Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

capital: Moscow population: 280,000,000

Political system. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is a federation of 15 states with a bicameral federal legislature, the Supreme Soviet, and a collective presidency. The Chairman of the Supreme Soviet heads a Council of Ministers. political power is monopolized at federal level by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), and by its constituent parties within each of the Union Republics. Recent history. The CPSU has undergone a number of ideological and leadership changes since the Second World War, with an overall tendency to a relaxation of the authoritarian and sometimes arbitrary rule associated with Josef Stalin (party leader from 1922 to 1953), developing into a relatively more relaxed and open style of government favoured by the present (1987) leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, installed in 1985. The evolution of thefar right. There is a very old tradition of anti-semitism in what is now the Soviet Union, but the 1917 revolution ended the large-scale pogroms and officially sanctioned discrimination which were its most frequent organized expression. Early anti-semitic groups included the Alliance of the Russian People, active around the turn of the century. Although the communist leadership has consistently denounced anti-semitism and denied that it is prevalent in Soviet life, there have been frequent reports of the appearance of anti-Jewish material even in party publications, mainly under the guise of anti-Zionism, and many external pressure groups have alleged routine discrimination against Jews in economic and political affairs. The UK newspaper The Guardian reported in May 1987 that an organized anti-semitic movement, known as Pamyat (Heritage), had emerged in the Soviet Union. (Internal and foreign pressure groups advocating Jewish rights, especially in regard to emigration, are not considered to fall within the scope of this study.) Right-wing groups have been able to organize openly in Soviet territory only during the period and within the area of the Nazi occupation, that is, in the western republics from 1941-44. Substantial Nazi volunteer and auxiliary forces were recruited among the populations of the Baltic states of Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia (which had been independent under anti-communist regimes and had fascist and national socialist groups until they were annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940), and also in the Ukraine and Byelorussia. The Soviet Union lost about 20,000,000 war dead and suffered enormous material damage. Captured war criminals and collaborators were summarily dealt with and the right-wing groups survived only among the emigre communities. Domestically, there have been several cases of nationalist agitation and other dissident activity since the war, few of which, although supported by external anti-communist groups, fall within our terms of reference. There is no legal internal opposition group. Emigre organizations are listed below rather than under the country in which they are based, except for those (e.g. the Anti-Bolshevik Bloc of Nations, in the United Kingdom) which include non-Soviet emigre' groups. An effort has been made to distinguish between internal and external pressure groups which are solely concerned with human rights issues (and which are therefore excluded from this work) and pressure groups which publicize human rights issues in the context of or in association with broader anti-communist campaigns (which are included). This distinction is not always easily made, particularly in the case of internal 281

groups on which information may be limited, and such groups are listed with "errors and omissions excepted". The samizdat publishers, unregistered churches and religious rights groups, Helsinki Accords monitors, unofficial peace and detente groups, leftwing and intra-party opposition, psychiatric abuse activists and unofficial trade union movements are specifically excluded, as are individual opposition activists, unorganized nationalist agitations, exiled Christian democratic and social democratic parties and the small "legations" in London which purport to represent the legitimate governments of the Baltic states. Active organizations Americans for Due Process (ADP) Base. New York, United States Leadership. Rasa Razgaitis (director) Orientation. Anti-communist

History. The ADP was formed by American citizens, mainly of Baltic and Ukrainian birth or descent, in the mid-1980s. It was instrumental in forming the Coalition for Constitutional Justice and Security, an umbrella organization with similar aims which had 90 affiliated emigre groupings in mid-1987 (and was led by Mari-Ann Rikken). Policies. It seeks to defend war crime suspects from extradition to the Soviet Union and from the use of Soviet-supplied evidence; many of its members seek the disbandment of the Office of Special Investigationthe US government body which investigates war crimes-and the termination of such investigations. Americans for Human Rights in the Ukraine (AHRU) Address. 43 Midland Place, Newark, New Jersey 07106, United States Orientation. Anti-communist Ukrainian

History. This group, consisting mainly of first- and second-generation immigrants, was active in the mid-1980s.

