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Blue Yellow Maintaining a Quality Workforce
As defined by MacMillan Dictionary, workforce is the total number of people who work in a particular company, industry, or area. The workforce is the backbone of a company. It is through the workforce that a company is able to function. According to Noe (2008), the workforce is a company’s intangible asset that contributes to its competitive advantage. It is unique from that of other companies and difficult to copy. Human capital, intellectual capital, social capital, and customer capital all come with the company’s workforce. Human capital refers to the experiences, inspiration, creativity, energy, and enthusiasm the employees bring to a company. Intellectual capital is the knowledge and skills the employees possess. Social capital is the relationship the employees have with each other. Customer capital is the relationships with people or organizations outside of the company which are critical in the success of the business, i.e. suppliers, customers, and government agencies (Noe, 2008). As an important aspect of a business entity, human resources are given proper training and development, compensation and benefits, and safety. As employees continue to stay in a company, they would want to have bigger responsibilities. It is the company’s responsibility to give them the proper training and development to better equip them for more demanding jobs. Training and development is beneficial for both the employer and its employees. Employees would be able to acquire more skills; they would be ready to deal with any changes the work environment demands; they will also be more satisfied which means
like new technology or new systems if any (Decenzo & Robbins. All these will result in higher productivity which is very critical for the company (Schermerhorn. Development on the other hand aims to prepare employees for changes in the work environment. and behavior (Noe. The trainers have experience on the job. The benefits of on-the-job training is that is does not require an excessive amount of funds. and they will be more ethical. Arthur. 2004). Training is a critical tool in the company’s attainment of competitive advantage. Arthur. Another difference between the two is training is mandatory for all employees while only selected employees who exemplify managerial/supervisory skills are given the opportunity to be a part of development programs. n. Training and development are often perceived to be one and the same. 2004). Training is focused on the present while development is concentrated in preparing for the future. and 2 . Training has two methods: on-the-job training and off-the-job training. Noe. takes place in the workplace where employees learn hands-on in actual work situations. technology-related skills. it is important that training is linked with the goals of the company. Training must result in increased intellectual capital – that is improvement in knowledge. Training is more focused on improving employees’ skills to apply in their current jobs and be more productive.. Although they are similar in many ways. 2008. 2008). University of California San Francisco. On-the-job training. 2002. as its name implies.higher motivation and creativity. interactive skills (with customers and staff). In order to achieve this. training and development are focused on two different things. 2009. basic skills.d.
according to Blacksacademy (2003). Blacksacademy. training facilities that are needed.whatever skills the employee learns can be applied directly to the job (Decenzo & Robbins. Listening to lectures or simulation. according to Decenzo and Robbins (2002). 2002. Development helps employees prepare for changes that may occur sometime in the future – whether it’s for a change in their own careers or a change in the work environment. they will not be able to experience the real thing. On the other hand. even cause accidents. self-study. Trainers may be good at their jobs but are unable to pass on their skills and knowledge to the trainee. Decenzo and Robbins (2002) mentioned that compared to on-the-job training. For the 3 . Development is concerned with enhancing employees’ skills for technological advancement and any changes in the companies work system. and professional instructors. has a few disadvantages. Off-the-job training takes place outside the workplace. On-the-job training. Blacksacademy (2003) explained that employees will have a better chance of concentrating and it is less stressful on the employee’s part. Trainers might even pass on bad work habits. the benefits of on-the-job training often outweigh them in the long run. technology-equipped classrooms. or being involved in games that are work-related might not be very effective. While employees are taken away from their jobs. it is more costly because of facilities like lecture halls. conference rooms. the company must provide them with the required compensation. 2003). Expect low productivity because employees are still in the process of learning to do the job so they are bound to make mistakes. Since they are not in the workplace. In spite of these disadvantages.
job experiences. Their tuition fees will be reimbursed by the company. interpersonal relationships. employees pick up new knowledge and skills with the help of an employee who’s had more experience in the company.selected few with management potential. In order to identify these employees. In interpersonal relationships. Formal education programs are normally offered by universities or colleges. However. Assessment is the first step in employee development. there is a contract that states how many years the employee must remain in that company. Mentoring involves a highly 4 . values. and behavior are being evaluated by their managers or colleagues (Noe. Off-site programs are where employees go to university to take up a short course. Formal education. Mentoring is one type of development through interpersonal relationships. 2008). their skills are being developed further for more substantial positions in the future (Noe. 2008). Employees of Citibank Philippines and Datacraft Philippines can have their tuition reimbursed when they go and take up postgraduate studies. this is called tuition reimbursement (Noe. their abilities. and assessments are some development methods stated by Noe (2008). They may be on-site or off-site. interactive skills. Some employees choose leave work temporarily to earn an MBA. This is the point where employees who exhibit exceptional skills and are likely to assume managerial positions in the future are selected to undergo development programs. Mentoring is one type of development through interpersonal relationships. Most companies prefer on-site programs simply because they can make sure that the programs are aligned with their needs. to hear a lecture or participate in business games. 2008).
