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C6RGT_21020

C6RGT_21020

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Sections

  • Warning
  • Adjusting the Mount in Altitude
  • Adjusting the Mount in Azimuth
  • Selecting an Object
  • Slewing to an Object
  • Finding Planets
  • Tour Mode
  • Constellation Tour
  • Direction Buttons
  • Rate Button
  • Identify
  • Precise GoTo
  • Scope Setup Features
  • SETUP TIME-SITE
  • ANTI-BACKLASH
  • FILTER LIMITS
  • CALIBRATE GOTO
  • HOME POSTION
  • POLAR ALIGN
  • Image Orientation
  • Calculating Magnification
  • Determining Field of View
  • General Observing Hints
  • The Celestial Coordinate System
  • Motion of the Stars
  • Finding the North Celestial Pole
  • Observing the Moon
  • Lunar Observing Hints
  • Observing the Planets
  • Observing the Sun
  • Solar Observing Hints
  • Observing Deep Sky Objects
  • Seeing Conditions
  • Transparency
  • Sky Illumination
  • Seeing
  • Short Exposure Prime Focus Photography
  • Terrestrial Photography
  • Metering
  • Reducing Vibration
  • Auto Guiding
  • Appendix A – Technical Specifications
  • Appendix B - Glossary of Terms
  • Appendix D - RS-232 Connection

Advanced Series Advanced Series GT

INSTRUCTION MANUAL
INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................................................................................4

C6-R

C6-RGT

Warning ...................................................................................................................................................... 4
ASSEMBLY.....................................................................................................................................................................7

Setting up the Tripod .................................................................................................................................. 7 Attaching the Equatorial Mount.................................................................................................................. 7 Attaching the Center Leg Brace.................................................................................................................. 8 Installing the Counterweight Bar ................................................................................................................ 8 Installing the Counterweight....................................................................................................................... 9 Attaching the Hand Control Holder ............................................................................................................ 9 Attaching the Slow Motion Knobs.............................................................................................................. 9 Attaching the Telescope Tube to the Mount ............................................................................................. 10 Balancing the Tube in R.A........................................................................................................................ 12 Adjusting the Mount ................................................................................................................................. 13 Adjusting the Mount in Altitude ............................................................................................................... 13 Adjusting the Mount in Azimuth............................................................................................................... 14 Attaching the Declination Cables (For GT Models Only) ........................................................................ 14 Powering the Telescope ............................................................................................................................ 14
HAND CONTROL ........................................................................................................................................................15

Hand Control Operation............................................................................................................................ 16 Alignment Procedures............................................................................................................................... 17 Startup Procedure...................................................................................................................................... 17 Auto Align ................................................................................................................................................ 18 Auto Three-Star Align .............................................................................................................................. 18 Quick-Align .............................................................................................................................................. 19 Last Alignment ......................................................................................................................................... 19 Re-Alignment............................................................................................................................................ 19 Object Catalog .......................................................................................................................................... 20 Selecting an Object.................................................................................................................................... 20 Slewing to an Object ................................................................................................................................. 20 Finding Planets.......................................................................................................................................... 20 Tour Mode................................................................................................................................................. 21 Constellation Tour..................................................................................................................................... 21 Direction Buttons ...................................................................................................................................... 21 Rate Button................................................................................................................................................ 21 Setup Procedures....................................................................................................................................... 22 Tracking Mode.................................................................................................................................. 22 Tracking Rate.................................................................................................................................... 22 Date/Time ......................................................................................................................................... 22 User Defined Objects........................................................................................................................ 22 Get RA/DEC ..................................................................................................................................... 23 Goto R.A/Dec ................................................................................................................................... 23 Identify.............................................................................................................................................. 23 Precise GoTo............................................................................................................................................. 24 Scope Setup Features ................................................................................................................................ 24 Setup Time-Site ................................................................................................................................ 24 Anti-backlash .................................................................................................................................... 24 Filter Limits ...................................................................................................................................... 24 Direction Buttons .............................................................................................................................. 25 Goto Approach.................................................................................................................................. 25 Autoguide Rates................................................................................................................................ 25 Azimuth Limits ................................................................................................................................. 25 East/West Filtering............................................................................................................................ 26 Utility Features ......................................................................................................................................... 26 Calibrate Goto................................................................................................................................... 26 Home Position................................................................................................................................... 26 Polar Align........................................................................................................................................ 26 Light Control..................................................................................................................................... 27 Factory Settings ................................................................................................................................ 27 2

Version.............................................................................................................................................. 27 Get Alt-Az......................................................................................................................................... 27 Goto Alt-Az ...................................................................................................................................... 27 Hibernate........................................................................................................................................... 27 Turn On/Off GPS.............................................................................................................................. 27
TELESCOPE BASICS..................................................................................................................................................29

Image Orientation...................................................................................................................................... 29 Focusing.................................................................................................................................................... 30 Aligning the Finderscope.......................................................................................................................... 30 Calculating Magnification......................................................................................................................... 30 Determining Field of View........................................................................................................................ 31 General Observing Hints ........................................................................................................................... 31
ASTRONOMY BASICS ...............................................................................................................................................32

The Celestial Coordinate System .............................................................................................................. 32 Motion of the Stars.................................................................................................................................... 33 Finding the North Celestial Pole ............................................................................................................... 35 Declination Drift Method of Polar Alignment .......................................................................................... 36
CELESTIAL OBSERVING .........................................................................................................................................37

Observing the Moon.................................................................................................................................. 37 Lunar Observing Hints .............................................................................................................................. 37 Observing the Planets................................................................................................................................ 37 Observing the Sun ..................................................................................................................................... 37 Solar Observing Hints ............................................................................................................................... 38 Observing Deep Sky Objects .................................................................................................................... 38 Seeing Conditions ..................................................................................................................................... 38 Transparency ............................................................................................................................................. 38 Sky Illumination........................................................................................................................................ 38 Seeing........................................................................................................................................................ 38 Using the Lens Cap Aperture Stop ........................................................................................................... 39
ASTROPHOTOGRAPHY............................................................................................................................................40

Piggyback ................................................................................................................................................. 40 Short Exposure Prime Focus Photography................................................................................................ 41 Terrestrial Photography............................................................................................................................. 42 Metering .................................................................................................................................................... 42 Reducing Vibration ................................................................................................................................... 42 Auto Guiding............................................................................................................................................. 43
TELESCOPE MAINTENANCE..................................................................................................................................44

Care and Cleaning of the Optics ............................................................................................................... 44 Collimation ............................................................................................................................................... 44
OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES .....................................................................................................................................46 APPENDIX A – TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS................................................................................................49 APPENDIX B – GLOSSARY OF TERMS................................................................................................................50 APPENDIX C – LONGITUDES AND LATITUDES.................................................................................................53 APPENDIX D – RS-232 CONNECTION....................................................................................................................58 APPENDIX E – TIME ZONE MAP............................................................................................................................60 SKY MAPS ....................................................................................................................................................................62

3

Your telescope is designed to give you years of fun and rewarding observations. Or if you are an experienced amateur. your Celestron telescope is versatile — it will grow as your interest grows. Internal heat build-up can damage the telescope and any accessories attached to it. you will appreciate the comprehensive database of over 40. either when children are present or adults who may not be familiar with the correct operating procedures of your telescope. Warning Y Y Never look directly at the sun with the naked eye or with a telescope (unless you have the proper solar filter). Internal heat build-up inside the telescope can cause these devices to crack or break. Take time to read through this manual before embarking on your journey through the Universe. Never leave the telescope unsupervised. Furthermore. Y Never use an eyepiece solar filter or a Herschel wedge. Permanent and irreversible eye damage may result. The Advanced GT Series ushers in the next generation of computer automated telescopes. Never use your telescope to project an image of the sun onto any surface. However. 4 . Use this manual in conjunction with the on-screen instructions provided by the hand control. The Advanced Series is made of the highest quality materials to ensure stability and durability. Some of the many standard features of the Advanced GT include: • • • • Fully enclosed optical encoders for position location. including customized lists of all the best deep-sky objects. All this adds up to a telescope that gives you a lifetime of pleasure with a minimal amount of maintenance. No matter at what level you are starting out. Ergonomically designed mount that disassembles into compact and portable pieces. Database filter limits for creating custom object lists. The Advanced GT hand control has built-in instructions to guide you through all the alignment procedures needed to have the telescope up and running in minutes.000 objects. the Advanced Series telescopes will unfold for you and your friends all the wonders of the Universe. and Many other high performance features! The AST’s deluxe features combine with Celestron’s legendary optical systems to give amateur astronomers the most sophisticated and easy to use telescopes available on the market today. which commands the telescopes to find the most interesting objects in the sky and automatically slews to each one. The manual gives detailed information regarding each step as well as needed reference material and helpful hints guaranteed to make your observing experience as simple and pleasurable as possible. bright double stars and variable stars. you may wish to start off by using the built-in Sky Tour feature. allowing unfiltered sunlight to pass through to the eye. there are a few things to consider before using your telescope that will ensure your safety and protect your equipment. The Celestron Advanced GT series continues in this proud tradition combining large aperture optics with the sophistication and ease of use of our computerized GoTo mount.Congratulations on your purchase of the Celestron Advanced Series telescope (AST)! The Advanced Series of telescopes come in standard (non-computerized) and computerized GT models. so you should keep this manual handy until you have fully mastered your telescope’s operation. It may take a few observing sessions to become familiar with your telescope. Storage for programmable user defined objects. If you are new to astronomy.

2" Steel Tripod Center Leg Brace / Accessory Tray Counterweights Counterweight Bar Dovetail Slide Bar Objective Lens Shade 5 . 10. 2. 4.The Advanced Series C6-R 1. 12. 5. 8. 11. 3. 9.12 (C8-N Shown) 1 2 3 11 4 10 5 9 6 7 8 Fig 1-1 . Optical Tube Tube Rings Finderscope Focuser / Eyepiece Equatorial Mount Latitude Adjustment Lever 7. 6.

A B C Optical Tube Tube Rings Finderscope Focuser / Eyepiece Equatorial Mount Latitude Adjustment Lever 2" Steel Tripod CONTROL PANEL Hand Control Port DEC Motor Port Autoguide Port 8. 11. 7. Motor Drive / Control Panel Declination Motor Drive 12v Output Jack ON/OFF Switch .A. 2. 5.12 1 2 11 3 15 4 14 A 10 5 B C 6 13 9 7 D E 8 Fig 1-2 . D E 6 Center Leg Brace / Accessory Tray Counterweights Counterweight Bar Dovetail Slide Bar Objective Lens Shade Hand Control R.The Advanced Series C6-RGT 1. 12. 13. 4. 9. 3. 6. 15. 10. 14.

The tripod comes fully assembled with a metal plate. 4. 21019 / 21020 C6-R Diameter Focal Length Eyepiece Finderscope Mount Tripod Software Counterweight 150mm (6. Your AST telescope should be set up indoor the first time so that it is easy to identify the various parts and familiarize yourself with the correct assembly procedure before attempting it outdoor. To attach the equatorial head: 7 Tripod Head Alignment Peg Mounting Knob Figure 2-3 . that holds the legs together at the top. This side of the tripod will face north when setting up for an astronomical observing session. The tripod will now stand by itself. In addition.This section covers the assembly instructions for your Celestron Advanced Series Telescope (AST). there is a central rod that extends down from the tripod head that attaches the equatorial mount to the tripod.0") refractor 1200mm F/8 20mm . Equatorial Mount 2. 3.1. called the tripod head. Tighten the levers on each leg clamp to hold the legs in place. Stand the tripod upright and pull the tripod legs apart until each leg is fully extended. To set up the tripod: 1. Once the tripod is set up. The CG-5 mount is a German equatorial mount that attaches to the tripod head. On one side of the tripod head there is a metal alignment peg for aligning the mount. Azimuth Alignment Screws Attaching the Equatorial Mount The equatorial mount allows you to tilt the telescope’s axis of rotation so that you can track the stars as they move across the sky. Slide the center portion of the tripod leg away from the tripod head until it is at the desired height. Loosen the lever on the leg clamp so that the tripod leg can be adjusted. you can adjust the height at which it stands.25" (60x) 9x50 CG-5 Equatorial 2" Stainless Steel The Sky L1 2-11lb Setting up the Tripod The CG-5 tripod comes with an all metal center leg brace / accessory tray to give rock solid support to the mount.

3. 3. Slide the accessory tray over the central rod so that each arm of the tray is pushing against the inside of the tripod legs. 8 . Tighten the knob (attached to the central rod) on the underside of the tripod head to hold the equatorial mount firmly in place. Retract the screws so they no longer extend into the azimuth housing on the mount. This will make the polar alignment procedure much easier. 4. To install the counterweight bar: 1. Locate the opening in the equatorial mount on the DEC axis Thread the counterweight bar into the opening until tight. Mounting Knob Figure 2-3 Central Rod Accessory Tray Accessory Tray Knob Figure 2-4 Since the fully assembled telescope can be quite heavy. Locate the azimuth adjustment screws on the equatorial mount. Place the equatorial mount on the tripod head so that the two are flush.1. position the mount so that the polar axis is pointing towards north before the tube assembly and counterweights are attached. Tighten the counterweight bar lock nut fully for added support (see fig 2-5). the mount comes with a counterweight bar and at least one counterweight (depending on model). 2. 5. Hold the equatorial mount over the tripod head so that the azimuth housing is above the metal peg. 2. Do NOT remove the screws since they are needed later for polar alignment. Installing the Counterweight Bar To properly balance the telescope. Thread the accessory tray knob on to the central rod and tighten. Attaching the Center Leg Brace 1. 2. Once the bar is securely in place you are ready to attach the counterweight.