Policies. It seeks to expose and denounce abuses of human rights in the Ukraine and to work for an independent and democratic Ukrainian state. Anti-Soviet Society Address. Alternative Bookshop, Covent Garden, London, England Leadership. Brian Micklethwaite Orientation. Anti -communist (organizer); Chris Tame, Mark Taha

History. The Society was established in the early 1980s by supporters of one of the main fascist emigre groups, the NTS. Taha was reported by Searchlight magazine in 1984 to have been involved with mercenary recruitment in 1981, and with British ultra-rightists in the Nationalist Self-Help Group and the National Front. Tame's Libertarian Alliance (United Kingdom) is very closely linked with the Society and has also had Taha as a member. Policies. The Society seeks to foster opposition in Britain to the foreign and domestic policies of the Soviet government. 282

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Publications. The Society produces ajournal and occasional pamphlets, one of which, published in 1983, was entitled In Defence of Mercenaries. Associated organizations. See NTS. The Society is based in the libertarian Alternative Bookshop, a fact which led to a split in the Libertarian Alliance between pro- and antiNTS factions. Association for a Free Russia Address. London, England Leadership. Nicolai Tolstoy (president); Nicholas Bethell, Alan Tyrell (patrons); George Miller (chairman of executive bureau) Orientation. Anti-communist

History. This organization, which was founded in the 1970s and originally based in Paris, staged a fringe meeting at the 1986 conference of the Federation of Conservative Students (see United Kingdom), at which Tolstoy (ibid) reiterated his allegation that ex-Prime Minister Harold Macmillan had been guilty of war crimes. Steve Nicholson, vice-chairman of the FCS, was also on the platform. Two of the Association's patrons are British Conservative members of the European Parliament. Policies. The Association supports Russian nationalism and opposes the Soviet state and government. Associated organizations. The Association is linked through Miller with the NTS, to whose Free Russia Fund it donated 800 in 1982. Association for the Liberation of Ukraine Address. 136 Second Avenue, New York, NY 10003, United States Leadership. Valentyn Koval (president) Orientation. Anti-communist

History. This society of Ukrainian emigres and their descendants, which has been based in New York at least since the early 1970s, remained active in the 1980s. Policies. It promotes Ukrainian nationalism and anti-communist ideas, and advocates a pro-Western revolution in the Ukraine. publications. Various journals.

Baltic American Freedom League Address. Box 29657, Los Angeles, California 90029, United States Leadership. Avo Piirisild (president) Orientation. Anti-communist

History. The League was founded in 1981. Policies. It seeks to raise public awareness in the United States about what it terms the Soviet occupation of the Baltic states, to monitor human rights abuses and to foster support for the nationalist cause in the states. publications. Baltic Bulletin, every two months; Alert, approximately monthly. 283

Baltic World Conference Address. 243 East 34th Street, New York, NY 10016, United States Leadership. Julijs Kadelis (spokesman) Orientation. Anti-communist

History. The Conference was formed in 1972 as a coalition of groups representing about 1,000,000 descendants of, and first-generation, immigrants to the United States from the Baltic republics {Lithuania, Estonia and Larvia) now incorporated into the Soviet Union. In July 1985 the Conference organized a two-day "tribunal" in Copenhagen and a cruise on the Baltic to publicize allegations against the Soviet government concerning the "illegal occupation and Russification" of the republics. Demonstrations were held in several Scandinavian cities. The episode strained relations between the Soviet government and those of Sweden, Finland and Denmark. Policies. The Conference rejects the incorporation of the Baltic states in the Union and calls for their separate independence. In the short term it fosters co-operation between organizations representing Baits in exile. Associated organizations. Groups affiliated include the Supreme Committee for the Liberation of Lithuania, the World Federation of Free Latvians and the Estonian Wodd Council, all based in the United States. There is an overlap in membership with the Joint Baltic-American National Committee. Other US-based organizations with similar goals, which mayor may not be formally linked to the Conference, include the Baltic Women's Council and the United Baltic Appeal. Byelorussian Congress Committee of America

Address. 85-26 125th Street, Queens, New York 11415, United States Leadership. John J. Kosiak (president) Orientation. Anti-communist

History. The Committee arose in 1951 at the initiative of recent immigrants from Byelorussia. Policies. It is a nationalist formation which seeks "the liberation of Byelorussia from Soviet occupation". Publications. Byelarusskaya Dumka, two per year; various books and tracts.

