCEPT CHECK: What Is a Pronoun? List the personal pronoun(s) in each sentence. Did you ever see the statue in front of Boys Town? 2. it we you they Object me you him. 3. I’m not good enough to be friends with. its our. PRONOUNS Don’t invite me to your birthday party because I’m not coming. she uses forms of I and you. ● ● Definition of a Friend 1. Its caption says. True friends are not burdens when they need help. theirs 2 ● Why It Matters in Writing Without personal pronouns.Personal Pronouns Subject Singular First person Second person Third person Plural First person Second person Third person I you he. . yours their. —Judith Viorst. . he’s m’ brother. “He ain’t heavy. her. . And give back the Disneyland sweat shirt I said you could wear. ours your. her.” 4. If I’m not good enough to play on your team.
REVISING: Substituting Pronouns for Nouns Answers may vary. 269. and Mechanics . see the EXERCISE BANK. Are these strangers 5.” (4) The word for “stranger” meant “enemy. “My friends want to be with me. 1018. 10. Sue said. Most ancient people lived in close communities. friends are loyal. I will. or they aren’t friends. we meet “strangers” all the time. many strangers will become our friends. the idea of friendship was foreign to many 1. 8. ask your friend for advice. WRITING: Dialogue Answers in column. Rewrite this student’s draft of a social studies report.” Lenny said.” said Rachel. the word friend did exist. These people 4.” For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. In ancient times. When you’re finished.I interviewed my classmates about friendship. Change the underlined nouns to pronouns. them enemies? Most of (5) these strangers are not. Write a dialogue between you and a friend of yours. B. underline all the personal pronouns you used. Example: You: Friend: Can you help me? I have a problem. They people. It did have a word for “stranger.” In 2. They CHAPTER 3 C. 5. “A friend stands by you no matter what. They gave me different answers—all of them good. (3) Most ancient people had little contact with outsiders. “For me. “What is a friend?” I asked them. What is it? If I can help you. (2) The word friend first appeared in English in A. It Old English.” Today.D. 9. Usage. p. 3. In fact. though. 56 Grammar. (1) Many people didn’t even have a word for “friend. In the dialogue. 6. 7. and I want to be with them.
) Charlene and I play on different teams. Pronouns 57 . The coach is she. Remember. They compete hard against each other. or refers to. has been. Sands is the coach. PRONOUNS Friends often play on opposing teams. and should be. have been. will be. a pronoun can be part of a compound subject. Remember. been. she. was. it Plural we you they Pronouns as Subjects Use the subject case of a pronoun when the pronoun is the subject of a sentence. were. Predicate Pronouns A predicate pronoun follows a linking verb and renames. PREDICATE PRONOUN NAMES RE The best players are Aaron and I. the subject. NAMES RE The toughest opponents are Teresa and he. are. (They replaces noun subject Friends.1 ● Here’s the Idea A subject pronoun is used as the subject of a sentence or as a predicate pronoun after a linking verb. SUBJECT NAMES RE Mrs. can be. Use the subject case for predicate pronouns. am. the most common linking verbs are forms of the verb be. could be. Subject Pronouns Singular I you he. We stay friends no matter what. they include is.
Martina and (her. Sometimes (they. (We. Martina and (we. Michael Jordan is a close friend of Charles Barkley.” 8. As many writers have discovered. just like Martina and Chris. They) were the top two women tennis players in the early 1980s. Best friends and tennis players are (us. My brother is different. us) agree—be rivals on the court but stay close off the court. Hermano and me saw them laughing and playing golf together. 2. 5. Rulers of the tennis courts were (they. you can’t rely on “sound” to choose the correct case. see the EXERCISE BANK. Us) like to win but stay friends. (she. p. 6. I read about Martina Navratilova and Chris Evert. CHAPTER 3 3 ● Practice and Apply CONCEPT CHECK: Subject Pronouns Write the correct form of the pronoun to complete each sentence. I) are tennis rivals. Off the court. If Martina won. and Mechanics . Him) hates his rivals. we)! 10. 58 Grammar. 3. them)! 4. her) would go over and comfort Chris. (Them. 269. Friends across the (Tennis) Net 1. she) played each other 80 times. on court the fiercest competitors were him and I Charles. too. My friend Elana and (me. them) would leave each other notes.” or “I’m sure you’ll get me next time.2 ● Why It Matters in Writing Sometimes subject pronouns may sound strange even though they are correct. 7. ● ● For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. He’s not like me and my friends. 9. (He. Usage. he However. like “Sorry.
(Not between Mike and I) Pronouns 59 . by. We’d like to hear more about him. for. Object Pronouns Singular me you him. T O WH OM ? Jen gave me a book about a dolphin who guided ships. or about). against. The books were divided between Mike and me. it Plural us you them Direct Object: receives the action of a verb and answers the question whom or what? PRONOUNS True animal stories fascinate Jen. her. PREPOSITION OBJECT Can you tell the story to her and me? PREPOSITION OBJECT OBJECT Always use an object pronoun after the preposition between. as indirect objects. from. or as the objects of prepositions. Object of a Preposition: follows a preposition (such as to.1 ● Here’s the Idea Object pronouns are personal pronouns used as direct objects. INDIRECT OBJECT People gave him a hero’s welcome. (fascinate whom? Jen) DIRECT OBJECT Do you like them too? (like what? them) Indirect Object: tells to whom or what or for whom or what an action is performed.
. Identify how each object pronoun you chose is used in the sentence: as a direct object. S/O 7. . and (he. Jen told (we. The Story of My Life 3 ● Practice and Apply CHAPTER 3 CONCEPT CHECK: Subject and Object Pronouns Write the correct pronoun(s) for each sentence. Pelorus Jack swam swiftly in front of (they. O 9. p. S 10. an indirect object. him) leaping through the waves. (He. him) who decided to guide ships. Someone took it. or an object of a preposition.2 ● Why It Matters in Writing Using the pronouns I and me allows the writer to be up close and personal. The Sailors’ Friend 1. . Sailors watched (he. S 4. and. 270. Usage. Label each pronoun subject or object. to love me. Helen Keller uses these pronouns to describe when she first felt loved. and I was caught up and held close in the arms of her who had come to reveal all things to me. us) a true story about a dolphin. them) out of danger. him) the name Pelorus Jack. Him) guided ships through the dangerous Cook Strait near New Zealand. I stretched out my hand. them) and brought their ships through the strait. In the passage below. him) to do this. People gave (he. No one trained (he. him) would lead (they. Ships would come to the strait. S 6. A movie was even made about (he. (He. —Helen Keller. more than all things else. 60 Grammar. It was (he. O 5. O 2. see EXERCISE BANK. Answers in column. and Mechanics . O 8. O 3. him)! O ● ● For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. Him) was protected from harm by New Zealand law.
yours their. The possessive pronouns mine. her. his. yours. mine your. ours. Is his any good? Or should we play hers? Possessive Pronouns and Contractions Some possessive pronouns sound like contractions (its/it’s. theirs The possessive pronouns my. Contractions always use an apostrophe. their/they’re). ER OWN SHIP Even their old computers are on-line now. Possessive Pronouns Singular my. hers. Pronouns 61 . Remember. hers. ours your. writers often confuse possessive pronouns and contractions. and theirs can stand alone in a sentence. his. our.1 ● Here’s the Idea Possessive pronouns are personal pronouns used to show ownership or relationship. The blue mouse pad is theirs. ATIONSHIP REL Some of my best friends live in other countries. Because these pairs sound alike. yours her. Look at the examples in the Quick-Fix Spelling Machine on the following page. Ours is red. and their come before nouns. possessive pronouns never use an apostrophe. ER OWN SHIP PRONOUNS All our correspondence is by e-mail. Is that video game yours? Mine is broken. its Plural our. your. your/you’re. his.
QUICK-FIX SPELLING MACHINE POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS its your their Its modem is fast! Your e-mails are funny. 62 Grammar. A tsunami crossing the ocean is barely a ripple. A volcanic eruption at sea can cause T heir tsunami waves. They’re danger is hard to see at first. It is known as the “ring you’re of fire. 2 ● Why It Matters in Writing CHAPTER 3 Proofread your work carefully to be sure you haven’t confused contractions and possessive pronouns. it’s because the mountains are part of a circle of active volcanoes. and destroyed its wharf. A circle of mountains lies deep under the Pacific Ocean between Japan and North America. You’re a good writer. Their smiles are sideways! :-) CONTRACTIONS it’s you’re It’s fun to get new mail. they’re They’re full of funny faces.” If your wondering why. Usage. its It destroys everything in it’s path. a tsunami can travel nearly 500 miles an hour and reach a height of over 100 feet. and Mechanics . But when it nears land. In 1993 a tsunami struck Okushiri. A computer spell checker will not catch these mistakes. Japan.
Cyber Friends 1. 3. (1) Hey. you’re) Spanish or other language writing skills. Correct perfect because (7) their latitude is about the same as ours in 7. they’re) computers. Ireland—almost anywhere! 5. You’re/it’s Pronouns 63 . write the correct form of the possessive pronoun or contractions. (2) Our 2. They’re (5) Their sending us information about their climate. 9. it’s) land and culture. 1. 2. Correct charge of gathering data! (3) Our Sister School in Hirosaki. 4. is helping us. CONCEPT CHECK: Possessive Pronouns Write the correct pronoun or contraction for each sentence. and I am in 3. If (your. B. Korea. (4) Its so great having a Sister School! 5. p. 4. It’s) now possible for schools throughout the world to be linked on the Internet. There are many native speakers in the program. it’s) own virtual classroom! ● ● PRONOUNS For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. Hablo Español? You can sharpen (your. Josie. Within minutes. (6) It’s 6. write Correct. Correct class is doing a climate project for the Science Fair. 270. Mexico. they’re) happy to help you! 10. PROOFREADING: Using Possessive Pronouns For each sentence. It’s Japan. you’re) interested. (Your. You’re) school can correspond with schools in Russia. 7. see the EXERCISE BANK. they’re) Sister Schools to answer. A school can partner with a “Sister School” overseas to learn about (its. (8) Your invited to see the exhibit when its done. If a sentence contains no error. they’re) sending you e-mails through cyberspace. but its been a crazy time. (Its. Correct Baltimore. Some schools post on-line surveys for (their. 8. Your international Web pals write from (their. 6. 8.3 ● Practice and Apply A. and (their. Maybe someday SISS will even have (its. contact the Society for International Sister Schools (SISS). and you write from yours. (their. You’re/it’s Your probably amazed finally to hear from me! I meant to answer your e-mail right away.
FL ECTS RE How do you prepare yourself for a game? Notice that if you drop the reflexive pronoun. 64 Grammar. Use himself and themselves instead. the sentence still makes sense. and Mechanics . ASIZES E MP H I myself just keep saying. itself ourselves yourselves themselves Reflexive Pronouns A reflexive pronoun refers to the subject and directs the action of the verb back to the subject. Notice that when you drop the intensive pronoun. himself. Usage. (I just keep saying. Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns myself yourself herself. CHAPTER 3 LE CTS REF The winners considered themselves lucky. “We’ll win!” ASIZES E MP H The players themselves designed their uniforms. you change the meaning of the sentence. but they are not in the dictionary. Reflexive pronouns are necessary to the meaning of a sentence. Intensive pronouns are not necessary to the meaning of the sentence. (The winners considered lucky.) Intensive Pronouns An intensive pronoun emphasizes the noun or pronoun in the same sentence. “We’ll win!”) Hisself and theirselves may look like real words.1 ● Here’s the Idea Pronouns that end in -self or -selves are either reflexive or intensive pronouns.
271. My sister Emmy never pictured herself playing team sports. Now Emmy herself admits that her best friends are her soccer teammates. just enjoy yourself. Pronouns 65 . the players themselves were screaming for joy.185 fans were going crazy. I myself will never forget Sammy Sosa embracing Mark McGwire—his home-run rival! 10. As a teen.” 7. The players have to get themselves in step with the team. 9.” INTENSIVE REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS 3 ● Practice and Apply CONCEPT CHECK: Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns For each sentence. ● ● For a SELF-CHECK and more practice.S.At the end. Pro athletes themselves encourage young people to join teams. p. 2. women’s soccer team won the 1999 World Cup in a final shootout. All for One and One for All 1. Team players think of others besides themselves. write the reflexive or intensive pronoun. pro basketball player Cynthia Cooper found herself imitating how the pros played. 8. see the EXERCISE BANK. I was struggling to soak it all in and keep myself together.The 90.2 ● Why It Matters in Writing Notice how the student sportswriter uses reflexive and intensive pronouns to emphasize key words and ideas. One player can’t win a match all by himself or herself! 5. 3. The U. 6. 4. She herself didn’t try out for a team until she was 16. Injured player Michelle Akers said: “I found myself hobbling out to the field to join my team. Olympic soccer player Mia Hamm said: “Don’t worry about how well you play. Then label it reflexive or intensive.
Who has an animal for a friend? What do you like best about animals? Writers often confuse who and whom. You did see (who. CHAPTER 3 Using Who and Whom Who is always used as a subject or a predicate pronoun. what. You did see whom at the store? (direct object of did see) 3. (Whose is this?) Whom is always used as an object.1 ● Here’s the Idea Interrogative Pronouns An interrogative pronoun is used to introduce a question. Use the correct pronoun in the question. The following guidelines can help you decide which form to use in your sentences. which. Whom did you see at the store? 66 . If necessary. You is already the subject. whom) at the store? 2. Whom) did you see at the store? 1. Decide whether the pronoun is used as a subject or an object. rewrite the question to put the subject first. Subject: Who gave you the parakeet? Predicate pronoun: It was who? Don’t confuse who’s with whose. Whom is used as an object. Direct object: Indirect object: Whom do you ask about pet stores? You gave whom a turtle? Object of preposition: From whom did you buy it? Here’s How Choosing Who or Whom in a Question (Who. and whose. (Who’s missing?) Whose is an interrogative or possessive pronoun. whom. Interrogative pronouns include who. Who’s is a contraction that means who is or who has.
That and those mean that something is far away. Never use here or there with a demonstrative pronoun. This here is our cat. Plural These are his chewed-up toys. it doesn’t need help. PRONOUNS This and these mean that something is near. thing.Demonstrative Pronouns A demonstrative pronoun points out a person. Singular This is my parakeet Newton. or idea. Demonstrative pronouns—this. and those—are used alone in a sentence. that. or here. That is his new cage. That there is our crazy dog. Be careful to use the correct pronouns when you create questionnaires or surveys. Questionnaire for Friends • • • Who is your oldest friend? Who talks more—you or your best friend? With whom would you share your deepest secret? Whom would you trust for advice? SUBJECT OBJECT OF PREPOSITION DIRECT OBJECT • Pronouns 67 . Those are his favorite treats. like the one below. place. these. or there. The pronoun already points out which one. 2 ● Why It Matters in Writing Knowing when to use who and whom can be tricky because many people use these pronouns incorrectly. as shown below.
Besides. p. Cindy: By the way. Those there) are good arguments.000 signs. Today. 3. Aretha: (Which. ICUL 68 Grammar. ● For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. 8. Aretha: (Who. another lowland gorilla. your best friend is (who. whom. Whom) loves you all the time? Only a dog. Example: Who learned sign language first—Koko or Michael? In July 1972. Dem. (who. 1. Dem. whom) would prefer dogs as best friends? Int. and Mechanics U CU RR M . Koko was a one-yearold female lowland gorilla. I can talk to him about anything. and he talks back! Int. (Who.3 ● Practice and Apply A. 6. I hadn’t thought about it that way. ● Aretha: (Who. 7. Underline the interrogative pronouns you use. (Who. whom)? Int. Penny was a graduate student at a major university. Then identify it as an interrogative or demonstrative pronoun. Dem. CONCEPT CHECK: Interrogatives and Demonstratives Write the correct pronoun to complete each sentence. Cindy: (That. That there) is easy: either Marsha Hanks or my dog Bandit. 4. Whom) would I choose? My parakeet Newton. Whom) can you play with anytime? A dog! Int. and which. Koko knows more than 1. She uses them to “talk” to humans and to her friend Michael. 10. Penny taught Koko sign language. see the EXERCISE BANK. Penny Patterson first met her good friend Koko. what. Cindy: (Those. Write a five-question quiz based on the article below. Aretha: (Those. 9. Int. Koko and Penny taught Michael to use sign language as well. 5. What) is it? Int. 271. That) are the best kind. CHAPTER 3 2. Usage. Whose) is your best friend? Four-Legged Versus Two-Legged Friends Int. AC RO S S T HE B. WRITING: Science Questions and Answers Answers in column. Use each of these interrogative pronouns at least once: who.
PRONOUNS Agreement in Number Use a singular pronoun to refer to a singular antecedent. P ERSON 3RD The author is Rosa Guy. Pronouns must agree with their antecedents in number. ANTECEDENT FE RS TO RE PRONOUN The story is set in Harlem. FERS TO RE Maria shared her favorite book. Agreement in Person The person of a pronoun must be the same as the person of the antecedent. person. and gender. The Friends.1 ● Here’s the Idea The antecedent is the noun or pronoun that a pronoun replaces or refers to. FE RS TO RE At first Phyllisia doesn’t like her new classmate. P ERS 2ND ON Do you write stories about your life? Pronouns 69 . She was born in Trinidad. Use a plural pronoun to refer to a plural antecedent. It tells about young girls growing up. FERS TO RE Later the girls share their dreams together. The antecedent can be in the same sentence or in a different sentence from the pronoun.
DRAFT: Every student has his own opinion. Incorrect: Students like strong plots. Rewrite the sentence using a plural antecedent and a plural pronoun. and Mechanics .) Correct: Students like strong plots. Don’t use only masculine or only feminine pronouns when you mean to refer to both genders. They want to know what happens. Proofread your writing carefully.) There are two ways to correct this sentence. Personal pronouns have three gender forms: masculine (he. 2. his. Students have their own opinions. we is first person. and neuter (it. (Students and they are both third person. its). (Student could be male or female. hers). 70 Grammar. Use the phrase his or her.Avoid switching from one person to another in the same sentence or paragraph. Avoid the common errors that the student writer made in the model on the following page. Usage. feminine (she.) Agreement in Gender The gender of a pronoun must be the same as the gender of its antecedent. (Students is third person. Every student has his or her own opinion. 1. We want to know what happens. 2 ● Why It Matters in Writing It’s easy to make mistakes with person or number. Jim gave his extra copy to Anne. Be careful! Other words in the sentence may also need to be made plural. her. CHAPTER 3 Anne is mad because she lost her book. him).
third For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. Sing. you might not like someone at first. When Annemarie is asked to go on this dangerous ride. Ellen is in special danger because her family is Jewish. Sing. 272. Pl. Number the Stars 1. This story is by Lois Lowry. Pl. Uncle Henrik uses his boat to carry some Jews to safety. third Pl. 4. she agrees. 8. see the EXERCISE BANK. Annemarie’s parents hide Ellen in their home. third Sing. For instance. Someone is singular and could be male or female. Pronouns 71 . Then the girls are scared as their lives turn upside down. write the personal pronoun and its antecedent. p. PRONOUNS ● ● Pl. third 2. 9. third 6. The Nazis have targeted all Jews as their enemies. third Sing. T hey You may be opposites of each other. third 5. She must find the strength to save her best friend’s life. he or she s Then later on they become your best friend. third 7. third 3. 10. Sing. Annemarie Johansen and her best friend Ellen Rosen live happily—until the Nazis come. Write the number and person of each pronoun. The Johansens know that they must also try to protect Ellen’s family. Friends is third person plural. It is set in Denmark during World War II. third Sing. 3 ● Practice and Apply CONCEPT CHECK: Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement For each sentence.Best friends come in all shapes and sizes.
(Anyone could be masculine or feminine. place. Indefinite pronouns can be singular.) 72 Grammar. or idea. -thing. Anybody would be amazed by the story of this shipwreck. or -body are always singular. and Mechanics . Singular Indefinite Pronouns Use a singular personal pronoun to refer to a singular indefinite pronoun. (There were only men on the ship. Everyone should know about the men of the Endurance. plural. Indefinite pronouns often do not have antecedents. RS T O REFE Anyone in trouble depends on his or her friends. everybody had to keep up his spirits while waiting for rescue.1 ● Here’s the Idea An indefinite pronoun does not refer to a specific person. thing. or either singular or plural. Indefinite Pronouns CHAPTER 3 Singular another anybody anyone anything each either everybody everyone everything neither nobody no one nothing one somebody someone something Plural both few many several Singular or Plural all any most none some Pronouns containing -one. Usage.) S TO REFER On the Endurance.
Make sure that all pronouns agree with their indefinite antecedents in number. The men aboard the ship Endurance had a chance to find out. No one wanted to let his their friends down. FE RS TO RE None realized they would not return home for 20 months. FE RS TO RE Many shared their food and clothing. Singular or Plural Indefinite Pronouns Some indefinite pronouns can be singular or plural. SINGULAR INDEFINITE PRONOUN SINGULAR PERSONAL PRONOUN Most of the masts had lost their sails.The leaders and crew battled wind. his Everyone did their best to keep up hope. they Many wonder how well he would do in a crisis.Plural Indefinite Pronouns Use a plural personal pronoun to refer to a plural indefinite pronoun. PLURAL INDEFINITE PRONOUN PLURAL PERSONAL PRONOUN 2 ● Why It Matters in Writing Agreement can help keep your facts and ideas clear. and darkness. PRONOUNS Most of the mast had lost its sail. ice. Often the phrase that follows the indefinite pronoun will tell you whether the pronoun is singular or plural. Pronouns 73 .
p. CONCEPT CHECK: Indefinite-Pronoun Agreement Choose the pronoun that agrees with the indefinite pronoun antecedent. 7. 1. see the EXERCISE BANK. PROOFREADING: Agreement Errors This paragraph contains four pronoun-antecedent errors. The men had to face (it. their) special courage. Everyone in the remaining crew anxiously awaited their rescue. 8. Everyone had to eat penguins and seals for their daily diet. their) life during the voyage. their) ship in the Antarctic ice. ● In 1915. For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. One needed medical attention for his infected wound. they) reached the land safely. Nearly five months after Shackleton left. 4. 2. They) sailed toward a splinter of land. When spring came. Incredibly. Several men had frostbite. Shackleton and the others came back for them! their his his their 74 Grammar. and Mechanics . their) wet clothes.3 ● Practice and Apply A. Some of the waves were 50 feet high. (He. Many left on the island had his troubles too. Usage. Few of them were able to avoid sleeping on the ice in (his. all of the men had his dream come true. all of the men became trapped with (his. Rescue in the Antarctic! Ernest Shackleton chose five men to sail with him on a fearsome journey to find help. their) carpentry skills to make new boat parts from packing crates! 9. Each was relieved when (he. Each was chosen for (his. 272. Rewrite the sentences to correct the errors. 6. One used (his. 5. all the men had to board three lifeboats. nobody in Shackleton’s crew lost (his. them) in only a lifeboat! 10. CHAPTER 3 B. them) to row 800 icy miles to get help. No one could send (his. their) family a message. ● The Ordeal of the Endurance 3. Shackleton chose a few of the men and asked (him.
1. Use the correct pronoun with the noun. 3. 2. SUBJECT Do you have work for us volunteers? OBJECT OF PREPOSITION Here’s How Choosing We or Us You can join (we. use a noun instead of a pronoun. Pronouns 75 . Unclear Reference Be sure that each personal pronoun refers clearly to only one person. You can join us students tomorrow. Confusing: Noah and Rodrigo came to the work site. but he didn’t stay. In this sentence. Use us when the noun is an object. We volunteers like to help out. You can join us tomorrow. us) students tomorrow. but Noah didn’t stay. the pronoun is the object of the verb join. or thing. place. If there is any chance your reader will be confused by whom or what you are talking about. Drop the identifying noun from the sentence. us) tomorrow.1 ● Here’s the Idea We and Us with Nouns The pronouns we and us are sometimes followed by a noun that identifies the pronoun (we students. (Who didn’t stay? Noah or Rodrigo?) Clear: Noah and Rodrigo came to the work site. us students). Decide whether the pronoun is used as a subject or an object. PRONOUNS You can join (we. Use we when the noun is a subject or a predicate noun.
2 ● Why It Matters in Writing
When you write instructions or directions, make sure you use the right case and keep your pronoun references clear. You don’t want to confuse your readers, as this writer did.
Heads up! Hands out! We Us youth volunteers need help. Can
you join us? Call Nicki at 555-2222 or Nicki Ann at 555-0000. She has an answering machine, so leave a message!
Use we as the subject. She could mean either Nicki or Ann. Name the person to avoid confusion.
3 ● Practice and Apply
A. CONCEPT CHECK: Pronoun Problems Write the correct pronoun or noun. Helping Hands 1. (We, Us) students help out in lots of ways. 2. That garden was planted by (we, us) volunteers. 3. Carlos worked with Joe to clean the river, even though (he, Carlos) had never done that kind of work before. 4. Some of (we, us) athletes offered to coach youngsters. 5. Stacey always beats Terese to work, but (she, Terese) still gets there on time.
For a SELF-CHECK and more practice, see the EXERCISE BANK, p. 273.
B. REVISING: Correcting Pronoun Errors Correct the four pronoun errors in the following paragraph. Cleaning up on the River! Us swimmers are determined to clean up the riverbanks. The garbage there has disgusted we kids for a long time. For months, the mayor and the parks commissioner talked the mayor or about doing something, but he didn’t take any action. the commissioner Danielle worked with Margo to pick up junk along the shore. Danielle or Margo She filled three trash bags in one hour!