Slide the back of the hand control holder downward into the channel on the front of the legs clamp (see Fig 2-6) until it snaps into place. 2. 6.A. The hand control holder comes in two pieces: the leg clamp that snaps around the tripod leg and the holder which attaches to the leg clamp. Remove either of the two oval tabs by pulling tightly. Loosen the locking screw on the side of the counterweight. Replace the counterweight safety screw. slow motion knob onto the R. Tighten the locking screw on the side of the weight to hold the counterweight in place. 5. Slide the R.A. shafts.A. 3. The knob is a tension fit.Installing the Counterweight The Advanced C6-R comes with two counterweights. Remove the counterweight safety screw on the end of the counterweight bar (i.A.A. shaft (see Fig 2-7). 2. Orient the mount so that the counterweight bar points toward the ground .A. opposite the end that attaches to the mount). Line up the flat area on the inner portion of the R. Figure 2-5 Hand Control Holder Leg Clamp Attaching the Slow Motion Knobs (For Non-GT Models Only) The Advanced Series (non-GT models) comes with two slow motion control knobs that allows you to make fine pointing adjustments to the telescope in both R. slow motion knob with the flat area on the R. To attach the hand control holder: 1. shaft. 3.e. Place the leg clamp up against one of the tripod legs and press firmly until the clamp wraps around the leg.. Locate the hard plastic shell under the R. so sliding it on holds it in Figure 2-6 4. Slide the counterweight onto the shaft (see Figure 2-5). 4. Figure 2-7 9 . To install the counterweight(s): 1. 2. Safety Screw Counterweight Bar Locking Nut Counterweight Bar Locking Screw Counterweight Attaching the Hand Control Holder (Advanced GT Models Only) The Advanced GT telescope models come with a hand control holder to place the computerized hand control. and Declination. To install the knobs: 1.

something which is quite important when you are observing. then install it on the opposite side. knob. Use whichever one you find more convenient. If. Attaching the Telescope Tube to the Mount Advanced GT Users! The telescope attaches to the mount via a dovetail slide bar mounting bracket which is mounted along the bottom of the telescope tube. The DEC slow motion knob attaches in the same manner as the R. As mentioned above. just below the telescope mounting platform. 2 Attach the mounting bracket to the tube rings so that the tapered (narrow) end is against the bottom of the tube rings. 5 Tighten the telescope mounting screw on the CG-5 mount to hold the telescope in place.A. the mounting platform must be positioned so that the Declination Index Marks are aligned (see Fig 2-8).A. 5. tube: 1 Locate the mounting bracket from the box containing the equatorial mount head. you have two shafts to choose from. slow motion knob is more accessible from the other side. and DEC clutch knobs.place.A.A. It makes no difference which shaft you use since both work the same. you find the R. there are two R. shafts. 4 Slide the mounting bracket that is attached to the bottom of the tube rings into the recess on the top of the mounting platform (see figure 2-9). The shaft that the DEC slow motion knob fits over is toward the top of the mount. before installing the optical tube. Figure 2-8 Figure 2-9 10 . NOTE: Never loosen any of the knobs on the telescope tube or mount other than the R. 3 Loosen the hand knob on the side of the CG-5 mount. This makes it easy to reach while looking through the telescope. Before you attach the optical tube. one on either side of the mount. This will ensure that the mount does not move suddenly while attaching the telescope. Use the shaft that is pointing toward the ground. pull firmly to remove the knob. Once again. after a few observing sessions. 6 Hand tighten the mounting platform safety screw until the tip touches the side of the mounting bracket. Declination make sure that the declination and right ascension clutch Index Marks knobs are tight. To mount the telescope In order for the GT computerized mount to function properly.

Slide the finder bracket (attached to the finderscope) into the mounting bracket on the telescope. To attach an ocular: 1. For information on aligning your finderscope. 6. 3. is an optical element that magnifies the image focused by the telescope. Figure 2-10 Loosen the set screw on the mounting bracket on the telescope. 2. see Telescope Basics section of this manual. Tighten the set screw to hold the eyepiece in place. The eyepiece fits directly into the focuser. Without the eyepiece it would be impossible to use the telescope visually. Slide the chrome portion of the eyepiece into the focuser. Slide the rubber O-ring over the eyepiece end of the finderscope and roll it 2/3 of the way up the finderscope. 8. loosen the set screw on the focuser and slide the eyepiece out. You can replace it with another ocular. T-Adapter Thread 2" Focuser Barrel Focuser Tension Screw 1 ¼" Eyepiece Adapter 2. or ocular as it is also called. 7. there is a small bracket with a set screw in it. The finderscope bracket will slide in from the back. 3. 4. The finderscope should be oriented so that the objective lens is toward the front (open) end of the telescope. To install the finderscope: 1. 5. This is where the finderscope bracket will be mounted. To remove the eyepiece. near the focusing assembly. Installing the Eyepieces The eyepiece. Focuser Knob Figure 2-11 11 . Locate the mounting bracket near the front (open) end of the telescope. Tighten the set screw on the mounting bracket to hold the finderscope in place. Loosen the set screw on the eyepiece adapter so that it does not obstruct the inner diameter of the barrel. Tighten the adjustment screws until they make contact with the finderscope body. Insert the eyepiece end of the finderscope through the bracket until the O-ring presses tightly between the finder and the inside of the bracket.Installing the Finderscope To install the finderscope onto the telescope you must first mount the finderscope through the finder bracket and then attach it to the telescope. Toward the rear of the telescope tube.

For more information on how to determine power.A. 2. When taking astrophotographs. 3. Tighten the tube ring screws firmly to hold the telescope in place. Release the DEC clamp and rotate the telescope until the tube is parallel to the ground (see figure 2-13). Lock the R. the 1 1/4" eyepiece adapter must first be removed.).e. To use a 2" barrel eyepiece. the telescope should be properly balanced around the polar axis. The focal length of each eyepiece is printed on the eyepiece barrel. The counterweight bar will extend horizontally on the opposite side of the mount (see figure 2-12). Generally. clamp is released). power) and the shorter the focal length (i... Balancing the Telescope in DEC The telescope should also be balanced on the declination axis to prevent any sudden motions when the DEC clamp (Fig 2-5) is released.” Your C6-R refracting telescope can use eyepieces with both a 1-1/4" barrel diameter and 2" barrel diameter. clamp to hold the telescope in place. 4. Once removed.. 4.A. it remains stationary when the R. proper balancing is crucial for accurate tracking if using an optional motor drive. Release the tube — GRADUALLY — to see which way it rotates around the declination axis.e. 5.e. Release the telescope — GRADUALLY — to see which way the telescope “rolls. 2. These are general balance instructions and will reduce undue stress on the mount. this balance process should be done for the specific area at which the telescope is pointing.. see the section on “Calculating Magnification.Eyepieces are commonly referred to by focal length and barrel diameter. 3. simply loosen the two chrome thumbscrews located around the focuser barrel (see figure 2-11) and remove the 1 1/4" adapter.A. Move the counterweight to a point where it balances the telescope (i.A. you will use low-to-moderate power when viewing. DO NOT LET GO OF THE TELESCOPE TUBE COMPLETELY! Loosen the screws that hold the telescope tube inside the mounting rings and slide the telescope either forwards or backwards until it remains stationary when the DEC clamp is released. To balance the telescope in DEC: 1.A. as described in the previous section on balancing the telescope in R. Clamp (see figure 2-15) and position the telescope off to one side of the mount (make sure that the mounting bracket screw is tight). a 2" eyepiece or accessory can be inserted directly into the focuser barrel and secured with the two thumb screws. The longer the focal length (i. the larger the number) the lower the eyepiece magnification (i. To eliminate undue stress on the mount. To balance the mount: 1. In addition. the smaller the number) the higher the magnification. Release the R. 5.A. Tighten the set screw to hold the counterweight(s) in place. 12 .e.” Loosen the set screw on the counterweight. clamp and rotate the telescope so that it is on one side of the mount (i.. To do this. Release the R. Balancing the Tube in R. 6.e.

It is best to always make final adjustments in altitude by moving the mount against gravity (i. To decrease the latitude of the polar axis. that is making the telescope’s axis of rotation parallel to the Earth’s.” Adjusting the Mount in Altitude • • To increase the latitude of the polar axis. When taking astrophotographs. To remove the Rear Latitude Adjustment Screw Front Latitude Adjustment Screw Azimuth Adjustment Knobs Figure 2-14 13 . tighten the front (under the counterweight bar) latitude adjustment screw and loosen the rear screw (if necessary).A. these are general balance instructions and will reduce undue stress on the mount. For Advanced GT users.Figure 2-12 Figure 2-13 Like the R. The latitude adjustment on the CG-5 mount has a range from approximately 30° going up to 60°. This section simply covers the correct movement of the telescope during the polar alignment process. the telescope’s axis of rotation must be parallel to the Earth’s axis of rotation. and horizontally. it may be helpful to remove the front latitude adjustment screw completely. Adjusting the Mount In order for a motor drive to track accurately. balance. which is called azimuth. Then tighten the rear adjustment screw to raise the mount to the desired latitude.A. but by adjusting the mount vertically. motor assembly. which is called altitude. tighten the rear latitude adjustment screw and loosen the front screw (if necessary). is described later in this manual in the section on “Polar Alignment.e. The actual process of polar alignment. To do this you should loosen both latitude adjustment screws and manually push the front of the mount down as far as it will go. or DEC.A. using the rear latitude adjustment screw to raise the mount). this balance process should be done for the specific area at which the telescope is pointing. a process known as polar alignment. Polar alignment is achieved NOT by moving the telescope in R. This will allow the mount to reach lower latitudes without the screw coming into contact with the R.

Now. the knobs are on the front of the mount. as described earlier in this manual. Locking Clamp Declination Cable Input Port The Advanced GT can be powered by the supplied car battery adapter or optional 12v AC adapter.latitude screw. Keep in mind that adjusting the mount is done during the polar alignment process only. DEC Locking Clamp Powering the Telescope R. to the "On" position. For fine adjustments in azimuth: 1.A. Turn on the power to the telescope by flipping the switch. Declination Cable Output Port 12v Power Input On/Off Switch To power the telescope with the car battery adapter (or 12v AC adapter). simply pick up the telescope and tripod and move it. located on the electronics panel. While standing behind the telescope. . To attach the motor cable: Locate the Declination cable and plug one end of the cable into the port on the electronics panel labeled DEC Port and plug the other end of the cable into the port located on the declination motor drive (see Fig 2-15). which means you may have to loosen one screw while tightening the other. • Turning the right adjustment knob clockwise moves the mount toward the right. motor drive electronic panel to the Dec motor drive. Attaching the Declination Cable (For GT Models Only) The Advanced Series mount comes with a declination cable that connects from the R. the mount must NOT be moved. Adjusting the Mount in Azimuth For rough adjustments in azimuth. using only the rear screw. Pointing the telescope is done by moving the mount in right ascension and declination. Note: to prevent the power cord from being accidentally pulled out. Both screws push off of the peg on the tripod head. Using any other adapter may damage the electronics or cause the telescope not to operate properly.A. raise the mount to your desired latitude. and will void your manufacturer's warranty. first use the rear screw to raise the mount head all the way up. 14 2. wrap the power cord around the strain relief located below the power switch. Now you should be able to manually move the mount head all the way to its lowest latitude. Turn the azimuth adjustment knobs located on either side of the azimuth housing (see Fig 2-14). 1. Once polar aligned. • Turning the left adjustment knob clockwise moves the mount to the left. Use only adapters supplied by Celestron. Then remove the front latitude screw completely. simply plug the round post into the 12v Figure 2-15 outlet on the electronic panel and plug the other end into your cars cigarette lighter outlet or portable power supply (see Optional Accessories). The screw that holds the equatorial mount to the tripod may have to be loosened slightly.