Mentors are attracted to employees who showcase the ability of lead in a group. Coaches contribute to an employee’s development by evaluation based on psychological tests. They can also help an employee find an expert who is suitable in attending to the employee’s concerns or get him/her a learning opportunity (Noe. as cited in Noe. and demands they encounter along the way (Snell. 2006). Pfeffer (1999) believes that the salary should be commensurate to the efforts of the employee. which is the primary driving force of employees to work. relationships. problems. 2008). 2008). 2008). or who share the same morals and principle they have (Noe. and assessments. Morrison. interviews with their co-workers. Compensation. duties. 1990. and who can cope with different situations. is what they receive in return for their efforts in achieving the organization’s goals (Medina. A higher salary may often result to better productivity (as cited in Maximiano. 2008). Job experience is believed to be the most common and most effective development program (McCall. This is where employees get the chance to stretch their abilities with the challenges. 2006). as cited in Noe.experienced senior employee guiding a much less experienced junior employee in attaining new skills and knowledge. who are decided on what they want. Lombardo. Coaching is another type of development through interpersonal relationships. Unlike mentoring which involves a senior and a junior employee. That is why it is important to consider factors such as time and productivity in order to say that a compensation structure is equitable and acceptable to 5 . coaching relationships take place among colleagues. 1998.
2007. include various types of leaves and insurances. the PAG-IBIG fund is government-controlled and offers loans such as 6 . Medical and hospitalization expenses. Furthermore. medical insurances and other expenses related to these are covered by the PhilHealth program (Maximiano. Included benefits are for sickness. benefits and incentives. Medina. On the other hand. namely: pay. Employees would want more than just the basic salary they receive. In compensating employees. 2006). According to Medina (2006). the salary or pay is the regular payment received by every employee for doing his job. the GSIS or Government Service Insurance functions like the SSS but covers only employees who are working in government institutions. It is ordered by law that employees be given paid vacation. paid holidays and paid sick leave. disability. which are a form of indirect compensation.both the employers and employees. 2006). Benefits. On the other hand. The total pay is equivalent to the product of the hourly wage and the number of hours he has worked. benefits are mainly for security purposes of the employee (Decenzo and Robbins. Medina (2006) also gave the types of benefits here in the Philippines such as the Social Security System (SSS) which functions to protect the security of employees working in private organizations. maternity. commissions are percentages earned by sales while piece-rate basis is computed by the number of units a worker has produced in a factory. it is important that the company provides a good compensation structure with benefits. there are three kinds. old age and death. Benefits are rewarded to employees who have been serving an organization for a long period. 2006. Thus. Medina. In contrast.
are categorized into three types: individual. incentives are given to employees who have done their work more than what is expected (Medina. Medina (2006) points out that giving benefits to employees has three effects: maintaining competitiveness. Incentives. It does not guarantee a satisfactory employee performance but it initially helps in accomplishing an organization’s goals. 2006). They are essentials of compensation paid to employees who achieve targets that the company and the employees expect to be attained in a longer period of time (McKeown. and organizational incentive plan. group. Individual incentive plans are motivators for individuals especially the top employees to work beyond what is expected while group incentive plans serve as rewards to team projects or departments who have showed great teamwork. It has become mandatory and each employee is entitled to receive this kind of benefit. Likewise. Organizational incentive plans are rewards given to the 7 . Incentives usually depend on the performance of an individual. 2006). The employees contribute the same amount as the employer’s and the total of the contributions plus the earnings can be collected upon retirement of the employee. Incentives are rewards for people who have done a job very well done and it is a motivating factor to the employees to work more efficiently and productively (Maximiano.housing loans. attracting employees and retaining good employees. It is an additional salary equivalent to one month usually given at the end of the year. 2002). as stated by Medina (2006). The thirteenth month pay is also part of the benefits which employees expect to receive yearly. It also views the different needs of the employee to make sure he does his job well.