76 Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics
1 ● Here’s the Idea
Using Pronouns in Compounds
People often make mistakes when they use pronouns as parts of compound subjects and compound objects.
Use the subject pronouns I, she, he, we, and they in a compound subject or a compound predicate pronoun. Shawn and he are on the same study team.
The leaders of the team are he and I.
Use the object pronouns me, her, him, us, and them in a compound object. Our friends saw Darlene and me at the library.
The librarian gave Shawn and her some books.
To choose the correct case of a pronoun in a compound subject or object, mentally screen out the other noun or pronoun. Then choose the correct case.
Shawn gave an article to Darlene and (I, me). (Me is the
object of the preposition to—therefore, to Darlene and me is correct.)
Phrases that Interfere
Sometimes words and phrases come between a subject and a pronoun that refers to it. Don’t be confused by the words in between.
ERS TO REF
Darlene, like the others, is working on her report.
(Her agrees with Danielle and not with others.)
ERS TO REF
Harriet Tubman, unlike many people, risked her life to free slaves. (Her agrees with Harriet Tubman and not with people.)
2 ● Why It Matters in Writing
Some people think I sounds more correct than me in a compound object. “I” is only correct when used as a subject or predicate pronoun. Watch out for this common mistake when you write.
You and I make great study partners. It’s easy to divide me the work between you and I. I ask the questions.You find the answers!
3 ● Practice and Apply
A. CONCEPT CHECK: More Pronoun Problems Choose the correct pronoun to complete each sentence. A Friend to Her People 1. Our social studies teacher asked Danielle and (I, me) to do a report on Harriet Tubman. 2. The librarian helped (her, she) and me with the research. 3. Both (she, her) and I knew that Tubman led slaves to freedom on the Underground Railroad. 4. Many facts about Tubman were new to (she, her) and me. 5. More than 300 slaves, including Harriet’s own sister, owed (their, her) freedom to Tubman. 6. (She, Her) and the runaways had to move secretly from one house to another along the Underground Railroad. 7. Tubman, like other conductors, wouldn’t let any of (her, their) runaways turn back. 8. Slave owners placed a $40,000 reward on her head. That fact surprised Danielle and (me, I). 9. John Brown, another of the freedom fighters, praised Tubman in (his, their) letters and speeches. 10. The librarian gave copies of some letters to Danielle and (I, me).
For a SELF-CHECK and more practice, see the EXERCISE BANK, p. 274.
78 Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics
B. PROOFREADING: Correct Use of Pronouns On a separate sheet of paper, correct the underlined pronoun errors. Darren and me read about the Underground Railroad. Darren and I Him and I soon realized that it was not “underground” and it He and I was not a “railroad.” Instead, it was a secret network of escape routes for slaves. This network of escape routes had their beginning in the South. The paths of the Underground its Railroad crisscrossed its way through the North. Eventually, their many routes ended in Canada. Canada, unlike the United States, had outlawed slavery within their borders. its The Underground Railroad was a hard journey for runaway slaves. Abolitionists and them were tracked by slave hunters. they Anyone caught could be tried and sentenced to death!
RO S S T
Answers in column.
C. WRITING: SOCIAL STUDIES: Drafting from a Time Line Read the following biographical time line. Then write a paragraph about Harriet Tubman, based on the information. Underline any pronouns you use. Example: Harriet Tubman was born around 1820 in Dorchester County, Maryland. She ran away for the first time when she was about six or seven years old.
Born in Dorchester County, Maryland.
Harriet flees to Pennsylvania and freedom. Many people help Harriet along the Underground Railroad.
Runs away for the first time, but goes back. Is punished by the farm owners Harriet worked for.
Marries John Tubman. Wants John to run away with her. John refuses and stays in Maryland.
Serves as a conductor on the Underground Railroad. Brings more than 300 people out of slavery. People admire Harriet. People call Harriet “Moses.”
C. unknown artist. Pythias. Damon. Italy. I’m worried about what will happen to my mother and my sister when I’m gone.Using Pronouns in Dialogue You can use dialogue. Copyright © The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Damon. Damon. and Mechanics . Pythias.You’ll give your word to return at the end of that time. Pronouns can make your dialogue sound more natural and make your characters seem more realistic.78. I’ll go to the king and beg him to give you your freedom for a few days. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Damon. I have money to leave them. I’ll take care of them. in stories and plays to show what your characters think and feel. Roman fresco from Pompeii. notice how the use of pronouns makes the conversation between the two friends seem real. as if they were my own mother and sister. Thank you. Usage.).). Nothing can save me. I am prepared to die. Fletcher Fund. Damon. pentelic marble. Top right: Detail of Chiron the centaur teaching Achilles to play the lyre (first to third century A. Everyone in Sicily knows you for a man who has never broken his word. you know. Pythias. Naples. But there is one thought that troubles me greatly.56). Photo copyright © Erich Lessing/Art Resource. Museo Archeologico Nazionale. Oh. or conversation.D. 80 Grammar. New York. But there are other things I must arrange. 1925 (25. What is it? I will do anything to help you. Damon and CHAPTER 3 Pythias RETOLD BY FAN KISSEN Damon. As you read this excerpt from Damon and Pythias: A Drama. Roman copy of Greek original. Pythias! How terrible to find you here! I wish I could do something to save you! Pythias. Top left: Detail of statue of Diadoumenos (440 B. If only I could go to see them before I die! But they live two days’ journey from here. my dear friend.
why do you I can’t go with Clifton: I just found out that ment park . When he told his friend Frank what was wrong. For graduation. Clifton felt proud that he had such loyal friends. Frank said he wouldn’t go to the park either. and they all refused to go to the park. Frank also told the other boys. How did they help make the dialogue sound more realistic? seem down ? Frank: Hey Clifton. he was the only African American in his middle school class. crying. When you are finished. underline the pronouns you used. He went back to his room. but his friend was firm. the rest of you to the amuse Pronouns 81 . PRONOUNS Write a dialogue between Clifton and Frank that dramatizes this story.R OS e CURRI CU S th L UM Practice and Apply WRITING: Using Pronouns in Dialogue AC L IT E R AT UR E When actor Clifton Davis was a boy in the 1950s.Then Clifton learned that he would not be allowed into the park because he was black. Clifton knew how badly Frank wanted to go. the class was going to Glenn Echo Amusement Park in Maryland.
Damon promised to die in place of Pythias if (he. (We.Mixed Review A. Revising: Using Pronouns Correctly This passage contains six errors in pronoun usage. and Mechanics . this myth turned out to be really good. had vowed (his. 4. Dionysius marveled at their friendship. sentenced to death by Dionysius. 2. 10. Some of my friends like to act out his or her favorite their characters. Pythias.These myths would make great TV movies! 82 Grammar. Damon was nearly killed in (his. It was the first time a teacher explained the stories to Kirsten and I. their) friends.The them two of they were always doing something exciting. their) affairs in order. 6. 7. almost failed to keep (his. 8. me). Pythias saved (him. 5. Pythias) did not return on time. Between you and (I. 1. each from a noble family. their) word. their) undying loyalty to each other. Her me/She and I really liked the heroic characters Hercules and Jason.The action kept us interested. CHAPTER 3 Between you and I. Pythias. their) place. Everyone in our class had to write (his or her. Us) chose a myth about Damon and Pythias. he) by arriving just in time. asked permission to leave the city to put (his. 9. He pardoned Pythias and asked the two to become (his. Rewrite the paragraph to correct the errors. unexpectedly delayed. 3.Then us students read a few Greek we myths in class. their) report on a myth. the idea of reading “ancient stories” me sounded boring to me. like fighting monsters. Damon and Pythias. Shirell and I worked together. B. Pronouns Choose the correct pronoun for each sentence. Usage.
A. He D. Correct as is 9. Whom knows the story of Sacajawea? Ellen. Sacajawea and (8) her husband even took they’re baby on the trail! Ellen. Sacajawea befriended Lewis and Clark in 1804 and helped guide they to the Pacific Ocean. The idea to map the territory was who’s? President Jefferson was the (5) one who ordered the expedition. A. his or her D. hers D. I C. who C. and Terri D. Us B. Who C. Correct as is 5. A. Terri. 1. her B. Only one of the travelers lost his life. A. or indicate if it is correct as is. her C. whom D. their C. Ellen. Whose D. In the early 1800s. We students D. Correct as is 2. A. us B. Correct as is 8. their B. Correct as is 7. They C. Us students couldn’t believe how lucky Lewis and Clark were. whose B. Correct as is 6. we C. A. A. he C. them D. Me.Mastery Test: What Did You Learn? Choose the correct replacement for each underlined word in the passage. they B. her B. Correct as is 4. Him B. A. them D. Louis. Correct as is 10. and me saw (1) (3) (2) a movie about she. (6) Them and their men crossed icy rivers and traveled through (7) hostile lands. couldn’t believe our ears when Sacajawea asked (10) Clark to raise her son as his own in St. along with (9) PRONOUNS the rest of us. A. Correct as is 3. my C. Them students C. Correct as is Pronouns 83 . (4) most of the land west of the Mississippi River was unexplored. their D. him B. A. What B.
Usage. mine your.Subject Case I you he she it we you they Object Case me you him her it us you them Possessive Case my. They have their special talents. ours your. theirs Use this case when • the pronoun is a subject • the pronoun is a predicate pronoun CHAPTER 3 Use this case when • the pronoun is a direct object • the pronoun is an indirect object • the pronoun is the object of a preposition Use this case for • pronouns that show ownership or relationship Me and Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement my Shadow A pronoun should agree with its antecedent in number. hers its our. (singular) A plural antecedent takes a plural pronoun. and gender. (plural) At times the reference will include both genders. person. A singular antecedent takes a singular pronoun. yours their. The friends stick together through their ups and downs. Tanya says her best friend is a yo-yo champ. and Mechanics . Each has his or her special talent. yours his her. 84 Grammar.
.Types of Pronouns Intensive & Reflexive myself herself himself itself yourself ourselves yourselves themselves “I’m Nobody. Nothing comes between us guys. used the subject case for pronouns that are subjects and predicate pronouns? used the object case for pronouns that are objects? used the possessive case to show ownership or relationship? made sure that pronouns agree with their antecedents in number. and gender? used who and whom correctly? used the correct cases in compound subjects and objects? Pronouns 85 . person. Are You Nobody too?” Demonstrative this that these those Interrogative who whom what which whose Indefinite someone anyone each several many all most none For a list of indefinite pronouns. Who is your oldest friend? For whom would you do anything? PRONOUNS The Bottom Line Checklist for Pronouns Have I . Pronoun Problems We: Subject/predicate pronoun Us: Object Who: Subject/predicate pronoun Whom: Object Friends by the Case We guys stick together. 72. . see p.
86 . a sentence can’t go anywhere without a verb. a car. a train. Put the paragraph in your Working Portfolio. In this chapter. describe your favorite way to get around. you will learn how to use verbs to move your sentences. You can describe any form of transportation—your own two feet. rollerblades.Chapter 4 CHAPTER 4 Theme: On the Move Moving Words Verbs make sentences move. or even a spaceship. Just as a truck can’t go anywhere without an engine. a bike. Write Away: Getting There In a paragraph.
A. have predicted B. Correct as is 4. should contribute B. predict C. Science fiction will contribute to transportation on Earth (7) (6) (5) (4) as well. have written C. will travel B. are predicting D. science fiction writers will predict new ways of transportation. Correct as is 9. have described D. made B. will make C. beginned D. should travel B. were describing B.Diagnostic Test: What Do You Know? Choose the best way to rewrite each underlined word or group of words. Someday we are traveling to those distant places. writed B. Science fiction writers today had described journeys to other galaxies. during World War I. Winston Churchill remembered that story and began the research (9) (8) that led to tanks. Correct as is 3. A. will begin B. has contributed D.” A decade later. will get B. Surely other fictional means of transportation VERBS are becoming realities in the future. (10) 1. will become C. got C. will write D. Verne is getting many scientific details right. will travel C. A. Correct as is 6. have become D. A. Correct as is 10. For more than a hundred years. A. just as we really did travel to the moon more than 30 years ago. travel D. has begun C. Correct as is 2. have traveled C. A. Correct as is 8. A. getted D. A. Wells maked up military tanks in his short story “The Land Ironclads. Correct as is Verbs 87 . is contributing C. In 1903 H. G. A. do travel D. A. Correct as is 5. will describe C. is making D. became B. Correct as is 7. In 1865 Jules Verne wrote a (1) (3) (2) novel called From the Earth to the Moon.
Usage. sound. (mental action) They feared large animals. been. is. Action Verbs An action verb tells what its subject does. was. being appear. Both kinds can be accompanied by helping verbs. a condition. seem. and Mechanics . The most common linking verbs are forms of the verb be. grow. 88 Grammar. LINKING VERB They often felt hungry. become. taste LINKS Early humans were food gatherers.1 ● Here’s the Idea A verb is a word used to express an action. The two main types of verbs are action verbs and linking verbs. smell. (mental action) Linking Verbs A linking verb links its subject to a word in the predicate. feel. The action it expresses can be either physical or mental. or a state of being. remain. Early humans moved constantly. (physical action) They carried their few possessions with them. am. CHAPTER 4 (physical action) These people worried about survival. were. are. Linking Verbs Forms of be Verbs that express condition be. look.
shall.Some verbs can serve as either action or linking verbs. VERB PHRASE Animals could carry the humans’ heavy loads farther. ACTION VERB LINKS Some animals appeared friendly. is. was. Some verbs can serve both as main verbs and as helping verbs. LINKING VERB Helping Verbs and Verb Phrases Helping verbs help main verbs express action or precise shades of meaning. are. MAIN VERB They had mastered many skills. can. been. am. would. People had tools now. had could. Animals appeared at their campsites. For example. VERBS HELPING MAIN Then people would travel farther. should. had stands alone in the first sentence below but is a helping verb in the second sentence. were. did have. must. will Verbs 89 . The combination of one or more helping verbs with a main verb is called a verb phrase. does. may. HELPING VERB Common Helping Verbs Forms of be Forms of do Forms of have Other be. might. being do. has.
“My First Dive with the Dolphins” 3 ● Practice and Apply A. and Mechanics . A 8. Write a more specific verb to replace each underlined verb in the paragraph below. rushed. 274. Later they used beasts of burden. slither/flit Snakes go through the grass. The water rushed past my face and swirled around my body. L 10. Animal Travel plunge Most animals travel. For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. Horses can move for great distances. went. Transportation developed along with civilization. A 2. A 3. A 5. and flowed.. people could travel long distances. see the EXERCISE BANK. Half a million years ago. humans traveled frequently.C. We soared. and I felt the streaking lines of speed. soar/gallop Eagles fly in the sky. With wheels on vehicles. CONCEPT CHECK: What Is a Verb? CHAPTER 4 Write the verb or verb phrase in each of the following sentences.C. someone created the wheel. They hunted animals on foot. which are more specific than some other verbs. They searched for food like nuts and berries. These sledlike vehicles could move tons of weight. Reed. Usage. A A 9. and swirled. B. p. Butterflies fly from flower to flower. Around 3500 B. Dolphins swim through the water. use verbs that are strong and lively. like dived.2 ● Why It Matters in Writing When writing. Notice this author’s use of soared. REVISING: Using More Specific Verbs Answers may vary. They must have invented sledges about 5000 B. The wheel was one of the most important inventions ever. ● ● Label each verb above as Action or Linking. —Don C. A 6. A 7. A 4. They Got Around 1. 90 Grammar.
ACTION VERB DIRECT OBJECT Cars changed our society. VERBS Indirect Objects An indirect object tells to what or whom or for what or whom an action is done. hand. Martin’s mother taught the rules of the road to him. show.1 ● Here’s the Idea Action verbs are often accompanied by words that complete their meaning. The direct object answers the question what or whom. Verbs that often take indirect objects include bring. INDIRECT OBJECT Verbs 91 ? . If the preposition to or for appears in a sentence. It is the object of the preposition. lend. the word that follows it is not an indirect object. Sue gave a ride. L OVE WHAT ? Americans love the automobile. These complements are called direct objects or indirect objects. INDIRECT OBJECT TO DIRECT OBJECT WHOM Sue gave them a ride. give. and write. tell. send. teach. Direct Objects A direct object is a noun or pronoun that names the receiver of a verb’s action. (gave to whom?) T O WHOM? Sue gave her sisters a ride. OBJECT OF PREPOSITION Martin’s mother taught him the rules of the road. make.
or to what extent. Good drivers avoid accidents. WHA T IVE DR Some people drive trucks. A verb that does not have a direct object is called an intransitive verb. a direct object answers the question whom or what. Usage. and Mechanics . —Understanding Science & Nature: Transportation 92 Grammar. how. TRANSITIVE VERB DIRECT OBJECT IVE HOW DR ? CHAPTER 4 Some people drive carelessly. An adverb tells where. Notice how the model below uses a direct object to show what the automobile provides. Today the automobile provides convenient. and enjoyable transportation for people from all walks of life. relatively inexpensive.Transitive and Intransitive Verbs An action verb that has a direct object is called a transitive verb. INTRANSITIVE VERB (No object) Sometimes an intransitive verb is followed by a word that looks like a direct object but is really an adverb. TRANSITIVE VERB DIRECT OBJECT They stay alert. when. INTRANSITIVE VERB ADVERB ? VERB DIRECT OBJECT 2 ● Why It Matters in Writing The correct use of direct objects will help you make it clear to your readers exactly who did what.
9. 4. see the EXERCISE BANK. rumble seats. 6. 10. 2. Steam power gave the vehicle a speed of about three miles an hour. For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. luggage 5. Identify each as a direct object or an indirect object. rumble seats A rumble seat held only one (3) or two _______. 7. In 1865 Pierre Lallemont made a test of his bicycle in Connecticut. 8. He had n’t given it brakes. seat. REVISING: Finding Direct Objects Read the paragraph below. From the list of words at the top. 2. Hall of Electrical History Foundation 1. Sometimes 3. This fact gave Cugnot another place in history. 5. His car hit a wall in the world’s first car accident. name CORBIS/Schenectady Museum. A (2) rider unfolded the _______ at the rear of the car. Verbs 93 . name Rumble Seats (1) In the 1930s many cars had no back _______. p. however. passengers. passengers (4) people carried _______ in a rumble seat. CONCEPT CHECK: Action Verbs and Objects Identify the action verbs in these sentences. 1. luggage. His vehicle had three wheels. ● Experience tells us the risks of different vehicles. The auto had difficulties.3 ● Practice and Apply A. ● In 1769 Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot showed the world the The First Accidents first automobile. Then write 15 complements and label them as direct or indirect objects. 3. The bumpy ride in these little seats (5) explains the _______. He hit a surprised team of horses in the first bike accident ever. select a direct object to fill each blank. VERBS B. seat 4. 275.
Some common linking verbs are is. I ES NT IF IDE Harriet Quimby was a drama critic. SUBJECT VERB SUBJECT COMPLEMENT CHAPTER 4 Predicate Nouns and Predicate Adjectives A subject complement can be a predicate noun or a predicate adjective. The subject complement identifies or describes the subject. A predicate adjective is an adjective that follows a linking verb and modifies the subject. and Mechanics .1 ● Here’s the Idea The complement that a linking verb connects its subject to is called a subject complement. or defines the subject. and look. 94 Grammar. SUBJECT VERB PREDICATE NOUN She became a stunt pilot in 1911. seem. SUBJECT SC RIBES DE VERB SUBJECT COMPLEMENT Their job looked dangerous. D IFIES MO Quimby was natural at the controls. SUBJECT VERB PREDICATE ADJECTIVE She felt happy in the air. S NT IFIE IDE Barnstormers were stunt pilots in the 1910s and 1920s. A predicate noun is a noun that follows a linking verb and identifies. feel. Usage. renames.
American flying schools were too biased to let her in. Notice how the predicate nouns add information about the subjects. She was a poor girl from Texas. 6. ● ● For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. predicate noun. 5. 9. She once said. 2. Verbs 95 . Coleman became an expert at stunt flying and parachuting. 8. Bessie Coleman was an AfricanAmerican pilot who broke barriers of racial prejudice. “The air is the only place free from prejudices. p. 275.” VERBS 3 ● Practice and Apply CONCEPT CHECK: Linking Verbs and Predicate Words Identify each linking verb. 4. The first African-American woman pilot was a Texan. Coleman seemed an unlikely candidate. and predicate adjective in the sentences below. World War I pilots became her heroes. A Flying First 1. 10. see the EXERCISE BANK. 7. Her name was Bessie Coleman. She became a pilot in 1921. She seemed more welcome in France. 3. Her goal became equality in the air.2 ● Why It Matters in Writing You can use a predicate noun to tell more about your subject.
PAST PARTICIPLE The Four Principal Parts of a Verb Present Present Participle Past Past Participle move travel (is) moving (is) traveling moved traveled (has) moved (has) traveled Notice that helping verbs are used with the present participle and the past participle. We live in a mobile society. Here are some examples. A regular verb is a verb whose past and past participle are formed by adding -ed or -d to the present. and Mechanics . the present participle. 96 Grammar. Present walk Present Participle (is) walk + ing Past walk + ed Past Participle (has) walk + ed You will learn about irregular verbs in the next lesson. PRESENT People are traveling more all the time. These principal parts are used to make all of the forms and tenses of the verb. the past. Regular Verbs There are two kinds of verbs: regular and irregular. PRESENT PARTICIPLE Automobiles lent travelers more freedom. and the past participle. The present participle is formed by adding -ing to the present.1 ● Here’s the Idea Every verb has four basic forms called its principal parts: the present. Usage. PAST CHAPTER 4 Drivers have enjoyed this freedom for years.
Michigan. Verbs 97 . 1960s motel room. Plastic ants (9) are crawling across the 9. 10. see the EXERCISE BANK. PR bureau. The details of a camper’s cabin (8) make it special. Lodging Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn. Gas. Yesterday’s Auto Expo showcased all the new cars plus some futuristic models. Pres. notice how the writer uses the past and the present to show a shift in time. Pres. Jukeboxes in the diner 5. PAST PRESENT 3 ● Practice and Apply CONCEPT CHECK: Principal Parts of Verbs For each underlined verb in the paragraph below. p. The exhibit also (7) shows a 7. 6. 276. Past historic cars. PR 8. (1) has 1. The exhibit (5) features a 1946 diner. For years. In the news report below. its exhibit “Automobile in American Life” (2) has appealed 2. name the principal part. ● For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. PR VERBS ● 4. Pres. The exhibit (3) started with more than 100 3. (6) are playing old songs.2 ● Why It Matters in Writing The principal parts allow you to form verbs that show changes in time. Food. Pres. PA showcased transportation since its early stages.The sports models remain the most popular exhibit at the car show. An open suitcase (10) is sitting on a rumpled bed. The 15-millionth Model T (4) stands there. PA to visitors.
burst cut hit hurt let put set split spread bring buy catch dig feel flee have keep lay lead leave lose make say sell sit sleep teach think win wind Group 2 The forms of the past and the past participle are the same. Usage.1 ● Here’s the Idea Irregular verbs are verbs whose past and past participle forms are not made by adding -ed or -d to the present. and Mechanics . past. and past participle are all the same. The following chart shows you how to form the past and past participle forms of many irregular verbs. 98 Grammar. Common Irregular Verbs Present Past burst cut hit hurt let put set split spread brought bought caught dug felt fled had kept laid led left lost made said sold sat slept taught thought won wound Past Participle (has) burst (has) cut (has) hit (has) hurt (has) let (has) put (has) set (has) split (has) spread (has) brought (has) bought (has) caught (has) dug (has) felt (has) fled (has) had (has) kept (has) laid (has) led (has) left (has) lost (has) made (has) said (has) sold (has) sat (has) slept (has) taught (has) thought (has) won (has) wound CHAPTER 4 Group 1 The forms of the present.
Common Irregular Verbs (continued) Present Past bit broke chose lay spoke stole tore wore blew did drove ate fell gave went knew rode rose saw took threw wrote began drank rang shrank sang sank swam Past Participle (has) bitten or bit (has) broken (has) chosen (has) lain (has) spoken (has) stolen (has) torn (has) worn (has) blown (has) done (has) driven (has) eaten (has) fallen (has) given (has) gone (has) known (has) ridden (has) risen (has) seen (has) taken (has) thrown (has) written (has) begun (has) drunk (has) rung (has) shrunk (has) sung (has) sunk (has) swum Group 3 The past participle is formed by adding -n or -en to the past. VERBS Group 5 The last vowel changes from i in the present to a in the past and to u in the past participle. are. were Past Participle (has) been Verbs 99 . The Irregular Verb Be Present The past and past participle do not follow any pattern. often by adding -n or -en. bite break choose lie speak steal tear wear blow do drive eat fall give go know ride rise see take throw write begin drink ring shrink sing sink swim Group 4 The past participle is formed from the present. is Past was. am.