Align: Instructs the telescope to use a selected star or object as an alignment position. Below is a brief description of the individual components of the computerized hand controller: 1. 2. 3. computerized version of each telescope has a hand controller designed to give you instant access to all the functions that your telescope has to offer. 1 7 2 8 3 9 4 10 5 11 6 12 Figure 3-1 The Advanced GT Hand Control 15 . Use the direction keys to move the telescope to the initial alignment stars or for centering objects in the eyepiece. Direction Keys: Allows complete control of the telescope in any direction. With automatic slewing to over 40. even a beginner can master its variety of features in just a few observing sessions. and common sense menu descriptions.000 objects.The Advanced Series GT. Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Window: Has a dual-line. 16 character display screen that is backlit for comfortable viewing of telescope information and scrolling text.

which seeks out all the best objects for the current date and time. trios and clusters that are well suited for CCD imaging with the Advanced GT telescope. The hand control contains the following catalogs in its database: Messier – Complete list of all Messier objects. Catalog Keys: The Advanced Series has keys on the hand control to allow direct access to each of the catalogs in its database. all of the best and most popular objects in the Advanced GT database have been broken down into lists based on their type and/or common name: Named Stars Named Objects Double Stars Variable Stars Asterisms CCD Objects IC Objects Abell Objects Constellation Common name listing of the brightest stars in the sky. Stars – A compiled list of the brightest stars from the SAO catalog. A custom list of the Abell Catalog deep-sky galaxies. Caldwell – A combination of the best NGC and IC objects. A complete list of all 88 constellations.4. Enter: Pressing Enter allows you to select any of the Advanced GT functions and accept entered parameters. Info: Displays coordinates and useful information about objects selected from the Advanced GT database. Menu: Displays the many setup and utilities functions such as tracking rates and user defined objects and many others. 7. Planets .All 8 planets in our Solar System plus the Moon. 11. Alphabetical listing of over 50 of the most popular deep sky objects. Press Undo repeatedly to get back to a main menu or use it to erase data entered by mistake. 8. Hand Control Operation This section describes the basic hand control procedures needed to operate the GT Series Telescopes. polar alignment and backlash compensation. RS-232 Jack: Allows you to interface with a computer and control the telescope remotely. the setup section discusses changing parameters such as tracking mode and tracking rate. the last section reviews all of the utilities functions such as calibrating your mount. triple and quadruple stars in the sky. 6. NGC – Complete list of all the deep-sky objects in the Revised New General Catalog. These procedures are grouped into three categories: Alignment. Undo: Undo will take you out of the current menu and display the previous level of the menu path. Numeric-alphabetical listing of the most visually stunning double. A double-arrow will appear on the right side of the LCD when there are sub-menus below the displayed menu. The alignment section deals with the initial telescope alignment as well as finding objects in the sky. Using these keys will scroll through those sub-menus. 12. 5. A unique list of some of the most recognizable star patterns in the sky. 9. and automatically slews the telescope to those objects. Rate: Instantly changes the rate of speed of the motors when the direction buttons are pressed. Select list of the brightest variable stars with the shortest period of changing magnitude. Tour: Activates the tour mode. A custom list of many interesting galaxy pairs. Setup and Utilities. 16 . finally. List – For quick access. A complete list of all the Index Catalog deep-sky objects. Scroll Keys: Used to scroll up and down within any of the menu lists. 10.

so that the index marked in both R. the telescope mount needs to be positioned so that the index marks are aligned on both the right ascension and declination axes (see Fig 2-8). time zone. Last Alignment restores your last saved star alignment and switch position. Date . the correct hemisphere is indicated in the Appendix listings. pressing ENTER after each entry. the cone error value by always using alignment stars on both sides of the Meridian (see Figure 3-2). • Finally. inaccuracy that results from the • Use the Up/Down keys (10) to view the current optical tube not being exactly parameters.. Calibrating. 20:00 ). inherent in all German equatorial 3. you must enter the longitude and latitude of the location of your observing site. Mount Calibration the hand control will display the last entered date and time information After an Auto Align is successfully stored in the hand control. Use the table in Appendix C to locate the closest longitude and latitude for your current observing location and enter those numbers when asked in the hand control. mounts.Enter the month. the telescope can create a model of the sky. it must first be aligned to three known positions (stars) in the sky. perpendicular to the mounts • Press ENTER to accept the current parameters. however it allows the user to select which star to use to align the telescope. The following is able to automatically determine information will be displayed: Time . the telescope bypasses this step and simply models the sky based on the information given. Last Alignment also serves as a good safeguard in case the telescope should lose power. Refer to Time Zone map in Appendix for more information. Quick-Align will ask you to input all the same information as you would for the Auto Align procedure. You can enter either the local time (i. For international cities. • Select PM or AM. Again. declination axis as well as various other inaccuracies such as backlash • Press UNDO to enter current date and time in the mounts gears. If military time was entered. First index its switch position so that each axis has an equal amount of travel to move in either direction. the hand control will bypass this step. use the Up and Down buttons (10) to scroll through the choices. and compensates for "cone" error Dec are aligned (see Fig 2-8). Auto Three Star Align involves the same process as Auto Align. 08:00). longitude and latitude. • Select the time zone that you are observing from. the hand control will 1.Enter the current local time for your area. either manually or with necessary to calculate and the hand control. Cone error is the date. Mechanical errors can be reduced further by always centering alignment stars using the up and right arrow buttons as described in the Pointing Accuracy box below.. 17 . Press Enter to continue. Once the index position has been set. However. Once the telescope is powered on: completed. With this information. • Choose between Standard time or Daylight Savings time. Remember to select "West" for longitudes in North America and "North" for latitudes in the North Hemisphere.e. instead of slewing to the alignment stars for centering and alignment. Finally. There are many ways to align your telescope with the sky depending on what information the user is able to provide: Auto Align allows the telescope to select three stars and uses the entered time/location information to align the telescope. or you can enter military time (i. Startup Procedure Before any of the described alignments are performed. display the message.Alignment Procedures In order for the telescope to accurately point to objects in the sky. The hand control will ask the user to set the mount to its index This automatic calibration routine is position.e. Press ENTER begin the alignment process. which it uses to locate any object with known coordinates. Move the telescope mount. Use the Up and Down scroll buttons (10) to toggle between options. 2. The hand control will then display the last entered local time.A. day and year of your observing session. The telescope information into the hand control.

4. Auto Align Auto Align allows the telescope to automatically choose three stars (two on one side of the Meridian. the UNDO button acts like a back space button allowing the user to re-enter the correct data. Select one of the four alignment methods as described below. you will be asked to center the star in the crosshairs of the finderscope and then center the star in 18 Pointing Accuracy For the best possible pointing accuracy. Select Auto Align from the alignment choices given. the meridian starts from your Southern field of view of the eyepiece. The display will then instruct you to center the star in the through the zenith. 4. The hand control will display a recommended alignment star to begin. Based on the date and time information entered. 2. After the first alignment star has been entered the telescope will automatically select a second alignment star on the same side of the Meridian and have you repeat this procedure for that star. Once centered in the finder. that starts at the North celestial pole and press ENTER. the display will ask you to use the arrow Figure 3-2 buttons to align the selected star with the crosshairs in the The Meridian is an imaginary line in the sky center of the finderscope. When the star is centered. Note: If incorrect information is entered into the hand control. pressing ENTER when complete. 5. To use Auto Three-Star Align: 1. To Auto Align your telescope: 1. the telescope will automatically select and go to a bright star that is above the horizon. 2.4. If you are facing South. • If for some reason the chosen star is not visible (perhaps behind a tree or building) press UNDO to automatically select the next bright star from the database star list. Select Auto Three Star Align from the alignment choices given. however instead of automatically slewing to the alignment stars. and one on the opposite side) on which to align itself. 3. Once again center the star in the crosshairs of the finderscope and then center the star in the eyepiece. the user is allowed to select the alignment stars from a list. . As with the Auto Align procedure. Once the telescope is finished slewing to your first alignment star. star. or • Press the UP and DOWN arrows keys to scroll through the compete list of available alignment stars to choose from. horizon and passes directly overhead to the press ALIGN to accept this star as your first alignment North celestial pole. always center the alignment stars using the up arrow button and the right arrow button. When the telescope has been aligned on all three stars the display will read Alignment Successful. ends at the South celestial pole and passes 3. Auto Three-Star Align Auto Three-Star Alignment works much the same way as Auto Align. and you are now ready to find your first object. Approaching from this direction when looking through the eyepiece will eliminate much of the backlash between the gears and assures the most accurate alignment possible. the telescope will select a bright star on the opposite side of the Meridian and slew to it. • Press UNDO to display the next recommended star on the same side of the Meridian. For the third alignment star. Once the desired alignment star is displayed on the hand control press ENTER to slew the telescope to the star.

This will allow you to roughly slew to the coordinates of bright objects like the moon and planets and gives the telescope the information needed to track objects in any part of the sky (depending on accuracy of polar alignment). press the ALIGN key on the hand control. It is usually best to replace the star closest to the new object. Last Alignment Re-Alignment The Advanced Series telescopes have a re-alignment feature which allows you to replace any of the original alignment stars with a new star or celestial object. 6. The telescope will automatically use the entered date/time parameters to align itself with the sky and display Alignment Successful. press the UNDO button until you are at the main menu. NOTE: Once a Quick-Align has been done. especially on objects in that part of the sky. 19 . With Advanced GT displayed. simply select Quick Align from the alignment options and press ENTER. NOTE: Just like with Quick-Align. For this reason. for best all-sky pointing accuracy it is still necessary to select two alignment stars on one side of the Meridian and the third star on the opposite side of the Meridian. This will improve the pointing accuracy of your telescope without having to re-enter addition information. the hand control will only display stars that are on the same side of the Meridian for the first two alignment stars. Carefully center the object in the eyepiece. The Last Alignment method will automatically recall the last stored index positions to continue using the alignment that was saved when the telescope was last powered down.the eyepiece. Once centered. Select the desired star (or object) from the database and slew to it. 4. instead of slewing to the alignment stars for centering and alignment. you can use the Re-alignment feature (see below) to improve your telescopes pointing accuracy after using the Last Alignment method. (Remember that the stars are moving at a rate of 15º every hour). NOTE: Although the telescope allows the user to select the alignment stars. This will space out your alignment stars across the sky. use the Hibernate feature described later in this chapter. 3. This is a useful feature should your telescope accidentally lose power or be powered down. Quick-Align is not meant to be used to accurately locate small or faint deep-sky objects or to track objects accurately for photography. However. If you have aligned your telescope using the Quick-Align method. To replace an existing alignment star with a new alignment star: 1. Press ALIGN to make the change. you can use the Re-alignment feature (see below) to improve your telescopes pointing accuracy. Aligning on a new star that is in the eastern part of the sky will improve your pointing accuracy. you may notice that your original two alignment stars have drifted towards the west considerably. This can be useful in several situations: • • If you are observing over a period of a few hours. 2. the telescope bypasses this step and simply models the sky based on the information given. To use Quick-Align. then will only display stars on the opposite side of the Meridian for the third alignment star. pressing ENTER when complete. Quick-Align Quick-Align uses all the date and time information entered at startup to align the telescope. Use the UP and Down scroll keys to select the alignment star to be replaced. 5. To maintain a more accurate alignment over a series of observing sessions. you can use re-align to align on actual objects in the sky. The display will then ask you which alignment star you want to replace.

Finding Planets Your telescope can locate all 8 of our solar systems planets plus the Moon. Named Object. Press the ENTER Key. 20 . magnitude size and text information for many of the most popular objects. After the telescope is powered on.Object Catalog Selecting an Object Now that the telescope is properly aligned. Object information can be obtained without having to do a star alignment. Pressing any of the other catalog keys (M. to find the Orion Nebula. you can choose an object from any of the catalogs in the telescope's extensive database. The telescope can move at fast slew speeds and may hit an observer in the eye. press the PLANET key on the hand control. Each list is broken down into the following categories: Named Stars.A. choose from the following options: • • Press the INFO Key. or STAR) will display a blinking cursor below the name of the catalog chosen. press the "M" key and enter "042". and declination. However. There are two ways to select objects from the database: scrolling through the named object lists and entering object numbers. Caution: Never slew the telescope when someone is looking into the eyepiece. Double Stars. The hand control has a key (4) designated for each of the catalogs in its database. Use the numeric key pad to enter the number of any object within these standardized catalogs. When scrolling through a long list of objects. Helpful Hint Slewing to an Object Once the desired object is displayed on the hand control screen. Variable Stars. NGC. Selecting any one of these catalogs will display a numericalphabetical listing of the objects under that list. This will automatically slew the telescope to the coordinates of the object. pressing any of the catalog keys allows you to scroll through object lists or enter catalog numbers and view the information about the object as described above. Pressing the Up and Down keys (10) allows you to scroll through the catalog to the desired object. holding down either the Up or Down key will allow you to scroll through the catalog more rapidly by only displaying every fifth catalog object. Press ENTER to slew to the displayed planet. This will give you useful information about the selected object such as R. the hand control will only display the solar system objects that are above the horizon (or within its filter limits). CALD. To locate the planets. The hand control will display all solar system objects that are above the horizon: • • • Use the Up and Down keys to select the planet that you wish to observe. For example. Press INFO to access information on the displayed planet. Asterisms and CCD Objects. Pressing the LIST key on the hand control will access all objects in the database that have common names or types.