That’s why the number of our information technology experts and seafarers abroad continue to escalate. preventive measures and health policies are needed in maintaining a healthy and safe workplace for the employees (Medina. this compensation structure functions as an attraction to future employees. The first reason is because the company would have to compensate on the employees’ medical expenses. Compensation is relatively low in the Philippines compared to that of other countries. As a whole. a factor to retain them and a motivation to improve their performance in the job (Medina. Compensation is a big factor in applying for a job especially to those employees who are highly skilled. profit sharing and employee stock ownership. That is why highly skilled Filipino workers and professionals are going abroad to find offers with higher pay. Employee productivity is dependent on the worker’s health and condition. which is the direct cost. Though the compensation must be fair to the employees’ efforts. 2006). 2004). Aside from that additional costs must be incurred for the repair of damages 8 . One expert even noted that a company is considered lucky ‘if they didn’t have one employee… working hard to get out of the country’ (Skene. it wasn’t enough to stop employees from leaving. This problem is provoking the best employees in companies here to look for better opportunities abroad. the company must also consider its capacity to pay in order to maintain its competitiveness in the market and retain its employees (Sison. There are two important reasons why the safety of employees is important to a company. 2003). Although companies have responded by offering very generous benefits. Thus. 2006).organization as a whole such as gain sharing.
(5) Provide employee with the necessary safety equipment such as boots. 9 . implement corresponding punishments for those who don’t follow. safety goggles. Environmental causes can be attributed to the tools. (2) Put up visible signs that promote safety. Furthermore. and environmental causes.in the equipment. or a signboard that records the number of days the plant has gone on without any accidents. masks. and the environment in the workplace (Decenzo & Robbins. These are some helpful accident preventative measures as mentioned by Decenzo and Robbins (2002): (1) Safety rules and regulations must be strictly enforced. (3) Accident preventative measures must be part of the employees’ training. 2002). carelessness. and noise mufflers. boredom. They may be in the form of safety slogans. It is important that employees are educated about the standard operating procedures in the workplace and informed how to use safety equipment whether in times of emergency or for regular personal protection (Medina. inebriation. 2002). gloves. If necessary. and daydreaming. 2006). Causes of accidents are categorized into human causes. (4) Design jobs and equipment so as they can avoid operator fatigue. hard hats. and daydreaming. Sometimes it is because the employee lacks knowledge about the job as he/she is still in training. Human causes are those of errors made due to irresponsibility – that is. These additional expenses are referred to as indirect costs (Decenzo & Robbins. production will be affected but they’ll still have to compensate on the time the employee is unable to go to work while he/she is in recovery. accident prevention articles. which is the more common cause. physical plant. personnel who will investigate on the cause of the accidents. equipment.
On the other hand. It is highly dangerous for anyone at sea. they wear steel-toe boots.(3) Before occupying a new building. and a helmet to avoid those hazards. goggles. In other countries. Decenzo and Robbins (2002) provided some tips on maintaining a healthy workplace: (1) Employee complaints signal the need to investigate on the safety of the workplace. Garbage collectors are exposed to so much on-the-job hazards. Fishermen are supposed to use industrial fishing boats. Many of them are wearing shorts and flip-flops at work. Not every worker in construction sites has helmets. Employees would be able to work at their full force if they didn’t have any headaches. or breathing difficulties. garbage collectors here use their bare hands to pick up trash. They would be able to focus more on their jobs knowing that they’re safe and free of any hazardous materials and fumes that might threaten their health (Decenzo & Robbins.Here in the Philippines. or safety boots. while wearing only flip-flops and hanging on to the back of the garbage truck. (2) Unsealing closed vents to allow employees to get enough fresh air would save the company a lot more compared to when it tries to conserve energy by keeping the vents closed. allow it to sit vacant until the worst fumes dissipate then test the building for any toxins to keep away from potential 10 . 2002). gloves. A healthy workforce means higher productivity. it is evident that the workers aren’t provided the necessary safety equipments. They are much bigger and sturdier and can withstand strong currents. long pants. watering eyes. Fishermen are not advised to use the Bangka to go fishing if heavy rains and strong winds and currents come.
Set up a smoking area equipped with its own ventilation system for the smokers. From these results. some employees go to work to have a sense of responsibility or to make a contribution to society. it is clear that compensation is in fact a huge factor of the employees’ efficiency in performance and their commitment to the company. if not eliminate. 60% or 6 out of 10 of the security personnel. and 50% or 5 of the 10 security personnel strongly agree and 20% or 2 of the 10 professors. and 50% or 5 out of 10 of the office staffs agree.health problems. 10% or 1 of the 10 office staffs. 10 professors. To prove this point. Since for some. 10% or 1 of the 10 professors. When asked if high compensation is the most important factor that motivates them to perform more efficiently. A survey was conducted in De La Salle University with 30 participants. Only 20% or 2 out of 10 of the professors. 80% or 8 out of 10 of the office 11 . 10% or 1 out of 10 of the office staffs disagree. For the next question. the risks of accidents and unwanted incidents in the workplace (Medina. they dreamt of having their jobs. 10 office staffs. 2006). 20% or 2 of the 10 professors. 20% or 2 of the 10 security personnel. and none of the office staffs strongly agree while 50% or 5 out of 10 of the professors. For a few. if not most employees. “prevention is better than cure” because following preventive measures may lessen. and 30% or 3 of the 10 security personnel agree that periodic increase in compensation encourages them to stay in the company. (4) Maintain a smoke-free environment. 90% or 9 out of 10 of the professors. their primary reason for going to work is to earn a living. and 10 security personnel. On the other hand. Truly. 30% or 3 of the 10 office staff.