5. They first (rode. ● Transportation (beginned. seen) advances in road building.D. drove) chariots with solid wheels by 2500 B.000 feet. 80. My Story CHAPTER 4 3 ● Practice and Apply CONCEPT CHECK: Irregular Verbs In the sentences below. Usage. adapted from Taking Flight. I came down to 3. digged) canals for ship traffic soon thereafter. For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. ran) everywhere. 100 Grammar. then 1. began) before civilization. people walked and (runned. 276. Roman gladiators in the Colosseum (rose. Notice the irregular forms used in this pilot’s account of her first transatlantic flight.000 feet. 2.C. but the air was thick with clouds. They (dug. 1. —Vicki Van Meter with Dan Gutman.C. Moving Through History 3. and then 5. The best way to avoid mistakes is to memorize the principal parts of the most common irregular verbs. The Roman Empire (saw. In A.C. fast ships around 400 B. choose the correct forms of the verbs in parentheses. 4.000 feet. Still there were clouds—and a real danger of crashing. They (drived.C. rided) in dugout canoes and reed boats nearly 10. raised) to the arena on elevator-like lifting platforms. I brought Harmony down to 7. Spoked wheels (maked. and Mechanics . p. 9. ● For centuries. They (letted. The Greeks (built. 7. see the EXERCISE BANK.000 feet. made) their appearance around 2000 B. 6. 8. 10. then 2. let) animals carry their loads by 3000 B. builded) light.000 years ago.000 feet.2 ● Why It Matters in Writing Writers must use the correct irregular verb forms to make their writing sound right.
Present Progressive Past Progressive Future Progressive Verbs 101 . The past tense shows an action or condition that was completed in the past. Soon she will cross the finish line alone. Progressive Forms The crowd is cheering. They will be celebrating later. She sped past the pack 50 feet ago. the past. Understanding Simple Tenses Simple Tenses One biker pedals faster than anyone else.1 ● Here’s the Idea A tense is a verb form that shows the time of an action or condition. The winner’s parents were holding their breath. VERBS The future tense shows an action or condition that will occur in the future. A progressive form of a tense expresses an action or condition in progress. and the future. The present tense shows an action or condition that occurs now. Verbs have three simple tenses: the present.
it skated Plural we skate you skate they skate we skated you skated they skated we will skate you will skate they will skate Future I will skate (will + present part) you will skate he. Next Saturday. 102 Grammar. we bike together along the lakefront. She lives two miles will away. she. past. rode Yesterday I ride my bike to my friend Lynn’s house. Notice how this student has revised the model to change from past to present to future tense. I was skating. she. Forming Simple Tenses Singular Present (present principal part) Past (present part + ed/d ) I skate you skate he. add the present. it will skate CHAPTER 4 To make the progressive form of one of these tenses. I often walk to her house on weekends. Present Progressive: Past Progressive: Future Progressive: I am skating.Forming Simple Tenses The present tense of a verb is the present principal part. To form the future tense. she. change tenses to show clearly when things happen in relation to each other. or future form of be to the present participle. The past tense is the past principal part. and Mechanics . I will be skating. add will to the present principal part. it skates I skated you skated he. Usage. 2 ● Why It Matters in Writing When you are stating a sequence of events.
7. Rocket Belts In A. Many other adults as well as most kids bike around town. 276. B. Past They traveled up to 30 miles in an hour. ● VERBS For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. people walked everywhere. Identify any errors in using simple tenses and correct them.S. some people (5) travel only in virtual reality through their computers. Past.D. or Future. 6. In any case. Past Later. In the future. Past Now most adults drive everywhere. Move Over. 1. 1. In the 1960s the U. p. Superman Past They covered three or four miles an hour on foot. carried 4. 1280. people rode horses. Fut. 9. Fut. in 1872. France. In the future. REVISING: Correcting Simple Tenses Revise the following paragraph by correcting the verb tenses. 2. An early monorail carried people in Lyons. see the EXERCISE BANK. Pres. Some experts say that someday we (4) saw rocket belts in wide use. Pres. more efficient travel. Army (2) tests rocket belts. 3. will see 5. tested 3. gave 2. 4. Past Maybe we will fly through the airways in vehicles like cars in the future. will people travel on high-speed monorails? Fut. 10. we will find other ways for faster. the Syrian writer al-Hasan al-Rammah (1) will give instructions for making rockets.3 ● Practice and Apply A. will travel Working Portfolio: Find your Write Away from page 86 or a sample of your most recent work. 5. They (3) will carry a soldier 360 feet forward in each hop. CONCEPT CHECK: Simple Tenses Identify the tense of each underlined verb below by labeling it Present. Verbs 103 . 8. ● Long ago.
Had used is farther back in the past than discovered. However. Will have tried will occur before it becomes ordinary. This balloon will have finished before dark. Balloons existed in the past. people discovered them for sport. Hot-air balloons have existed for 300 years. they still exist. Usage. CHAPTER 4 After scientists had used weather balloons for years. many more people will have tried the sport before it becomes ordinary.1 ● Here’s the Idea Understanding Perfect Tenses The present perfect tense places an action or condition in a stretch of time leading up to the present. 104 Grammar. This balloon has finished first. and Mechanics . The future perfect tense places a future action or condition before another future action or condition. The past perfect tense places a past action or condition before another past action or condition.
past perfect. it had floated I will have floated you will have floated he. or will have to a past participle of the verb. In the model. it has floated I had floated you had floated he. the tense of the helping verb have shows the verb’s tense.Forming Perfect Tenses To form the present perfect. It was the forum. “The Dog of Pompeii” Verbs 105 . add has. and future perfect tenses. you can use perfect tenses to help your readers understand when the event occurred in relation to other events. 2 ● Why It Matters in Writing When writing about an event. had. PAST PERFECT PAST —Louis Untermeyer. Forming Perfect Tenses Singular Present perfect (has or have + past participle) Past perfect (had + past participle) Future perfect (will + have + past participle) I have floated you have floated he. have. notice the effective use of the past perfect tense in relation to the past tense. she. We often have seen balloons in the Arizona skies. she.They rested here awhile—how long he did not know. she. it will have floated Plural we have floated you have floated they have floated we had floated you had floated they had floated VERBS we will have floated you will have floated they will have floated In a perfect form. By a miracle the two companions had escaped the dangerous side streets and were in a more open space.
In March 2009 it will have been ten years since Brian Jones and Bertrand Piccard’s historic flight. Pres. Usage. 3. 2. Perf. Perf. 5. Weather scientists have learned much about the earth’s atmosphere from balloon flights. and Away though they were flightless. ● People had wanted flight for hundreds of years. Perf. almost 70 years before his grandson’s feat. 6. or future perfect. 8. and a rooster in 1783.3 ● Practice and Apply A.000 weather balloons will have gone up by the end of this year. Now pilots have circled the world nonstop in a balloon. 277. About 75. p. airships fly (past perfect) for years. Fut. Fut. Piccard’s grandfather had piloted a balloon to a height of nearly 52. 4. 7. 1. CONCEPT CHECK: Perfect Tenses Write the tense of each underlined verb: present perfect. and Mechanics . 10. Perf. Perf. The Montgolfier brothers had launched small balloons in 1782 before they sent up a balloon carrying a sheep. Past Perf. had flown had taken 106 Grammar. 1852. B. ● CHAPTER 4 For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. Their discoveries have inspired new medicines. Up. have built Engineers build (present perfect) different types of airships. Perf. over 50 years before the first successful engine-powered airplane flight. a duck. Pres. Plant scientists have used balloon rafts for exploration of the trees in the rain forest.000 feet in 1931. Perf. past perfect. Pres. Past Perf. even Up. soar (future perfect) over many sports events before their era ends. Past Perf. WRITING: Using Perfect Tenses Rewrite each underlined verb in the tense named in parentheses. Airships By the time of the first airplane. have seen Rigid airships see (present perfect) better days. 9. The first engine-powered balloon take (past perfect) to the air on September 24. Pres. Pres. Nonrigid will have soared airships. or blimps. see the EXERCISE BANK. They have taken air samples around the globe.
Bullet trains are common in Japan. The present perfect tense places the actions in a period of time leading up to the present. They are making subways more pleasant. They have given workers a fast trip to work. Writing About the Present The present tenses show actions and conditions that occur in the present. VERBS Subways have carried commuters to work for decades. Verbs 107 . and the present progressive form. do not switch from one tense to another. They reach speeds of more than 130 miles per hour. the present perfect tense. The present progressive forms show the actions or conditions in progress now. Traffic engineers are improving mass transportation. You can write about the present using the present tense. If you do not need to show a change of time.1 ● Here’s the Idea A good writer uses different verb tenses to show that events occur at different times. The present tense places the action in the present.
you can use past verb forms to indicate the order in which events occurred. CHAPTER 4 The past perfect tense places the actions before other past actions. The past tense shows action that began and was completed in the past. Officials were encouraging mass transit for years before highways got too crowded. In the 1850s batteries propelled some tram railways.Writing About the Past The past tenses show actions and conditions that came to an end in the past. When you write about the past. 108 Grammar. Usage. They were preparing cities for worse traffic as the population grew. The first cable cars appeared in San Francisco in 1873. and Mechanics . People had crowded Boston’s streets before its subway opened. Until subways made commutes easy. workers had lived near their jobs. The past progressive forms show that the actions in the past were in progress.
2025 What kind of energy will move vehicles in the future? Verbs 109 . workers will have learned to “commute” by computer. 2 ● Why It Matters in Writing When you are writing for social studies. The future tense shows that the actions are yet to come.Writing About the Future The future tenses show actions and conditions that are yet to come. Home offices will have become popular before subways are overloaded. The future progressive forms show that the action or condition in the future will be continuing. Telecommuters will be sending their work to the office by computer. Today Electromagnetic energy provides power for highspeed trains. 1880 Steam provided power for trains. The future perfect tense places the actions or conditions before other future actions or conditions. People always will need to get from home to work. use tenses correctly to show that you know the sequence of important events. By using the future verb forms. By the time subways are full. But many of them will commute fewer than five days a week. 1900 Electricity provided power for subways. you can show how future events are related in time. VERBS More people will be working at home several days a week.
Usage. In 1897 Boston (will become. The first electric subway (opens. EDITING: Arranging Verb Tenses The following sentences tell about a commuter train ride. Pres. 2 1. 10. Name the tense of each verb you chose in part A. CHAPTER 4 B. “Ouch! That’s hot!” he exclaimed. 2. p. Bakiloff had sat down. Perf. 3.) Sentence order: 4. Past 3. and Mechanics . 9. They (ran. 1. choose the correct verb form in parentheses. will move) without engines or rails. Past 4. spilling her coffee. 5. 2. These “maglev” trains (will float. Pres.S. ● Commuters (have used. Fut. opened) in London. city with a subway. will use) mass transit since the 1800s. Bakiloff. (Hint: Read all the sentences before you begin. they improved. 4. She fell toward Mr. Indigo. For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. travel) around 160 miles per hour over long distances. CONCEPT CHECK: Using Verb Tenses In each sentence. Pres. 3. Past 6. 7. 110 Grammar. 8. see the EXERCISE BANK. 5. 1. Bullet trains like those in Japan now (have traveled. ran) for a few decades. ● It’s Off to Work They Go England. 12 passengers rushed up the train steps to get the best seats.3 ● Practice and Apply A. will run) faster and were better ventilated. 278. The train started before Mrs. were floating) on a magnetic cushion at 300 miles per hour. Past Perf. in 1890. These automatic commuter trains (carry. enjoy) computer-controlled trains. had carried) millions of people every day. Pres. After subways (had run. 5. After the train had stopped. became) the first U. The next generation of subway trains (had moved. List the sentence numbers in a logical order so that the tenses of the verbs make sense. Now many cities (had enjoyed. “Are you hurt?” said Mrs. Fut.
Raise means “to lift up. and learn and teach. She lays a van on top of a carrier truck. Verbs 111 . The pilot raises the flaps on the airplane’s wings. laid Pat laid the car down. Past Participle lain Pat has lain down.1 ● Here’s the Idea Some pairs of verbs seem similar. Past Participle risen The plane has risen. Lie and Lay Lie means “to recline.” It does not take an object. rise and raise. Past lay Pat lay down. Helicopters rise above the trees.” It usually takes an object. raised Jo has raised the hood. Rise and Raise Rise means “to move upward” or “to go up. Lie and Lay Present lie Pat lies down. lay Pat lays the car down. Lay means “to put or place.” It does not take an object. raise Jo raises the car’s hood.” It does take an object. Rise and Raise Present rise The plane rises. VERBS Lie and lay are confusing because the present principal part of lay is the same as the past principal part of lie. sit and set. Pat lies on the floor with her model cars. but are actually different words with different meanings. Troublesome verb pairs include lie and lay. Past rose The plane rose. laid Pat has laid the car down. raised Jo raised the hood.
set Bob set down the keys. Lu teaches math. Learn and Teach Present learn Maria learns to ski. Jeff sits next to the flat tire. CHAPTER 4 Sit and Set Present sit Let’s sit up front. teach Mr. Lu taught math. Past sat We sat up front. Past Participle learned Maria has learned to ski. 112 Grammar. Usage. set Bob has set down the keys. and Mechanics . Learn and Teach Learn means “to gain knowledge or skill. taught Mr. Past learned Maria learned to ski. Leisha taught Sam to skateboard.” Teach means “to instruct” or “to help someone learn.” It does take an object. taught Mr. Past Participle sat We have sat up front. He sets the lug wrench on the ground. Set means “to put or place.Sit and Set Sit means “to be seated.” It does not take an object.” Sam learned to skateboard. set Bob sets down the keys. Lu has taught math.
of skyscrapers. lays) in the invention Going Up? ● 6. 8. For many years. rose) only freight. which (rose. CONCEPT CHECK: Troublesome Verb Pairs Choose the correct word in parentheses in each of the following sentences. Then change them to the correct verb forms. set) in boxes held up only by ropes. PROOFREADING: What Do They Mean? List the five verbs that are used incorrectly in the following paragraph. the subway lays far underground. lies Passengers set in subway trains. 10. As they raise. VERBS B. Otis (learned. set). When they get out. But they teach quickly to learn pay attention when they step off the escalator at the top. For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. Escalator Up In St. rise) to the upper floors. In 1857 he installed the world’s first passenger elevator. 9. set) the goods on the elevator floor and sent them up or down. Only elevators could (raise. raises/rise they may be distracted sometimes. p. Russia. These elevators (raised. Verbs 113 . laid) their fears to rest. 7. Petersburg. see the EXERCISE BANK. an sit escalator rises the passengers 195 feet up. ● The origin of modern elevators (lies. People were afraid to (sit. 3. 278. taught) builders how to make elevators safe. Workers (sat. 1. 5. 2. Engineers (learned. not people. raised) five stories at 40 feet per minute. taught) how to build hydraulic elevators. 4. Then Elisha Graves Otis (lay. elevators had cushioned places where riders (sat.2 ● Practice and Apply A.
or link ideas. read the sports page. or learn how to play a sport in gym class.Using Action Verbs to Describe Motion Whether you watch the playoffs on TV. Verbs explain physical movement. What verbs might you use to describe the following cheerleading jumps? J-U-M-P! Split CHAPTER 4 Herky Full “C” Pike Bambi Banana 114 . you need verbs to express what is happening. tell what something is.
Verbs 115 N O . There’s only one hitch—the coach’s handout of basic jumps does not have any written directions. USING VERBS IN INSTRUCTIONS YS IC A L EDUCA TI Hooray! You got through tryouts and made the cheerleading squad. USING VERBS IN A PLAY-BY-PLAY With a partner. body. vivid verbs that describe the action that takes place. legs. Do a playby-play broadcast. Remember that you want your classmates to be able to picture in their minds what is happening. Use verbs from the list below that precisely describe the motion of your arms. Then write five steps explaining how to do one of these jumps. Study the illustration on page 114. Narrate the action of one of the following sports highlights or another of your choice.R OS e CURRI CU S th L UM AC PH Practice and Apply A. or a running account of the action of a sports event as it unfolds. role-play two radio sports announcers. for the class. and head. • • • a winning goal in a soccer match a home run in a tie softball game a record-breaking finish in a race Use precise. Action Verbs raise lower bend straighten extend turn clasp pivot grab shake land hop cross lunge twirl wrap move place straddle clench twist lift push roll step jump stretch thrust kick split drop point spin scoop switch stand leap squat crouch VERBS bounce vault swing touch lock pull B.
had wondered or wondered So they sended a dog named Laika up in a rocket in 1957. 10. Usage. will have Rockets will sit down tourists and businesspeople every day. scientists will wonder whether humans could 2. puts on spacesuit steps out into space locks feet into foot holder on robot arm rides robot arm to repair location returns to the shuttle after fixing the problem 116 Grammar. and Mechanics . 7. the shuttle was being reused again and again. astronauts are landing on the moon. Watch out for irregular verbs and troublesome verb pairs. will fly Who knows where the human race has gone after that? will go B. CHAPTER 4 survive in outer space. 3. Answers in column. 4. Using Tenses Using the ideas in the phrases listed below. 5. is Some experts predict that we had a base on the moon in the 21st century. 6. Revising Incorrect Verb Parts Find and correct the 10 incorrect verbs and verb forms in the following sentences. Space: The Final Frontier 1. write five sentences about the picture. what is happening in it. like an airplane. sent Yuri Gagarin becomes the first person in space in 1961. 9. travel Unlike the older spacecraft. and what might happen next. set Some say we flew beyond our solar system someday. 8. landed Today they had traveled in the space shuttle.Mixed Review A. became Just eight years later. Tell what happened before the scene shown in the picture. Fifty years ago.
A. We now are living in the age of the automobile. The air will be cleaner. they abandoned their cars. will pollute C. will live B. give D. A. and road rage. are abandoning D.Mastery Test: What Did You Learn? Choose the best way to rewrite each underlined word or group of words. will abandon B. worry B. Correct as is 7. were B. there will be almost no pavement in the United States. Correct as is 9. will turn D. will cost B. are C. will worry C. Other people predict (7) that communities had become more self-sufficient. will have costed D. accidents. have lived C. had turned C. which costed $200 million per day to keep up and add to. more people have (6) (5) (4) turned to mass transit. Correct as is 4. (10) (9) (8) VERBS 1. and people will have been healthier. (3) (2) (1) Before the automobile age. have been C. trains. Correct as is Verbs 117 . had given B. had polluted B. A. have worried D. A. will be living D. but some people had worried about that fact for a while. A. Some futurists believe that as roads get more crowded. Cars give us freedom and mobility. have been D. subways. turn B. A. will give C. Correct as is 3. have become B. Correct as is 6. Correct as is 10. Correct as is 5. Correct as is 8.4 million miles of paved roads. polluted D. Now we have 2. A. Correct as is 2. will be D. but they also gave us pollution. A. will become C. are becoming D. and buses pollute less per person than automobiles do. After people finally work near their homes. had been B. Even now. have abandoned C. A. A. cost C.
ACTION VERB Cars are very handy. LINKING VERB Principal Parts of Regular Verbs CHAPTER 4 Present present Present Participle helping verb + present + -ing (is) biking (is) blasting (is) diving (is) floating (is) galloping (is) lifting (is) moving (is) rolling (is) traveling (is) walking Past present + -ed or -d biked blasted dived floated galloped lifted moved rolled traveled walked Past Participle helping verb + present + -ed or -d (has) biked (has) blasted (has) dived (has) floated (has) galloped (has) lifted (has) moved (has) rolled (has) traveled (has) walked bike blast dive float gallop lift move roll travel walk 118 Grammar.A verb expresses action. or state of being. Many people drive cars. and Mechanics . Usage. condition. The two main kinds of verbs are action verbs and linking verbs.
We have traveled often. We will travel to California next year. to whom. Action or condition occurring in the present Action or condition occurring in the past Action or condition occurring in the future Action or condition occurring in the period leading up to the present Past action or condition coming before another past action or condition Future action or condition coming before another future action or condition Past perfect We had traveled to Washington. used action verbs to express an action? used linking verbs with predicate nouns and predicate adjectives? used direct objects and indirect objects to answer the questions whom. before I turned 12. . lie and lay. . what.C.. We will have traveled to every state before I’m 21. and to what? used the correct principal parts of irregular verbs? used tenses correctly to express the time of actions and conditions? used sit and set. and learn and teach correctly? Verbs 119 . D.Keeping Tenses Straight Tense Present Past Future Present perfect Definition Travel Time Example We travel everywhere. We traveled to Maine. VERBS Future perfect The Bottom Line Checklist for Verb Usage Have I . rise and raise.
What adjectives and adverbs would you use to describe the picture on the postcard above? Write Away: Wish You Were Here! Create a postcard of one of your favorite outdoor places. The words they use to describe actions are adverbs. Save your postcard in your Working Portfolio. We hiked and camped. We saw mountain flowers and carefully climbed steep trails. 120 .. and things are adjectives. isn’t it? To give a better sense of what it was like to be there. We saw flowers and climbed trails. places. --Gomez CHAPTER 5 Theme: The Great Outdoors Tell Me More What would you think if you received the postcard message above? It’s kind of boring.Chapter 5 Dear Alice. Illustrate the other side with a picture of what you have described. On one side. The words writers use to describe people. We hiked endlessly and camped late. the writer could add words describing what he saw and did. describe the place and what you did there.
choose the letter of the term that correctly identifies it. Yellowstone will continue to delight (10) ADJ. article 3. A. A. adjective modifying rainbow C. and bighorn sheep. adverb modifying is C. generations of visitors. adverb modifying oldest B. Old Faithful is popular because it erupts more regularly than other geysers in the park. superlative adjective Adjectives and Adverbs 121 . demonstrative pronoun D. adjective modifying animals 8. adjective modifying one B. pronoun used as adjective B. proper adjective B. A. A. adjective modifying sights D. adverb modifying is 6. superlative adjective C. adjective modifying bears B. & ADV. large bears. comparative adjective 4. demonstrative pronoun C. adjective telling how much 9. 1. A. possessive adjective B. adverb 7. adjective modifying Idaho D. adverb telling when C. elk. noun used as adjective 10. adverb telling where D. this American treasure is now healthier than ever. article C. adverb modifying enjoy D. proper adjective D. Visitors are wild about the hot (3) springs. A. Although fires badly (7) (9) (8) burned many acres of the park in 1988. comparative adverb C. superlative adjective 5. Opened on March 1. Tourists also enjoy the animals. this park attracts (2) millions of people each year. adjective modifying park 2. proper adjective D. A. adverb C. comparative adverb B. adverb modifying including C. comparative adjective D. proper adjective B. A. mud pots. superlative adverb D. 1872. A. and geysers. predicate adjective D. adverb telling how B. including (6) bison. comparative adjective B. superlative adverb C. Yellowstone National Park is the oldest national park in the (1) United States. One of the (4) neatest sights is the colorful rainbow in Grand Prismatic Spring (5) that is made by algae.Diagnostic Test: What Do You Know? For each underlined item. A.
hear. Adjectives What kind? Which one or ones? How many or how much? green backpack last hamburger two flashlights sturdy tent third hike many insects spicy stew every lantern little moonlight What kind? waterproof floor round roof Which one or ones? only door each window How many? several stakes two people 122 . ADJECTIVE NOUN Adjectives help you see. CHAPTER 5 Adjectives answer the questions what kind.1 ● Here’s the Idea An adjective is a word that modifies. Notice how adjectives make the second sentence in this pair more descriptive. which one. how many. Noisy coyotes startled the sleepy campers. and how much. and smell all the experiences you read about. or describes. Coyotes startled the campers. taste. a noun or a pronoun. DIFIES MO A heavy rainstorm soaked the campsite. feel.
A and an are used with singular nouns. or idea. Use a and an when you want to be less specific. Proper adjectives are always capitalized.Articles The most commonly used adjectives are the articles a. place. & ADV. Nouns and Adjectives Noun Adjective rain scene beauty rainy scenic beautiful A proper adjective is formed from a proper noun. place. and the. or idea. You can use the with singular or plural nouns. The hiker tripped on the trail and dropped the cameras. an. Did the team leader bring a first-aid kit? ONE SPECIFIC LEADER ANY FIRST-AID KIT Proper Adjectives Many adjectives are formed from common nouns. thing. Use the when you want to refer to a specific person. ADJ. Use a before a word beginning with a consonant sound. a tent a candle a lamp Use an before a word beginning with a vowel sound. Proper Nouns and Proper Adjectives Proper Noun Proper Adjective China Ireland Mars Chinese Irish Martian Adjectives and Adverbs 123 . an axe an elephant an unusual night The is an article that points to a particular person. thing.
The park took the builders sixteen years to complete. 1. There is also an Egyptian statue. The landscape includes green meadows. Write the proper adjectives that appear in sentences 1. 9.“To build a lean-to. People tried to imagine a place where New Yorkers could enjoy the great outdoors. In 1858 there was a national competition for a plan to turn the spot into an attractive park. a packet of hot dogs. Do not include articles when you write the adjectives. see the EXERCISE BANK. He also had a bag of Tootsie Rolls and a shiny hatchet. and a box of saltine crackers—plus two bottles. Other attractions include a colorful carousel and a zoo. 8. 5.” he explained. Many monuments are scattered throughout the park. 3. 7. 6. The zoo features an African exhibit with birds and monkeys. ● ● For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. celery soda. American/7. Max came last. Central Park is now an American landmark. “Scout’s Honor” CHAPTER 5 3 ● Practice and Apply CONCEPT CHECK: What Is an Adjective? Write each adjective and the noun or pronoun it modifies. Egyptian/9. 4. Usage. African 124 Grammar. One bottle was mustard. 2. and 9. the other. lakes. 10. p. It was once a dirty swamp that was filled with ugly shacks and much garbage. Imagine this description without adjectives. 7. Urban Wilderness 1. —Avi. 279.2 ● Why It Matters in Writing Adjectives provide important details about the nouns they describe. and beautiful gardens. and Mechanics . He was lugging a new knapsack that contained a cast-iron frying pan. ponds. woods.
