UMASS STRENGTH & CONDITIONING PHILOSOPHY  Strength & Conditioning Home  Strength & Conditioning Philosophy  Nutrition Information  Banned Substances  Weight

Room Policies  Photo Gallery Jan. 27, 2005 VISION STATEMENT The vision for the continuing development of the University of Massachusetts Strength and Conditioning program follows the guidelines of the administration for the collegiate strength and conditioning programs set by National Professional Associations. The strength and conditioning program aspires to promote strength, speed, power, and discipline that are capable of putting these qualities into play in the area of competition during NCAA and Conference championships. It is our desire to become one of the leading strength and conditioning programs in Division 1 athletics. We will continuously challenge each athlete to bring an attitude of hard work, accountability, and total effort to each workout so the athlete improves physically and mentally. WEIGHT TRAINING PHILOSOPHY The Strength and Conditioning program is not designed to be a quick fix or crash program. We view your training over a 4-5 year period. The goals of our weight training philosophy are: 1. Injury prevention 2. Improved performance 3. Speed development 4. Strength development Our training program consists of three elements. 1. Systematic- Each aspect of the program has a set goal, supported by specific objectives in pursuit of that goal. 2. Sequential- The program follows a logical sequence from easy to hard and from simple to complex. 3. Progressive- Training loads are increased to force the body to adapt to training demands. By changing the volume and intensity weekly, yields a super compensation training effect; that is, the athletes state of fitness after adaptation to the stress will be at a higher level or state of super compensation The focus of training is on Multi- joint training or Olympic movements involving a coordinated athletic acceleration path while learning how to create maximum summation of forces. This type of training requires a higher degree of speed and acceleration with a higher energy output thus enhancing nuero-muscular pathways in recruiting a high number of fast twitch fiber while increasing the concentration of ATP/PC within the muscle. Olympic lifts also provide triple extension, ankle-knee-hip, in one movement just as in sports. This enhances coordination, balance and kinesthetic awareness. Olympic lifts also provide extreme loading forces without the high forces of landing from high boxes as in plyometrics. Plyometrics are fine when they are kept in short duration's and done intensely. By using full range multiple joint movements or Olympic movements, the body moves in one movement. This is the way the body is intended to move. This type of training increases flexibility prevents injuries and results in greater power output, as well as provides the most functional core strengthening for sports. The Minneapolis MAYO Clinic study of 1986 concurred; full squats reinforce the kinetic chain of command. It

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was found that this was best for A.C.L. rehabilitation. Because of the tremendous shearing action on the patella tendon, leg extensions were found to be more debilitating than anything. Training only this one motion, was found to cause a limp in the future. The kinetic chain link consists of movements that start from the ground, to the legs, through the hips then up through the back, then through the shoulders, leading to full extension of the body. It is important to have a balanced program that trains the antagonistic muscles as well as the agonist. Another advantage free weight training exercises have, is they mimic the speed of movement in all athletic events, in that it has a force velocity curve that is upward. Constant resistance training is not specific to athletes speed of movement, because there is no acceleration, no power is developed. In most real life applications of force the resistance usually becomes less as the speed of movement accelerates and the joint approaches the end of it's motion. * Lifting should stimulate fast twitch 1A & 2B fibers. * 1A-stimulated by low reps at 80% or more at a slow to moderate speed. *2B--The faster contracting of the two is stimulated by using low reps at a fast or explosive speed ,Cleans , Snatches , Push presses. * STUDIES ON SPEED OF MOVEMENT--Mass x Velocity 800 lb. SQUAT = 805 ft. lbs. per sec. 400 lb. BENCH PRESS = 405 ft. lbs. per sec. 300 lb. POWER CLEAN = 1,900 ft. lbs. per sec. * A 73' shot-put generates forces equivalent to 10,000 horsepower, which is highest among any ever recorded. In a 1978 study, the average vertical jump, for elite shot putters was 30 inches, versus 28 in. for elite high jumpers. Several throwers recorded vertical jumps in the 34-35 in. range. * At the University of Massachusetts it is necessary to cycle our weights throughout the year. One must vary intensities and reps as this permits the greatest strength gains and avoids stagnation & overtraining. In order for adaptation to take place programs must incorporate periods of rest, as well as alternate levels of intensity. Conditioning Philosophy The concept of aerobic base training before strength and/or power training is ludicrous at best. Countless strengthtraining studies have been done on untrained subjects who have tolerated strength training very well without any preparatory aerobic work. You must be aware that until a few years ago, most exercise physiologists had no clue how to train for strength but knew a lot about aerobic exercise, they prescribed only aerobics. They promoted the need for an aerobic base to disguise their lack of knowledge about how to train to gain strength. If you take a look at NBA players and the top ten sprinters in the world, you will find they have VO2 max values in the area of 47ml/kg/min. The average sedentary person has a value of about 40 ml/kg/min. On the other hand Olympic caliber rowers and cross country skiers have values of about 72 and 78 ml/kg/min. You may be asking yourself why are the basketball players and sprinters in such poor aerobic shape? To understand you must realize the specific demands of their respective sports. For these athletes to be able to perform to the best of their capabilities in their respective sports, sprinters and basketball players need plenty of power and strength to overcome their inertia while sprinting. Several studies have shown, as aerobic power increases, there is a concurrent decrease in strength, as expressed at high speeds (power). A study in Japan showed, the more your VO2 max improves, the more you vertical jump power decreases. Aerobic work is also associated with the increase in the hormone cortisol. This is one of the body's' most catabolic hormones. Thus if you are trying to build muscle mass you want to stay away from the catabolic effects of aerobic work.