International affiliations. The Commitee may be in contact with a Canadian-based Federation of Free Byelorussian Journalists, on which no information is available. Byelorussian Liberation Front Base. Cleveland, Ohio, United States Leadership. John Shimchich (president) Orientation. Anti-communist

History. The Front was formed in the late 1950s. Policies. It seeks the "liberation" of Byelorussia and its independence from the Soviet Union. Publications. Baracba, irregular. 284

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Associated organizations. Other Byelorussian-American groups with a similar political orientation include the Byelorussian-American Association, the ByelorussianAmerican Women's Association, the Byelorussian-American Youth Organization and the White Ruthenian American Relief group. Committee for a Free Lithuania Address. 71-67 58th Road, Maspeth, New York 11378, United States Leadership. Dr Bronius Nemickas (chairman) Orientation. Anti-communist

History. This body, formed in 1951 as the Lithuanian Consultative Panel, adopted its present name a year later. Policies. It works for an independent non-communist Lithuania and for the survival of the Lithuanian culture. Associated organizations. The Committee represents Lithuania in the Assembly of Captive European Nations (United States). In 1974 the Committee shared an address (29 West 57th Street, New York, NY 10019) with a Committee for a Free Estonia and a Committee for a Free Latvia. Congress of Russian Americans Base. United States Orientation. Anti-communist

History. This organization, which is one of the larger of the many organizations representing Russian immigrants to the United States and Americans of Russian descent, held a conference in St. Petersburg, Florida, in May 1983. The Congress received a telephone greeting from President Reagan, who said that the Russian people had suffered under communist rule and that his government did not confuse the Soviets with the Russian people. Policies. The Congress promotes Russian culture and nationalism and opposes the communist regime. Publications. Bulletin, monthly. Cossack-American Citizens' Committee Address. Box 1095, Grand Central Station, New York, NY 10163, United States Leadership. Dr W. Glasgow (chairman) Orientation. Anti-communist

History. The Committee was founded in the early 1960s. Policies. It is extremely anti-communist and anti-Russian, advancing the case for an independent Cossack state (principally consisting of the Ukraine). Publications. The Committee produces several journals, in English and Ukrainian. Associated organizations. It is closely associated with the Supreme Cossack Representation in Exile, founded in 1947 (and currently led by Ivan Ivanovich Bezugloff). 285

THE RADICAL RIGHT Joint Baltic American National Committee Address. Box 432, 400 Hurley Avenue, Rockville, Maryland 20850 Leadership. Gunars Meierovics (chairman) Orientation. Anti-communist History. The Committee was founded in 1961 as a co-ordinating small Baltic groups. Policies. The Committee seeks self-determination body for three

for the Baltic peoples.

Membership. The member organizations are the American Latvian Association, the Estonian American National Council and the Lithuanian American Council. Associated organizations. It is affiliated to the Baltic World World Federation of Free Latvians. Latvian Youth Association Address. 98 W okingham Road, Reading, Berkshire, England Leadership. Ivar Sinka Orientation. Anti-communist History. The Association was formed among first and second-generation settled in Great Britain. Latvians Conference and the

Policies. The group regards the Soviet regime in Latvia as unlawful and protests at alleged Russification and human rights abuses. It supports Latvian nationalism and defends the state's cultural and linguistic identity. Lithuanian-American Community of the USA