Predicate adjectives can follow linking verbs other than forms of be. & ADV. The linking verb connects the predicate adjective with the subject. SUBJECT D CRIBES ES LINKING VERB It is explosive. The lava looks thick. “Don’t ever be indifferent. D R ES C IBES A volcanic eruption is violent. and seem are often used as linking verbs.” she would say to Keiko and me. and they also knew what it was to be lonely. SC RIBES DE ADJ. feel. They cared deeply about other people and were always ready to lend a helping hand to anyone. see page 94. Both my parents had grown up poor. 2 ● Why It Matters in Writing Writers often use predicate adjectives to tell more about a person’s character. For more about linking verbs. LINKING VERB SC RIBES DE PREDICATE ADJECTIVE Lava becomes hard when it cools. as in this author’s description of her parents. look. become. Forms of taste. Mama couldn’t bear to think of her children ever being less than kind and caring. smell.“That is the worst fault of all.” —Yoshiko Uchida. “Oh Broom.1 ● Here’s the Idea A predicate adjective is an adjective that follows a linking verb and describes the verb’s subject. Get to Work” Adjectives and Adverbs 125 .
find the postcard you wrote for the Write Away on page 120. After hot ash started fires. 10. On a piece of paper. but often I feel adventurous. Long after the eruption. 7. fast mudslides seemed deadly. 6. Following the blast. B. Helens were very destructive. Take turns drawing a piece of paper out of the hat. For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. 2. Then the volcano became dangerous. using linking verbs and predicate adjectives. The blasts were thunderous. pumice. Add or change predicate adjectives to make your description clearer. see the EXERCISE BANK. tall forests looked very flat. To many people. In 1980 eruptions were responsible for widespread damage. Usage. and Mechanics . Thick. WRITING: Creating Riddles Answers in column.3 ● Practice and Apply A. a volcano in Washington. 280. The sky became very dark as ash fell like snow. along with the noun or pronoun it modifies. Try to guess the name of the author. Example: I am female and very tall. and my hair is red. a kind of volcanic rock. Then fold the paper and put your sentences into a hat along with those of your classmates. 126 Grammar. 4. ● For more than 120 years. Mount St. CONCEPT CHECK: Predicate Adjectives Write each predicate adjective in these sentences. still felt hot. In your Working Portfolio. I seem quiet. ● Look Out! CHAPTER 5 3. 1. The volcanic eruptions of Mount St. 5. Underline each predicate adjective. 9. p. was inactive. 8. It is also extremely long and curly. Helens. the air smelled smoky. write three sentences about yourself.
& ADV. that. They can be used as adjectives. few. DIFIES MO These canoes are made of aluminum. his. ADJ. most. Possessive Pronouns My.1 ● Here’s the Idea Many pronouns and nouns can be used as adjectives. its. and their are possessive pronouns. and those are demonstrative pronouns. They are used as adjectives. your. our. Adjectives and Adverbs 127 . Indefinite Pronouns Indefinite pronouns such as all. each. her. both. DIFIES MO DIFIES MO My skateboard is newer than your bicycle. and some can be used as adjectives. They can modify nouns to make their meanings more specific. DIFIES MO This canoe is made of wood and leather. these. DIFIES MO Most people in my family enjoy exploring caves. DIFIES MO All members of my family enjoy picnicking. Pronouns as Adjectives Demonstrative Pronouns This.
“The All-American Slurp” 128 Grammar. In the expression “mountain climber. —Lensey Namioka. my brother made the baseball team of his junior high school. plus a dart board and a 1.We soon got all the furniture we needed. In the same week. and Mechanics .Nouns as Adjectives Like pronouns. M O DI FIES CHAPTER 5 Climbing an indoor rock wall 2 ● Why It Matters in Writing By using nouns as adjectives. and Mother discovered rummage sales. we discovered that it was a 999-piece jigsaw puzzle).” for example. DIFIES MO Rock climbers practice indoors on winter nights. the word mountain (normally a noun) modifies climber. Usage. Notice the nouns used as adjectives in the sentences below. nouns can be used as adjectives.000-piece jigsaw puzzle (fourteen hours later. Father started taking driving lessons. a writer can pack a lot of important information into just a word or two. Notice what information the nouns that are used as adjectives add to the passage below. M O D IFI ES DIFIES MO They use a rock wall made from construction materials.
and I fell into 5 a puddle. Many climbers participate in skill training. Those climbers want to enjoy a mountaintop view. 10. Their equipment includes this harness and that helmet. Gyms allow these people to train on rock walls. CONCEPT CHECK: Other Words Used as Adjectives Write each noun or pronoun that is used as an adjective in these sentences. The skateboard flew into my helmet. 4.3 ● Practice and Apply A. Include adjectives to show how helmets can protect bike riders from injury. create a safety poster about bicycle helmets. REVISING: Adding Nouns as Adjectives Make this message more detailed by adding nouns from the list below to modify each of the nouns in boldface type. Climb Every Mountain 3. 9. For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. Our goal is to learn correct body positions. 6. 280. 2. Then write the word it modifies. WRITING: Creating a Safety Poster U CU RR M ICUL Using the information below. ● Most climbers climb mountain formations. 7. 8. 1 AC RO S S T HE C. ADJ. Some climbs occur on glacier ice. ● “Urban climbers” scale city buildings. My friends prefer to test their skills on mountains. 5. You won’t believe what happened today! I was roller-blading on a sidewalk. and a kid on a skateboard lost his balance 4/3/2 and fell. B. Liner absorbs shock of fall Outer shell protects skull from impact Chin strap holds helmet firmly in place Adjectives and Adverbs 129 . 1. see the EXERCISE BANK. p. & ADV. Each skill involves muscle strength and concentration. 1mud 2 steel 3 neighborhood 4 park 5 safety Dear Tammi.
fully Adverbs can appear in different positions in sentences. ADVERB M ADJECTIVE ODIFIES Others quite bravely explore the unknown—space. 130 Grammar. carefully. ahead completely. later. sadly now. an adjective. totally. up. the tourists boarded the bus. (before verb) Eagerly. (after verb) The tourists eagerly boarded the bus. They usually answer the question to what extent. and Mechanics . ADVERB ADVERB CHAPTER 5 Adverbs answer the questions how. DIFIES MO Explorers eagerly chase adventure. when.1 ● Here’s the Idea An adverb is a word that modifies a verb. The tourists boarded the bus eagerly. DIFIES MO Marco Polo told really wonderful tales of China. or to what extent. or another adverb. Usage. (at beginning) Adverbs that modify adjectives or other adverbs usually come directly before the words they modify. soon there. where. ADVERB VERB DIFIES MO Some explorers visit amazingly beautiful places. Adverbs How? When? Where? To what extent? suddenly.
Notice how one scientist used adverbs to record details about the behavior of spiders.When an insect does accidentally stumble into the web. & ADV. Forming Adverbs Many adverbs are formed by adding the suffix -ly to adjectives. Change y to i and add -ly. Drop the e and add -ly. DIFIES MO They nearly always hung on every word. QUICK-FIX SPELLING MACHINE: ADVERBS ADJ. injecting poison rapidly into its prey and wrapping it tightly in spider silk. ADJECTIVE RULE ADVERB near gentle easy Add -ly.DIFIES MO People were very eager to hear his stories. The spider can remain perfectly still for hours. waiting for its prey. Sometimes a base word’s spelling changes when -ly is added. Adjectives and Adverbs 131 . the spider can move swiftly. nearly gently easily 2 ● Why It Matters in Writing Use adverbs to record what you observe in science.
an astronomer. Often 3. ● Thomas Jefferson became very curious about the West after he took office as president. and a team of explorers headed west. (2) (answers when). On May 14. For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. carefully soon rather often upward 1. Usage. soon Starstruck As a young child. 4. She was (5) (answers when) elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. V 5. the grown-up Mitchell. she (3) (answers how) recorded information about an eclipse. CHAPTER 5 Write the adjectives from which the adverbs in sentences 4. V 4. Team members gathered truly valuable information. Lewis. On October 1. William Clark. He studied maps and explorers’ journals quite often. V 9. 2. and 10 are formed. Because the journey was so completely successful. she visited her father’s observatory in Nantucket. an adjective. Lewis quickly learned many skills. true/7. Maria Mitchell gazed (1) (answers where) at the sky. CONCEPT CHECK: What Is an Adverb? Write each adverb and the word it modifies. final/10. V 10. There may be more than one adverb in a sentence. the difficult 8. 7. Adj. 1847. in 1806. complete B. Their remarkably complete journals told what they saw. Sometimes. p. Adj. carefully 4. such as live prairie dogs. 6. the explorers sent specimens. 1. 9. rather 5.3 ● Practice and Apply A. quick/6. or an adverb. In preparation for the trip. He soon asked Meriwether Lewis to explore the new territory of the 1803 Louisiana Purchase. 7. Massachusetts. 132 Grammar. 281. 8. Adv. see the EXERCISE BANK. V 6. V/Adv. to President Jefferson. 1804./Adj. WRITING: Adding Adverbs Choose one adverb from the list to fill in each of the blanks.000-mile expedition ended. and Mechanics . At the age of 12. the first woman to be so honored. Adv. Finally. ● The Wild West 3. remarkable/9. Lewis and Clark became famous. upward 2. made a (4) (answers to what extent) rare discovery—a new comet. Identify the modified word as a verb.
Mountain climbing is more dangerous than skydiving. Use the comparative form of an adjective or adverb when you compare a person or thing with one other person or thing. Rainier is higher than Mt. Regular Forms of Comparison For most one-syllable modifiers. Two-Syllable Modifiers Base Form Adjectives Adverbs shallow awful calmly briskly Comparative shallower more awful more calmly more briskly Superlative shallowest most awful most calmly most briskly Adjectives and Adverbs 133 . add -er to form the comparative. use more and most. One-Syllable Modifiers Base Form Adjectives Adverbs thin brave slow soon Comparative thinner braver slower sooner Superlative thinnest bravest slowest soonest You can also add -er and -est to some two-syllable adjectives. and with two-syllable adverbs. Mt. Everest is the highest of the three mountains. Hood. I think Mt. With others. Mt. Add -est to form the superlative. Use the superlative form of an adjective or adverb when you compare someone or something with more than one other person or thing.1 ● Here’s the Idea Adjectives and adverbs can be used to compare people or things. & ADV. ADJ. Special forms of these words are used to make comparisons. Fuji is the most beautiful mountain of all.
Irregular Forms of Comparison CHAPTER 5 The comparative and superlative forms of some adjectives and adverbs are completely different words. Irregular Modifiers Base Form Adjectives Adverbs good bad well much little Comparative better worse better more less Superlative best worst best most least 2 ● Why It Matters in Writing Comparative and superlative forms are used to compare and contrast things with each other.With adjectives and adverbs having three or more syllables. INCORRECT: CORRECT: That beach has the most whitest sand. You don’t need to add -er or -est to an irregular comparison. This year I think English is more difficult than math. use more and most. Last year I thought math was the most difficult subject. That beach has the whitest sand. Modifiers with More than Two Syllables Base Form Adjectives Adverbs beautiful dangerous gracefully dangerously Comparative more beautiful more dangerous more gracefully more dangerously Superlative most beautiful most dangerous most gracefully most dangerously Use only one sign of comparison at a time. Usage. 134 Grammar. and Mechanics . Don’t use more and -er together or most and -est together.
p. the animals that form a coral reef. best) of all in warm. 10. U CU RR M ICUL Study the three pictures of sharks. The (biggest. WRITING: Comparing and Contrasting Answers in column. During cold weather. The Great Barrier Reef is (more fragile. vacationers visit the reef’s northern islands (less. 9. AC ADJ. least) frequently than the southern ones. Biologists can (better. A scuba dive is (more daring. deadliest) enemy. see the EXERCISE BANK. 1. 4.3 ● Practice and Apply A. most daring) than a glassbottom-boat tour of the reef. most fragile) than a large rock formation would be. 6. 281. 5. CONCEPT CHECK: Making Comparisons Choose the correct comparative or superlative form to complete each sentence. are a foot in diameter. The crown-of-thorns starfish is the reef’s (deadlier. richest) of all marine resources. Write a paragraph in which you compare and contrast them. ● Australia’s Great Barrier Reef is the (larger. more better) study sea life near a reef than in open water. ● World’s Eighth Natural Wonder 3. The reef is also the (richer. most biggest) of all polyps. RO S S T HE B. Adjectives and Adverbs 135 . 8. Coral grows (better. For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. & ADV. shallow water. 7. 2. These starfish can devour polyps (more. most) quickly than the average starfish. Use comparative and superlative forms in your writing. largest) coral reef in the world.
even though we planned it badly. or an adjective. it modifies a noun or pronoun. I didn’t feel well. CHAPTER 5 After the film. Really is always an adverb. an adverb. it modifies a noun or pronoun. an adverb. an adverb. ADJECTIVE NOUN ODIFIE M S The Grand Canyon is really beautiful in the morning. VERB D IFIES MO ADVERB Well is an adjective when it refers to health. Good and Well Good is always an adjective. ADJECTIVE D IFIES MO M OD IFIE S ODIFIES M NOUN VERB ADVERB I often feel bad about staying indoors so much. or an adjective. PRONOUN ADJECTIVE Real and Really Real is always an adjective.1 ● Here’s the Idea Some pairs of adjectives and adverbs are often confused. it modifies a verb. modifying a verb. DIFIES MO She prefers real mountains to paintings of mountains. ADJECTIVE NOUN DIFIES MO The filmmaker presented the information well. or an adjective. Everest. PRONOUN ADJECTIVE 136 Grammar. ADVERB ADJECTIVE Bad and Badly Bad is always an adjective. Well is usually an adverb. it modifies a verb. Usage. DIFIES MO That was a good documentary about Mt. That wasn’t a bad hike. Badly is always an adverb. and Mechanics . it modifies a noun or pronoun.
really) experiences. Adj. 10. 9. His first Yukon tales were received (good. The Call of the Wild. badly) problem.” London tells the story of a young man facing a (bad. Adv. Then identify it as an adjective or an adverb. 2. check the word being modified to see if you need an adjective or an adverb. well) subject for his stories and novels. 8. In 1897 he was (real. is based on a (real. really) dog he had known in the Yukon. he had (real. really) adventures as a sailor. 4. Adj. and bad. Adj. badly) because he had scurvy.2 ● Why It Matters in Writing People make many mistakes using good. I saw so bad in the dark that I stumbled off a hill and fell into a cactus patch. badly) weather. 6. Much of his fiction is based on (real. p. really) curious about a gold rush. 282. In your writing. & ADV. well Hiking at night is not a good idea if you can’t see good in really the dark. In Canada’s Yukon Territory. 5. 3 ● Practice and Apply CONCEPT CHECK: Adjective or Adverb? Choose the correct word in parentheses. Adj. Adj. Adv. 3. ADJ. a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C. Unfortunately. ● ● For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. Adv. Although he never found gold. well). well). real. In “To Build a Fire. It was badly well a real nightmare. he lived in a tiny cabin and struggled to survive in (bad. 7. Adj. London’s novel. see the EXERCISE BANK. London felt (bad. I had a real scary experience once doing that. London’s Call of the Wild 1. London discovered a (good. In his teens. American author Jack London described nature (good. Adjectives and Adverbs 137 . Adj.
The largest cactus in North America is the saguaro. Avoid double negatives in speaking and writing. a double negative makes a writer sound careless. Remember. INCORRECT CHAPTER 5 I don’t want no slackers on this hike. and northwestern Mexico.” Contractions that end in n’t are negative words. and Mechanics . 2 ● Why It Matters in Writing Some writers accidentally create a double negative when they try to make a strong negative statement. Usage. A word like can’t means “cannot. It almost s doesn’t never rain where saguaros live. It anywhere doesn’t grow nowhere but in the deserts of southern Arizona. the result is a double negative.1 ● Here’s the Idea A negative word is a word that says “no. However. CORRECT I don’t want any slackers on this hike.” Some common negative words are listed below. n’t means not. need hardly any Saguaros don’t hardly need no water to survive. but these plants can store water in their stems for a long time. 138 Grammar. southeastern California. I want no slackers on this hike. Common Negative Words barely hardly neither never nobody none nothing nowhere If two negative words are used together.
tourists visiting Hawaii can’t hardly believe they are seeing black sand. In Fiji. 7.3 ● Practice and Apply A. Adobe keeps houses cool but (can. never) suffer from the heat. see the EXERCISE BANK. Houses that have shutters and tile floors stay cooler than those that don’t have (none. 6. In a desert. people who live in houses with thatched roofs (could. which comes from volcanic lava. any). sand doesn’t lie nowhere near water but covers the land. any) relief from high temperatures. On a beach. mud houses shaped like beehives may not be uncomfortable (either. Nobody (would. ● Beat the Heat 3. B. sand isn’t never always soft and white. Sand Everywhere Without sand. couldn’t) hardly find a better design. Sand is made of fine pieces of rock and minerals that aren’t barely larger than clay or silt. PROOFREADING: Eliminating Double Negatives Answers in column. anything) that gets too hot. 1. 4. wouldn’t) mind using solar-powered air conditioning to keep cool. 9. (There is more than one way to correct each double negative. 8. They can’t build with (nothing. neither). In Syria. 5. Some North Africans live underground in rock houses that don’t (ever. For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. can’t) never be used in a damp climate. Find and correct five double negatives in the paragraph below. Many (don’t have. no one couldn’t build sandcastles or walk on a beach. have) no air conditioning. never) get hot. If you scarcely (ever. p. & ADV. CONCEPT CHECK: Avoiding Double Negatives Write the word in parentheses that correctly completes each sentence. 10.) Sand. 283. Adjectives and Adverbs 139 . For example. 2. ● Desert dwellers live where there’s barely (no. ADJ. a desert home might be comfortable after all.
anyway! .Using Adjectives and Adverbs When you write about the great outdoors—or about any other topic—use adjectives and adverbs to make your descriptions vivid and enjoyable for readers. .There was a ridge on the back that the boy could pretend was a dorsal fin. He saw scarlet rock cod with ruby eyes and the head of a conger eel peering out from a cavern in the coral. . The fierce sunlight drove away all thought of them. Notice the words Armstrong Sperry uses to describe a boy paddling a canoe in a tropical lagoon. It looked very much like a shark. Perhaps ghosts were only old men’s stories. You can also use nouns and pronouns as adjectives. above all others. ghost of the lagoon. while up near one end were two dark holes that looked like eyes! © Cheryl Cooper. As the canoe drew away from shore. had always interested him. 1995. the boy saw the coral reef that. 140 . It was of white coral—a long slim shape that rose slightly above the surface of the water. On such a bright day it was hard to believe in ghosts of any sort. from Ghost CHAPTER 5 of the Lagoon ADJECTIVES ADVERBS by Armstrong Sperry A school of fish swept by like silver arrows.The boy thought suddenly of Tupa.
dverb). was (adverb) gr And ever ything ve). just died away Then the wind tive) ray. fill in the blanks in the following poem with an appropriate adjective or adverb. began to shou And ever yone b). (adverb) (adjecti e were getting W zy. was. erb) to write th And went (adv ADJ. I’m (adver is that?” “It’s “Who . eyes open (Adverb). a (adjective) da Because it was ay. a (adjec e sun came (a Th pale.” ted out in fear “I loudly shou ide we crept outs So.” me. & ADVERBS Adjectives and Adverbs 141 . Save your poem in your Working Portfolio. (adver djective). nd. ns. a (adverb) We looked arou is tale.R OS e CURRI CU S th L UM Practice and Apply WRITING: Using Adjectives and Adverbs to Describe AC L IT E R AT UR E Working with a partner. d not seem (a hat we saw. y. we say to But it (adverb) ve) duck. and (adjective) (Adjective) balls . e’re (adverb) la even though w (adverb) e lights went Just then all th t. a hockey pu (Adjective) sock cats and (adjective) (Adjective) fish bats. s. di And w you. b). an (adjecti djective) pengui (A ck. cautiously (adverb).
The coyote is (most adaptable. coyotes live (good. any) mice. coyotes hunt (real. In sentence 3. real ones just fight to survive. coyotes didn’t live (nowhere. it. . what possessive pronoun is used as an adjective? their 2. most) widespread now than during the pioneer days. well) in many different places. . the wolf. Pavloff reached for her protective sun goggles that covered most of her face. In sentence 4. Usage. In the past. killing whatever it touched. Then write the answers to the questions below it.” (4) Mrs. (1) “Have you dressed yet?” their grandmother called. life-giving B.” she muttered. poor things. really) efficiently. 10.Mixed Review A. name one adjective. then they’ll eat nearly anything. now. anywhere) but in the western part of North America and in Mexico. coyote populations are (more. (2) “Once a month in the sun and they must almost be forced. including bugs. In sentence 1. more adaptable) than many other animals in North America. Using Adjectives and Adverbs Read this passage. berries. what noun is used as an adjective? sun 5. and Mechanics . fish. all. deadliest) enemy of all. Although coyotes in stories often act (bad. 2. watermelon. 7. (5) It screened all ultraviolet light from the once life-giving sun. —Alma Luz Villanueva. has vanished in many areas. yes. Coyotes don’t have (no. 4. In the last sentence. 5. what adverb tells to what extent? almost 3. and garbage. badly). 6. ultraviolet. The coyote behaves (more cleverly. 8. In sentence 2. 142 Grammar. they’ve forgotten the warmth of the sun on their little bodies. what it is to play in the sea. 9. Today. If they can’t find (no. the sun. most cleverly) than people imagine. little 4. any) problem with survival. (3) “Well. scorched the Earth. Clever Coyotes CHAPTER 5 1. According to some wildlife experts. their (deadlier. “The Sand Castle” 1. . First of all. Choosing the Right Modifier Choose the correct words from those given in parentheses. 3. Also. what two adjectives help you better picture the children in the story? poor.
adverb modifying killed 5. comparative adjective D. (5) (6) (7) Even President John F. Silent Spring helped make the world safer. She agreed that these (2) (4) (3) chemicals killed insects and rodents. predicate adjective 7. adverb C. A. comparative adverb C. adverb modifying influenced B. possessive noun D. adverb C. possessive pronoun C. In 1962 she published Silent Spring. A. A. He called for a government study of pesticide use. A. An American Supreme Court judge said that the book was “the (9) most important chronicle of this century for the human race. adverb modifying Carson D. adjective modifying people C. adjective telling how much 3. adverb modifying poisoned B. a book about the harmful effects of pesticides. noun used as adjective D. adverb modifying food C. adverb modifying woke D. adverb modifying biologist C. article 9. certainly influenced people to (1) protect the environment. adverb B. predicate adjective D.” (10) ADJ. Carson’s book woke up ordinary people. A. proper adjective B. proper adjective B. & ADV. predicate adjective D. noun used as adjective 4. comparative adverb B. adjective telling which one C. superlative adjective Adjectives and Adverbs 143 . adjective telling what kind B. A. A. A. Kennedy became very anxious. A. The pesticide DDT was (8) finally banned in 1972. proper adjective B. article 8. Rachel Carson. article 10. superlative adverb C. possessive pronoun C. adjective modifying book B. pronoun used as adjective D. A.Mastery Test: What Did You Learn? For each underlined item. noun used as adjective 6. 1. choose the letter of the term that correctly identifies it. adjective telling how many D. adverb modifying people 2. a marine biologist. But they also badly poisoned our food and wildlife. demonstrative pronoun B. adverb modifying also D.
Modifiers in Comparisons Comparative CHAPTER 5 Superlative steepest leafiest most valuable most rugged most bravely best worst Lens steep leafy valuable rugged bravely good bad steeper leafier more valuable more rugged more bravely better worse Double Forms Double Negative Examples we can’t hardly we don’t never Double Comparison more better most likeliest Fix Double Take we can hardly we can’t we never we don’t ever Fix better most likely. and Mechanics . too. The wildlife walk was terrific. and other adverbs. Usage. Adverbs modify verbs. adjectives. It was long. The usually quiet tour guide chattered very excitedly. likeliest 144 Grammar.Adjectives modify nouns and pronouns.
. & ADV. . ADJECTIVE He’s really tired. ADVERB Do you feel bad? PREDICATE ADJECTIVE The Bottom Line Checklist for Adjectives and Adverbs Have I remembered to .Field Guide Modifier Problems Good and Well That’s a good book. ADVERB Bad and Badly What bad luck! ADJECTIVE I sing badly. use adjectives to add detail to my nouns? capitalize proper adjectives? use adverbs to describe actions clearly? use the correct comparative and superlative forms? avoid using adjectives as adverbs? avoid double negatives? Adjectives and Adverbs 145 . ADJ. ADJECTIVE Did you perform well? ADVERB I feel good about that. PREDICATE ADJECTIVE Does she look well? PREDICATE ADJECTIVE Real and Really That’s a real problem.
you will learn how to use prepositions. In this chapter.Chapter 6 CHAPTER 6 Theme: Dragons The Tale of a Dragon “Oh-Oh” is right. “I want you in my belly!” What might the man reply? Write a few sentences answering the dragon’s threat. and interjections. He’ll need plenty of prepositions to describe where the dragon is and some conjunctions to join his thoughts. 146 . Express your fear or your bravery! Save the response in your Working Portfolio. Write Away: If Dragons Could Talk If dragons could talk. The man in the photo might follow this interjection with a warning to his neighbors. Let’s hope you don’t have to use them to warn your neighbors about any dragons. conjunctions. this one might be saying. Tell the dragon what you will do or where you will hide.
object of a preposition 9. object of a preposition D. preposition C. A. A. Yikes! Look behind you! (9) (10) 1. conjunction B. Conjunctions. preposition C.Diagnostic Test: What Do You Know? Choose the letter of the term that correctly identifies each underlined item. Most dragons have the claws of a lion and the tail of a serpent. A. conjunction B. prepositional phrase D. A. prepositional phrase D. preposition C. preposition C. but Asian myths usually portray a kindly dragon. prepositional phrase D. interjection 4. prepositional phrase D. conjunction B. object of a preposition C. prepositional phrase D. Chinese dragons have five toes on each claw. interjection 7. A. interjection 2. conjunction B. conjunction 3. interjection PREPOSITIONS Prepositions. interjection 6. conjunction B. A. prepositional phrase D. a fierce firebreathing dragon is common. A. preposition C. Interjections 147 . conjunction B. prepositional phrase D. preposition C. A. interjection 10. interjection 8. interjection 5. conjunction B. A dragon is a monster of legends. (7) Dragons appear with different numbers of legs and with or without wings. object of a preposition C. prepositional phrase D. object of a preposition D. A. preposition C. conjunction B. According to legend. preposition C. In Western myths. conjunction B. you cannot always tell when (8) you will meet a dragon. A. preposition B. Their character can be kind (1) (3) (4) (6) (2) (5) and generous or evil and greedy.