At the University of Massachusetts we train our athletes through anaerobic training with interval training, speed endurance training, hill training, speed training, as well as with agility and plyometric training. SPEED ENDURANCE--This system prepares the athlete intense efforts increasing the ability to endure the lack of oxygen. Distances range from 150-500 meters at times up to 90 % of the athletes maximum, repetitions of 4-8, recovery 5-6 min. (complete recovery) INTERVAL SYSTEM--- Distances run are fixed or variable. Interval training increases anaerobic capacity and also increases aerobic endurance. Distances vary between 100-400 meters range at 75 % effort. Recovery ranges from periods of 45 sec. to 3 min. Beginners will start with a longer recovery rate and gradually increase the repetitions and reduce set times and rest times. Pulse rate should not exceed 180 bpm at the end of an interval and the next interval should not be started until the pulse rate has fallen below 140 bpm or preferably 120 bpm. HILL TRAINING--The principal aim of hill training is to achieve greater muscular power and reinforce proper running mechanics. Hills are cycled weekly or bi-weekly. SPEED TRAINING--Full speed-very high rate of stride frequency (speed of muscular contraction). Distances range from 20-60 meters; repetitions are from 10-15 preferably gradually increasing in distances run-- Rest intervals should be from 3-5 mins. PLYOMETRIC TRAINING Prerequisites1. Athlete must be able to squat 1.5 times body weight or power clean body weight. 2. Low impact plyo's introduced for first 2-3 weeks. 3. Higher impact plyo's are done on a soft surface ex: gymnastics room. Never on cement. Weight room floor has 2.5 inches of poured concrete under it. 4. Plyo's aren't valid they unless fall between envelope of time for specificity of that sport: .024-.028 seconds. Weight Room Hours Monday - Friday 9:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. All athletes train during their assigned team times. 1. Only intercollegiate athletes with eligibility during the academic year who are in good standing are permitted to use the Weight room during varsity hours. 2. All athletes must sign in. 3. Everyone will have a workout program from the strength and conditioning dept,workouts will be recorded by the athlete. Workouts must be signed off by strength and conditioning staff after each lifting session. 4. If an athlete is injured in any way that will inhibit either a portion of, or the entire workout, she or he must see a trainer and receive a written slip explaining the injury, which movements are to be avoided and which ones may be substituted. 5. Lifters are required to use collars once there is more than one plate on the end of the bar. 6. Lifters are required to use spotters on every set after the initial warm up set. 7. Weights are to be moved from the racks to the bar only. They are never to be set on the floor or leaned against equipment.

8. All bars should be stripped immediately after use. Dumbbells should be returned to the rack in proper order. 9. Bars, weights and your feet should be kept off the vinyl at all times to prevent tearing. 10. Food, drink, gum, tobacco and toothpicks are not permitted. 11. Walkmans are not allowed. No bags in room. 12. Spitting or defacing the facility is not tolerated and will result in immediate expulsion. 13. Horseplay will not be tolerated. 14. The coaches' offices and telephones are off limits to athletes without permission. 15. Strength coaches' are not responsible for holding personal items. 16. Directions given by a coach must be followed. 17. Only use the Southeast and Northwest Entrances 18. Spotter rack are to be moved up when Bench Pressing or Inclining. They should never be on the floor. 19. No weight are to be on the platforms. Only Bumper plates are to be used on the platforms 20. Absolutely no dropping the dumbbells. 21. Strength coaches only, will use the blender for making protein shakes. They will decide according to supply and demand when drinks are to be issued. 22. Wipe down cardio after use. 23. Teams will use assigned platforms, using both sides. Six athletes per platform, 3 on the front and 3 on the back. 24. It is your privilege not your right to use this room, and failure to follow any of these policies could result in loss of weight room privileges. WEIGHT ROOM DRESS POLICY 1. Footwear: Athletic shoes must be worn at all times, work boots are allowed. Dress shoes, open-toed shoes, flip-flops, sandals or deck shoes are not permitted. 2. Lower Body Wear: Athletes are required to wear shorts, sweat pants or tights. Cut offs are not permitted. 3. Upper Body Wear: T-shirts, sweat shirts and unaltered tank tops are permitted Macro Nutrients: *Carbohydrates, Protein, and Fat : percentage of diet from each source for athletes should be at least 50% carbohydrates, 20-30% protein, and at most 25- 35% Fat! - Of the 50% carbohydrates, only 10% should be from high glycemic foods (bread, bagels, rice, candy, etc.). See the section below for a full explanation. - The remaining 90% of you carbohydrates should consist of fruits and vegetables which have a low glycemic