The direction that a star moves in the eyepiece when a direction is pressed will change depending on which side of the Meridian the telescope tube is positioned. see Scope Setup Features later in this section. The LCD will display the current speed rate. • • • To see information and data about the displayed object. In order to change the direction of the arrow buttons. To see the next tour object. The number will appear in the upper-right corner of the LCD display to indicate that the rate has been changed. simply press the arrow button that corresponds to the direction that you want to move the telescope. press the INFO key. Constellation Tour In addition to the Tour Mode.5x sidereal) and can be used for accurate centering of objects in the eyepiece and photographic guiding. you can choose from any of the database object catalogs to produce a list of all the available objects in that constellation. depending on power source) and is used for slewing between objects and locating alignment stars. The hand control will display the best objects to observe that are currently in the sky. Selecting Constellation from the LIST menu will display all the constellation names that are above the user defined horizon (filter limits). press the TOUR key (6) on the hand control. Press the number on the hand control that corresponds to the desired speed. To change the speed rate of the motors: • • Press the RATE key on the hand control. The automatic tour will display only those objects that are within your set filter limits (see Filter Limits in the Setup Procedures section of the manual). The telescope can be controlled at nine different speed rates. To activate the Tour mode. press the INFO key. Rate Button Pressing the RATE key (11) allows you to instantly change the speed rate of the motors from high speed slew rate to precise guiding rate or anywhere in between. To see the next tour object. Each rate corresponds to a number on the hand controller key pad. Direction Buttons The hand control has four direction buttons (3) in the center of the hand control which control the telescope's motion in altitude (up and down) and azimuth (left and right). • • • To see information and data about the displayed object. The hand control has a "double button" feature that allows you to instantly speed up the motors without having to choose a speed rate. To use this feature.Tour Mode The Advanced Series telescopes include a tour feature which automatically allows the user to choose from a list of interesting objects based on the date and time in which you are observing. Once a constellation is selected. The number 1 on the hand control is the slowest rate (. your telescope has a Constellation Tour that allows the user to take a tour of all the best objects in each of the 88 constellations. press the Up key. press ENTER. press ENTER. 21 . The number 9 is the fastest rate (3º per second. While holding that button down. press the Up key. This will increase the slew rate to the maximum slew rate. To slew to the object displayed. To slew to the object displayed. press the opposite directional button.

the tracking can be turned off so that the telescope never moves. Local sidereal time (LST) is useful for knowing the right ascension of celestial objects that are located on the Meridian at that time. The objects can be daytime land objects or an interesting celestial object that you discover 22 . It will also display other relevant time-site information like time zone. If GPS is switched off or not present. but in the opposite direction. Used for tracking the Sun when solar observing with the proper filter. daylight saving and local sidereal time. it will update the displayed information. the hand control will only display the last saved time and location.5º / sec = 2º / sec = 3º / sec Nine available slew speeds Setup Procedures The Advanced GT contains many user defined setup functions designed to give the user control over the telescope's many advanced features. Used to track the sky when the telescope is polar aligned in the Southern Hemisphere. your telescope will continually track a celestial object as it moves across the night sky. The telescope has three different tracking modes: EQ North EQ South Off Used to track the sky when the telescope is polar aligned in the Northern Hemisphere. User Defined Objects .Displays the current time and longitude/latitude downloaded from the optional CN-16 GPS receiver.1 2 3 4 5 = = = = = . View Time-Site will always display the last saved time and location entered while it is linking with the GPS. Tracking Rate In addition to being able to move the telescope with the hand control buttons. When the telescope is polar aligned. The tracking rate can be changed depending on what type of object is being observed: Sidereal This rate compensates for the rotation of the Earth by moving the telescope at the same rate as the rotation of the Earth. Used for tracking the moon when observing the lunar landscape.Your telescope can store up to 400 different user defined objects in its memory. Lunar Solar View Time-Site . All of the setup and utility features can be accessed by pressing the MENU key and scrolling through the options: Tracking Mode This allows you to change the way the telescope tracks depending on the type of mount being used to support the telescope. When using the telescope for terrestrial (land) observation. this can be accomplished by moving the telescope in right ascension only. Once current information has been received.5x 1x (sidereal) 4x 8x 16x 6 7 8 9 = 64x = .

Displays the right ascension and declination for the current position of the telescope. it can be used to identify an unknown object in the field of view of your eyepiece. Goto R. For example. once again center the desired object in the eyepiece. 23 . The display will ask you to enter a number between 1-200 to identify the object. Fixed land objects can be stored by saving their altitude and azimuth relative to the location of the telescope at the time of observing. choosing Identify and then searching the Named Star catalog will no doubt return the star Vega as the star you are observing. if your telescope is pointed at the brightest star in the constellation Lyra. Helpful Hint To store a set of coordinates (R.A. Use the Up/Down scroll keys to select the catalog that you would like to search. To use the Identify feature: • • • Press the Menu button and select the Identify option. Press ENTER again to save this object to the database. Press ENTER to begin the search. Press ENTER again to save this object to the database. Save Sky Object: Enter R. the telescope will replace the previous user defined object with the current one. and declination for that object.that is not included in the regular database.A. The telescope will automatically retrieve and display the coordinates before slewing to the object. Identify Mode can be used to find other celestial objects that are close to the objects you are currently observing. Additionally. Once a desired object is centered in the eyepiece. the hand control will let you know that the Ring Nebula (M57) is approximately 6° from your current position. However. This feature can serve two purposes. they are only valid for that exact location. Get RA/DEC .Dec: Save Land Object: To replace the contents of any of the user defined objects. Your telescope stores celestial objects to its database by saving its right ascension and declination in the sky. There are several ways to save an object to memory depending on what type of object it is: GoTo Object: To go to any of the user defined objects stored in the database. scroll down to either GoTo Sky Obj or Goto Land Obj and enter the number of the object you wish to select and press ENTER. save it as a User Defined Object as described above. Identify Identify Mode will search any of the telescope's database catalogs or lists and display the name and offset distances to the nearest matching objects.A/ Dec . . The telescope can also be used as a spotting scope on terrestrial objects.A. This way the same object can be found each time the telescope is aligned. Scroll down to the "Save Land Obj" command and press ENTER. by selecting Identify and searching by the Named Object or Messier catalogs. simply scroll to the "Save Sky Obj" command and press ENTER. To save land objects./Dec) permanently into the database.Allows you to input a specific R. and declination and slew to it.A. First. Searching the Double Star catalog will reveal that Epsilon Lyrae is only 1° away from Vega. simply save a new object using one of the existing identification numbers. and then the declination of the desired object. You can also store a specific set of coordinates for an object just by entering the R. Scroll to the "Enter RA-DEC " command and press ENTER.A. Since these objects are relative to the location of the telescope. The display will then ask you to enter first the R. The display will ask you to enter a number between 1-200 to identify the object.

• Choose Database to select the object that you want to observe from any of the database catalogs listed or. Press ENTER to slew to the bright alignment star. Precise Goto automatically searches out the closest bright star to the desired object and asks the user to carefully center it in the eyepiece. This play is evident by how long it takes for a star to move in the AZIMUTH LIMITS eyepiece when the hand control arrow buttons are pressed (especially when changing directions). The amount of compensation needed depends on the slewing rate selected. the telescope will then slew to the desired object with enhanced accuracy. Note which directions you see a pause in the star movement after the button has been pressed. Positive FILTERING OFF is the amount of compensation applied when you press the button. the hand control will display only those objects that are known to be above the horizon when you are observing. Use the direction buttons to carefully center the alignment star in the eyepiece. whereas a higher value may be necessary for photographic guiding. While viewing an object in the eyepiece. The hand control then calculates the small difference between its goto position and its centered position. Filter Limits – When an alignment is complete. the telescope automatically knows which celestial objects are above the horizon. positive and negative. adjust the backlash settings high enough to cause immediate movement without resulting in a pronounced jump when pressing or releasing the button. but use a lower value for negative. enter the same values for both positive and negative directions. If you notice a jump when releasing the button. when scrolling through the database lists (or selecting the Tour function).Allows the user to customize the telescope's display by changing time and location parameters (such as time zone and daylight savings). Press the MENU button and use the Up/Down keys to select Precise Goto.Note: Some of the databases contain thousands of objects. scroll down to the anti-backlash option and press ENTER. 3. • Choose RA/DEC to enter a set of celestial coordinates that you wish to slew to. the hand control will search out and display the closest bright star to your desired object. observe the responsiveness of each of the four arrow buttons. The Advanced GT's anti-backlash features allows the user to compensate for AZM MIN LIMIT backlash by inputting a value which quickly rewinds the motors just enough to eliminate AZM MAX LIMIT E/W FILTERING the play between gears. but setting the values lower results in a pause when pressing the button. You can customize the object database by selecting altitude limits that are appropriate for your location and situation. 4. Negative is the amount of compensation applied when you release the button. To use Precise Goto: 1. Once the desired object is selected. The telescope will remember these values and use them each time it is turned on until they are changed. Normally both values should be the same. Working one axis at a time. go with the higher value for positive. Press ENTER to slew to the desired object. winding the motors back in the other direction to resume tracking. Now. For 24 . As a result. To set the anti-backlash value. Scope Setup Features Setup Time-Site . There are two values for each axis. SCOPE SETUP SETUP TIME-SITE ANTI-BACKLASH AZM POSITIVE AZM NEGATIVE ALT POSITIVE ALT NEGATIVE FILTER LIMITS ALTMAX IN LIST ALTMIN IN LIST DIRECTION BUTTONS AZM BUTTONS ALT BUTTONS GOTO APPROACH AZM APPROACH ALT APPROACH AUTOGUIDE RATES AZM RATE 2. and can therefore take several minutes to return the closest objects. in order to get the gears moving quickly without a long pause. Anti-backlash – All mechanical gears have a certain amount of backlash or play ALT RATE between the gears. Precise GoTo The Advanced Series telescopes have a precise goto function that can assist in finding extremely faint objects and centering objects closer to the center of the field of view for astrophotography and CCD imaging. a value between 20 and 50 is usually best for most visual observing. You will need to experiment with different values (from 0-99). Using this offset. the slower the slewing rate the longer it will take for the star to appear to FILTERING ON move in the eyepiece.

lets the user define the direction that the telescope will approach when slewing to an object. To reverse the button logic of the hand control. you can adjust the azimuth slew limit on the side of the mount that is restricted by the cables. select either Altitude or Azimuth approach. using the up and right direction buttons to center alignment stars will automatically eliminate much of the backlash in the gears. Using the example above. Use the Up/Down arrow keys (10) to select either the azimuth (right ascension) or altitude (declination) button direction and press ENTER. Autoguide Rate – Allows the user to set an autoguide rate as a percentage of sidereal rate. If you change the Goto approach of your telescope it is not necessary to change the Button Direction as well. However. you can set your minimum altitude limit to read +20º. This will display every object in the database lists regardless of whether it is visible in the sky from your location. Azimuth Limits .A. To compensate for this. Goto Approach . If the telescope approaches its alignment star from the west (negative azimuth) and clockwise (negative altitude) then make sure that the buttons used to center the alignment stars also move the telescope in the same directions.e. if you are observing from a mountainous location where the horizon is partially obscured. towards the west).This counterweight bar is extended out towards the west and 180º figure shows the full range of motion being the position when the counterweight bar is extended out for the R. the user could slew the telescope 25 . simply choose Goto Approach from the Scope Setup menu. press the MENU button and select Direction Buttons from the Utilities menu. This will make sure that the hand control only displays objects that are higher in altitude than 20º. Just like with Direction Buttons. Declination Goto approach will only apply while the telescope tube is on one side of the Meridian. Setting the azimuth button direction to positive will move the telescope in the same direction that the telescope tracks (i. the Goto approach will need to be reversed. Simply take notice of the direction the telescope moves when completing it final goto approach.) The slew limits are set to 0º to 180º. Helpful Hint! To change the Goto approach direction. choose positive or negative and press ENTER.example. (azimuth) axis toward the east (see Fig 3-3). This is helpful when calibrating your telescope to a CCD autoguider for long exposure photography. This allows the user the ability to minimize the affects of backlash when slewing from object to object. with zero being the position of the telescope when the Fig 3-3 – Azimuth Slew Limits.A. setting GoTo Approach to positive will make the telescope approach an object from the same direction as tracking (west) for azimuth and counterclockwise in declination. By default. set the maximum altitude limit to 90º and the minimum limit to – 90º. the direction of the drive control keys can be changed. Select either positive or negative for both axes and press ENTER to save. If you want to explore the entire object database. Setting the altitude buttons to positive will move the telescope counterclockwise along the DEC axis.Sets the limits that the telescope can slew in azimuth (R. For example. the slew limits can be customized depending on your needs. In order to minimize the affect of gear backlash on pointing accuracy. Once the tube passes over to the other side of the Meridian. This can create confusion especially when guiding on a star when doing astrophotography. the settings for Button Direction should ideally match the settings for GoTo Approach. if you are using CCD imaging equipment that has cables that are not long enough to move with the telescope as it slews across the sky. Observing Tip! Direction Buttons –The direction a star appears to move in the eyepiece changes depending on which side of the Meridian the telescope tube is on.