Usage. CHAPTER 6 The knight is above the dragon. PREPOSITION Here. the preposition on shows the relationship between knight and dragon. notice how each preposition expresses a different relationship between the knight and the dragon. The knight is under the dragon. The knight is in the dragon. The knight on the dragon called for help. The knight is beside the dragon. Common Prepositions about above across after against along among around as at before behind below beneath beside between beyond by despite down during except for from in inside into like near of off on out over past through to toward under until up with within without 148 Grammar. and Mechanics .1 ● Here’s the Idea A preposition is a word that shows a relationship between a noun or pronoun and some other word in the sentence. In the sentences below.
Preposition or Adverb? Sometimes the same word can be used as a preposition or as an adverb. PREPOSITION OBJECT People drape silk over a bamboo dragon. then it is an adverb. PREPOSITION OBJECT The bamboo dragon toppled over. and any modifiers of the object. The dragon weaved among the crowd. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE The bamboo dragon toppled over a curb.Prepositional Phrases A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition. The dragon weaved between two boys. PREPOSITION MODIFIER OBJECT PREPOSITIONS Fifty people walk under the enormous dragon. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE A Chinese New Year dragon is a symbol of strength. ADVERB For more on adverbs. Use among when speaking of three or more. Interjections 149 . If the word has no object. its object. Conjunctions. see p. 130. The object of the preposition is the noun or pronoun following the preposition. Use between when the object of the preposition refers to two people or things. Prepositions.
B. dramatized by Patricia Gray CHAPTER 6 3 ● Practice and Apply A. and Mechanics . ● Dragon Tales 3. the doorstep. Some breeds of Western dragons can change their shapes. Two batlike wings lift the dragon above its victim. . 8. Swallows are among the Chinese dragons’ favorite foods. nine dragons keep the Kowloon waters safe from harm. by. For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. on. 284. 5. . Japanese dragons have three toes on each claw. in. ● Dragons from different cultures have their own characteristics. In Chinese mythology. I am now sitting on the very doorstep of the secret entrance to the dragon’s cave. Notice how the prepositions in this dialogue tell the location of the character. CONCEPT CHECK: What Is a Preposition? Write the preposition and its object for each sentence. Bilbo (holding script off and reading it). into. Usage. without 150 Grammar. p.2 ● Why It Matters in Writing Writers often use prepositions to describe where characters and objects are located in relation to one another. Write the dragon’s answer to your response using five prepositions from the following list: at. out. Tolkien. behind. 6. 7.” —J. 2. to. 4. “. for. see the EXERCISE BANK. Western dragons are usually associated with evil. WRITING: Using Prepositions Think back to the response you wrote to the dragon in your Write Away on page 146. 9. off. Many tales pit brave knights against fierce dragons. 1. and the entrance. up. R. The Hobbit. The Chinese show most dragons without wings. The Eastern female dragon holds a fan with her tail. with. 10. below. R.
Adverb Phrases An adverb phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies a verb. Adjective Phrases An adjective phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or a pronoun. WHICH ONE? The “dragon” in the water is really a lizard. when. a prepositional phrase can tell which one. Like an adverb. WHERE? Desert lizards lie under the sand. ADJECTIVE HOW? This cooling method works well for a simple system. or to what extent. VERB ADVERB PHRASE HOW? Their body temperatures are lower without sunlight. how. It modifies the word in the same way an adjective or adverb would.1 ● Here’s the Idea A prepositional phrase is always related to another word in a sentence. or an adverb. an adjective. ADVERB Several prepositional phrases can work together. how many. a prepositional phrase can tell where. Prepositions. why. Interjections 151 . Conjunctions. Like an adjective. NOUN ADJECTIVE PHRASE WHAT KIND? PREPOSITIONS The Komodo dragon is a type of monitor lizard. Each phrase after the first often modifies the object of the phrase before it. or what kind. A flying dragon glides with flaps of skin like wings.
CONFUSING With fiery breath. try to place each prepositional phrase as close as possible to the word it modifies. (Now the reader knows who has fiery breath. and Mechanics . you can use prepositional phrases to describe which one and what kind. we surprised a dragon. you may confuse—or unintentionally amuse—your readers. It is a prehistoric relic from an earlier era. (Who has fiery breath?) CHAPTER 6 CLEAR We surprised a dragon with fiery breath.) 2 ● Why It Matters in Writing When you write about science. Notice how the prepositional phrases in the model describe what kind of lizard. Otherwise.Placement of Prepositional Phrases When you write. Goldstein 152 Grammar. Usage. What kind of lizard What kind of relic —Rudy J. The Komodo dragon is a lizard of the species Varanus komodoensis.
in Indonesia e. 1. The residents of Komodo Island call this creature the ora. with picture maps c. The Komodo can run 121⁄2 miles an hour. The Komodo’s teeth are dangerous to everyone. 10. PREPOSITIONS B. from an earlier era b. CONCEPT CHECK: Using Prepositional Phrases Write the prepositional phrase and the word it modifies for each of the following sentences. 5. 284. The guide told us a story c (3) _______ that live on Komodo Island. see the EXERCISE BANK. The ora does not interest poachers around the island. The Largest Lizard 3. The Komodo’s yellow forked tongue. They are dangerous predators e (5) _______. d. with iron jaws Prepositions. 8. Conjunctions.3 ● Practice and Apply A. fast for its 300pound weight. Interjections 153 . ● Komodos live on a few Indonesian islands. Its saliva has bacteria with no known antidotes. Villagers tell tall tales about the ora. over a foot long. On the island. 2. The Komodo’s teeth can shred a large animal in 20 minutes. about huge lizards Touring Komodo Island d (1) We took a tour of Komodo Island _______. 9. 6. PROOFREADING: What Kind? or Which One? Choose the prepositional phrase that most likely belongs in the numbered blank in the paragraph below. can taste the air. (2) b we found a tour guide _______. p. 4. For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. a. ● The Komodo dragon is the largest lizard in the world. The Komodo dragons a (4) look like lizards ______. 7.
or any other kind of sentence parts.) Use or and nor to show choices. CONJUNCTION OBJECTS CHAPTER 6 Crocodiles live in salt water or fresh water. Use but to contrast ideas. The words joined by a conjunction can be subjects. (Or connects the choices salt water and fresh water. Usage.) 154 Grammar. Some crocodiles can live in salt water or fresh water. predicates. Joining Words and Groups of Words Conjunctions often join words used in the same way. Crocodiles have a long jaw and sharp teeth.) A young crocodile is small but powerful. (But contrasts this crocodile’s small size with its great power.1 ● Here’s the Idea A conjunction is a word used to join words or groups of words. SUBJECTS Alligators and crocodiles live mainly in the water. CONJUNCTION Common Conjunctions and but or nor Use and to connect similar ideas. (And connects two parts of a crocodile’s mouth. and Mechanics .
CONJUNCTION Use a comma before the conjunction when joining two complete sentences. 2 ● Why It Matters in Writing When you are writing science material. Interjections 155 . In 65-degrees-Fahrenheit water. CONJUNCTIONS Alligators can live in 65-degrees-Fahrenheit water.) The crocodile’s snout is narrow. Or joins two whole thoughts that contrast. crocodiles sink and drown. Crocodiles are aggressive. but it has biting power. They swim alone. Notice how the conjunctions in the model show the relationship between the newborn crocodile and its mother. And connects two similar features. or they will die. the right conjunctions can help the reader know how features and habits relate to each other.Joining Whole Thoughts Conjunctions also can join whole thoughts. Crocodiles are aggressive. Newborn crocodiles float in water with their eyes and snouts above the surface. Conjunctions. The crocodile’s snout is narrow. It has biting power. such as two sentences that are closely related. CONJUNCTION (And joins two sentences about personality. Alligators are passive. but crocodiles drown at that temperature. but their mother is always nearby.The young crocodiles must stay warm. and alligators are passive. But joins two whole thoughts that contrast. Prepositions. Do not use a comma when joining two subjects or two verbs.
(5) Suddenly. but hungry ones hunt any time. but the Indian Mugger crocodile looks much like an alligator. and grasshoppers but beetles. ● There are many ways to tell whether an animal is a crocodile or an alligator. 8. and surprises its prey. or you may be badly injured. 10. see the EXERCISE BANK. Alligators do not have an enlarged fourth tooth. Never go near an alligator. the crocodile blends into the background but stays completely still. p. 4. 7. 156 Grammar. nor do they need it. Crocodiles often lose their teeth. 9. it pounces but 5. CONCEPT CHECK: Conjunctions Write the conjunction in each sentence. and for holding prey. A crocodile’s snout is pointy. 6. Answers may vary. but mammals like deer but cattle. REVISING: Changing Conjunctions Rewrite the conjunctions so that the following paragraph makes sense. Most crocodiles hunt at night. 3. The snout usually shows differences. 5. For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. CHAPTER 6 B. (3) Crocodile teeth are good 4. and 3. (4) A good hunter. 285. and Mechanics . 1. and ● Crocodiles and Alligators an alligator’s snout is broad. 2. or they are not so good at cutting it. but they grow new ones. Crocodile Meals (1) Newly hatched crocodiles feed on bugs like 1.3 ● Practice and Apply A. Large crocodiles eat antelope and deer. Cold weather may cause deformity or death to baby crocodiles. Usage. along with the words or groups of words that it joins. Both the upper and lower teeth show on the crocodile. (2) Some adult crocs eat 2.
What emotion is the poor. Read the cartoon. concern.1 ● Here’s the Idea An interjection is a word or a phrase used to express emotion. Add to your writing three interjections that express emotions. joy. 2 ● Why It Matters in Writing Writers often use interjections to express strong emotions. there’s a monitor lizard. It’s so big! Awesome! It can stand alone or be set off by a comma. surprise. and disgust. such as anger. misguided worm expressing? INTERJECTIONS 3 ● Practice and Apply Working Portfolio: Find your Write Away from page 146 or a sample of your most recent work. terror. Conjunctions. Use the interjections in the Student Help Desk on page 163 for ideas. Interjections 157 . Wow. Prepositions.
you’ll walk under the dragon’s coiled body and beautiful. CHAPTER 6 The entrance to Chinatown is guarded by a fabulous dragon in the Chinatown Gateway. and gift stores on both sides of the street. and Mechanics . As you enter from Bush Street. From the gateway. Usage. you stroll down Grant Street past the shops. Then read the accompanying description of some of the famous places in San Francisco’s Chinatown. restaurants. decorated head.Using Prepositions to Show Location When you write about specific places for social studies. Notice how prepositions and prepositional phrases help you picture what the area looks like and where different sites are located. Study the map below. 158 Grammar. you can use prepositions along with maps to indicate direction and location.
Then write a brief description. using prepositions and prepositional phrases in each of your sentences. share your work with classmates. Then write answers to the questions that follow. USING PREPOSITIONS Answers in column. How would you get from St. or a gymnasium in your community or school. Mary’s Square? 2. Finally. Interjections 159 . What route would you walk to go from the Chinatown Gateway to St. MARY'S SQUARE ST RE ET CHINESE CULTURAL CENTER TIEN HOU TEMPLE TS E TR ET S M AR KE PREPOSITIONS ST. DRAWING A MAP Answers in column. to accompany your map. Prepositions. Conjunctions. TO STREET SACRAMEN ET TON STRE WASHING STREET .R OS he CURRIC St U L UM Practice and Apply A. Mary’s Square to the Tien Hou Temple? 3. AC S O C IA L STUD IE Study this map of today’s Chinatown. KEARNY ST AY BROADW IA CALIFORN PORTSMOUTH GRANT ST. a playground. Circle the prepositions that you use to explain the location of different landmarks. similar to the one on page 158. What is the best way to get from the Chinese Cultural Center to the Chinatown Gateway? B. POWELL ST EET BUSH STR N 1. SQUARE CHINATOWN GATEWAY FO UR TH ST. STOCKTON . Draw a map of a park.
5. A Komodo Ritual (1) Dominant male Komodo dragons often compete for a female. from) Emperor Fu Hsi. They believed the dragons would give them keen sight (and. 3. Answers in column. Dragons are famous (under. Sea serpents are dragons (except. Conj. and Mechanics . and) the rain. Conj. or an interjection. Prep.Mixed Review A. Prep. 2. CHAPTER 6 9. (3) The dragons wrestle in upright postures. Interjections Choose the correct word in parentheses to complete each sentence. (4) They use their tails for support. 8. 10. “Nessie. Prep. 6. 1. of) the prince of Wales’s armor. Conjunctions. Beowulf confronted a dragon in the epic poem Beowulf. (6) The loser of the battle may lie on the ground or run away. What is the prepositional phrase in sentence 1? What is the prepositional phrase in sentence 2? Why is between used instead of among in sentence 2? What is the prepositional phrase in sentence 3? What is the object of the preposition in sentence 3? What is the prepositional phrase in sentence 4? What is the object of the preposition in sentence 4? What is the prepositional phrase in sentence 5? What is the object of the preposition in sentence 5? Which prepositional phrase shows location in sentence 6? 160 Grammar. (5) They grab each other with their forelegs. The dragon has become an official part (by. 6. Prepositional Phrases Read the passage and answer the questions below it. Conj. on) their ships. Usage. Famous Dragons 1. 4. B. or) 7. 4. 9. from) the seas. Conj. a conjunction. The Chinese Yellow Dragon gave the knowledge of writing (to. (Wow! Out!) Intj. 7. Prep. The Vikings put dragon figureheads (to. skill. (2) This ritual between two male Komodo dragons is typical. People fear (but. or) respect European dragons. but) she lives in a lake in Scotland. The Eastern Spiritual Dragon—Shen-Lung—controls the wind (but. (or. Then identify the word as a preposition. is a sea serpent. 8. 3. around) the world. Prep. 2.” the Loch Ness Monster. Prepositions. 10. 5.
preposition D.Mastery Test: What Did You Learn? Choose the letter of the term that correctly identifies each underlined item. interjection 10. Eastern dragons have one obvious detail that makes them different from one another. object of a preposition 7. preposition C. A. prepositional phrase D. preposition C. will it (7) (8) eventually lose all its toes? According to the Japanese. PREP. A. the dragon traveled the earth. conjunction B. Interjections 161 . Legend has it that the farther it wandered from China. preposition C. conjunction B. prepositional phrase C. prepositional phrase D. prepositional phrase D. A. prepositional phrase D. conjunction B. preposition C. object of a preposition C. object of a preposition B. A. 1. interjection 9. Conjunctions. conjunction B. interjection 5. preposition C. object of a preposition 4. A. A. A. A wanderer by nature. prepositional phrase D. object of a preposition 6. object of a preposition D. interjection 3. prepositional phrase D. CONJ. conjunction B. preposition C. A. A. They say the dragon has (2) (3) (4) always had five toes. the dragon began in Japan. Their dragon (9) (10) grew toes as it traveled. (5) the more toes it lost. preposition C. A. conjunction B. conjunction B. Their story is the same but reversed. By the time it got to Korea. interjection Prepositions. Oh-oh. and after it reached Japan it had three. conjunction B. interjection 8. preposition C. prepositional phrase D. conjunction B. Some Chinese people believe that (1) stories about dragons began in China. it had only four (6) toes. interjection 2. prepositional phrase D.
LATIONSHIP RE Wow! That lizard on the wall has sharp teeth and a long tongue. Conjunctions. Conjunctions connect. and Mechanics . Has an object. Prepositions show relationships. Prepositions. LATIONSHIP RE lizard on the wall PREPOSITION OBJECT Conjunction Joins words or groups of words. Conjunctions. Lizards have sharp teeth. but not all lizards are dangerous. Interjections show emotion. Interjection Expresses emotion. teeth and a tongue with sharp teeth and with a long tongue Joins whole thoughts. Interjections CHAPTER 6 Summary Preposition Examples Shows a relationship. Eek! That lizard is huge! 162 Grammar.
PREP. Tell when Tell where Tell why Tell how or to what extent In April my little brother bought an iguana at a store. . oops yuck. used prepositions to show relationships between two things? placed prepositional phrases close to the words they modify? used conjunctions to connect words or groups of words? used conjunctions to connect whole thoughts? used interjections to express strong emotion? Prepositions. . an adjective. Interjections 163 . yea wow. whoops hey The Bottom Line Checklist for Prepositions. . This pet works perfectly for his age. Modify a verb. Tell which one Tell what kind Adverb Phrases What Do They Do? That little lizard on the wall is a member of the reptile family.Prepositional Phrases Adjective Phrases Modify a noun or a pronoun. gross awesome. Conjunctions. oh-oh. I was happy for my brother. Interjections! To express concern To express disgust To express joy To express surprise To draw attention to Just a Few Ideas . ick. and Interjections Have I . Conjunctions. oh no. . hooray. what. or another adverb. CONJ.
but they certainly can embarrass the writer. Describe this group and explain what they are trying to do.Chapter 7 CHAPTER 7 Theme: Working Together What’s the Plan? Timing means everything in a flying trapeze act. Write Away: Winning Teams Think of some people you admire who need to work together to be successful. The flier and catcher must work carefully together. student organization. How would you correct the sentence on this photo? This chapter will help you learn to make subjects and verbs work together. They can be a musical band. sports team. Have they accomplished their goal? Save the writing in your Working Portfolio. 164 . or agree. or some other group. A mistake may lead to an embarrassing fall or even serious injury. Agreement errors will not harm people.
Correct as is 4. B. A. Animal teams find missing people or assist disabled ones. Many people was working B. What is a team? Most of us immediately thinks of sports. Many people work D. Correct as is 7. Orchestras and (2) rock bands uses teamwork. A. A. Five basketball players is making up one kind of team. Most of us immediately think B. Five basketball players has made up one kind of team. Orchestras and rock bands used D. A. Orchestras and rock bands has to use B. Many people works as (7) (6) a team to make a single movie. A. Many people has worked C. Either animals or humans makes up a team. A team is not C. Correct as is 8. Most of us will immediately thinks D. Doesn’t teams all unites B. Five (1) basketball players makes up one kind of team. A. Don’t teams all unite C.Diagnostic Test: What Do You Know? Choose the letter of the best revision for each underlined group of words. At an accident scene was paramedics D. D. At an accident scene are paramedics working as a team to save lives. C. At an accident scene is paramedics B. Correct as is 6. Correct as is S-V AGREEMENT Subject-Verb Agreement 165 . Five basketball players make up one kind of team. A team are not just human (5) (3) (4) beings. A team were not B. A team cannot D. Either animals or humans is making B. Most of us immediately is thinking C. Orchestras and rock bands use C. Correct as is 5. A. Either animals or humans make D. Either animals or humans does make C. At an accident scene has been paramedics C. A. Correct as is 3. Doesn’t teams all unite for a (8) common goal? 1. Correct as is 2. Don’t teams all unites D.
action. Usage. AGREE SINGULAR VERB Teamwork is important in a jazz band. most verbs that end in s are singular. SINGULAR SUBJECT CHAPTER 7 Each musician listens to the others. it is singular.1 ● Here’s the Idea A verb must agree with its subject in number. Plural subjects take plural verbs. Verb Phrases In a verb phrase. Listens and hears are both singular verb forms. thing. musicians and sounds are plural nouns. Number refers to whether a word is singular or plural. and Mechanics . Most nouns that end in s or es are plural. When a word refers to one person. or condition. Singular and Plural Subjects Singular subjects take singular verbs. For example. 166 Grammar. idea. AGREE The musicians play without sheet music. AGREE Miles Davis has led groups in performance. A verb phrase is made up of a main verb and one or more helping verbs. place. PLURAL SUBJECT PLURAL VERB They hear changes in each other’s sounds. it is the first helping verb that agrees with the subject. it is plural. When a word refers to more than one. SINGULAR VERB AGREE His music is becoming legendary. However.
All good groups have become teams.
Even the soloists are playing with a musical team.
Doesn’t and Don’t
Two contractions we often use are doesn’t and don’t. Use doesn’t with all singular subjects except I and you. Use don’t with all plural subjects and with the pronouns I and you.
My mom doesn’t like our band.
My friends don’t understand why. PLURAL VERB: do+not=don’t
I don’t play alone often.
2 ● Why It Matters in Writing
Errors in subject-verb agreement can occur when you revise your work. If you change a subject from singular to plural, or vice versa, make sure that the verb agrees with your revision.
Our band is always arguing. The guitar player wants to break up.
Our band is always arguing. The guitar players want to break up.
Subject-Verb Agreement 167
3 ● Practice and Apply
A. CONCEPT CHECK: Agreement in Number For each sentence, write the verb form that agrees with the subject. 1. ● Rock critics (considers, consider) the Beatles one of the most important groups in rock and roll history. 2. Their musical development (shows, show) constant ● Meet the Beatles
growth and exploration. 3. In the late 1950s they (was, were) playing other people’s songs in clubs. 4. However, their own compositions (was, were) changing popular music. 5. Beatles’ songs (attracts, attract) listeners who like great melodies and clever lyrics. 6. By the mid-1960s they (was, were) performing to huge crowds in baseball stadiums. 7. Adults (remembers, remember) mobs of young fans screaming at Beatles’ concerts. 8. The Beatles (was, were) considered wild in their day. 9. Such popular groups (affects, affect) clothing and hair styles. 10. Today their music still (plays, play) around the world.
For a SELF-CHECK and more practice, see the EXERCISE BANK, p. 285.
B. PROOFREADING: Finding Agreement Errors Proofread the following paragraph so that the verbs agree with the subjects. There are five errors.
don’t belong plans form match have formed
Do you dislike order and discipline? Then you probably doesn’t belong in a marching band.The band members must follow precise directions.A music director plan out every movement. Often the musicians forms words and patterns as they walk. Even their uniforms matches perfectly. Many schools has formed marching bands.The bands play at sporting events and other special occasions.
168 Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics
1 ● Here’s the Idea
A compound subject is made up of two or more subjects joined by a conjunction such as and, or, or nor.
Subjects Joined by And
A compound subject whose parts are joined by and usually takes a plural verb. A firefighter and a paramedic help save lives.
Subjects Joined by Or or Nor
When the parts of a compound subject are joined by or or nor, the verb should agree with the part closest to it.
A professional or volunteers serve on emergency teams.
Volunteers or a professional serves on emergency teams.
2 ● Why It Matters in Writing
When you revise your writing, you may decide to change the order of compound subjects to make a sentence sound more natural. If the subjects are joined by or or nor, make sure that the verb agrees with the new order.
Traffic problems or bad weather interferes with rescue operations. Bad weather or traffic problems interfere with rescue operations.
Subject-Verb Agreement 169
3 ● Practice and Apply
A. CONCEPT CHECK: Compound Subjects Identify the sentences containing mistakes in subject-verb agreement and rewrite the verb correctly. If a sentence contains no error, write Correct. 1. ● Volunteer men and women composes the Larimer County 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Searching the Waters
Correct 7. CHAPTER 7
8. 9. 10.
Dive Rescue Team in Colorado. compose Rescue and critical care are their goal. Correct Desperate calls and dispatches arrives at any hour. arrive Terrible storms and fog often confronts the team. confront Terrified victims or darkness frustrate their efforts. frustrates Ferocious whitewater or dangerous rapids slows them down. slow These brave men and women often risk their own lives. Donations and fund-raising events supports this important service. support Sometimes fatally injured victims or dead bodies is recovered from the rising waters. are recovered But these brave men and women has also saved many lives. have saved
For a SELF-CHECK and more practice, see the EXERCISE BANK, p. 286.
B. REVISING: Making Compound Subjects and Verbs Agree A member of the Dive Rescue Team wrote these notes quickly, based on a frantic distress call. Rewrite the sentences for your report, making sure the verbs agree with their compound subjects. You may want to reverse the order of some compound subjects to make a sentence sound more natural.