index. - Best sources of the most complete proteins (i.e. contain all essential amino acids) are from Eggs (Best source) and Milk products. - Fat should be consumed mostly from unsaturated sources (plants), not from red meats, pork etc.) Monosaturated and essential fatty acids are good fats. Carbohydrates: 1. Carbohydrates are the major fuel source for most sports excluding distance running/swimming. 2. Carbohydrates stored as glycogen in two tissues; muscle and the liver. 3. Carbohydrate used during exercise from muscle tissue needs to be replenished on a daily basis, and can not be replenished from Liver glycogen. -Use of muscle glycogen is tissue specific, i.e. If you work you legs and fail to adequately replenish your glycogen by eating enough carbohydrates you can't take glycogen from other muscles. -Think of muscle groups as a car that will eventually run out of gas if you fail to refill it after every use! If you fail to "refill" your "tank" you will start out with less gas and will eventually run out, the effect is cumulative so consistently not replenishing muscle glycogen will lead to decreased energy. 4. Not all carbohydrates are the same! Carbohydrates are rated by the glycemic index. The glycemic index rates to what extent the particular carbohydrate effects blood sugar levels in the body. Consuming carbohydrates which have a high glycemic index will have a variety of negative effects. Consider this chain of events: - A high glycemic food such as brown rice or wheat bread is consumed. - This causes blood sugar levels to skyrocket. - As a result, insulin levels are increased and blood sugar levels are decreased to levels lower than before you consumed the high glycemic carbohydrate (resulting in a feeling of sluggishness). - Because of this chain of events, the liver is forced to produce higher triglyceride levels which increase cholesterol. - The kidneys retain sodium which causes fluid retention. - The final result is an increase in blood pressure and hypertension. When you pick your carbohydrates, you should make an effort to consume those with a lower glycemic index. These carbohydrates are "low density carbohydrates" and are high in fiber. Such carbohydrates (fruits, vegetables and beans) are slowly absorbed into the blood stream and insulin levels stay at moderate levels for longer periods of time. They are also a good source of vitamins and minerals as well! Stay away from those with a higher glycemic index ("high density carbohydrates" such as grains, starches, pasta and bagels). The following chart will help: Glycemic Index Table: Sorted from High GI Foods to Low GI Foods
146 131 129 128 127 121 119 118 117 117 116 108 107 107 104 103 101 GLUCOSE TABLETS WHITE RICE WHEAT BREAD INSTANT RICE RICE CHEX BAKED POTATO CORN FLAKES CORN CHEX MICROWAVE POTATO RICE CRISPIES PRETZELS DONUTS PUMPKIN FRENCH FRIES HONEY BAGEL CARROTS 79 OATMEAL 78 POPCORN 78 CORN 77 SWEET POTATO 77 POTATO CHIPS 75 KIWIFRUIT 74 KIDNEY BEANS 71 ICECREAM (LOWFAT) 69 BAKED BEANS 63 CANNED PEARS 62 GRAPES 62 ORANGE 60 ALL BRAN 59 SPAGHETTI 55 PINTO BEANS 54 TOMATO 52 APPLE

99 96 91 88 87 87 83 82 79 79

SHREDDED WHEAT GRAPENUTS RAISINS MUFFINS ICECREAM HAMBURGER BUN WHITE RICE PITA BREAD BROWN RICE OATMEAL COOKIES

51 YOGURT SKIM MILK LENTIL MILK (FULL FAT) BARLEY 34 PLUM 27 RICE BRAN 25 SOYA BEANS 21 PEANUTS 20 YOGURT (LOWFAT) 46 41 39 36