FACTORY SETTING PRESS UNDO PRESS "0" Based on your current alignment. the direction that the telescope takes to center an object can be changed.A. Polar Alignment. see Goto Approach under the Scope Setup menu. (azimuth) until it reaches the point that the cables are extended to their maximum. Warning: In order for the telescope to be able to slew to a star from the direction that minimizes the amount of backlash in the gears. align the mount using the Auto Align or Auto Three Star method. Enter this azimuth reading for either the maximum or minimum azimuth slew limit to ensure that the telescope will not slew beyond this point. Changing the balance of the telescope can prolong the time it takes to complete the final slew. Calibrate Goto . without regard to the Meridian. you must re-align your telescope again using any of the alignment methods described earlier. In order to guaranty that the telescope will have a full range of motion in R. Utility Features Scrolling through the MENU (9) options will also provide access to several advanced utility functions within the Advanced Series telescopes such as. If this proves to be a problem. POLAR ALIGN LIGHT CONTROL KEYPAD OFF KEYPAD ON DISPLAY OFF DISPLAY ON Polar Align. This will allow the mount to slew without regard to the slew limits.A. Select Polar Align from the Utilities menu and press Enter. the Advanced series telescopes automatically filters and chooses its initial alignment stars so that the first two alignment stars are located on one side of the Meridian and the third star is on the opposite side of the Meridian. Hibernate as well as many others. set the azimuth slew limits to 354 and 186. Select the Set option and press Enter. Then by displaying the telescopes azimuth in this position (by looking at Get Alt-Az under the Utilities menu) you can determine the telescopes azimuth at its most extended position. East/West Filtering allows you to turn off this automatic filtering feature. Calibrate Goto. the telescope will slew to where it thinks Polaris VERSION GET ALT-AZ GOTO ATL-AZ HIBERNATE TURN ON/OFF GPS 26 .In order to ensure the best possible full sky pointing accuracy. Goto Calibration calculates the amount of distance and time it takes for the mount to complete its final slow goto when slewing to an object. To change the telescopes slewing direction. The home position is useful when storing the telescope in a permanent observatory facility. To polar align the mount in the Northern Hemisphere: 1. After performing an Auto Alignment. allowing the hand control to display all of its alignment stars when doing a Auto Three Star Align.The Advanced GT has a polar alignment function that will help you polar align your telescope for increased tracking precision and astrophotography. Once Polar Align is complete. East/West (E/W) Filtering . By default the Home position is the same as the index position used when aligning the mount. This can limit your ability to slew to an object by as much as 6º from the azimuth slew limit set in the hand control. To set the Home position for your mount simply use the arrow buttons on the hand control to move the telescope mount to the desired position. UTILITIES CALIBRATE GOTO HOME POSTION GOTO SET Home Position – The telescopes "home" position is a user-definable position that is used to store the telescope when not in use. By using the equatorial head to center Polaris in the eyepiece. the mount will then be pointed towards the actual North Celestial Pole. (azimuth). With the telescope set up and roughly positioned towards Polaris. Goto Calibration takes into account any slight imbalances and changes the final goto distance to compensate. the telescope will slew to where Polaris should be.Goto Calibration is a useful tool when attaching heavy visual or photographic accessories to the telescope.in R. 2. it may be necessary for the telescope to slew beyond the specified slew limit in order to approach the star from the correct direction.

Remember to never move your telescope manually while in Hibernate mode. 2. On the second line of the LCD. To wake up the telescope after UNDO has been pressed. longitude/latitude along with slew and filter limits will be reset. Pressing UNDO at the Wake Up screen allows you to explore many of the features of the hand control without waking the telescope up from hibernate mode. Get Alt-Az . Do not use the direction buttons to position Polaris.Hibernate allows the telescope to be completely powered down and still retain its alignment when turned back on. Light Control – This feature allows you to turn off both the red key pad light and LCD display for daytime use to conserve power and to help preserve your night vision. you will need to turn the GPS on the first time you use the accessory. 3. The hand control will ask you to press the "0" key before returning to the factory default setting. To place your telescope in Hibernate mode: 1. Parameters such as backlash compensation values. the polar axis should then be pointed towards the North Celestial Pole. Goto Alt-Az .Allows you to enter a specific altitude and azimuth position and slew to it. However. the hand control will display two sets of numbers. Use the equatorial head latitude and azimuth adjustments to place Polaris in the center of the eyepiece.should be. This not only saves power. Move the telescope to a desire position and press ENTER. Select Hibernate from the Utility Menu. the GPS and serial bus versions are displayed. The first set of numbers indicate the hand control software version. Power off the telescope. If you want to use the telescope's database to find the coordinates of a celestial object for a future or past dates you would need to turn the GPS off in order to manually enter a time other than the present. After pressing Enter you have the option of scrolling through the time/site information to confirm the current setting.Displays the relative altitude and azimuth for the current position of the telescope. the first numbers are for azimuth and the second set are for altitude. 27 .If using your Advanced GT telescope with the optional CN-16 GPS accessory (see Optional Accessories section of the manual). stored parameters such as user defined objects will remain saved even when Factory Settings is selected.Selecting this option will allow you to see the current version number of the hand control. Press ENTER to wake up the telescope. motor control and GPS software (if using optional CN-16 GPS accessory). select Hibernate from the Utility menu and press ENTER. For the motor control. initial date and time. Once Polaris is centered in the eyepiece press ENTER. Helpful Hint Turn On/Off GPS . Hibernate . Do not use the direction buttons to move the telescope while in hibernate mode. but is ideal for those that have their telescopes permanently mounted or leave their telescope in one location for long periods of time. Version . . Once the telescope is powered on again the display will read Wake Up. Factory Settings – Returns the Advanced GT hand control to its original factory settings.

ADVANCED GT MENU TRACKING MODE EQ NORTH EQ SOUTH OFF RATE SIDEREAL SOLAR LUNAR VIEW TIME-SITE SCOPE SETUP SETUP TIME-SITE ANTI-BACKLASH FILTER LIMITS DIRECTION BUTTONS GOTO APPROACH AUTOGUIDE RATE AZIMUTH LIMITS EAST/WEST FILTERING UTILITIES CALIBRATE GOTO HOME POSITION POLAR ALIGN LIGHT CONTROL FACTORY SETTING VERSION GET ALT-AZ GOTO ALT-AZ HIBERNATE TURN ON/OFF GPS USER OBJECTS GOTO SKY OBJ SAVE SKY OBJ ENTER RA & DEC SAVE LAND OBJ GOTO LAND OBJ GET RA-DEC GOTO RA-DEC IDENTIFY SELECT CATALOG PRECISE GOTO GOTO TYPE ALIGNMENT START-UP PROCUDURE SET TO INDEX ENTER TIME DLS/ST TIME ZONE ENTER DATE.MM/DD/YY ENTER LONG/LAT AUTO ALIGN CENTER STAR 1 CENTER STAR 2 CENTER STAR 3 LIST NAMED STAR NAMED OBJECT ASTERISM TOUR VARIABLE STAR DOUBLE STAR CCD OBJECTS ABELL IC CATALOG CALDWELL MESSIER NGC SAO SOLAR SYSTEM CONSTELLATION AUTO THREE-STAR ALIGN SELECT STAR 1 CENTER STAR 1 SELECT STAR 2 CENTER STAR 2 SELECT STAR 3 CENTER STAR 3 LAST ALIGNMENT QUICK-ALIGN 28 .

Other telescopes. Figure 4-1 A cutaway view of the light path of the Refractor optical design Image Orientation It should be noted that the image orientation will change depending on the viewing configuration. Early designs used single element lenses. use mirrors. without the star diagonal). It derives its name from the method it uses to focus incoming light rays. use the optional 45° erect image diagonal 1-1/4" (#94112-A). known as refractors. which is important primarily for terrestrial observing. If inserting the eyepiece into the accessory adapter (i. the refractor is the oldest telescope design. The refractor uses a lens to bend or refract incoming light rays. To get around this problem. a phenomenon known as chromatic aberration. use lenses. hence the name (see Figure 4-1). was introduced. Developed in the early 1600s. This holds true for the 9x50 finder as well as the telescope.e. Blue light may still be focused at a slightly different point. the image is inverted (upside down and reversed from left-to-right).. When using the star diagonal. known as reflectors. usually made of crown and flint glasses. Actual image orientation as seen with the unaided eye Reversed from left to right. as viewed with the eyepiece directly in telescope 29 . Each element has a different index of refraction allowing two different wavelengths of light to be focused at the same point. the image is right-side-up. the single lens acts like a prism and breaks light down into the colors of the rainbow. known as an achromat. The nature of the optical design determines how the light is focused. are corrected for red and green light. a two-element lens. However. Some telescopes.A telescope is an instrument that collects and focuses light. Most two-element lenses. as viewed with a Star Diagonal Figure 4-2 Inverted image. For correct orientation through the telescope. but reversed from left-to-right.

Because of this. • If you wear corrective lenses (specifically glasses). this procedure should be done in the daytime when it is easy to find and identify objects. Aligning the Finderscope Accurate alignment of the finder makes it easy to find objects with the telescope. when using a camera you should always wear corrective lenses to ensure the sharpest possible focus. for example.Focusing To focus your telescope. upside down and backwards left-to-right). To determine the magnification of your telescope. This eliminates any possible parallax effect between the telescope and finder. you are using the 20mm eyepiece. If you have astigmatism. 30 . Image orientation through the finder is inverted (i. Turning the knob clockwise allows you to focus on an object that is farther than the one you are currently observing. Adjust the screw on the finder bracket that is on the right (when looking through the finder) until the crosshairs are centered horizontally on the target seen through the telescope. Center your target in the main optics of the telescope. and DEC clamps and point the telescope at your target. simply divide the focal length of the telescope by the focal length of the eyepiece used. simply turn the focus knob located directly below the focuser. To make aligning the finder as easy as possible. In equation format.A. Release the R. it may take a few minutes to familiarize yourself with the directional change each screw makes on the finder.e. To align the finder: 1 2 3 4 5 Choose a target that is in excess of one mile away. especially celestial objects. You may have to move the telescope slightly to center it. Dividing 1200 by 20 yields a magnification of 60 power.. the formula looks like this: Magnification = Focal Length of Telescope (mm)  Focal Length of Eyepiece (mm) Let’s say. Turning the knob counterclockwise from you allows you to focus on an object closer than the one you are currently observing. However. The finderscope has a spring-loaded adjustment screw that puts pressure on the finderscope while the remaining screws are used to adjust the finder horizontally and vertically. Calculating Magnification You can change the power of your telescope just by changing the eyepiece (ocular). To determine the magnification you simply divide the focal length of your telescope (the C6-R for example has a focal length of 1200mm) by the focal length of the eyepiece. Adjust the screw on the top of the finder bracket until the crosshairs are centered vertically on the target seen through the telescope. corrective lenses must be worn at all times. This is normal for any finder that is used straight-through. you may want to remove them when observing with an eyepiece attached to the telescope. 20mm.

Determining Field of View Determining the field of view is important if you want to get an idea of the angular size of the object you are observing. General Observing Hints When working with any optical instrument. or nearly a full degree. If you wear corrective lenses (specifically glasses). each instrument under average skies has a limit to the highest useful magnification. The apparent field of each eyepiece that Celestron manufactures is found in the Celestron Accessory Catalog (#93685).83°. Continuing with our example. the C6-R is 6 inches in diameter. Glass found in household windows is optically imperfect. This yields an actual field of . To calculate the actual field of view. we can determine the field of view using the same 20mm eyepiece.5. This inconsistency can and will affect the ability to focus your telescope. Hazy skies. The general rule is that 60 power can be used for every inch of aperture. • • • • Never look through window glass. multiply the angular field . you must calculate the magnification. and as a result. while in some cases. When using a camera. In equation format. may vary in thickness from one part of a window to the next. when photographing under these conditions. Divide the 50° by the magnification.Although the power is variable. For example. This produces a linear field width of 43.6 feet at a distance of one thousand yards. Multiplying 6 by 60 gives a maximum useful magnification of 360 power. most observing is done in the range of 20 to 35 power for every inch of aperture which is 120 to 210 times for the C6-R telescope. there are a few things to remember to ensure you get the best possible image. Although this is the maximum useful magnification. To convert degrees to feet at 1.000 yards. If you have astigmatism. which is 60 power. which is more useful for terrestrial observing. the processed film may come out a little grainier than normal with lower contrast and underexposed. the formula looks like this: Apparent Field of Eyepiece True Field =  Magnification As you can see. you may want to remove them when observing with an eyepiece attached to the telescope. and mist can also make it difficult to focus when viewing terrestrially. The amount of detail seen under these conditions is greatly reduced. you should always wear corrective lenses to ensure the sharpest possible focus. In most cases you will not be able to achieve a truly sharp image. The 20mm eyepiece has an apparent field of view of 50°. divide the apparent field of the eyepiece (supplied by the eyepiece manufacturer) by the magnification. before determining the field of view. corrective lenses must be worn at all times. 31 . however. simply multiply by 52.5. you may actually see a double image.83° by 52. fog. Using the example in the previous section. Never look across or over objects that are producing heat waves. This includes asphalt parking lots on hot summer days or building rooftops. Also.

these remain fixed against the background stars.A. this manual covered the assembly and basic operation of your telescope. Like the Earth's equator. coordinates are marked off in units of time.e.A. The celestial equivalent of longitude is called Right Ascension. Declination readings south of the equator carry a minus sign (-) in front of the coordinate and those north of the celestial equator are either blank (i. 0 seconds. However. how long) they lag behind this coordinate after it passes overhead moving toward the west. On Earth this would be latitude. 32 . or R. and an equator. and DEC.. for short. The celestial equator runs 360 degrees around the Earth and separates the northern celestial hemisphere from the southern. The celestial coordinate system has poles. This section deals with observational astronomy in general and includes information on the night sky and polar alignment. minutes of arc. lines of longitude and latitude. However. astronomers use a celestial coordinate system that is similar to our geographical coordinate system here on Earth. All other points are designated by how far (i. For the most part. The Celestial Coordinate System To help find objects in the sky.e. to understand your telescope more thoroughly. they are also a measure of time. it bears a reading of zero degrees. Lines of declination are named for their angular distance above and below the celestial equator.Up to this point. or DEC for short.. The lines are broken down into degrees. 0 minutes. Each line of longitude is one hour apart from the next. and seconds of arc. they run from pole to pole and are evenly spaced 15 degrees apart. there are 24 lines total. Although the longitude lines are separated by an angular distance. Like the Earth's lines of longitude. Figure 5-1 The celestial sphere seen from the outside showing R.A. you need to know a little about the night sky. Since the Earth rotates once every 24 hours. no designation) or preceded by a plus sign (+). As a result. It begins with an arbitrary point in the constellation of Pisces designated as 0 hours. in the sky this is referred to as declination. the R.