P.M. 15, 3:00 call, Oct. into the Distress has fallen or d a woman two kayaks an an ve fallen A m er. Either ha on Riv Brady and Big Thomps g. Susan cue. are missin g the res ayak sing one k oordinatin is mis inez is c pected. g Juan Mart og are ex are coordinatin orms or f y rainst pected Heav
170 Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics
1. Don’t be fooled by words that come between the subject and the verb. (have = plural verb) Astronauts from Russia have abandoned Mir. Decide if the subject is singular or plural. Then decide whether the subject is singular or plural and match the verb to it. PLURAL VERB Here’s How Choosing the Correct Verb Astronauts from Russia (has. 2. Subject-Verb Agreement 171 .1 ● Here’s the Idea Many errors in subject-verb agreement occur when a prepositional phrase falls between the subject and verb. have) abandoned Mir. Choose the verb that agrees with it. Mentally block out those words. Astronauts = plural subject 3. Mentally block out a prepositional phrase. The subject of a verb is never found in a prepositional phrase. have) abandoned Mir. AGREE SINGULAR SUBJECT SINGULAR VERB A team from several countries was working on the Russian space station Mir. Astronauts from Russia (has. PLURAL SUBJECT S-V AGREEMENT Members of the Russian and American space programs pose together aboard Mir.
286. Labs within space stations (provides. provide) great places for science experiments. p. make) space flight possible. have) become necessary due to mechanical problems. make sure your verb goes with the subject. For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. Space buffs throughout the world eagerly (awaits. 8. 6. astronauts. Scientists and engineers from many nations (is. The astronauts aboard a space station (depends. oversee) every mission. 4. depend) heavily on their support team back home. are) building Mir’s replacement. 7. 3. The international missions aboard Mir were a grand experiment. When you do the same. 9. the result of this experiment (is. were) a major reason for Mir’s construction. await) its completion.2 ● Why It Matters in Writing Writers use prepositional phrases to tell more about the subject. The abandonment of Mir (has. not the object of the preposition. However. government agencies and private companies (makes. 10. A ground crew at the mission control center (oversees. SINGULAR VERB —Angel Morales CHAPTER 7 3 ● Practice and Apply CONCEPT CHECK: Phrases Between Subjects and Verbs Choose the correct verb for each sentence below. are) unpredictable. Together. 1.S. 5. are) greater cooperation among nations. Usage. ● Tension between the Soviet Union and the United States Teamwork in Space (was. PLURAL SUBJECT. ● The benefits from a space program (is. and Mechanics . One result of these missions was the mutual respect that grew between Russian and U. 2. PLURAL VERB SINGULAR SUBJECT. 172 Grammar. see the EXERCISE BANK.
These pronouns are called indefinite pronouns. place. or specific. person. 173 .1 ● Here’s the Idea Some pronouns do not refer to a definite. some indefinite pronouns are always singular. Few of us realize their importance to desert people. When used as subjects. or idea. Others can be singular or plural depending on how they’re used. thing. Many rely on the camel for everyday living. Plural indefinite pronouns take plural verbs. Everyone knows about camels in desert caravans. Indefinite Pronouns Singular another anything everybody neither nothing someone both all few any anybody each everyone nobody one something many most anyone either everything no one somebody S-V AGREEMENT Plural Singular or Plural several none some Singular indefinite pronouns take singular verbs. Everything about them seems strange and exotic. Some are always plural. Both of the camels in this photo are Bactrian camels.
especially in Alaska. Correct subject-verb agreement helps readers know whether you’re talking about one individual or several. none. and some can be either singular or plural. PLURAL VERB 2 ● Why It Matters in Writing When writing about people or animals. PLURAL NOUN INDEFINITE PRONOUN CHAPTER 7 The camels went eight days without water. REFERS TO Some of the Mongolian desert still has wild Bactrian camels. you’ll often need indefinite pronouns as subjects. Many of the dogs are purebred.Singular or Plural? The indefinite pronouns all. Sometimes an indefinite pronoun refers to a noun in a previous sentence. All were healthy. use a plural verb. —Lucy Armstrong 174 . REFERS TO All of the camels carry supplies for humans on their humps. use a singular verb. Sled dogs pull sleds across snow and ice in northern regions. but some are mixed breeds. any. When you use one of these words as a subject. If the noun is singular. If it is plural. Each of the dogs has a heavy coat and can sleep outside in temperatures as low as –70 degrees Fahrenheit. most. think about the noun it refers to.
p. 5. Several of the dog breeds is especially suited for work with visually challenged people. give For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. 2. If a sentence is correct. Few of the cat lovers (agrees. are suited 5. Something about this topic (make.3 ● Practice and Apply A. 3. All of these dogs alerts their owners to sounds of danger. Everyone recognizes a seeing-eye dog by its special harness and U-shaped handle. Yet everybody (know. 7. Correct 8. S-V AGREEMENT B. Labrador retrievers. know Guiding Lights has heard 3. see the EXERCISE BANK. Both of the canine helpers gives visually challenged and hearing-impaired people more independence. wants) to compromise. Many knows that hearing dogs have a bright yellow or orange collar and leash. think) dogs are just loud and stupid. Correct 9. write Correct. 10. agree). ● Everyone have heard of seeing-eye dogs. Most of the states guarantees access rights to guide-dog users. praise) dogs for their loyalty and obedience. Some of the worst fights between neighbors (involves. Many (praises. blame) the owner for bad training. Some of the best dogs includes German shepherds. know 10. and golden retrievers. Some of them (thinks. guarantee 7. 9. include 6. 1. knows) pets are like family members. ● Few knows the term hearing dogs. seem) neutral on the subject of dogs as pets. choose the verb that agrees with the subject. No one (seems. 6. accuse) a dog of having bad manners. Subject-Verb Agreement 175 . 4. WRITING: Using Indefinite Pronouns Correctly For each sentence. alert 4. makes) people argue. 287. Often neither of the sides (want. No one in these states is allowed to keep people with dog guides from public places. Somebody (accuses. 1. 8. CONCEPT CHECK: Indefinite Pronoun Subjects Rewrite correctly each sentence in which the verb does not agree with the subject. involve) dogs. 2. Others (blames.
SINGULAR VERB SINGULAR SUBJECT There are several games on this field tonight. Turn the sentence around. Does this goofball team ever win? SINGULAR HELPING VERB PLURAL HELPING VERB SINGULAR SUBJECT Do both boys play on the team? PLURAL SUBJECT Here’s How Choosing the Correct Verb (Is. For these sentences. Are) the starting pitchers stronger than the relievers? 1. the subject follows the verb or comes between parts of the verb. the subject comes after the verb or between parts of the verb phrase. the subject often comes after the verb. PLURAL VERB PLURAL SUBJECT Questions In many questions. Determine whether the subject is singular or plural. From his left hand comes Al’s 90-mile-an-hour pitch. you have to find the subject first to make the verb agree. Sentences that Begin with a Prepositional Phrase Writers sometimes start a sentence with a prepositional phrase. the verb comes after the subject. 2. are) stronger than the relievers. Here is a starting pitcher with a serious fastball. 176 . SINGULAR VERB SINGULAR SUBJECT Sentences that Begin with Here or There CHAPTER 7 When a sentence begins with here or there. In some of these sentences. The starting pitchers are stronger than the relievers.1 ● Here’s the Idea In some sentences. putting the subject before the verb. Make sure the subject and verb agree. pitchers (plural) 3. The starting pitchers (is.
In addition to gymnasts and skaters. p. Does your friends like soccer? Do your friends like 2. Correct 8. But I cannot kill any man who proves such strong and true friendship for another. are thousands 5. match was 9. Subject-Verb Agreement 177 . When you do so.S. —Fan Kissen. Never in all my life have I seen such faith and friendship. In front of their TV sets were one billion fans worldwide. In the past. Damon and Pythias S-V AGREEMENT 3 ● Practice and Apply CONCEPT CHECK: Subjects in Unusual Positions For each sentence below. If they agree. make sure that the subjects and verbs agree. were nations 7. The final American match with China were the U. wasn’t Americans big soccer fans? weren’t Americans 4.There are many among you who call me harsh and cruel. There is no sport more popular in the world. 288. are heroines ● ● For a SELF-CHECK and more practice.2 ● Why It Matters in Writing You can vary sentences by beginning with here or there or by beginning with a prepositional phrase. Across this country is now thousands of youth soccer leagues. Correct 3. first identify the subject and verb. write Correct. see the EXERCISE BANK. Hasn’t the women of Team USA become media favorites? haven’t women become 10. here is new heroines for teenaged girls. Didn’t 20 American soccer players win the Women’s World Cup in 1999? Correct 6.’s best-attended women’s sports event. rewrite them. If they don’t agree. There was 12 nations competing in the 32 World Cup matches. such loyalty between men. World’s Favorite Game 1.
” Max said. pointing toward the trees. Usage. CHAPTER 7 from by Avi When we got off the bridge. we were in a small plaza. full of roaring cars. . My foot was killing me. In front of us. When sentences are inverted.Subject-Verb Agreement When you write.“Country. Notice the examples of subject-verb agreement in the inverted sentences in the passage below. “North is that way.“this is just like Brooklyn. were. was.“Wow.” Horse exclaimed. though. and Mechanics .” . the subject is the plural noun trees. Contraction I’m is short for I am. So the verb. Only to the right were there trees.We set off.All I said. Like the members of the group of campers in the passage. Both verbs agree with their subjects. Contraction you’re is short for you are. or when subjects and verbs are written as contractions.To the left was the roadway. . is also plural. there was nothing but buildings. “How come you’re limping?” Horse asked me. subjects and verbs need to work together. aside from the highway. it’s important to use correct subject-verb agreement. 178 Grammar.” Max cried. it’s sometimes harder to choose correct subject-verb agreement.” In this sentence. “Hey.“How come you keep rubbing your arm?” “I’m keeping the blood moving.” “We approached the grove of trees. sounding relieved.
R OS e CURRI CU S th L UM AC Practice and Apply A. Deanna eral of my new friends P. I almost forgot. hiking. Because she dashed off the letter in a hurry. horseb watching to choose from. Save your writing in your Working Portfolio. and bird her T e is swimming. Your experience can be real or imaginary. correcting all errors in subject-verb agreement Dear Folks. her subjects and verbs don’t always agree. Oops. so I may be home My three weeks is almost ove there. She hen 0 A. Use correct subject-verb agreement. of the girls and I he What an experience! T rest s. S-V AGREEMENT B.REVISING: Using Correct Subject-Verb Agreement L IT E R AT UR E The following letter was written by a student during a camping trip with her scout troop. recognize your daughter. orrow.M. T a team of get up with the sun—about 5:0 t activities to do that day. WRITING: Journal Write a journal entry describing an outdoor experience. Subject-Verb Agreement 179 . us meet and decides wha ack riding. Sev spend the rest of the is planning to come home and summer with me. Write your journal entry as if the experience were in the present. even before this message get Love. You wouldn’t even am having the time of our live . r. I love using Ceramics are scheduled for tom the potter’s wheel. along with the others. Rewrite her letter.S.
The lights and power distribution are set by the gaffer. are) treated on the way to the hospital.There is are Lighting two assistants to the gaffer and Technician the key grip. 2. These brave men and women (has. A defibrillator (helps. 5. 3. report) heart activity. Agreement in Number Write the verb form that agrees with the subject of each sentence. One of the best “boys” were about 50. All of the EMTs (is. Correct seven errors in subject-verb agreement and write the corrected sentences. Additional Agreement Problems Read this report of a movie studio tour. In serious cases. Many (is. 4. Usage. and was the other was a woman! Is . are) trained medical workers. contact) a doctor at a nearby hospital.Mixed Review A. Under the director of photography work the key grip. are) reported to the doctor. Are teamwork involved in making a movie? Yes! Here is are some strange names for very important jobs. .These titles doesn’t always don’t describe Operator describe the person. works He is the chief builder of the lighting equipment. . paramedics on the scene immediately (contacts.“Best boy electric” and “best boy grip” is their are Camera titles. involved/ Director 180 Grammar. 10. heart attack victims or injured people (is. and Mechanics . 8. 1. are) carried in their special ambulance. 7. CHAPTER 7 B. Any injuries or other important information (is. 6. Drugs and medical equipment (is. help) correct an irregular heartbeat. Another of the EMT’s instruments (reports. As a first step. Emergency Medical Technician-Paramedics (treats. 9. have) saved many lives. are) first at the scene of an accident or heart attack. treat) victims when a doctor isn’t available.
Mastery Test: What Did You Learn? Choose the letter of the best revision for each underlined section. Each of the dogs was ignoring C. Some is detecting scent particles D. Correct as is 4. There (1) are two different types of dogs. Search and rescue dogs is being trained C. A. There is two different types B. dogs on a search team is to follow D. A. There was two different types C. There has been two different types D. Search and rescue dogs are trained B. A garment of natural fibers were B. A. A. dogs on a search team is following C. Some has detected scent particles C. A garment of natural fibers have been C. A garment of (5) natural fibers are very helpful. Other dogs on a search team follow the trail of scent particles along the missing (4) person’s path. Correct as is 3. A. Correct as is 2. Search and rescue dogs was being trained D. Search and rescue dogs is trained to find missing persons. Air scent dogs and trailing dogs searching B. Doesn’t dog and handler teams trains B. Correct as is 6. The dogs smell the victim’s clothing. A. A. Air scent dogs and trailing dogs (7) searches for victims in avalanches and in water. Each of the dogs ignore all scents (6) except for the missing person’s. Correct as is 8. Each of the dogs are ignoring D. Doesn’t dog and (8) handler teams train for two years for this job? 1. Correct as is Subject-Verb Agreement 181 S-V AGREEMENT . Correct as is 7. Don’t dog and handler teams train D. Don’t dog and handler teams trained C. Correct as is 5. Some detects scent particles (2) (3) carried by wind from the missing person’s location. A. Each of the dogs ignores B. Some detect scent particles B. Air scent dogs and trailing dogs was searching C. Air scent dogs and trailing dogs search D. dogs on a search team follows B. A garment of natural fibers is D.
Neither the loser nor the winners look tired. few. A plural subject takes a plural verb. many. everyone. somebody Always plural both. one.A singular subject takes a singular verb. everything. any. any. Many people share in the victory. most. several Sometimes singular all. Singular All of our preparation is over. most. Compound Subjects If the compound subject is: Joined by and Make the verb: Plural All fo r O ne The winners and losers shake hands. 182 Grammar. none. and Mechanics . Joined by or or nor Match the closest subject Neither the winners nor the loser looks tired. some Plural Many come to play. anyone. One Indefinite Pronouns If the indefinite pronoun is: Always singular CHAPTER 7 for A ll Make the verb: Singular Everyone is nervous. Our team wins the contest. some Sometimes plural all. Plural All of the players are ready. none. Usage.
.Tricky Sentences Kind of Sentence Question Is the umpire ready? Sentence Beginning with Here or There Here comes the pitch! Sentence Beginning with Prepositional Phrase Make Them get Along Subject Verb umpire is pitch comes Out of the park flies the ball! Prepositional Phrase Between Subject and Verb The batter. looks mighty. The runner is scoring! ball flies S-V AGREEMENT batter looks players runner are winning is scoring The Bottom Line Checklist for Subject-Verb Agreement Have I . used a singular verb with a singular subject? used a plural verb with a plural subject? made the helping verb in a verb phrase agree with the subject? used a plural verb with compound subjects joined by and? made the verb agree with the closest part of a compound subject joined by or or nor? checked whether indefinite pronoun subjects are singular or plural? made verbs agree with subjects in unusual positions? Subject-Verb Agreement 183 . Helping Verb Our players are winning. . in the fans’ eyes.
What happened? The person who wrote the directions didn’t follow the rules of capitalization. The boys were on the lookout for a big bear instead of Big Bear Mountain.Chapter 8 Watch out for big bear! Find the cave at the base of the mountain and fish creek . Get the key from the cave entrance and follow fish creek downstream to shady road. They looked for a shady road instead of the road named Shady Road. Write Away: Can You Get There from Here? Write directions from where you are now to a particular place. Include the names of landmarks. and other places. CHAPTER 8 Theme: What’s in a Name? Follow That Bear! These explorers carefully followed the directions. such as your home. 184 . Put your directions in your Working Portfolio. They thought they were supposed to go fishing in the creek instead of finding Fish Creek. streets. but they never found the meeting place.
or Breakheart point B. A. flat River D. Dead Man’s Bay. or in other places like Diamond. or (6) CAPITALIZATION breakheart point? You can find these names in the book dictionary of Newfoundland english. Correct as is Capitalization 185 . Missouri. Dictionary of Newfoundland english D. C. margot ford mcMillen gives a history of place names (3) in Missouri. Correct as is 5. dead man’s bay. A. C. missouri. and Peculiar: Missouri Place Names. How would you like to travel to bleak island. or Zig. In the book Paris. The book covers humorous origins and places that were named after the way they look. Dead man’s bay. Correct as is 4. can you think of any weird place names? Imagine living in a (1) place called peculiar. Creative Names Worldwide B. creative Names worldwide C. or Breakheart Point D. (5) Another region with unusual place names is Newfoundland. Margot ford mcMillen C. you (7) can take a class to learn more about Creative Names worldwide. If you are interested in place names. Tightwad. Margot ford McMillen B. missouri. A. Peculiar. can You think B. Dead Man’s bay. Dictionary of Newfoundland English C. Dictionary Of Newfoundland English B. The writer states that Tightwad. A. A. Correct as is 6. Peculiar. Flat river B. Missouri. Correct as is 7. Can You think C. A. A. missouri. Correct as is 3. Correct as is 8. A. choose the letter of the correct revision. B. (8) 1.Diagnostic Test: What Do You Know? For each numbered item. creative names worldwide D. was (4) named after a merchant who cheated a mailman out of his watermelon. missouri. Tightwad. tightwad. (2) Zif. tightwad. like flat river. Flat River C. D. Missouri. Missouri. Bleak Island. Correct as is 2. Margot Ford McMillen D. peculiar. D. Can you think D. Bleak Island. Bleak island. or Breakheart point C. B.
Senator John Bullworth CHAPTER 8 Professor Henry Higgins Rev. and Mechanics . James L. Kennedy Natsume Soseki Personal Titles and Abbreviations Capitalize titles and abbreviations of titles that are used before names or in direct address. Kathryn Janeway Is my kitten going to be okay.D. Do not capitalize titles when they are used without a proper name. Doctor? Capitalize the abbreviations of some titles when they follow a name. Sr.S.D. 186 Grammar. Nash Capt.D. Surgeon General David Satcher Justice Sandra Day O’Connor Queen Elizabeth Czar Ivan IV was also known as Ivan the Terrible. D.1 ● Here’s the Idea Names and Initials Capitalize people’s names and initials. Sandra Cisneros Oprah Winfrey John F. Jamie Crawford. Usage. or nobility only when they are used before persons’ names or in place of persons’ names. Fred Jones. M. Ph. Angela Martinez. Capitalize titles of heads of state. George Collins. The duchess officially opened the ceremonies. royalty.
Koran God. In general. The word volcano comes from the name of the Roman god of fire. do not capitalize a family relationship word when it follows the person’s name or is used without a proper name. Islam Rosh Hashanah. The Pronoun I Always capitalize the pronoun I. Vulcan. Good Friday Torah. Allah Do not capitalize the words god and goddess when they refer to gods of ancient mythology. Yahweh. sacred writings. Aunt Laura Cousin David Uncle Al Mom helped Aunt Sally choose the name for the new baby. Religious Terms Religions Sacred days Sacred writings Deities Judaism. Christianity. and deities. CAPITALIZATION Religious Terms Capitalize the names of religions.Family Relationships Capitalize words indicating family relationships only when they are used as names or before names. Bible. I dreamed my uncle was King Arthur. Mother said that I was named after Uncle Henry. sacred days. Capitalization 187 .
188 Grammar. and Mechanics . German European Spanish Asian American Korean Jewish 2 ● Practice and Apply CONCEPT CHECK: People and Cultures Write the words and abbreviations that should be capitalized but are not in the paragraph below. by the mid-1800s german immigrants to the United States had made the practice popular. (3) Mom said it was Correct the book she and Dad used to pick my name. (2) It was written by jonathan p. languages. Usage. and Races Capitalize the names of nationalities. (5) Even though the early americans did not give their children middle names. Capitalize each correctly. and the adjectives formed from these names. Middle Names (1) Not long ago. Languages. If a sentence has no errors. p. Don’t Ya Mourn.D. see the EXERCISE BANK. 288. (4) The book says that the spanish began using middle names about 1000 A.” (8) Her name—mary dontyaweepdontyamourn schulz. CHAPTER 8 ● ● For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. (6) president john quincy adams was the first president to use a middle name. i found a book of baby names in the attic that tells about how middle names originated. jr. algernon. and most ethnic groups.Nationalities. races. (7) The most unusual Correct middle name was chosen by a 13-year-old girl in 1965 who admired the folk song “Don’t Ya Weep. write the word correct.
Shakespeare was the first to write. All that is gold does not glitter. do not capitalize the first word of the second part unless it starts a new sentence. The old that is strong does not wither. R.” Capitalization 189 . “It’s going to be Kitty!” “Maybe you should think of another name. “What’s in a name?” In a divided quotation.” said Sarah. CAPITALIZATION —J. “since that was the name of your last two cats. If you make this choice in your own writing. “All That Is Gold” Modern poets may choose not to begin each line of a poem with a capital letter. William Shakespeare “I have a name for my new kitten. Tolkien. My pen pal from Japan is named Suzu. Quotations Capitalize the first word of a direct quotation if it is a complete sentence. R. Deep roots are not reached by the frost.” Mom said. which means “little bell. Not all those who wander are lost.1 ● Here’s the Idea Sentences and Poetry Capitalize the first word of every sentence. make sure the meaning of your work is still clear.” In traditional poetry capitalize the first word of every line.
Types of felines A. Domesticated cats 1. Macavity: Dear Sir: Sincerely yours. TV Guide.” “Where the Sidewalk Ends” Highlights. Persian 2. The Sound of Music “Eleven.Outlines Capitalize the first word of each entry in an outline and the letters that introduce major subsections. and Mechanics . Don’t capitalize articles. Type of Media Books Plays and musicals Short stories Poems Magazines and newspapers Musical compositions Movies Television shows Works of art Games Examples Dogsong. The Washington Post “The Star Spangled Banner” Tarzan. or prepositions of fewer than five letters.” “Aaron’s Gift” “Ode to My Library. Tabby Parts of a Letter Capitalize the first word in the greeting and in the closing of a letter. CHAPTER 8 Titles Capitalize the first word. Dear Mr. conjunctions. Sunflowers Space Genius. and all important words in a title. I. Usage. Prince of Egypt Seventh Heaven. Name Game. Myths and Legends 190 Grammar. Touched by an Angel Mona Lisa. last word. Island of the Blue Dolphins Annie.
has won two Oscars. John F. Capitalize each correctly. and a famous woman with that name is Dr. “and so.2 ● Practice and Apply CONCEPT CHECK: First Words and Titles Write the words that should be capitalized but are not in these sentences. who wrote Emma. Popular Names 1. jane is the feminine form of John. One form of the name Johnny is in the title of a famous early rock ’n’ roll song by Chuck Berry. The name John Henry might ring a bell. 8. if you’ve read the legend. who starred in Coming home. see the EXERCISE BANK. Capitalization 191 .” 5. ask what you can do for your country. Another example of a famous Jane is the novelist Jane Austen. such as the following: deedle deedle dumpling. for centuries. 10. Jane Fonda. feminine 1. John F. “Johnny b.” will endure for generations to come.” 4.” Jane Goodall 6. p. I’ll die with my hammer in my hand. one of the most common boys’ names throughout the world has been John. The singer and composer John Lennon is often remembered for his song “imagine. where he says. Kennedy’s famous words. 7. Jeanne or Jeanette ● ● CAPITALIZATION For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. “before I let that steam drill beat me down. 289. John and Jane can be found in a wide variety of forms in different countries and languages. Kennedy 3. and persuasion. in France A. Jane Goodall. as the following partial outline suggests: I. 9. The name John can be found in many nursery rhymes. goode. my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you. Sense and sensibility. my son John went to bed with his stockings on. 2.
Proofreading: Parts of a Letter Identify and correct the ten capitalization errors in the following letter. Sincerely yours. Addison St. or Pluto. Your ad asked for the most creative names we could think of. geographical names 1. after Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. last names B. if you have a female pup. people’s names 1. Other names you might want to consider are Falstaff. Land Names 2. jemma roberts 192 Grammar. who composed the marriage of Figaro. and Mechanics . IL 60602 Dear mr. correcting the capitalization errors. breed. first names 2. River and Mountain Names 3. Lady. little. you might want to consider Greek mythology names like Calliope or Calypso. I. I am writing about the puppy-naming contest that you advertised in the Chicago tribune. John Little 510 N. Hercules. middle names 3. Capitalization in Outlining Rewrite the following portion of an outline. and gender of the dog when choosing a name. CHAPTER 8 Mr. unusual names B. I personally like Amadeus.Mixed Review A. Now.Venus. who entertained the Greek hero Odysseus in the long poem The odyssey. History of Names A. I recently read in an essay entitled “All about Pet names” that a person should consider the size. Usage. Chicago.You wouldn’t want to name your male pit bull Muffy unless you have a very strong reason.
1 ● Here’s the Idea
In geographical names, capitalize each word except articles and prepositions.
Divisions of the world Continents Bodies of water Islands Mountains Other landforms Regions Nations States Cities and towns Roads and streets
Southern Hemisphere, International Date Line Antarctica, Europe, South America Indian Ocean, Mississippi River, Lake Michigan Guam, Prince Edward Island, Easter Island Appalachian Mountains, Himalayas, Adirondacks Strait of Magellan, Sahara, Cape of Good Hope Central America, Eurasia, Great Plains Spain, Mexico, England New York, Illinois, Florida Dallas, Springfield, Sacramento Route 66, Wall Street, Fifth Avenue
Bodies of the Universe
Capitalize the names of planets and other specific objects in the universe.