Base. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States Orientation. Anti-communist History. This group was formed in the late 1940s or early '50s. Policies. It opposes the "occupation" of Lithuania, publicizes human rights issues, works for the survival of the national language and culture and co-ordinates its activities with those of like-minded organizations. Associated organizations. There are upwards of 100 Lithuanian-American organizations, most of which have social, cultural or benevolent functions while remaining generally sympathetic to the anti-communist policies of this group. Lithuanian Information Center Base. New York, United States Orientation. Anti-communist History. The Center was opened around 1980. Policies. It compiles and disseminates information on civil rights and political matters relating to Lithuania, with particular emphasis on political prisoners, religious persecution and opposition movements. 286

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Lithuanian

National

Foundation DC 20009, United

Address. 1611 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 2, Washington, States Orientation. Anti-communist

History. The Foundation is one of the most senior of the emigre groupings, having been established in 1922. Policies. It advocates self-determination rights abuses there. for Lithuania and seeks to expose human

Associated organizations. The Foundation is regarded as a front for the activities of the Supreme Committee for the Liberation of Lithuania. Narodno Trudovny Soyuz (NTS) People's Labour Union Bases. West Germany; London, England Leadership. George Miller (British representative); Boris Miller publications director); George Bonafede (head of foreign relations) Orientation. Anti-communist History. The NTS, also known as the Alliance of Russian Solidarists, was founded in 1930 by anti-communist emigres in Belgrade. It was based in Nazi Germany during the war and was to have participated in the government of Nazi-occupied Soviet territory, but disagreements arose. The NTS co-operated with the Germans in the raising of a conscript army from Soviet prisoners-of-war and deserters, under the command of Gen. Vlasov. After the war it helped Western intelligence to place agents in the Soviet Union. The Union, which has many members in Britain and the USA, now claims to support clandestine anti-communist publications inside the Soviet Union. In the 1970s Boris Evdokimov, ajournalist, was active in the Leningrad NTS and in the SMOT, an illegal labour organization which occasionally calls for strikes and other agitation. His son, Ratislav, was charged with NTS and SMOT activities in 1983. Also in 1983 Valery Senderov was sentenced in Moscow to four years' imprisonment and five years' internal exile after admitting NTS membership and activities in support of the SMOT. He had also published one of several illegal samizdat journals, the Chronicle of Current Events, in the 1970s. Later in the same year Edward Chick, a Briton, was expelled from the Soviet Union for smuggling NTS publications. Policies. The NTS is completely opposed to the Soviet state and professes Russian nationalism and anti-communism. It seeks to rehabilitate the memory of wartime collaborators. Membership. About 1,000 outside Russia. Publications. Possev, quarterly. George Miller is the editor of Soviet Labour Review, a London-based anti-communist magazine which in 1984-86 received over USS100,OOO from the US government-sponsored National Endowment for Democracy through a semi-secret Russian Research Foundation based in New York. A Review associate, Simon Clark, also edits a right-wing student magazine, Campus (United Kingdom). Associated organizations. See Anti-Soviet Society and Association for a Free Russia." The NTS publishing house is called Possev (Possev-Verlag, Flurscheideweg 15,6230 287 (British

THE RADICAL RIGHT Frankfurt am Main 80, West Germany). The group also runs a propaganda fund called the Free Russia Fund. Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN)

Base. London, England Orientation. Ultra-right History. The OUN, led by Stepan Bandera and Yaroslav Stetsko, was the main fascist group in the wartime Ukraine. Many of its members enlisted in volunteer divisions of the German army. Stetsko became in 1941 the Prime Minister of the Nazis' puppet regime in the Ukraine, was briefly imprisoned by the Germans as a result of a jurisdictional dispute, and later fled the country with Bandera to found the Anti-Bolshevik Bloc of Nations (ABN-see United Kingdom). Bandera was killed soon afterwards, possibly by Soviet agents, but Stetsko remained active in emigre groups until his death in 1986. The OUN retains a significant following among Britain's Ukrainian population, although it now emphasizes Ukrainian nationalism and anti-communism rather than overt fascism. It claims to have a following inside the Ukraine and has reportedly assisted in the infiltration of Western agents into the Soviet Union. Policies. The OUN promotes Ukrainian culture, nationalism and anti-communism, and opposes the Soviet government and in particular what it sees as the domination and Russification of the Ukraine. International affiliations. Members of the OUN were among those present at the London launch of Lyndon LaRouche's Executive Intelligence Review (see United States). Through the ABN the OUN is represented in the W orld Anti-Communist League (see South Korea), whose 1986 conference was addressed by Stetsko. Obschcherossisky Monarkhichesky All-Russian Monarchist Front Address. Front