the complete path is interrupted by the horizon. scribing out a large circle as the Earth completes one rotation. However. Stars near the celestial equator form the largest circles rising in the east and setting in the west. The Earth's rotation also causes the stars to do the same. but the result of the Earth's rotation. the point around which the stars in the northern hemisphere appear to rotate. These appear to rise in the east and set in the west (2). stars curve or arc in the opposite direction scribing a circle around the opposite pole (3). Stars in the mid-celestial latitudes rise in the northeast and set in the northwest. This daily trek is not the Sun moving as early astronomers thought. Looking toward the opposite pole. The processed film will reveal semicircles that revolve around the pole. Near the north celestial pole the stars scribe out recognizable circles centered on the pole (1). However. and are said to be circumpolar because they never rise and never set. You will never see the stars complete one circle because the sunlight during the day washes out the starlight. part of this circular motion of stars in this region of the sky can be seen by setting up a camera on a tripod and opening the shutter for a couple hours. (This description of stellar motions also applies to the southern hemisphere except all stars south of the celestial equator move around the south celestial pole. Stars at high celestial latitudes are always above the horizon. But.) Figure 5-2 All stars appear to rotate around the celestial poles.Motion of the Stars The daily motion of the Sun across the sky is familiar to even the most casual observer. Moving toward the north celestial pole. Stars near the celestial equator also follow circular paths around the pole. The size of the circular path a star follows depends on where it is in the sky. the appearance of this motion varies depending on where you are looking in the sky. 33 . these circles become smaller.

Although this is by no means perfect alignment.. You would have to travel 70 miles north or south to change your latitude by one degree. The constant. is a relationship between your latitude and the angular distance the celestial pole is above the northern (or southern) horizon. NOTE: Leveling the tripod is only necessary if using this method of polar alignment. Loosen the DEC clutch knob and move the telescope so that the tube is parallel to the polar axis. If you move one Figure 5-3 degree further south. Make sure the polar axis of the mount is pointing due north. 2. imagine that you are standing on the north pole. thus eliminating the need to fumble around in the dark. 1. The Advanced Series mount can be adjusted from 30 to 60 degrees (see figure 5-3). Unlike the previous method. If the declination setting circle is not aligned. the declination setting circle will read +90°. please see the section “Adjusting the Mount. The angular distance from the northern horizon to the north celestial pole is always equal to your latitude. Although this method does NOT put you directly on the pole. it will limit the number of corrections you will make when tracking an object. It has moved one degree closer toward the northern horizon. For specific information on adjusting the equatorial mount. it does get you within one degree. Now. 4. move the telescope so that the tube is parallel to the polar axis. Pointing at Polaris This method utilizes Polaris as a guidepost to the celestial pole. which has a declination of +90°.e. Adjust the mount in altitude until the latitude indicator points to your latitude. Use a landmark that you know faces north. 3. this must be done in the dark when Polaris is visible. 3. which has a latitude of 34°. This means the pole is now 89° above the northern horizon. The north Latitude celestial pole. this method works off of a known constant to determine how high the polar axis should be pointed. Adjust the mount in altitude and/or azimuth until Polaris is in the field of view of the finder. Level the tripod. There is a bubble level built into the mount for this purpose. As you can see from this example. 2. Moving the mount affects the angle the polar axis is pointing. Center Polaris in the field of the telescope using the fine adjustment controls on the mount. If you are observing from Los Angeles. the distance from the northern horizon to the celestial pole is always equal to your latitude. Since Polaris is less than a degree from the celestial pole. the same thing happens again. Set the telescope up so that the polar axis is pointing north. To illustrate this. Unlike other methods that require you to find the celestial pole by identifying certain stars near it. Perfect polar alignment is still possible using other methods described later in this manual without leveling the tripod. then the celestial pole is 34° above the northern horizon. let’s say that you move one degree south — your latitude is now +89° and the celestial pole is no longer directly overhead.” This method can be done in daylight. latitude +90°. When this is done. mentioned above. It will also be accurate enough for short exposure prime focus planetary photography (a couple of seconds) and short exposure piggyback astrophotography (a couple of minutes). would Scale be directly overhead (i.Latitude Scales The easiest way to polar align a telescope is with a latitude scale. 90 above the horizon). All a latitude scale does then is to point the polar axis of the telescope at the right elevation above the northern (or southern) horizon. To align your telescope: 1. you can simply point the polar axis of your telescope at Polaris. 34 .

this gets you close to the pole but not directly on it. in the northern hemisphere all stars move around the north celestial pole. The counterpart in the southern hemisphere is referred to as the south celestial pole. The telescope is used simply to see where the polar axis is pointing. This star is just within naked eye limit (magnitude 5. The stars around the south celestial pole are not nearly as bright as those around the north. Figure 5-4 The position of the Big Dipper changes throughout the year and the night. Many methods of polar alignment require that you know how to find the celestial pole by identifying stars in the area. or DEC. Like the previous method. The closest star that is relatively bright is Sigma Octantis. is on the opposite side of the pole from the Big Dipper. but the polar axis. Definition The north celestial pole is the point in the northern hemisphere around which all stars appear to rotate.e. Cassiopeia. These points are called the celestial poles and are named for the hemisphere in which they reside. Fortunately. Draw an imaginary line through them toward the Little Dipper. For those in the northern hemisphere. while Polar aligning. 35 . do NOT move the telescope in R. Polaris. You do not want to move the telescope itself. When the Big Dipper is low in the sky (i. we have a naked eye star less than a degree away. For example. it may be difficult to locate from urban areas. The following methods help improve your accuracy for more serious observations and photography.. The North Celestial Pole (N. the “W” shaped constellation. This star.Remember. there is a point in the sky around which all the other stars appear to rotate. During these times. Figure 5-5 The two stars in the front of the bowl of the Big Dipper point to Polaris which is less than one degree from the true (north) celestial pole. use the two end stars in the bowl of the Big Dipper (the pointer stars).P. look for Cassiopeia (see Figure 5-5).5) and lies about 59 arc minutes from the pole. Observers in the southern hemisphere are not as fortunate as those in the northern hemisphere. it is parallel to the Earth's rotational axis. They point to Polaris (see Figure 5-5).) is marked by the “+” sign. Finding the North Celestial Pole In each hemisphere.C. is the end star in the handle of the Little Dipper. it may be difficult to locate. The position of the Big Dipper changes during the year and throughout the course of the night (see Figure 5-4). near the horizon). When the telescope's polar axis is pointed at the celestial pole. finding the celestial pole is not too difficult.A. Since the Little Dipper (technically called Ursa Minor) is not one of the brightest constellations in the sky. If this is the case.

and DEC to check parallelism. If the star drifts north. First. When looking due south. The drift of each star tells you how far away the polar axis is pointing from the true celestial pole and in what direction. While monitoring a star near the east/west horizon.A. Make the appropriate adjustments to the polar axis to eliminate any drift. To perform the declination drift method you need to choose two bright stars. While monitoring a star on the meridian. repeat the process again to improve the accuracy checking both axes for minimal drift. but you must reverse the polar high/low error directions. Also.Declination Drift Method of Polar Alignment This method of polar alignment allows you to get the most accurate alignment on the celestial pole and is required if you want to do long exposure deep-sky astrophotography through the telescope.A. the telescope is very accurately aligned. a Barlow lens is also recommended since it increases the magnification and reveals any drift faster. and DEC. the direction of drift is reversed for both R. the latter adjustments interact with the prior adjustments ever so slightly. • • If the star drifts south. The declination drift method should be done after any one of the previously mentioned methods has been completed. For very close alignment. Although declination drift is simple and straight-forward. Move your telescope manually in R. insert the diagonal so the eyepiece points straight up. • • If the star drifts south. the polar axis is too high. 0° declination). Again. choose your star near where the celestial equator and the meridian meet. 36 . any misalignment in the east-west direction is revealed. Once you have eliminated all the drift. the polar axis is too low. make the appropriate adjustments to the polar axis to eliminate any drift. The declination drift method requires that you monitor the drift of selected stars. Unfortunately. you may choose a star near the western horizon. the polar axis is too far east. If the star drifts north.e. move to the star near the eastern horizon. Center the star in the field of your telescope and monitor the drift in declination. it requires a great deal of time and patience to complete when first attempted. It is helpful to have an illuminated reticle eyepiece to help you recognize any drift. You will monitor the drift of each star one at a time and in declination only. the polar axis is too far west. NOTE: If the eastern horizon is blocked. So. The star should be approximately within 1/2 an hour of the meridian and within five degrees of the celestial equator. You can now do prime focus deep-sky astrophotography for long periods. Once the drift has been eliminated. One should be near the eastern horizon and one due south near the meridian. any misalignment in the north-south direction is revealed.. The star should be 20 degrees above the horizon and within five degrees of the celestial equator. if using this method in the southern hemisphere. Insert the cross hair eyepiece and align the cross hairs so that one is parallel to the declination axis and the other is parallel to the right ascension axis. Both stars should be near the celestial equator (i.

you are ready to use it for observing. use filters. You can see Venus go through its lunar-like phases. At low power you will be able to see most of the lunar disk at one time. of its polar caps.With your telescope set up. 37 . tremendous heat buildup will result inside the optical tube. In addition. This section covers visual observing hints for both solar system and deep sky objects as well as general observing conditions which will affect your ability to observe. So. Lunar Observing Hints To increase contrast and bring out detail on the lunar surface. you will also be able to see the moons of Jupiter as they orbit the giant planet. Because of the folded optical design. the face we see is fully illuminated and its light can be overpowering. solar observation is both rewarding and fun. A yellow filter works well at improving contrast while a neutral density or polarizing filter will reduce overall surface brightness and glare. avoid observing the planets when they are low on the horizon or when they are directly over a source of radiating heat. However. is easily visible at moderate power. In addition. Long shadows reveal a great amount of detail on the lunar surface. Mars can reveal a host of surface detail and one. Change to higher power (magnification) to focus in on a smaller area. little or no contrast can be seen during this phase. if not both. One of the best times to observe the Moon is during its partial phases (around the time of first or third quarter). Choose the lunar tracking rate from the hand control's MENU tracking rate options to keep the moon centered in the eyepiece even at high magnifications. • Observing the Sun Although overlooked by many amateur astronomers. Observing the Planets Other fascinating targets include the five naked eye planets. it is tempting to look at the Moon when it is full. You will be able to see the cloud belts of Jupiter and the great Red Spot (if it is visible at the time you are observing). Never project an image of the Sun through the telescope. try using Celestron eyepiece filters. To increase contrast and bring out detail on the planetary surface. See the "Seeing Conditions" section later in this section. because the Sun is so bright. Saturn. Planetary Observing Hints • Remember that atmospheric conditions are usually the limiting factor on how much planetary detail will be visible. special precautions must be taken when observing our star so as not to damage your eyes or your telescope. Observing the Moon Often. At this time. This can damage the telescope and/or any accessories attached to the telescope. with its beautiful rings. such as a rooftop or chimney.

And. Hazy skies absorb more light than clear skies making fainter objects harder to see and reducing contrast on brighter objects. • Observing Deep Sky Objects Deep-sky objects are simply those objects outside the boundaries of our solar system. Light pollution around large urban areas washes out most nebulae making them difficult. These atmospheric 38 . and other airborne particles. making it safe to view. Transparency Transparency is the clarity of the atmosphere which is affected by clouds. bright skies reduce the contrast of extended nebulae making them difficult. they appear black and white. use a solar filter that reduces the intensity of the Sun's light. To center the Sun without looking into the eyepiece. moisture. diffuse nebulae. Sky Illumination General sky brightening caused by the Moon. to observe. they should be observed from a dark-sky location. The amount of bending depends on air density. To ensure accurate tracking. To maximize your observing. if not impossible. they are too faint to reveal any of the color seen in long exposure photographs. natural airglow. allowing the light from the brightest stars through. therefore.For safe solar viewing. planetary nebulae. aurorae. They include star clusters. observe planets and stars from light polluted areas or when the Moon is out. be sure to select the solar tracking rate. which are bright patches seen near the Sun's edge. Light Pollution Reduction filters help reduce the background sky brightness. Solar Observing Hints • • The best time to observe the Sun is in the early morning or late afternoon when the air is cooler. Understanding viewing conditions and the effect they have on observing will help you get the most out of your telescope. and light pollution greatly affect transparency. Thick cumulus clouds are completely opaque while cirrus can be thin. if not impossible. Conditions include transparency. Light rays from the same object arrive slightly displaced creating an imperfect or smeared image. While not a problem for the brighter stars and planets. The air in our atmosphere acts as a lens which bends and distorts incoming light rays. Varying temperature layers have different densities and. double stars and other galaxies outside our own Milky Way. Seeing Conditions Viewing conditions affect what you can see through your telescope during an observing session. on the other hand. Aerosols ejected into the upper atmosphere from volcanic eruptions also affect transparency. sky illumination. low-to-moderate power is all you need to see them. Ideal conditions are when the night sky is inky black. because of their low surface brightness. Most deep-sky objects have a large angular size. Therefore. LPR filters enhance deep sky viewing from light polluted areas by blocking unwanted light while transmitting light from certain deep sky objects. thus increasing contrast. Instead. and seeing. watch the shadow of the telescope tube until it forms a circular shadow. to see. With a filter you can see sunspots as they move across the solar disk and faculae. limit deep sky viewing to moonless nights far from the light polluted skies found around major urban areas. bend light differently. Visually. You can. Seeing Seeing conditions refers to the stability of the atmosphere and directly affects the amount of fine detail seen in extended objects.