Protein: 1. Protein is necessary for building muscle tissue and important in the creation of enzymes which allow you body to exercise most efficiently. 2. If you divide your body weight by 1. and eat that many grams of protein a day you will be consuming plenty for muscle building and enzyme turnover. If you eat too much protein your body is able to convert that excess protein to Fat! 3. Your body is only able to digest and absorb about 30-35 grams of protein at one meal, so spread your protein throughout the day and don't consume massive amounts all at once. 4. Protein, although it not considered an energy nutrient can be used as such if you fail to consume adequate calories. Also, any aerobic activities you participate in for over 45 minutes use protein as a major fuel source with up to 15 % of the total energy coming from protein stores (Lean Body Mass), so don't take off what you worked so hard to put on; your aerobic workouts should be kept to under 45 minutes to keep this from happening! 5. Proper protein consumption releases a naturally occurring hormone in the body called glucagon. Glucagon's role is to help control insulin levels. This is very important! See the section on carbohydrates (point number 4) for a further explanation. Fat: 1. Fat is primarily a result of excess of food consumption or improper food consumption (i.e. greater than 25 35 % of calories). 2. Moderate fat intake is necessary for proper bodily function, such as the storage of the fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, & K. 3. Fat (in the form of essential fatty acids) plays a critical role in the formation of many important hormones. 4. Fat is the primary energy source for distance athletes, however, excess fat intake is not required because of the efficiency at which the body metabolizes fat and because fat has twice as much energy per gram as carbohydrates. 5. Fat does not have a direct effect on insulin or blood sugar levels, but when consumed along with carbohydrates, it tends to slow absorption of carbohydrates which will help keep insulin and blood sugar levels constant. 6. There are three types of fat: - Saturated fats: Mainly from animal sources, they are solid at room temperature. Examples are trimmings from meat and butter. - Monosaturated fats: These fats are liquid at room temperature and solid in your freezer. Examples are olive oil and cod oil. - Polyunsaturated fats: These fats are solid at all temperatures. An example is Soybean oil. For your body to work at optimal levels, the fats within each cell must not be too viscous nor too fluid (called the "fluidity zone"). For this reason, monosaturated fats should make up the majority of your fat intake. Furthermore, some monosaturated fats like cod liver oil or the fats found in salmon, contain important fatty acids called eicosapentaenioc acid (EPA) which help maintain proper hormonal balance.

Some Tips about Meals, and Eating Before and After Exercise * Before lifting or any other exercise you should consume 16-20 ounces of WATER 20 to 30 minutes before exercise, NOT a high sugar or protein drink! These types of drinks impede the ability of the small intestine to absorb water efficiently (even sugar drinks as low as 5%). * 2-3 hours before practice/game/workout, eat a meal that is high in complex carbohydrates, low protein, and very low fat. A higher fat and protein meal takes 2-3x longer to digest, will make you feel sluggish and tired, and will not provide you with the adequate energy you will need to perform at an optimum level for competition. * Within 20 to 30 minutes of ending your exercise session or practice you should consume some sort of carbohydrate to begin replenishing your lost glycogen. Recent studies have found carbohydrate uptake into the muscle is at least 2X as efficient right after exercise, they have also found that fructose (sugar from fruits) is a much better way to do this because unlike other sugars (carbohydrates) it goes from your blood directly into your muscle, not first to the liver like the rest of the carbohydrates. So enjoy fruit following you exercise and you'll be putting twice as much carbohydrate right back into your tank! Approximately 50 minutes to 90 minutes after eating this serving of carbohydrates, consume 30-50 grams of protein for same reason listed above. Your body is ready to begin repairing what you just broke down during your workout. * Don't consume large meals within 1.5 to 2 hours before an exercise session or practice because a large amount of blood will not be available for your muscles. This will decrease the efficiency of your bodies ability to remove the necessary toxins that result from exercise (Lactic Acid)! * Spread your meals throughout the day if possible, eat the regular breakfast, lunch and dinner, but also snack on nutritious food between meals (Protein and Carbohydrates, not Simple Sugars; no Chips, Candy Bars etc.!) * Breakfast is the most important meal of the day because after sleeping all night long the glycogen in your liver is nearly depleted, and if you don't refill that tank you body will start to take protein from your muscle or glycogen from your muscle to maintain blood sugar levels which is the primary energy source of the brain!! Most high school students don't eat breakfast in the morning; every good athlete realizes the importance of a good breakfast and includes it in their daily schedule! * Include a Multi Vitamin-Mineral supplement in your diet to insure that you are getting all of the necessary micro-nutrients these don't give your body energy, but if you run out of them your body will not function near its optimal capacity! Five Nutrition Rules That Apply to Everyone 1. Always eat at least 5 meals a day. Two or three meals simply is not often enough. Your blood sugar levels will be controlled, you will get protein in small amounts throughout the day to support growth and recovery, and, most important, the enzymes that store fat will no longer be produced, making you biochemically incapable of storing fat! 2. Remember to balance your caloric intake. In each of your 5 meals, approx. 25 - 35% of the calories should come from fats, 25 - 30 % from protein, and 50% from carbohydrates. 3. When you sit down to eat, ask yourself, "What am I going to be doing with the next three hours of my life?" Then, if you are taking a nap, eat less; if you are planning on a training session, eat more. 4. Another thing to remember whether you are trying to lose fat or gain muscle is to "zig-zag" your caloric intake. For example, if you want to lose fat, reduce your calories during the week, but eat normal on Friday night and Saturday. This will (1) readjust your BMR upwards, (2) support lean tissue building, and (3) give you