Mercury Andromeda Tycho Brahe’s Comet Big Dipper Ganymede
Saturn, Jupiter, and Mars were each named after mythical characters. The planet closest to the sun is Mercury.
Regions and Sections
Capitalize the words north, south, east, and west when they name particular regions of the United States or the world or when they are parts of proper names.
Some states in the Southeast, such as Virginia, Maryland, and North and South Carolina, were named after British royalty. Do not capitalize these words when they indicate general directions or locations. The state of Illinois is west of Indiana and south of Wisconsin.
Buildings, Bridges, and Other Landmarks
Capitalize the names of specific buildings, bridges, monuments, and other landmarks.
Empire State Building Brooklyn Bridge
Washington Monument Mount Rushmore
The national monument in New Mexico known as the Gila Cliff Dwellings is the site of Pueblo Indian dwellings.
Planes, Trains, and Other Vehicles
Capitalize the names of specific airplanes, trains, ships, cars, and spacecraft.
Airplanes Trains Ships Cars Spacecraft
Enola Gay, Spruce Goose City of New Orleans, Cannonball Express USS Missouri, Titanic, HMS Bounty Volkswagen, Camaro, Jaguar Discovery, Endeavor, Soyuz
194 Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics
2 ● Practice and Apply
A. CONCEPT CHECK: Places and Transportation For each sentence, write the words that should be capitalized. Do not write words that are already capitalized. Naming the Land 1. In the early 1700s, French explorers began to colonize parts of what is now the south. 2. Near the gulf of mexico, the French founded a fort in an area settled by a Native American group called the Maubilian. 3. The French translated that name to mobile. 4. Around a nearby river, the French encountered the Alibamons (for whom the state of alabama is named). 5. Two centuries later, paddle wheel boats with names like the delta queen would travel the mississippi river, but in the 1700s French explorers made their way upriver in canoes. 6. Near the great plains, the French encountered a river called ni (river) bthaska (something flat and spread out). 7. The French called it the rivière platte. 8. Ni bthaska became the name of the state nebraska. 9. The French marveled at the beauty of the milky way. 10. Today, visitors can appreciate the breathtaking beauty of the land as they drive along interstate 80.
For a SELF-CHECK and more practice, see the EXERCISE BANK, p. 290.
RO S S T
B. REVISING: Correcting Map Labels Answers in column. Find and correct the capitalization errors in the map below. Notice that not all labels need to be changed.
Glacier national park Fort Benton
Fort peck lake
y e ll o w s t
custer Battlefield Key Trail: lemhi pass
Lewis & Clark Historic Trail in Montana
r c roc
s ns n aiin un tta Mo u mo
1 ● Here’s the Idea
Organizations and Institutions
Capitalize all important words in the names of organizations, institutions, stores, and companies.
Summerville Middle School Boston Public Library Sarah’s Beauty Shop League of Nations Oxford University National Honor Society
Do not capitalize words such as school, company, church, college, and hospital when they are not used as parts of names. We moved near the hospital.
Historical Events, Periods, and Documents
Capitalize the names of historical events, periods, and documents.
Historical Events, Periods, and Documents
Events Periods Documents
Harlem Renaissance, Revolutionary War Space Age, Age of Exploration Magna Carta, Constitution of the United States
The Declaration of Independence was adopted more than a year after the Revolutionary War began.
Time Abbreviations and Calendar Items
Capitalize the abbreviations B.C., A.D., A.M., and P.M.
The ancient Egyptians developed history’s first national government about 3000 B.C.
Capitalize the names of months, days, and holidays but not the seasons.
October Labor Day fall spring St. Valentine’s Day Monday
196 Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics
Special Events. october 31.m. Capitalization 197 . Games begin promptly at 7:00 p. Come in costume and cheer for your favorite team! Prizes: Third-place winners receive a case of zap cola and a $10 gift certificate to Jimmy’s athletic warehouse. and Brand Names Capitalize the names of special events and awards. October 17. each thursday.The Thanksgiving holiday takes place every fall on the fourth Thursday of November. Grand Prize: First-place winners receive $500 and a team trophy. the Springdale silver puck. and saturday of the tournament. Awards. the World Series the Stanley Cup the Country Music Awards the Caldecott Medal What runner will win the Boston Marathon this year? Capitalize the brand name of a product but not a common noun that follows a brand name. Sun Safe sunscreen Munchies potato chips 2 ● Practice and Apply CONCEPT CHECK: Organizations and Other Subjects Identify and correct the words that should be capitalized in the following flyer. friday. The final game will be held on halloween. through saturday. CAPITALIZATION Annual roller hockey Tournament Where: Springdale middle school When: saturday. Secondplace winners will get a gift certificate for a pair of air lite tennis shoes.
But what about capitalization? You must pay attention to capitalization too. you want to make sure your numbers are correct.Capitalization in Tables and Bar Graphs When you write about statistics for math. and Mechanics . Usage. Notice how proper names and important words are capitalized in the table and graph below. otherwise. people won’t trust your numbers. Most Popular Dog Names Name Max Sam Lady Rocky CHAPTER 8 Number 28 15 13 9 6 4 Capitalize all important words in titles Capitalize proper names Lucky Missy ith Popular Names Number of Dogs w 30 25 20 scale increases in equal-sized steps Number 15 10 5 0 Sam Lady Rocky Lucky Missy Max Name 198 Grammar.
Save your paragraph in your Working Portfolio. . Capitalization 199 . CONCEPT CHECK: Capitalization in Graphs and Tables AC M AT H A student did some research into popular girls’ names in the 1890s and quickly jotted down information. WRITING: Summarizing Information Once you have created a bar graph. Use equal-sized scale numbers that increase in steps of 10 (for example. when you summarize information. Use the following information to create your own bar graph like the one shown on the opposite page. and so on). .R OS e CURRI CU S th L UM Practice and Apply A. summarize the information in a short paragraph. Be sure to check your capitalization. Don’t forget to include a title. 20. 30. Correct the capitalization in the table. Remember. CAPITALIZATION the 1890s Most popular Names in Girl’s Names Mary anna Elizabeth emma Margaret rose Number 59 55 46 38 32 20 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Mary B. . 10. you explain the most important points.
about our tour of the west. he became general e. D. CHAPTER 8 U. yellowstone next year. I. eric johnson’s class Socialmonroe. We will probably make the trip in late may or early june of Please send us brochures about places that we might visit. us brochures about places that we might visit. please send us any other suggestions you may have sincerely. When Claude Payne reached the rank of major. please send us any other suggestions you may have about our tour of the west. D. Also. and Mechanics . and a plan a trip mr.C. whose last name is Tyme. Why do people inflict silly and embarrassing names on their children? My cousin’s mother and father. amanda brady 200 Grammar. Dept.m. 20240 1849 c street Washington.Mixed Review A. and a member of mr. We will on parks in Colorado national monuments andlike information be traveling by tour and Wyoming. on new year’s eve. amanda brady sincerely. Speeking entered the united states army and eventually reached the rank of general. Proofreading: Capitalization Identify and correct the capitalization errors in the following paragraph.S. We would like Teton mountains. B. of service 1849 c street service National Park Washington.C. especially yellowstone national park and parks in the bus and will travel west on interstate 80. of interior National Park interior U. Jim Shortz. Stine. Imagine having to carry the name Minny vann the rest of your life because uncle Ed or grandma Vann thought it was cute! I admit that I’ve heard worse. We would parks. 20240 Dear sir: Dear sir: I am a student at marietta junior high school in monroe. Editing and Proofreading Rewrite the business letter below using capitalization rules from this chapter. We will be assignment is to plan a will travel some Studies I. eric johnson’s class Social parks. Usage. Please send Also. he became major Payne. for example. named my cousin Justin because he was born at 11:59 p. Speeking. though: Constance Noring. A class traveling by tour bus and trip to visitwest on interstate 80. and Frank n. Not all silly names are intentional. nebraska. We in Colorado and Wyoming. When a man named E.S. Dept. next year. especially or information on parks will probably make the trip in late may early june ofnational park and parks in the Teton mountains. A class I am a student at marietta junior high school in Studies assignment is to member of to visit some national monuments and nebraska.
to egypt. Myths. astronomers. and 3500 B. Correct as is 4. A. In (6) (8) (7) 1930. or Gods C.c. the hunter. The story reminds people of a (5) great hunter holding his shield. the Hunter D. A. since the Ice Age C. or Gods. Since the Ice Age D. and 3500 B. poets. babylonia. 4000 B. greek and Roman C. to Greece B. A. the International astronomical Union set official boundaries CAPITALIZATION that defined the 88 constellations that exist today. A. to greece D. Take (4) orion. a bear has been associated with the constellation Ursa Major since the ice age. A. 4000 B. Correct as is 3. Correct as is 2. however. Greek and roman B. For example. Correct as is 8. A. International Astronomical Union D.. or gods B. C. Orion. heroes. In some cases.C.c. for example. constellations were named after a figure in the sky. heroes. Heroes. Correct as is 7. ursa Major D. D. A. Myths.C. Correct as is 5.c. B. to Egypt. myths. 1. Greek and Roman D.C. International Astronomical union C. Correct as is Capitalization 201 . international astronomical Union B. to Greece C.Mastery Test: What Did You Learn? For each numbered item. The Hunter B. The names of constellations varied. or gods D. Sometime around 4000 b. and 3500 b. 4000 b. to Greece. babylonia. to Egypt. Heroes. Correct as is 6. orion. A. and 3500 B. to egypt. (1) and farmers began to create mythological names for constellations. ursa major B. Ursa major C. the Hunter C.c. Most people are familiar with the greek and (3) (2) roman names of stars after myths.c. from babylonia. Orion. choose the letter of the correct revision. since the Ice age B. Babylonia.
holiday. event. Mr. places. and things: Traditionally in Mexico a firstborn daughter is named Maria. people by the name of Pat. last word. St. volunteers at Children’s Memorial Hospital on Saturdays . Patrick’s Day. and Mechanics . and all important words in titles: Across Five Aprils Proper nouns that name a particular date. Patrick.common noun first word of a sentence proper name Our teacher . —Robert Frost. Owens . or award: On March 17. Family words used as a name or part of a name: Billy is Uncle William’s nickname. “Questioning Faces” The first word. proper noun day of the week CHAPTER 8 Do Capitalize Upper Case Ursula Technique Examples Proper nouns that name people. 202 Grammar. The first word of a sentence: Do you know the origin of your name? The first word in every line of traditional poetry: The winter owl banked just in time to pass And save herself from breaking window glass. Usage. or Patricia can celebrate their saint’s name.
and brand names? Capitalization 203 . and businesses? names of historical events. and documents? names of special events. or things: My cousin enjoys riding her bike to school because she can stop at the store for some snacks. trains. CAPITALIZATION The Bottom Line Checklist for Capitalization Have I capitalized . bridges. eras. Family words used as ordinary nouns: I was named after my mom. and other landmarks? names of particular planes. Yours truly. Compass direction when indicating a general location: I like to watch flocks of geese flying in formation. but my favorite season is fall. people’s names and initials? personal titles preceding names? names of races.Don’t Capitalize Lower Case Larry Words after the first word of a closing of a letter: Sincerely yours. . Calendar items if they name a season: My name is Summer. institutions. migrating south for the winter. languages. . places. awards. The common nouns that stand for people. and nationalities? names of religions and religious terms? names of bodies of the universe and other geographical terms? names of monuments. and other vehicles? names of organizations.
Be sure to punctuate your headline correctly. or missed a bus. Save your work in your Working Portfolio. Is it “Emergency Power Lost in City!” in which the city has lost emergency backup power? Or is it “Emergency! Power Lost in City!” in which the city has lost all power? Punctuation helps make even simple messages easier to understand. Write Away: Oops! News That's Unfit to Print Write a headline describing a time you slipped up. It might describe when you forgot to study for a test.Chapter 9 CHAPTER 9 Theme: Great Mistakes and Disasters Headline Headache What event is the headline describing? It's hard to know without proper end marks in place. 204 . tripped over a neighbor’s dog.
A. Oh well.” B. theyr’e D. A. glass shoes. he would marry the owner of a “fur slipper. tragic. for example. consequences? D. Perrault. mistakenly (7) (6) (5) (4) (2) (3) assumed that the word vair should have been verre. A. choose the letter of the best revision.” D. A. C. Correct as is 5. he would “marry the owner of a fur slipper. (Verre means (8) “glass. A. Cinderella. a type of fur. theyre just plain goofy. glass shoes? C. the writer D. Charles Perrault the writer. the writer. A. Some mistakes are tragic Other mistakes have milder (1) consequences. they’re C. Perrault. Correct as is 7. Cinderella’s B. Correct as is 9. B. glass shoes. Perrault the writer C. A. Correct as is Punctuation 205 .”) Oh well? Can you imagine a fancy prince exclaiming that he would “marry the owner of a fur slipper?” (10) (9) PUNCTUATION 1. their B. he would marry the owner of a fur slipper? B. D. A. tragic — D. verre. Oh well! D. verre: D. in fact. Take. Oh well. C. A. Did you ever wonder why someone lucky enough to have a fairy godmother ended up with glass shoes! An older version of the story says that Cinderellas’ slippers were made of vair. Correct as is 4.Diagnostic Test: What Do You Know? For each numbered item. Cinderella D. B. Correct as is 10. consequences. Cinderellas C. tragic. Correct as is 3. Correct as is 6. CINDERELLA. the story Cinderella. C. verre B. Correct as is 2. C. consequences. Correct as is 8. B. A. C. B. C. “Cinderella. B. D.
Some important discoveries have happened by accident ● . and Mechanics . A declarative sentence makes a statement. An indirect question reports what a person asked without using the person’s exact words. Tell us more about these great mistakes● . Periods have other uses as well. CHAPTER 9 Use a period at the end of almost every imperative sentence. Use a period at the end of an indirect question. Don’t stop ! These stories are really interesting ● . and exclamation points are known as end marks because they indicate the end of a sentence. Not all blunders have bad results● . How were x-rays discovered ? Who first recognized them ? 206 Grammar. they end with exclamation points. When these sentences express excitement or emotion. INDIRECT Question Marks Use a question mark at the end of an interrogative sentence. “Is this article about x-rays true ? ” Tracy asked whether the article about x-rays is true● . An imperative sentence gives a command. An interrogative sentence asks a question. Periods Use a period at the end of a declarative sentence. Usage.1 ● Here’s the Idea Periods. question marks. DIRECT Tracy asked.
Exclamation Points Use an exclamation point to end an exclamatory sentence. inch Prof. hour Tues. A● Pictures of bones and teeth . post meridiem (after noon) D. Senior min.D. railroad P. An exclamatory sentence expresses strong feeling. doctor of medicine tsp.T. Street Initials R. Common Abbreviations and Initials Abbreviations sec. Hey ! I bet the scientist who first saw them was surprised. List Parts of an X-Ray Machine 1● Glass tube .C. Doctor Sr. District of Columbia Abbreviations Without Periods CD compact disc MVP Most Valuable Player UN United Nations mph miles per hour NY New York cm centimeters Use a period after each number or letter in an outline or a list. 3● Positive electrode . Outline Uses for X-rays I● Medical .P. second Dr. Wow ! Strange things do happen in laboratories. B● Cancer treatments . November E. East hr. 4● Electric current . II● Industrial . A● Security devices B● Pest control . Maria Theresa Parsons P.O. Punctuation 207 . 5● Tube housing . 6● Film compartment . teaspoon in.M. Professor PUNCTUATION M. 2● Negative electrode . post office M. Other Uses for Periods Use a period at the end of most abbreviations or after an initial. Tuesday St. .R. I can’t believe it ! That’s an amazing bit of luck! Use an exclamation point after an interjection or any other exclamatory expression. minute Nov.
2 ● Practice and Apply
A. CONCEPT CHECK: Periods and Other End Marks Write the words from the following paragraph that should be followed by periods, question marks, or exclamation points. Include these end marks in your answers. X-rays Exposed Did you know that x-rays were discovered by accident No kidding In 1895, Prof Wilhelm Roentgen, a German scientist, conducted a new experiment. He worked in a darkened room with a special vacuum tube. The tube used a bright electric current When Roentgen placed a sheet of black paper around the tube, he was surprised by the results Instead of seeing complete darkness, Roentgen noticed an eerie glow coming from a nearby screen How strange Roentgen soon realized that this glow was caused by mysterious invisible rays coming from the tube Can you guess why he called his discovery x-rays In science, the letter x means something unknown
For a SELF-CHECK and more practice, see the EXERCISE BANK, p. 291.
current. results. screen. strange! tube. x-rays? unknown.
B. WRITING: Punctuating Abbreviations Rewrite the announcement below, adding periods where they are needed.
Sat./Nov. A.M./P.M. A./Jr. N./Ln. Mt. Ms.
208 Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics
1 ● Here’s the Idea
Commas can be used to separate parts of a sentence.
Commas with Items in a Series
Use a comma after every item in a series except the last one. A series consists of three or more items.
The story of Daedalus and his son Icarus teaches us about cleverness●stubbornness●and foolishness. , , Each man used wax●feathers● and a harness to make a , , pair of wings. Icarus and Daedalus put on their wings●ran along the , beach●and flew toward the open sea. ,
Use commas between two or more adjectives of equal rank that modify the same noun.
Both father and son made a quick●daring escape. ,
Here’s How Adding Commas Between Adjectives
To decide whether to use a comma between two adjectives modifying the same noun, try the following test.
Daedalus used large stiff feathers. 1. Place the word and between the adjectives. Daedalus used large and stiff feathers. 2. If the sentence still makes sense, replace and with a comma. , Daedalus used large●stiff feathers.
Do not use a comma between adjectives that together express a single idea.
Each pair of wings had many light feathers.
Commas with Introductory Words and Phrases
Use a comma after an introductory word or phrase to separate it from the rest of the sentence.
Recklessly, Icarus flew too close to the sun. According to Greek myth, Icarus fell when his wings melted.
Commas with Interrupters
Use commas to set off words or phrases that interrupt, or break, the flow of thought in a sentence.
Daedalus , however, did fly to freedom. This myth has been told , I am certain, by many authors.
Commas with Nouns of Direct Address
Use commas to set off nouns of direct address. A noun
of direct address names the person or group being spoken to. Devon, explain why Daedalus warned Icarus about the sun. Don’t forget , class, that Icarus didn’t listen to his father.
Commas with Appositives
An appositive is a word or phrase that identifies or renames a noun or pronoun that comes right before it. Use commas when the appositive adds extra information; do not use commas when the appositive is needed to make the meaning clear. Olivia E. Coolidge , an English author, wrote about Greek myths. (The phrase an English author adds extra information.) The English author Olivia E. Coolidge wrote about Greek myths. (The phrase Olivia E. Coolidge is needed information.)
Commas to Avoid Confusion
Use a comma whenever the reader might otherwise be confused.
Soon after Icarus left Daedalus followed. Soon after Icarus left● Daedalus followed. ,
210 Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics
2 ● Practice and Apply
A. CONCEPT CHECK: Commas in Sentences Write the words from the following passage that should be followed by commas. Oil Takes Its Toll In 1989, an oil tanker, the Exxon Valdez, went aground off the coast of Alaska. Eleven million gallons of smelly sticky oil spilled out of the tanker. Spread by the ocean current the oil slick soon coated 1,300 miles of Alaska’s shoreline. The magnificent, sparkling beaches of Alaska turned oily and black. The spill killed approximately 2,800 otters 300 seals 250 bald eagles and 250,000 other birds. Ten years later there were signs of recovery. A council was established after the spill to help restore wildlife. Molly McCammon its director indicated that things were looking better. The numbers of bald eagles and pink salmon were strong. She added however that more work needed to be done to improve the numbers of seals, herring, and ducks.
For a SELF-CHECK and more practice, see the EXERCISE BANK, p. 291.
otters,/seals, eagles, later, McCammon, director, added, however,
B. MIXED REVIEW: Using Punctuation Correctly Write the words from the following passage that should be followed by end marks or commas. Include these punctuation marks in your answers. The Great Caterpillar Catastrophe In 1869, Leopold Trouvelot a French scientist imported scientist, caterpillars to Massachusetts. Why did he import them He hoped to crossbreed the adult form of these caterpillars, known as gypsy moths with the moths of silkworms He silkworms. thought perhaps foolishly, that he could create a new American caterpillar, one that made valuable silk Unfortunately Trouvelot’s experiment had a terrible outcome outcome. One day a gust of wind knocked over a caterpillar cage in his house What a mess Crawling out an open window, the caterpillars escaped. Soon they grew into adult moths and migrated Over many years the moths spread to Virginia Virginia, Maryland and New York Now they are pests that destroy New York. healthy trees Who would believe that so much trouble could come from one mishap with caterpillars It’s amazing amazing!
Trouvelot, them? moths, thought, silk. Unfortunately, day, house./mess! migrated./years, Maryland, trees. caterpillars?
. Addresses.) Use a comma between the city or town and the state or country. Christa Do not use a comma between the state and the ZIP code. and Letters Commas in dates Commas in addresses Commas in letters In dates. I 20 hope the tower is still standing by then. 212 Grammar. Commas in Dates. Usage. (Use a comma after the state or country if the sentence continues. 19 in Italy. 1 CHAPTER 9 422 Fairfax Road Milton●MA 02186 . Long ago. But during construction. and Mechanics . 21 22 Your friend● . Unfortunately. 17 I’m planning to see the tower on 18 March 21●2001●when I visit my grandma .) Use a comma after the greeting of a casual letter and after the closing of a casual or business letter. . 2 3 Line 2: comma between city and state Line 3: comma between day and year Line 4: comma after greeting Line 9: commas after city and country Line 18: commas after day and year Line 21: comma after closing 4 Dear Jeri● .The builders 14 realized that the ground underneath the 15 tower was too soft. 13 the tower started to lean. the 16 tower leans a little bit more every year. Do you remember how we laughed 5 6 when we saw a picture of the Leaning 7 Tower of Pisa? Well. 10 planned to make a bell tower for the 11 town’s cathedral. in Pisa●Italy●architects . Everything went well in 12 the beginning. my grandma told me 8 that the tower tilts because of a terrible 9 mistake. use a comma between the day and the year. (Use a comma after the year if the sentence continues. It will be her 90th birthday.1 ● Here’s the Idea See these rules in action in the letter below. April 13●2000 .
Put a letter together using these parts. Clayt class should vi r social studies d trip I think that ou 2000 our fiel on October 12 um on the things history muse eing exhibits d have fun se out ancient day. My family is going to a party in Milwaukee Wisconsin next Saturda y. the Egypt and the by my favorite ll have to stop iss it! if we go. Egypt. CONCEPT CHECK: Commas: Dates. WRITING: Dear Friend Answers in column. we’ a mistake to m ! It would be mummy room osal. B. especially the sandcastl e story.2 ● Practice and Apply A. 1300 Dearborn St. see the EXERCISE BANK. Would you like to join us? Punctuation 213 . Write the words and numbers from the letter that should be followed by commas. reet 175 Green St O 80110 Englewood C May 6 2000 on sit the Dear Mr. We’ e’ve learned ab ially died. 292. So far. and Giza opotam at Pyramid in people of Mes about the Gre se. Addresses. cept my prop at you will ac I hope th Sincerely Malcolm PUNCTUATION For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. I espec we’ve stu ia. p. Dear Matt As ever June 25. Don’t forget to add commas where they belong. Of cour liked reading mb near Sian Ch’in to place. 2000 0 Chicago IL 6061 Sarah I enjoyed your letter. w China. and Letters The letter below is a field trip proposal that a student has been asked to write for class. stories China.
“ All passengers assemble on deck. The captain said. If quoted words are part of a quotation or exclamation of your own. Direct Quotations A direct quotation is the exact words of a writer or a speaker. “All passengers assemble on deck. and end marks. “assemble on deck. or at the ends of sentences).1 ● Here’s the Idea To punctuate quotations. place the question mark or exclamation point inside the closing quotation marks.” said the captain. commas. Use quotation marks at the beginning and the end of a direct quotation. 214 . you need to know where to put quotation marks.” “All passengers assemble on deck . “Have we hit an iceberg ?” a crewman asked. CHAPTER 9 Use commas to set off explanatory words used with direct quotations (whether they occur at the beginning. If a quotation is a question or an exclamation. “I believe we’re sinking ”? Commas and periods always go inside closing quotation marks. ” said the captain.” “All passengers .” said the captain. in the middle. They’re too little to stay outside. Did I hear him say. place the question mark or exclamation point outside the closing quotation marks.
” Punctuation 215 .” the owner said.Indirect Quotations Do not use quotation marks to set off an indirect quotation. It does not require a comma.” Finally.” “The ship is unsinkable. Abandon your cabin. Captain Smith told the radio operators that they should abandon their cabin. “ because of its doublebottomed hull.” Do not capitalize the first word of the second part of a divided quotation unless it begins a new sentence.” he said . “The ship. INDIRECT Divided Quotations A divided quotation is a direct quotation that is separated into two parts. An indirect quotation tells.” Use commas to set off the explanatory words used with a divided quotation. DIRECT Captain Smith shouted to the radio operators. in different words. “has extra safety features. Explanatory words such as he said or she said come between the parts. “You can do no more. “is unsinkable. “This ship . “The ship is unsinkable. An indirect quotation is often introduced by the word that.” he explained. PUNCTUATION Use quotation marks to enclose both parts of a divided quotation. “It has extra protection because of its double-bottomed hull.” he said . what someone said.