Figure 6-1 Seeing conditions directly affect image quality. Since. these include. you will allow all the incoming light to pass closer to the center of the optical axis. There are several techniques that the observer can employ to suppress visible signs of chromatic aberration. Chromatic aberration will become more pronounced the farther the incoming light rays are off-axis (i. Most often. such as the polar caps on Mars or the bands and zones around Jupiter. Under good seeing conditions. and stars are pinpoint images. seeing conditions produce images that lie some where between these two extremes.e. By leaving the lens cap on the telescope with the aperture stop removed. This type of aberration is only evident when observing very bright sources of light. The use of Celestron's Contrast Booster (#94121) reduces the effect of chromatic aberration as well as improves contrast and resolution. The lens cap should always be completely removed when observing deep-sky objects such as galaxies and nebulae. Using the Lens Cap Aperture Stop As mentioned earlier. passing through the edge of the objective lens) and virtually unnoticeable on-axis (passing through the center of the objective lens). most planets are extremely bright objects (visible to the unaided eye) any loss of light from reducing the aperture will be unnoticeable. The conditions described here apply to both visual and photographic observations.disturbances vary from time-to-time and place-to-place.. 39 . reducing the aperture and using filters. These drawings represent a point source (i. Under poor seeing conditions. such as bright planets and very luminous stars (like Sirius). The size of the air parcels compared to your aperture determines the "seeing" quality. fine detail is visible on the brighter planets like Jupiter and Mars. where aperture (light gathering power) is essential and chromatic aberration is not an issue. star) under bad seeing conditions (left) to excellent conditions (right). Filters are commonly used to bring out particular planetary detail. all refractive optics will exhibit some amount of chromatic aberration due to the prism effect of lenses.e. The objective lens cap covering the objective lens of the telescope has a built-in 112mm aperture stop in the center. images are blurred and stars appear as blobs. Another useful technique for reducing aberrations and improving planetary detail is the use of colored eyepiece filters.

Second. you can purchase a used camera body that is not 100-percent functional. This excludes point and shoot cameras and limits the selection to SLR cameras. for example. Pentax. Several forms of photography are possible with your telescope. 3. For example. Small mistakes made while guiding the telescope will not show up on film. a “B” setting which allows for time exposures. you don't need auto focus capability or mirror lock up. the margin for error is very large. the “B” or manual setting should NOT run off the battery. long exposure astrophotography is via the piggyback method. Here are the mandatory features a camera needs for celestial photography. First. As with any form of deep-sky photography. To attach the camera to the telescope. including terrestrial and celestial photography. whether you were finished with the exposure or not. If you can't find a new camera. Nikon. use the piggyback adapter screw located on the top of the tube mounting ring. Once the batteries are drained. More information is available in some of the publications listed at the end of this manual. there is the need for a camera but not just any camera. Polar align the telescope (using one of the methods described earlier) and start the motor drive. Look for a camera that has a manual shutter when operating in the time exposure mode. Olympus. The light meter. Set the shutter speed to the “B” setting and focus the lens to the infinity setting. ISO 100 or faster. Canon and others have made such camera bodies. It may be necessary to remove the finder scope bracket before attaching the camera. Piggyback The easiest way to enter the realm of deep-sky. Many new electronic cameras use the battery to keep the shutter open during time exposures. usually after a few minutes. The camera does not have to have many of the features offered on today's state-of-the-art equipment. ISO 400 or faster! Set the f/ratio of your camera lens so that it is a half stop to one full stop down from completely open. Because you are photographing with a low power lens and guiding with a high power telescope. You can still practice from less ideal skies. 1. Minolta. 40 . does not have to be operational since you will be determining the exposure length manually. 4. the most common type of 35mm camera on the market today. Load your camera with slide film. Topics include the accessories required and some simple techniques. or print film. You also need a cable release with a locking function to hold the shutter open while you do other things. the shutter closes.After looking at the night sky for a while you may want to try photographing it. The camera must have interchangeable lenses so you can attach it to the telescope and so you can use a variety of lenses for piggyback photography. In addition to the specific accessories required for each type of celestial photography. Both of these are discussed in moderate detail with enough information to get you started. 2. Through piggyback photography you can capture entire constellations and record large scale nebulae that are too big for prime focus photography. it should be done from a dark sky observing site. Mechanical and air release models are available. Light pollution around major urban areas washes out the faint light of deep-sky objects. Piggyback photography is done with a camera and its normal lens riding on top of the telescope.

). 8. Find a suitable guide star in the telescope eyepiece field of view. Short Exposure Prime Focus Photography Short exposure prime focus photography is the best way to begin recording celestial objects.5. This is relatively easy since you can search a wide area without affecting the area covered by your camera lens. Load your camera with film that has a moderate-to-fast speed (i. Focus the telescope by turning the focus knob until the image is sharp. 7. This makes it easy to detect any drift. Trip the shutter using a cable release.. you are ready for prime focus photography. The C6-R focuser has a built-in T-adapter and are ready to accept a 35mm camera body. Minolta. If you do not have an illuminated cross hair eyepiece for guiding. ISO rating). Prime focus photography allows you to capture the entire solar disk (if using the proper filter) as well as the entire lunar disk. Here are some film recommendations: • • • • 2. Here’s how to do it: 1. and at its brightest. slower films are more desirable. 4. When the Moon is near full. Pentax. Monitor your guide star for the duration of the exposure making the necessary corrections needed to keep the star centered.e. Nikon. To attach your camera to your telescope: 1 2 Remove the eyepiece from the 1 1/4" eyepiece holder. Thread the T-ring onto the exposed T-adapter threads. 3. Set the shutter speed to the appropriate setting (see table 7-1). Faster films are more desirable when the Moon is a crescent. Unthread the 1 1/4" eyepiece holder from the focuser assembly. To attach your camera. 5.. The T-Ring replaces the 35mm SLR camera’s normal lens. you need the T-adapter and a T-Ring for your specific camera (i. Release the shutter using a cable release. 6. It is done with the camera attached to the telescope without an eyepiece or camera lens in place. Mount your camera body onto the T-Ring the same as you would any other lens. 6. etc. T-Max 100 T-Max 400 Any 100 to 400 ISO color slide film Fuji Super HG 400 3 4 Center the Moon in the field of your telescope. simply defocus your guide star until it fills most of the field of view. This will expose the male thread of the builtin T-adapter. Advance the film and repeat the process. 41 .e. With your camera attached to the telescope. Locate the area of the sky that you want to photograph and move the telescope so that it points in that direction. Start with an easy object like the Moon.

producing blurred photos. This will turn the tracking motors off. Use the Up and Down scroll keys (10) to select the Off option and press ENTER. try a yellow filter to reduce the light intensity and to increase contrast. thus eliminating the possibility of introducing vibration. Mechanical shutter releases can be used. To prevent this. the exposure length is virtually unlimited. If the lens is mounted on a tripod. Adjustments for proper exposures are made by changing the shutter speed. use a cable release. though air-type releases are best. as a result. To reduce vibration when tripping the shutter. Consult your camera manual for specific information on metering and changing shutter speeds. Reducing Vibration Releasing the shutter manually can cause vibrations. To turn the tracking drive off. This will ensure that you will get a good photo. They reduce the vibration amplitude and vibration time. so that objects will remain in your camera's field of view. Terrestrial photography is best done will the telescope tracking drive turned off. Keep accurate records of your exposures. To properly expose your subjects photographically. These pads rest between the ground and tripod feet. • Terrestrial Photography Your telescope makes an excellent telephoto lens for terrestrial (land) photography. you need to set your shutter speed accordingly. use films that produce shutter speeds greater than 1/250 of a second when hand-holding the lens. Also. Another way to reduce vibration is with the Vibration Suppression Pads (#93503). The exposure times listed in table 7-1 should be used as a starting point. A cable release keeps your hands clear of the camera and lens.Lunar Phase Crescent Quarter Full ISO 50 1/2 1/15 1/30 ISO 100 1/4 1/30 1/60 ISO 200 1/8 1/60 1/125 ISO 400 1/15 1/125 1/250 Table 7-1 Above is a listing of recommended exposure times when photographing the Moon at the prime focus of your telescope. Most 35mm SLR cameras offer through-the-lens metering which lets you know if your picture is under or overexposed. • • If using black and white film. 42 . press the MENU (9) button on the hand control and scroll down to the Tracking Mode sub menu. fixed f/ratios. Blurry pictures can also result from shutter speeds that are too slow. take a few photos at each shutter speed. This information is useful if you want to repeat your results or if you want to submit some of your photos to various astronomy magazines for possible publication! This technique is also used for photographing the Sun with the proper solar filter. Metering The Advanced Series telescope has a fixed aperture and. Always make exposures that are longer and shorter than the recommended time.

Note that the four outputs are active-low.Auto Guiding The Advanced GT telescope has a designated auto guiding port for use with a CCD autoguider. with internal pull-ups and are capable of sinking 25 mA DC. 43 . The diagram below may be useful when connecting the CCD camera cable to the telescope and calibrating the autoguider.

44 . either with a hair dryer (on low setting) or by pointing the telescope at the ground until the dew has evaporated. replace all lens covers once you have finished using it. If you want to continue observing. Occasionally. Special care should be taken when cleaning any instrument so as not to damage the optics. Or. If dust has built up on the lens. use an optical cleaning solution and white tissue paper to remove any remaining debris. The solution should be 60% isopropyl alcohol and 40% distilled water. dust and/or moisture may build up on the objective lens of your telescope.While your telescope requires little maintenance. Internal adjustments and cleaning should be done only by the Celestron repair department. Your C6-R refractor was properly aligned at the factory. If moisture condenses on the inside of the lens. Place the telescope in a dust-free environment and point it down. To determine whether or not re-collimation is necessary. please call the factory for a return authorization number and price quote. To minimize the need to clean your telescope. the cover should be placed over the opening when not in use. remove the accessories from the rear cell of the telescope. liquid dish soap diluted with water (a couple of drops per one quart of water) can be used. Care and Cleaning of the Optics Occasionally. This will prevent contaminants from entering the optical tube. Then. remove it with a brush (made of camel’s hair) or a can of pressurized air. It should be a still night and one in which you have let the telescope Collimation Screws (Allen head) Mounting Screws (Phillips head) Figure 8-1 – Objective lens housing (with lens shade removed) show mounting and collimation screws. there are a few things to remember that will ensure your telescope performs at its best. This will remove the moisture from the telescope tube. you may experience dew build-up on the lens of your telescope during an observing session. Since the rear cell is NOT sealed. Low pressure strokes should go from the center of the lens to the outer portion. the telescope should be set up outside at night. Spray at an angle to the lens for approximately two to four seconds. however rough handling while traveling may eventually alter the alignment of the lens. Apply the solution to the tissue and then apply the tissue paper to the lens. Your Celestron refractor telescope comes with a fully adjustable objective lens housing to ensure proper alignment of the optical axis. If your telescope is in need of internal cleaning. the dew must be removed. Collimation Collimation is the process of aligning the optical axis of each optical element with each other and with the mechanical axis of the telescope tube. For a refractor telescope design this means aligning the optical axis of the objective lens with the optical axis of the eyepiece on the other end of the tube. A good cleaning solution is isopropyl alcohol mixed with distilled water. Do NOT rub in circles! You can use a commercially made lens cleaner or mix your own.