Goldsmith et al. Andres. 200). Birla. effective management of human capital is a significant factor to consider in establishing and sustaining an organization’s competitive advantage (Sison. and 80% or 8 out of 10 of the security personnel would remain in a company if they would be involved in development programs that would allow them to assume higher positions in the future. It proved that most workers would consider their safety in the job first before the salary they would receive. Werther and Davis. 2004.staff. 100% of all professors. In addition. As a whole. as cited in Maximiano. 2000. For the few who agreed. and the ability to retain top performers are just some of the positive by-products by training” (Arthur. increased sales and revenues. Pell & Ortigas. staffs and security personnel find training helpful in improving their skills in the job. 87% or 26/30 of surveyed answered that high salaries doesn’t compensate on the health and safety risks they are exposed to. “Overall. 12 . p. improved levels of customer and employee satisfaction. That is why there is a need to treat them well because organizations benefit from them. it is because they are willing to sacrifice their well-being for the sake of providing for their families especially in the Philippines because there aren’t enough jobs available. improved quality of products and services. Noe et al. organizations that train a greater percentage of employees report improvements in performance and productivity. 2006). according to Maximiano (2006). the pay isn’t the only motivation of employees but they also consider their self-satisfaction and success in career. In addition. Increased overall profitability.
). S. Noe.P. United States of America: John Wiley & Sons. Personnel Management in the 21st Century.ph/ Blacksacademy.lib1000. Shermerhorn. 2011. (2003).P. (2004). D. Quezon City: Rex Bookstore Inc. Guide to Managing Human Resources.blacksacademy.REFERENCES Arthur.. London: Frank Cass Sison.G.M. Inc.S. Rowley & J. D. P. University of California.Retrieved October 31. Benson. Maximiano. C. Medina.edu.A. R. J. (2003). S.). Inc. Decenzo. New York: McGraw – Hill.dlsu. (n. (2009). J. (2002).com. Inc.macmillandictionary..biz Decenzo.com. Retrieved from University of California.ebscohost. 2011. J. (2002). Human Resource Management (Seventh Edition). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.A.B. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management (9th ed. Singapore: The McGraw-Hill Companies. D. & Robbins. (2008) Employee Training and Development (Fourth Edition). 106 – 128). Change and Continuity: Recent Developments in HRM in the Philippines. Retrieved September 29. (2006). (2006).d. Training and Development. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management.A. from www. 2011. Personnel and Human Resources Management. Manila: Rex Bookstore. Management (Tenth Edition). Retaining Top Employees. In Macmillandictionary. Inc. & Robbins.L. San Francisco database Workforce. San Francisco. United States of America: Wiley Skene.R. from http://www. Managing Human Resources in the 21st Century.com/dictionary/american/workforce 13 . (2007). Retrieved October 17. The Management of Human Resources in the Asia Pacific Region (Convergence Reconsidered) (p. McKeown. Inc. Manila: Rex Bookstore. from http://0ehis. (2004). R.
Formal education b. Interpersonal relationships 14 . Off-the-job training 2. Training and Development 1. Job experiences c. Training Programs a. Human Capital 2. benefits and safety. Social Capital 2. human resources are given proper training and development. Relationships with Stakeholders 1. Skills and Abilities 1. Intellectual Capital B. On-the-job training b.Maintaining a Quality Workforce Thesis Statement: As an important aspect of a business entity. Development Programs a. Ways of Maintaining a Quality Workforce A. Customer Capital II. Importance of Quality Workforce A. Knowledge. Outline: I.
Salary a. Coaching d. PAG-IBIG fund d. Hourly Wage b. Thirteenth Month Pay 3. Safety rules and regulations 15 . Human causes b.i. Environmental causes 2. Group incentive plan c. PhilHealth b. Piece-rate System 2. Individual incentive plan b. Commissions c. Compensation and Benefits 1. Benefits a. Organizational incentive plan C. Incentives a. Assessments B. Social Security System c. Mentoring ii. Preventative Measures a. Causes of Accidents a. Safety and Health 1.
b. Safety equipment 3. On the Employees 1. Increased profitability 2. Maintaining a Healthy Workplace III. Higher Efficiency in Performance 2. Long-term Commitment b. Improved quality of products and services 16 . On the Business 1. Effects of Proper Human Resource Management a. Education on safety c.
APPENDIX 17 .
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