clo S.S. Ziloti,

65 East 96th Street, New York, NY 10128, United States

Telephone. (212) 722 0994 Leadership. S.S. Ziloti (secretary) Orientation. Imperialist History. The Front was formed in 1958 to co-ordinate the work of monarchist organizations of Russian emigres in the United States, Australia, Europe and Latin America. Policies. The Front is fervently anti-communist Russia. and seeks the restoration of imperial

Publications. Nasha Sttana, weekly; Znamia Rossiya, monthly; various journals and pamphlets. Ukrainian Congress Committee of America

Address. 203 Second Avenue, New York, NY 10003, United States Leadership. Ignatius Bilinsky (president); Dr Lev Dobriansky (chairman) Orientation. Anti-communist 288
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History. This emigre organization, formed around 1940, has a substantial membership among the US Ukrainian community. Its chairman was appointed by President Reagan as US ambassador to the Bahamas. Its magazine publishes frequent articles vindicating the wartime collaborationism of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists. Its editorial board included Yaroslav Stetsko (see OUN) until his death in 1986. Policies. The group is Ukrainian nationalist, regarding the Ukraine as being under Russian occupation. It is also staunchly anti-communist. Publications. Ukrainian Quarterly; Ukrainian Bulletin. The Committee Ukrainian National Information Service. Associated organizations. Captive Congress of Free Ukrainians. Nations Committee (United also runs a

States); World

International affiliations. The Committee's chairman was a eo-founder of the World Anti-Communist League (see South Korea). Vyriausias Lietuvos Islaisvimano Komitetas Supreme Council for the Liberation of Lithuania Address. clo Lithuanian National Foundation, Suite 2, Washington, DC 20009, United States Leadership. Dr C.K. Bobelis (president) Orientation. Anti-communist History. The Council was founded in 1943. Policies. It works for "the restoration of national sovereignty" in Lithuania and produces anti-communist propaganda materials. Publications. Elta (Lithuania), in various languages; other materials distributed through the Elta Information Service at the same address. Volya Address. London, England Leadership. Terry Liddle Orientation. Anti-communist History. This journal, which describes itself as an information bulletin on Soviet and East European affairs, was published in 1985-86. World Association of Estonians Address. 243 East 34th Street, New York, NY 10016, United States Orientation. Anti-communist History. The Association was founded in 1941. Policies. The aims of the group are to fight communism between Estonian refugee and cultural organizations. and to maintain links 1611 Connecticut Avenue NW,

Associated organizations. Among New York-based bodies with which the Association is in contact are Estonian Aid and the Estonian-American National Council. 289

World Federation of the Cossack National Liberation Movement of Cossackia Address. 21 South Western Highway, Blauvelt, NY 10913, United States Leadership. Nicholas Nazarenko (leader) Orientation. Anti -cornmunist History. The Federation was formed in the early 1970s by the amalgamation of at least two Cossack groups. Policies. It seeks the "liberation" of "Cossackia", an area consisting mainly of the Ukraine, from what it sees as Russian occupation. Unlike most such groups, the Federation seeks to influence American politics; most of its members appear to support the Republican Party, within which they campaign for a strongly anti-communist foreign policy and increased military spending. Membership. About 12,000. Associated organizations. The Federation belongs to the Captive Nations Committee (United States). World Federation of Free Latvians Address. Box 16,400 Hurley Avenue, Rockville, Maryland 20850, United States