a psychological "lift". Remember, in rule 1 you learned that your fat storing enzymes were no longer present, so you can eat sweets once in a while. In fact, if you want to put on lean muscle, you must do this! 5. Drink 8-10 glasses of water each day. This will insure your replacing fluids lost during exercise. You need not wait until you are thirsty. By then, you are in a depleted state. Drink these glasses of water throughout a days time, not all at once. Studies have shown that a decrease in water intake will cause fat deposits to increase , while an increase in water can reduce fat deposits. Here's why: the kidney's can't function properly without enough water . When they don't work to capacity ,some of their load is dumped onto the liver. One of the liver's primary functions is to metabolize stored fat into usable energy for the body. But, if the liver has to do some of the kidney's work , it can't operate at full throttle. As a result , it metabolizes less fat and more fat is stored in the body. The best way to overcome the problem of water retention is to give your body more water. Only then will stored water be released. Will Cutting Calories Result in Fat Loss? There are 3500 calories in one pound of fat. That means that by reducing your food by 500 calories per day, you should lose 1 lb of fat per week, right? Wrong! Actually, much of the weight you will lose will come from muscle tissue, NOT fat. Why? Because your body tends to use ("excess") muscle tissue for needed energy before it reclaims fat deposits. The answer is to TAKE YOUR TIME with fat loss, and either preserve or build muscle tissue by integrating scientific weight training, mild aerobics, dietary manipulation, supplementation and other technologies into your lifestyle. Follow the rules above! NEVER attempt to gain or lose "weight!" Instead, you should always strive to gain muscle and lose fat! Daily Food Breakdown Protein Intake: Take your body weight in pounds and multiply it by 0.9. This will be the number of grams of protein you should be eating daily. Body weight (lbs) x 0.9 = grams of protein needed daily Carbohydrate intake: Body weight (lbs) x 2.5 = grams of carbohydrates needed daily. Fat Intake: 0.25 x body weight (lbs) = grams of fat per day Total Caloric Content of Daily Food Intake: Protein Intake Total x 4 calories = total calories Carbohydrates Intake Total x 4 calories = total calories Fat Intake Total x 9 calories = total calories * Add the three sumations from each intake category and you will receive your total daily calories. *This is an estimated daily intake which will promote lean body weight, decrease body fat, and enhance strength and endurance. Remember, in order to increase your metabolism and reduce body fat, you need to eat more meals and smaller portions. In order to get the most out of each meal, take the total daily intake for protein, carbs, and fat and divide it by the total number of daily meals.

Example: 20-25% Protein = 'x' grams divided by 5 daily meals = protein grams per meal 65% Carbs = 'x' grams divided by 5 meals = carbohydrate grams per meal 10-15% Fat = 'x' grams divided by 5 meals = fat grams per meal The fat intake is going to be the hardest to regulate, so when you buy food only buy foods low in fat and sodium content. Stay Away from Fast Food!!! Completely!!!!!!!!!! Basic Diet for Strength and Body Weight Increases Breakfast: -1 or 2 servings of fruits, beans, cottage cheese, yogurt or vegetables -4-6 egg whites (scrambled or hard boiled) -multi-vitamin pack Mid Breakfast: -2 servings of fruits, beans, cottage cheese, yogurt or vegetables -1 can of tuna (water packed) Lunch: -beans, cottage cheese, yogurt or vegetables -chicken or tuna -1 piece of fruit Mid Lunch: -beans, cottage cheese, yogurt or vegetables -1 can tuna Dinner: -beans, cottage cheese, yogurt or vegetables -fish, chicken, lean steak -1 piece of fruit

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