Proteins

Structure
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Proteins are polymers of amino acids Proteins are made up by different combinations of 20 amino acids o They have a general structure: o The difference between different amino acids is found in the R-group o When two amino acids join together, they release -H and -OH groups highlighted in red below o Peptide bond is formed between alpha-carbon and nitrogen o Condensation reaction Primary structure of a protein o Sequence of amino acids o Joined together by covalent peptide bonds Secondary structure o Hydrogen bonds between amino acids o Made of a combination of alpha-helices and beta-pleated sheets o Proportion of -helix and -sheet depends on sequence (primary structure) Tertiary structure o Complex globular shape o Folding and twisting of polypeptides (H-bond) o Polypeptides contain many peptide bonds Quaternary structure o Several polypeptide chains //several tertiary structures combined o Haemoglobin has 4 polypeptide chains o Collagen has 3 polypeptide chains, twisted around each other o Globular proteins are soluble and has folded chains o Fibrous proteins are insoluble and long, thin, twisted chains Same amino acid sequence same shape always

Bonds Found in Proteins
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Hydrogen bonds o Between R-groups are easily broken, but are numerous o The more bonds, the stronger the structure Disulphide bonds o Between sulphur-containing amino acid cystine o Strong bonds found in skin and hair Denaturation o Destruction of tertiary structure, can be done by heat o Protein structure is lost and cannot reform dysfunctional

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