Leadership. Dr Olgerts Pavlovskis (president) Orientation. Anti-communist History. The Federation was founded in 1960. Policies. It works for the national independence of Latvia and against human rights abuses. Membership. 150,000 (1985 claim). publications. Latuija Sodien, annual. Associated organizations. American Latvian Association; Joint National Committee; Baltic World Conference. Defunct organizations Action Front for the Liberation of the Baltic Countries: this emigre guerrilla group bombed three Soviet offices in Paris in April 1977. Ban the Soviets Coalition: an umbrella group of emigre and native anti-communist organizations which campaigned for the exclusion of the Soviet Union from the 1982 Los Angeles Olympic Games (an effort rendered unnecessary by the Soviet boycott). Belarus Brigade: this fascist death squad was active in Byelorussia during the Nazi occupation. Its leader, Radislaw Ostrowsky, settled after the war in the United States. Danganas Vanagi: a Lithuanian exile group active in Australia in the 1960s and '70s, during which time it was associated with the Australian Nationalist Workers' Party (later the Australian National Socialist Party). Estonian Union of Frontists: this group, based revolutionary struggle of 1917-22, attempted a coup which it was banned together with the Association fascist groups. The main fascist leaders in Estonia in 290 on. veterans of the counterin Estonia in March 1934, after of German Knights and other the 1930s were Gen. Larka and Baltic-American

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Sirk, a lawyer. From 1935 the right-wing conservative government, based on the agrarian party of Pats and Laidoner, adopted elements of fascist ideology. After the German invasion a puppet government was formed under Hjaelmer Mae; several thousand Estonians served in SS units, including the Estland division, and in other German army and auxiliary forces. Ivan Petrov Group: this US-based group of fascist Russians campaigned from 1962 to the late 1970s under the slogan "Communism is Jewish"; it maintained that the Soviet Union was under Jewish occupation and that communist movements around the world functioned as tools or as dupes of a Jewish conspiracy. It was probably a forerunner of or an alternative name for the Committee of Russian Slaves of Jewish Communism (see below). Latvian Jascist movement: the pre-war nazi movement in Latvia consisted mainly of the Ugunkrust (Fiery Cross), which changed its name to Perkonkrust (Thunder Cross) and was initially led by Zelmin. It was fiercely nationalistic and organized on paramilitary lines, having a grey shirt as its uniform. It was banned in March 1933, but quickly reappeared and split in 1934 between factions led by Dr Neumann and Pastor Sass. In 1934 a right-wing coup installed Ulmanis as dictator (or Vadonis). The movement was closely allied with the German Nazi movement and supported the invasion of the Soviet Union and the Baltic states. Paul Reinhardts, a Foreign Minister in Gen. Danker's fascist puppet government during the wartime occupation (and now based at the Latvian "legation" in London and living in Gravesend, Kent), reportedly recruited for Nazi death squads and ran a slave labour office which was responsible for the deportation of 280,000 Jews. Up to 146,000 Latvian men served in the German army or in local auxiliary units, including by 1945 an entire army (the Sixth, composed of the Lettland and Latvia divisions). Lithuanian Auxiliary Volunteer Police Battalions: about 8,000 Lithuanians participated in the 20 Battalions (SchutzmannschaJten) formed by the German authorities in 194142, and generally under the command of German police reserve officers. Many of these units were involved in atrocities directed against Lithuanian and Soviet Jews, resistance fighters and ordinary civilians. Some of their members, such as Antanas Gecevicius (Gecas) of 3 Moston Terrace, Newington, Edinburgh, Scotland, subsequently took up residence in Western countries. In 1984 the US Justice Department began denaturalization proceedings against Matthew Katin, who lied about his participation in a SchutzmannschaJt in order to gain entry to the United States. Supreme Committee of the National Movements of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania: this organization was founded in the Soviet Union in 1977 by a Lithuanian nationalist, Viktoras Petkas, who was imprisoned in 1978. Tautinakai: the Lithuanian Nationalist Party, led by Smetona, deposed the fascist regime instituted in a 1926 coup by profw oldemara; the Smetona party also followed fascist ideas, and was represented at the 1934 International Fascist Congress at Montreux. It remained in power until the 1940 annexation by the Soviet Union, and supported the later German invasion; some 5,000 of its sympathizers joined the Waffen SS in 1944. Ukrainian Liberation Front: this group bombed a Soviet airline office in Luxembourg in November 1980. Ukrainian National Army: this body was established in 1941 as a volunteer SS division under the command of Obergruppenfuhrer Shandruk, the highest-ranking non-German in the SS. In 1986 surviving members of the Army were involved in the 291