“Right!” shouted Linda. a new paragraph and a new set of quotation marks signal a change in speakers. “What other ship was lost?” replied Linda. see for yourself! ” The children pressed to each other like so many roses.” 216 Grammar. and Mechanics Questions Divided quotation Divided quotation Exclamations . so many weeds. look. will it? ” “ Look. it left New York and was never heard from again.“Hey. ” “ Do the scientists really know? Will it happen today. —Ray Bradbury. let’s use this idea for our social studies project. ” “ Now? ” “ Soon.” “If that’s true. we do!” exclaimed Amanda. peering out for a look at the hidden sun. CHAPTER 9 “ Ready? ” “ Ready. Usage.Quotation Marks in Dialogue In dialogue. A dialogue is a conversation between two or more speakers. the largest ship was the President. “All Summer in a Day” Using Quotation Marks Use this model to review the punctuation in this lesson. intermixed.“On its third trip across the Atlantic.“then why hasn’t anyone made a movie about the President? Who knows about it?” “Well. “In 1840. “Did you know that the Titanic was not the only large ship to be lost at sea?” Amanda asked.” Linda questioned.” explained Amanda.
” Correct “What happened next ”questioned Steve. 293. If a sentence is correct. She Said Answers in column. p. write Correct. Hopper noticed that the computer continued to have problems.” Correct “You’re making this up ”exclaimed Steve !/ ” “No. “Let me continue ”shouted Jessie. “In 1945. Be sure to punctuate your dialogue correctly. stated Jessie. Calvin and Hobbes by Bill Watterson Punctuation 217 . a computer scientist named Grace Murray Hopper was working in a computer lab. computer problems have been called bugs.” Jessie added. PUNCTUATION B. this isn’t a very exciting story. Choose one frame from this cartoon and write it as a short dialogue. ? Jessie explained. see the EXERCISE BANK. “While trying to finish a ! project. she found a moth messing up everything. Add explanatory words such as Calvin bragged or Susie explained to make your work clearer. ? “ Well. adding quotation marks and other punctuation where needed. A Bug in the Works! “Why is the word bug used to describe a computer problem ”asked Steve. WRITING: He Said.” For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. it’s true.2 ● Practice and Apply A.” Correct “So far. “She glued the dead moth to the log book with a note explaining the accident.“ Ever since then.” began Jessie. CONCEPT CHECK: Punctuating Quotations Rewrite each sentence. “When Hopper looked closer at the inside of the computer.” commented Steve.
Mark : For a model. Mars. 218 Grammar. Jupiter. the Red Planet. see the business letter in the Model Bank. and changing seasons. Venus. Earth. INCORRECT Through the telescope he saw: Mars. Do not use a colon directly after a verb or a preposition. Saturn. and thousands of asteroids. Semicolons in Compound Sentences Use a semicolon to join parts of a compound sentence without a coordinating conjunction. Colons are also used after greetings in business letters and in expressions of time. use semicolons to separate the parts. Use a colon after the formal greeting in a business letter or letter of complaint. more than 1. Use a colon between hours and minutes in expressions of time. BUSINESS Dear Principal Jones : Dear Ms. Mars has these earthlike features: ice-covered poles. It is stronger than a comma but not as strong as a period. Semicolons with Items in a Series CHAPTER 9 When there are commas within parts of a series. The lecture starts at 7:30 P A reception follows at 9:00 P . such as Halley’s comet. such as Earth’s moon.M.1 ● Here’s the Idea A semicolon separates parts in a sentence. about 50 satellites. the result was disastrous. and Pluto. The mistake was simple. Planets revolve around the sun in this order: Mercury. Bodies within the solar system include the nine planets. Usage. Neptune. and Mechanics . A colon shows that a list follows. Uranus. an atmosphere.000 comets.M. . Colons Use a colon to introduce a list of items.
1999. Punctuation 219 . PUNCTUATION For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. NASA lost the orbiter and all of its contents an infrared contents: temperature meter. p. Include these punctuation marks in your answers. One team of scientists had used metric measurements measurements. or a homework assignment. NASA scientists were grim the mission had grim. the Climate Orbiter was ready to go into orbit around Mars. your uniform. a device for measuring moisture. Include information about all the places you looked and the things you picked up while searching. According to plan. A “Simple” Mistake In December of 1998. On September 23. computers: Hours later. Make sure to include semicolons and colons in your description. a CD. It was designed to get detailed information about Mars and its weather conditions. another team had used English measurements. NASA successfully launched the Mars Climate Orbiter. dust levels. A $125-million craft had been lost due to a simple metric conversion mistake. see the EXERCISE BANK. failed. such as your lunch. But 5:30 instead the worst of sounds came from scientists’ computers silence. rocket firings began. water vapor levels. communications instruments. it would record the following data data: atmospheric temperatures. especially in the deep darkness of a closet or locker! Write about a time you misplaced something important. This mix-up put the spacecraft off course by about 60 miles! Of course. Contact was expected to be restored about 530 A.M. WRITING: Lost in Deep Space Answers in column. and other specialized equipment. silence. B.2 ● Practice and Apply A. At about 500 A. It’s easy to lose things. and radio contact was lost. CONCEPT CHECK: Semicolons and Colons Write the words from the following passage that should be followed by semicolons or colons. and cloud cover. and more silence.M. Eastern 5:00 time. 293.
220 Grammar. 1. and parentheses help make your writing clear by separating or setting off words or parts of words. The word must have at least two syllables to be broken.1 ● Here’s the Idea Hyphens. twenty-three seventy-two Use hyphens in spelled-out fractions. Sojourner Truth—whose birth name was Isabella Baumfree— spent many years of her life speaking out against slavery. Sojourner Truth met Harriet Tubman (a conductor of the Underground Railroad) during the Civil War. Hyphens Use a hyphen if part of a word must be carried over from one line to the next. Usage. Parentheses Use parentheses to set off material that is loosely related to the rest of the sentence. and Mechanics . Separate the word between syllables. self-confident brother-in-law Use hyphens in compound numbers from twenty-one through ninety-nine. You must leave at least two letters on each line. dashes. RIGHT: twen-ty WRONG: a-round Use hyphens in certain compound words. RIGHT: num-ber WRONG: ea-rth CHAPTER 9 3. RIGHT: let-ter WRONG: lette-r 2. one-half three-fourths Dashes Use dashes to show an abrupt break in thought.
2 ● Practice and Apply A. Her quick wit and self confidence helped Sojourner Truth become one of the nation’s most popular public figures. ● PUNCTUATION For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. Dashes. see the EXERCISE BANK. your sister in law 4. seventy-five Correct sister-in-law 1. If a sentence is correct. If a phrase is correct. In a bold move. 8. 2. 3. although she couldn’t read or write she never had a formal education. CONCEPT CHECK: Hyphens. write Correct. B. Truth was an extremely tall woman over six feet tall which helped her get an audience’s attention quite easily. Baumfree renamed herself Sojourner Truth and Sojourner Truth began to speak publicly about her suffering. Truth was an eloquent preacher. adding hyphens. p. Baumfree’s owner. Baumfree walked off Dumont’s farm in search of freedom. adding hyphens where needed. REVISING: Using Hyphens Rewrite the following phrases. 9. 7. two thirds of an hour two-thirds 6. 6. At the age of about forty six. seventy five days 2. 294. your sister’s law firm Correct Punctuation 221 . one fifth of a year one-fifth 5. Dumont scoundrel that he was refused to honor his word. 5. She traveled all over the country even to the White House speaking about abolishing slavery. She found safety in the home of neighbors they were peaceful Quakers who bought out the remainder of her time as a slave. promised to give her freedom if she worked extra hard. 10. 4. and Parentheses Answers in column. and parentheses where needed. write Correct. ● Isabella Baumfree was born into slavery in the late Breaking a Promise to the Wrong Woman 1790s the exact date is unknown. 1. thirty minutes 3. John Dumont. Rewrite each sentence. dashes. However.
add only an apostrophe. Sam’s baseball Francis’s cap the players’ uniforms family ’s plan For plural nouns that end in s. add ’s even if the word ends in s. add ’s. Usage. For a singular noun. In a contraction. Apostrophes in Possessives Use an apostrophe to form the possessive of any noun. words are joined and letters are left out. contractions. which do not contain apostrophes. An apostrophe replaces the letter or letters that are missing. Commonly Used Contractions I am → I’m you are → you’re → they’re you will → you’ll it is → it’s was not → wasn’t she is → she’s cannot → can’t they have → they’ve they are Don’t confuse contractions with possessive pronouns. whether singular or plural. the spectator s’ cheers CHAPTER 9 For plural nouns that do not end in s. and Mechanics .1 ● Here’s the Idea Apostrophes are used in possessive nouns. women ’s team Apostrophes in Contractions Use apostrophes in contractions. and some plurals. Contractions Versus Possessive Pronouns Contraction Possessive Pronoun its (belonging to it – its wing) whose (belonging to whom – whose glove) your (belonging to you – your arm) their (belonging to them – their yard) it’s (it is or it has) who’s (who is) you’re (you are) they’re (they are) 222 Grammar.
WRITING: Using Possessives and Contractions Write the correct form from the choices in the parentheses. teams chances for a gold medal looked bad. Her courage lifted a nations heart. Kerri didn’t think her team would win if she didn’t try again—so she did. a numeral. And the womens team won gold! For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. (Whose/Who’s) side are you on for tonight’s game? I’m going to cheer for the Wolverines. PUNCTUATION Games’ women’s team’s she’d didn’t/Kerri’s Everyone’s she’d nation’s / woman’s B. vaulted—and landed perfectly. after gently lifting her aching foot. Your i ’s look like e ’s . or a word referred to as a word. see the EXERCISE BANK. She didnt know if she should take her second vault. Believe me. Kerri fell too—badly. shed crumpled to the mat. Kerris coach. (Its/It’s) going to be one terrific victory! Punctuation 223 . Dominique Moceanu fell on both of her vaults. the last night of team competition in womens gymnastics. Mistakes Turn to Triumph A series of mistakes came just before the 1996 Olympic Games most memorable moment. (Their/They’re) offense is incredible! I can’t wait to see (Tess’/Tess’s) amazing moves.S. The U. left the decision up to her. Bela Karolyi. She thought maybe shed broken her ankle. CONCEPT CHECK: Apostrophes Find and correct the errors in the use of apostrophes. p.Apostrophes in Plurals Use an apostrophe and s to form the plural of a letter. 294. Seconds later. Kerri Strug’s turn came next. (your/you’re) going to regret it if you don’t support them. How many 6 ’s are in her uniform number? The sportscaster’s report was filled with too bad’s and next time’s. 2 ● Practice and Apply A. Everyones gaze was fixed on her as she sprinted down the runway. It was July 23.
spacecraft. and airplanes (but not the type of plane). and Mechanics . Italics or Underlines for Titles Book Play Magazine Movie TV series The Lost Garden The Hobbit World The Lion King Cosby Epic poem Painting Ship Train Spacecraft Airplane The Odyssey Mona Lisa Titanic City of New Orleans Viking I Air Force One Long musical The Barber work of Seville 224 Grammar. Usage. you show that something should be in italic type by underlining it. Quotation Marks Use quotation marks to set off the titles of short works. trains. Quotation Marks for Titles Book chapter Short story Essay CHAPTER 9 “The Dream” from Dogsong “Flowers and Freckle Cream” “Bringing Home the Prairie” “Home on an Icy Planet” “The Star-Spangled Banner” “Analysis of Baseball” Article Song Poem Italics and Underlining Use italics for titles of longer works and for the names of ships. In handwriting.1 ● Here’s the Idea Use quotation marks and italics correctly in titles to show what kind of work or selection you are writing about.
CONCEPT CHECK: Punctuating Titles Correctly punctuate the titles in each sentence. 7. 6. movie. ● You can read about real mistakes—big and small—in Mistakes in the Media news magazines such as Newsweek. ” 8. Dorothy makes the mistake of taking her home for granted until she loses it. using either quotation marks or underlining as appropriate. The short story“Scout’s Honor ”describes many funny mistakes made by a group of boy scouts on a camping trip.2 ● Practice and Apply A. TV show. 1. 10. the blinded Cyclops can’t see Odysseus and his men escape under the bodies of sheep. Punctuation 225 . see the EXERCISE BANK on p. 295. has a main character who always gets into trouble. 4. poor Casey strikes out. such as“ You’re Gonna Miss Me When I’m Gone. In Homer’s epic poem the Odyssey. 9. 5. The best-selling children’s book of all time. Mistakes That Worked is the title of a book that describes mistakes that have helped people. poem. WRITING: Be the Judge Answers in column. Everyone can relate to the common human mistakes that family members make in the TV series Cosby. Write down the title of your favorite book. 3. In the classic film The Wizard of Oz. Review your partner’s list and check each title for underlining or quotation marks. and song. In the poem“Casey at the Bat. B. Exchange your titles with a partner. Did you read the newspaper article with the blooper “ ” headline—Red Tape Holds Up New Bridge? ● PUNCTUATION For a SELF-CHECK and more practice. Many popular songs. The Tale of Peter Rabbit.” are about mistakes in love. 2.
. One Worm (1989). One thing led to another And somehow we fell out. The afternoon turned black. sentences may not end when a line does. Then suddenly my brother Thumped me on the back. Furthermore. and Mechanics An apostrophe marks a contraction.Using Punctuation in Poetry When you write poetry. And said. The start of it was slight. I don’t know what about. An exclamation mark ends a strong emotional statement. Notice how the punctuation in the following poem helps you understand its meaning.” So he was in the right. This tells readers the language of the poem is informal. “Oh. Usage. I quarreled with my brother. Watercolor on paper. punctuation is very important. He said he was right. The end of it was strong. CHAPTER 9 uarrel by Eleanor Farjeon Two Birds. © William Wegman. Commas indicate that the sentence continues onto the next line. The first word of each line of poetry is often capitalized even if it doesn’t begin a sentence. 226 Grammar. Quotation marks enclose the brother’s exact words. I knew he was wrong! We hated one another. come along! We can’t go on all night— I was in the wrong. 11" x 14".
Write a poem about a mistake you made and the lesson you learned from it. REVISING: Adding Punctuation to Poetry AC L IT E R AT UR E A student wrote the following poem about an embarrassing moment he experienced. WRITING: Learning by Mistakes Many people believe that making mistakes is the best way to learn. Rewrite the poem. like any day It started just books I grabbed my uickly dressed Iq ay and rode aw I got my bike ool up to the sch When I rode my eyes yground met An empty pla h not cool e think Uh o hich made m W surprise hat a strange s the deal W What by her walking I saw my teac er side g walked at h Her goofy do her why range I asked seemed so st It de tting set insi She wasn’t ge to me then she said e smiled and Sh ow ay I take it sl Todays the d e turday you se Because its Sa ow u didnt kn But I guess yo PUNCTUATION B. He got so caught up in describing what happened that he completely forgot to use punctuation. adding necessary punctuation marks.R OS e CURRI CU S th L UM Practice and Apply A. Punctuation 227 . Be sure to punctuate your poem correctly. Save your writing in your Working Portfolio.
Southerners liked its large fragrant blooms. and Colons Write the words and numbers from the following passage that should be followed by commas. Usage./however. They began to use it in years. or colons. syrups. semicolons. 1876. Today. trees.Mixed Review A. Many large. Commas. Include these punctuation marks in your answers. 1950s. Yet some have tried to make the best of this bad situation by creating the following items from kudzu jellies. kudzu continues to be a nuisance to many Southerners. In fact there are several kudzu recipe books they give instructions for those interested in cooking up the curious creeper. and Mechanics . Add the missing punctuation marks where they belong. most Southerners agree kudzu:/candy. Dahlonega GA 30533 Sincerely January 10 20 04 Dear Mr Sh ores Can you please se nd company brochure me a Im interested in purcha copy of your docu sing a me film The Amazing St ntary ory of Kudzu 125 Mountain Laurel Circle Sonia J Smith 228 Grammar. Answers in column. CHAPTER 9 B. hot dry areas. candy and baskets. their gardens./poles. that it’s here to stay! fact. By the 1950s however people began to see that they made a big mistake when they planted kudzu. United States. For many years kudzu was grown to create shade in hot. End Marks and Other Punctuation Put the letter together using these parts. for the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia Pennsylvania. Though they may either love or hate kudzu. destroyed many gardens and forests they blocked out the sunlight. Semicolons./books. The plant was first brought to this country in 1876 Philadelphia. They overtook trees poles and abandoned buildings. Kudzu—Love It or Hate It! What’s kudzu? It’s a thick sturdy vine found in the southeastern thick. Its vines became uncontrollable. Kudzu vines forests.
you’d probably believe him or her. D. A. falling. Correct as is 9. its’ B. B. one-sixth C. astronomers’ C. astronomersD. In January. However. B. In January 1974. Perhaps this story will change your mind. Time. Correct as is 3. one sixthB. C. 1974. However. its C. one—sixth D.” B. Correct as is 2. it(s) D.” D. A. on the day of the show. Time magazine described Kohoutek as a disappointing dud. “Time” B. In January 1974 Harvard astronomer Fred Whipple (4) predicted that the comet Kohoutek would give the most spectacular show of the century. you’ll C. A. A. A. A. C. However—if a highly respected scientist were to (2) (3) tell you that the most glorious comet was going to fly across the sky. B. Hundreds of people began buying telescopes (7) binoculars. falling! C. telescopes’ binoculars. telescopes—binoculars. Time C. Finally. A. B. D. “a disappointing dud. binoculars. “a disappointing dud. (9) (10) 1. youll’ B. falling? D. the comet fizzled in it’s (8) PUNCTUATION display. Correct as is Punctuation 229 . Correct as is 6. In January.Mastery Test: What Did You Learn? For each numbered item. A. Would you believe me if I told you the sky was falling More than (1) likely. They said it would stretch one sixth of (6) the way across the sky. However C. and even Kohoutek T-shirts as they waited for the comet. youll say no. Correct as is 5. D. you-ll D. “a disappointing dud”. Correct as is 8. D. 1974 C. Correct as is 10. Correct as is 4. telescopes. choose the letter of the best revision. A. A. Other astronomers declared that Kohoutek had (5) a tail 50 million miles long. astronomer’s B. Correct as is 7.
TV series. Trains.ExamplesBook chapters. . Magazines. . Where should we hunt. CHAPTER 9 Plays. Essays. Magazine articles Punctuation with Commas Use commas . Spacecraft. Paintings. Evan? 230 Grammar. Songs. or jewels. grand ships crossed oceans. For centuries. Many. silver.Exclamation Point Dash Parentheses Colon Apostrophe Comma Question Mark Period Quotation Marks Semicolon Hyphen Punctuating Titles Italics (longer works) Long or Short Technique Examples Books. Let’s look for old. Ships. held riches. deserted ships. Poems. Long musical works. Episodes in a TV series. Usage. Airplanes. Epic poems Quotation Marks (shorter works) Technique Stories. Items in a series Adjectives Introductory words Interrupters Nouns of direct address to separate a series of words to separate adjectives to separate introductory words to set off interrupters to set off nouns of direct address Separating Ideas Examples I want to find gold. and Mechanics . believe me. Movies.
Let’s see if it’s playing! PUNCTUATION The Bottom Line Checklist for Punctuation Have I . ended every sentence with the appropriate end mark? used commas to separate items in a series? used commas correctly in dates. “Hey. let’s go to the movies . Exclamation points “I love disaster movies !” exclaimed Ann. but I liked “Castaway ”! I think it’s been made into a movie. not just the quote Question marks Did you enjoy reading the story “Shipwrecked ”? Exclamation points No. . Sometimes Outside if they punctuate the overall sentence.Punctuation with Quotation Marks Always Inside no matter what In or Out Periods Rob said.” Commas “That’s a good idea . and letters? used quotation marks before and after a speaker’s words? used apostrophes to form contractions and possessives? used italics and quotation marks correctly for titles? Punctuation 231 . Sometimes Inside if they punctuate the part within the quotation marks Question marks “Should we see a disaster movie ?” asked Rob. addresses.” replied Ann. .
Usage. Drawing a diagram can help you see how the parts of a sentence work together to form a complete thought. Tigers growl lions Compound Verb Because there are two subjects. Put the conjunction on a dotted line connecting the compound parts. Tigers growl. Separate them with a vertical line that crosses the main line. Compound Subject Tigers and lions growl. and Tigers growl and roar. and Mechanics . the left side of the main line is split into two parts. Tigers DIAGRAMMING growl Compound Subjects and Verbs For a compound subject or verb. Simple Subjects and Verbs Watch me for diagramming tips! Write the simple subject and verb on one line.Mad r e Mapp Here’s the Idea Diagramming is a way of showing the structure of a sentence. split the main line. growl and Tigers roar 232 Grammar.
The lucky acrobat lands and smiles. Marvelous acrobats step quite nimbly overhead. 10. using what you have learned. DIAGRAMMING Adjectives and Adverbs Write adjectives and adverbs on slanted lines below the words they modify. Trainers shout. lions roar A. She swings gracefully overhead. Tiny Lucinda climbs carefully. 6. Horses and riders circle and bow.Compound Subject and Compound Verb Tigers and lions growl and roar. 9. 5. Tigers and and growl Because there are two subjects and two verbs. 1. Lucinda and the other acrobats gasp. step ov ni ar ve lo us bl m y er qu he ite ad Diagramming: Sentence Parts 233 . MIXED REVIEW: Diagramming Diagram the following sentences. He plunges sharply downward. acrobats M B. 7. The strong young acrobat leaps skillfully. 3. CONCEPT CHECK: Subjects and Verbs Diagram these sentences. 8. both sides of the main line are split into two parts. Leopards pace and snarl. 2. Her powerful partner jumps and misses. The wide net waits below. 4. The anxious audience fidgets and waits. 2. 1. The audience claps wildly. 3.
CONCEPT CHECK: Subject Complements Diagram these sentences using what you have learned. Clowns seem of te n C. • Predicate Noun Clowns are skillful performers. One clown drives a tiny car. Separate the subject complement from the verb with a slanted line that does not cross the main line.Subject Complements • Write a predicate noun or a predicate adjective on the main line after the verb. The smallest clown appears very serious. and Mechanics drives car a tin y The vertical line between a verb and its direct object does not cross the main line. 2. Clowns are performers sk ill fu l DIAGRAMMING Predicate Adjective Clowns quite often seem sad. His face is a sad mask. . Usage. clown On e 234 Grammar. sad qu ite Direct Objects A direct object follows the verb on the main line. 1.
9.Write compound direct objects on parallel lines that branch from the main line. The ringmaster creates a hush. The arena becomes a silent stage. Muscular workers pitch the gigantic tent. The driver gives seven other clowns a ride. 10. Six white horses carry six beautiful dancers. An elegant elephant eyes some delicious hay. 8. The driver wears a floppy hat and giant shoes. 7. 1. MIXED REVIEW: Diagramming Diagram the following sentences. driver Th D. The Zolanda Circus is very popular. The lion tamer gives his giant beasts a large meal. Flexible acrobats practice courageous leaps. 5. on a horizontal line connected to the verb by a slanted line. 3. hat and driver Th e wears shoes gi an t a flo pp y Indirect Objects Write an indirect object below the verb. They give the ringmaster their complete attention. People gradually fill the empty bleachers. 6. 4. 2. DIAGRAMMING gives ride a e clowns se ve n ot he r Diagramming: Complements 235 .
A gust of wind blew the hat off her head. She held tightly to the rungs of the ladder. The actor climbed to the top of the ladder. Write the object of the preposition on a horizontal line after the preposition. They leap ov er im es so m et scenery on stage e th Notice that one prepositional phrase can modify the object of another. strength and Actors in need plays coordination DIAGRAMMING They sometimes leap over scenery on the stage. 2. 3.Prepositional Phrases • Write the preposition on a slanted line below the word the prepositional phrase modifies. It fell through the air to the ground. 1. Write any modifier of the object on a slanted line below the object. using what you have learned. 5. The hat on her head swayed in the breeze. 236 Grammar. CONCEPT CHECK: Prepositional Phrases Diagram these sentences. and Mechanics . 4. E. • • Actors in plays need strength and coordination. Usage.
3. Designers are making models of the stage sets. playwright Th e writes and script th e director th e chooses actors th e The conjunction goes on the step. Rehearsals of the new play will start today. or they walk around nervously. The director is eager and the cast is ready. Connect the verbs in the two clauses by a dotted line with a solid step in it. 8. 10. The actors have come to the first rehearsal. 7. but the audience does. 4. 3. The play will be a big hit with the audience.Compound Sentences • • Diagram the independent clauses on parallel horizontal lines. 2. 1. Write the coordinating conjunction on the step. 2. The director is ready. CONCEPT CHECK: Compound Sentences Diagram these sentences using what you have learned. The detective does not solve the case of the lost piano. 1. 6. • The playwright writes the script. MIXED REVIEW: Diagramming Diagram the following sentences. Everyone recognizes the thief by the end of the play. G. 5. An unknown actor from a nearby town will play the detective. but the writer is still making changes. They will paint the scenery. Carpenters will construct the sets in the scene shop. The actors study their parts. but the stage crew will move it into place. and the rehearsals can now begin. 9. The role of the thief will be played by a well-known actor. and the director chooses the actors. DIAGRAMMING F. Diagramming: Compound Sentences 237 .
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