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funeral in Britain ofYaroslav Stetsko, who was "Prime Minister" of "Free Ukraine" at the time of the Army's formation. Other organizations Among lesser-known anti-communist and nationalist groups active in Soviet emigre communities in recent years are the following, all based in the United States unless otherwise stated: the American Association oJ Crimean Turks; Americans Jor Congressional Action to Free the Baltic States(based in the 1970s at Box 77048, Los Angeles, California 90007); the Baltic Women's Council (195 Linwood Avenue, Bogota, New Jersey 07603); the Chicago Latvian Community Center; the Committee Jor the Difence oJ Persecuted Orthodox Christians; the fiercely anti-semitic Committee oJ Russian Slaves ofJewish Communism (Box 927, Union City, New Jersey 57013), which published Borba magazine in the mid-1970s and may be a successor to the Ivan Petrov Group; the Cossack Combatants' Association (Box323, Blauvelt, New York 10913; the Estonian National Council (Box 226, Claremont, California 91701), which used to publish the Newsletter from Behind the Iron Curtain; the Georgian National Alliance; the Latvian Information Bulletin (4325 17th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011); the Order of Russian Imperialists' Union (65 Blakeman Place, Stratford, Connecticut 06497); the Organization Jor the Deiense oJ the Four Freedoms oJ the Ukraine (Box 304, New York, NY 10003); the Russian Anti-Communist Organization, active in the 1970s in New York; the Russian Immigrants' Representative Association in America, publishing the Voice of Americans oJRussian Origin and sharing an office with the American Russian Aid Association (349 West 86th Street, New York, NY 10024). The Sa mizdat Bulletin (PO Box 6128, San Mateo, California 94403); Smoloskyp, the Organization Jor the Difense oJ Human Rights in the Ukraine(PO Box 6066, Patterson Station, Baltimore, Maryland 21231; or 25 Rodd Street, Sydney, New South Wales 2143, Australia; or PO Box 153, Station T, Toronto, Ontario M6B 4Al, Canada); the Turkestanian American Association and its Auxiliary Youth League; the Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences(200 West 100th Street, New York, NY 10025); the UkrainianAmerican Civic Center (845 N. Western, Chicago, Illinois 60600); the Ukrainian American Hetman Association (8827 Joseph Camp Street, Hamtramack, Michigan 48200); the Ukrainian American Youth Association (also based in Hamtramack); the Ukrainian InJormation Service (200 Liverpool Road, London Nl lLF, United Kingdom); the Ukrainian Youth Association (961 Weathers field Avenue, Hartford, Connecticut 06100); and the Association oJUkrainians in Great Britain (more moderate than the OUN). Individuals Vladimir Bukovsky: this former internal opposition activist emigrated in 1976. He has been involved with the anti-socialist Freedom Association (United Kingdom) and has attended at least one congress of the World Anti-Communist League (South Korea), in 1983. He also participated in demonstrations connected with the Baltic World Conference event in Scandinavia in 1985. Vladimir Sakharov: a former KGB agent in the Middle East, he defected in 1972 and later wrote a book entitled High Treason. He attended a right-wing youth congress in South Africa in 1985. Alexander Solzhenitsvn: a writer and former internal opposition activist, he emigrated in 1974 and has since been prominent in anti-communist agitation. His activities are well documented elsewhere. Nicolai To Istoy: see Great Britain. 292

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