The star should be well centered in the field of view of the eyepiece.Your refractor includes a collimating eyepiece that can help you to roughly check the alignment of your telescope in the daytime. Then. roof tops. it is necessary to re-aim the telescope tube to center the star again in the field of view. Pick a bright star and center it in the field of the telescope.. then collimation is necessary. You should also wait for a night with good seeing conditions and avoid looking over anything that produces heat waves (i. In order to make an adjustment. Prior to collimating.e. tracking) equatorial mount that is approximately polar aligned or pointed at a stationary star without the motor drive running. Study the image of the star while racking it in and out of focus using an eyepiece that yields 30 to 60 power for every inch of aperture. undo what you did and try another set of screws. then it may be necessary to collimate the telescope as described above. After making the first of each adjustment. focus with your highest power eyepiece (i. In fact. If an unsymmetrical focus pattern is present. Only one of the three (3) sets is adjusted at a time.e. Polaris. If the objective lens appears oval.sit outside for 15 to 30 minutes before attempting collimation. Do NOT remove or back out the holder screws more than one (1) to two (2) turns! With Polaris or another bright star centered in the field of view. It may be necessary to remove the lens shade from the front of the tube to allow easy access to the collimation screws. With the focuser racked in all the way and the diagonal removed. 45 . etc. the North Star. Start by loosening the Phillips head screws about 1 turn and advancing the Allen screw to see if the motion is correct. the telescope should be on either a motor driven (i. This includes eyepieces in the 4mm to 6mm range. while one views and instructs the other which screws are correctly turned and by how much. (These screws attach the objective lens housing to the main tube and should not be removed). with only about 1/2 to 3/4 turn being the maximum required. one with the shortest focal length). is the perfect collimation star for northern hemisphere observers since it appears motionless against the background sky long enough to perform the collimation procedure. Since three (3) sets of screws are present. the outer screw is tightened.. car hoods.. It can then be judged for symmetry by going just inside and outside of exact focus and noting the star’s pattern. If not. you should be able to see the entire edge of the objective lens when looking through the pin hole. Next to each mounting screw is a shorter Allen screw that pushes against the optical tube to pivot the objective lens housing (see Figure 1). Normally motions on the order of 1/8 turn will make a difference. Collimating Eyepiece. Improvement should be seen if the proper adjustments are made. it may be necessary to move at least two (2) sets of screws to achieve the necessary lens movement. the out of focus star image will appear as a concentric ring pattern similar to that shown in Figure 8-2). To collimate. If the telescope is properly collimated. (If the telescope is properly collimated. locate the three (3) screws on the objective lens housing on the front of the tube.e. most observers will find the telescope’s collimation right out of the box to be satisfactory. The collimating eyepiece has a pin hole site that helps you determine if the optics are properly aligned with the tube. Polaris is the last star in the handle of the Little Dipper (Ursa Minor) and its distance above the northern horizon is always equal to your latitude angle. your telescope should not need additional collimation unless the telescope has been bumped or jarred severely.). Do NOT over tighten the outer holding screws! Once in collimation. the outer screw is loosened while the Allen screw is turned in or out. It may be helpful for two people working together. Exact collimation is only necessary for discriminating observers that require optimal imagery. place the collimating eyepiece inside the focuser tube. Figure 8-2 A collimated telescope should appear as a symmetrical ring pattern similar to the diffraction disk seen here.

In the 1-1/4" barrel diameter. Filters Sets. #15. 10mm. Eyepiece .3mm). Each design has its own advantages and disadvantages. The 35mm Ultima gives the widest possible field of view with a 1-1/4" diagonal. • OMNI Plössl . 5mm. 12. 25. The Plössls offer razor sharp views across the entire field.5mm. These eyepieces are all parfocal.5mm. they are available in the following focal lengths: 5mm. 30mm. For the 1-1/4" barrel diameter there are four different eyepiece designs available. 6mm. For ease of reference. All units are seven element designs and feature a 70º extra wide field of view (except the 50mm). it doubles the magnification of that eyepiece. 18mm. a new wide angle series is offered – called the Axiom series. Series 1 – #94119-10 Orange. 8mm. Not only are these highly useful filter combinations. 9mm. Light Green. 96ND-25) 46 . • X-Cel . X-Cel eyepiece come in the following focal lengths: 2.5mm. ND25% T (#s 12. Light Blue. they are available in the following focal lengths: 4mm. 25mm. Adapter AC (#18773) . which contain four different filters per set. The OMNI Barlow (#93326) is a compact achromatic Barlow lens that is under three inches long and weighs only 4 oz.A Barlow lens is a negative lens that increases the focal length of a telescope. • Ultima . 12. wide field eyepiece design. even at the edges! In the 1-1/4" barrel diameter. 21mm.Celestron offers four convenient filter sets.5mm.Ultima is our 5-element. Red. Polarizing) Series 2 – #94119-20 Deep Yellow. Auxiliary Port Accessory (#93965) – This accessory plugs into the auxiliary port of the telescopes control panel to provide additional ports for accessories like the CN-16 GPS as well as a PC programming port. • Axiom – As an extension of the Ultima line. 7. extra-low dispersion glass is used for the most highly curved optical elements.This 6 element design allows each X-Cel Eyepiece to have 20mm of eye relief. Barlow Lens . 35mm. ND13%T. Polarizing (#s 21. The 2x Ultima Barlow (#93506) is a compact triplet design that is fully multicoated for maximum light transmission and parfocal when used with the Ultima eyepieces. but they also offer an economical way to add versatility to your filter collection. 55° field of view and more than 25mm of lens aperture (even with the 2. 18mm.You will find that additional accessories enhance your viewing pleasure and expand the usefulness of your telescope.Plössl eyepieces have a 4-element lens designed for low-to-high power observing. 80A.Allow DC (battery powered) telescopes to be converted for use with 120 volt AC power.3mm. color-free views are most appreciated. 32mm and 40mm. 15mm. make the X-Cel line especially well suited for high magnification planetary viewing where sharp. 12.Like telescopes. all the accessories are listed in alphabetical order. and 42mm. It works very well with all Celestron eyepieces. 25mm. eyepieces come in a variety of designs. Used with any eyepiece. Celestron offers two Barlow lens in the 1-1/4" size. 10mm. 56. All are fully multicoated and contain all the features of the Ultimas. 20mm. The excellent refractive properties of these high grade optical elements. In order to maintain razor sharp. Eyepieces . color corrected images across its 55° field of view.

It is powered by four D-cell batteries (not included).This multipurpose 12. Halogen emergency spotlight. The laser etched reticle provides razor sharp lines and the variable brightness illuminator is completely cordless. These precision. 96ND-13) Flashlight. Single Axis (#93518) — This motor drive is a single axis (R. 58. CN16 GPS Accessory (#93963) . As a result. This includes mercury and high and low pressure sodium vapor lights. Polar Axis Finderscope (#94220) – This useful accessory speeds accurate polar alignment by providing a means of visually aligning your German equatorial mount with Polaris and true north. Blue. angular separations. you can spend more time observing and less time setting up. 2x and 4x sidereal speeds are available through the included hand controller. Controlled with the computerized hand control. 96ND-50) Series 4 – #94119-40 Yellow. Deep Yellow. For non-computerized Advanced Series Mounts. Dual Axis (#93523) . Pale Blue (#s 8. specifically those produced by artificial lights. 2x for guiding. Micro Guide Eyepiece (#94171) . Motor Drive. Violet.A. timed exposures of celestial objects. the CN-16 will greatly improve the accuracy of your star alignments.Cassegrain telescopes or slides into the barrel of a 2" focuser. They precisely control the telescope's tracking speed during long. and 8x for centering. Switchable 110v/220v AC adapter and cigarette lighter adapter included. so greater detail can be observed on the lunar surface. Comes with two 12v output cigarette outlets.5mm illuminated reticle can be used for guiding deep-sky astrophotos.Series 3 – #94119-30 Light Red. Moon Filter (#94119-A) . This is used primarily for terrestrial.(#93588) . The micro guide eyepiece produces 96 power with the C6-R. lunar and planetary observing.This dual axis motor drive. built-in red flash light . Brightness is adjustable. 38A.). thus increasing contrast between various objects. The hand controller module is very compact and fits easily in the palm of your hand. Motors for both axes are included. Night Vision . 47 . It has a multicoated mirror and smooth mechanics that are precision manufactured for reliability Light Pollution Reduction (LPR) Filters (#94126A) . with drive corrector capabilities. clutches and hardware.Plug in this 16-channel GPS module into your telescopes drive base port to link up and automatically download information from one of many global positioning satellites. state-of-the-art DC motor drives operate from 4 D-cell batteries (not included). The finderscope has an easy to use cross hair reticle. using two red LED's to preserve night vision better than red filters or other devices. This diagonal includes an adapter to accept 1¼" eyepieces.Celestron offers a 2" 90° Mirror Diagonal to thread on Schmidt. In addition. The clear aperture is 21mm and the transmission is about 18%. DC motor drive.These filters are designed to enhance your views of deep sky astronomical objects when viewed from urban areas. Green. are designed for Celestron's Advanced CG-5 mounts.Celestron’s premium model for astronomy. LPR Filters selectively reduce the transmission of certain wavelengths of light. Operates on a single 9 volt battery (included). 4x. Motor Drive. For non-computerized Advanced Series Mounts. PowerTank (#18774) – 12v 7Amp hour rechargeable power supply. Diagonal 2" Mirror (#93519) . they also block unwanted natural light (sky glow) caused by neutral oxygen emission in our atmosphere.The polarizing filter set limits the transmission of light to a specific plane. Four speeds are available—1x (sidereal). 82A. 47.Celestron’s Moon Filter is an economical eyepiece filter for reducing the brightness of the moon and improving contrast. Polarizing Filter Set (#93608) . along with brackets. measuring position angles. producing the best possible image sharpness. CN16 GPS Bracket (#93964) – Support your CN-16 GPS accessory with this bracket and strap combination that securely wraps around any of the tripod legs and holds the GPS module in place . ND50% T (#s 23A. and more.

This accessory is mandatory if you want to do photography through the telescope. its own T-Ring. T-Ring . You wouldn’t set off on a road trip without a road map. and you don’t need to try to navigate the night sky without a map either. these maps can help you locate all kinds of fascinating objects. Minolta.e. Sky Maps (#93722) .) has its own unique mount and therefore. Nikon.RS-232 Cable (#93920) – Allows your Advanced Series telescope to be controlled using a laptop computer or PC. Even if you already know your way around the major constellations. etc. radial guider. the telescope can be controlled using popular astronomy software programs.Celestron Sky Maps are the ideal teaching guide for learning the night sky. Once connected.The T-Ring couples your 35mm SLR camera body to the T-Adapter. or tele-extender. Pentax. Celestron has 8 different models for 35mm cameras. Each camera make (i. A full description of all Celestron accessories can be found in the Celestron Accessory Catalog (#93685) 48 ..

4 . 16 character Liquid Crystal Display.000+ objects.92 arc seconds .83º 43. Enhanced information on over 200 objects 7.712 9 20 25 29.492 49 . Solar and Lunar EQ North & EQ South AutoAlign. Last Align 40.77 arc seconds 227 lines/mm 459x unaided eye .Appendix A – Technical Specifications Advanced Series Specifications: Optical Design Focal Length Finderscope Mount Eyepiece Accessory tray Tripod 150mm (6.0") refractor 1200mm F/8 9x50 CG-5 Equatorial 20mm – 1.25" (60x) Yes 2" Stainless Steel 360x 21x 13. both axes 3º/second 24bit.500 45. Quick Align.08 arc sec calculation RS-232 communication port on hand control Aux Port.386 109 2. 3-Star Alignment. 19 fiber optic backlit LED buttons DC Servo motors with encoders.8 ft Multi-Coated 50.Standard Optical tube length Telescope Weight Advanced GT Additional Specifications Hand Control Motor: Type Max Slew Speed Software Precision Hand Control Ports Motor Ports Tracking Rates Tracking Modes Alignment Procedures Database Complete Revised NGC Catalog Complete Messier Catalog Complete IC Catalog Complete Caldwell Abell Galaxies Solar System objects Famous Asterisms Selected CCD Imaging Objects Selected SAO Stars Total Object Database Double line.5" 75 lbs 21019 / 21020 Technical Specs Highest Useful Magnification Lowest Useful Magnification Limiting Stellar Magnitude Resolution: Rayleigh Dawes Limit Photographic Resolution Light Gathering Power Field of View: standard eyepiece Linear FOV (@1000 yds) Optical Coatings .840 110 5. 0. Autoguide Ports Sidereal. 400 user defined programmable objects.

Since the star can never be focused perfectly. The imaginary projection of Earth's rotational axis north or south pole onto the celestial sphere. 84 per cent of the light will concentrate into a single disk. The distance between the Earth and the Sun. It divides the sky into two equal hemispheres. It may be said to correspond to latitude on the surface of the Earth. A unit of angular size equal to 1/3. Systems with individual components that can be seen separately by a telescope are called visual binaries or visual multiples. The angular distance of a celestial body north or south of the celestial equator. If a group of three or more stars revolve around one another. The absolute magnitude of the Sun is 4. at a distance of 10 parsecs.Appendix B . two very similar to our Sun and one dim. The projection of the Earth's equator on to the celestial sphere. The pseudoscientific belief that the positions of stars and planets exert an influence on human affairs. The nearest "star" to our solar system. orbit around a common Center of Mass. it is called a multiple system. A small. is actually our nearest example of a multiple star system. astrology has nothing in common with astronomy. small. it would just be visible on Earth on a clear moonless night away from surface light. and 16 per cent into a system of surrounding rings.. or 32. The angular distance of an object eastwards along the horizon. usually rounded off to 150. A measure of the relative brightness of a star or other celestial object as perceived by an observer on Earth. the diameter of a telescope's primary lens or mirror. It is equal to 149. Binary (Double) stars are pairs of stars that. An imaginary sphere surrounding the Earth. In astronomy.000. 50 . the larger the aperture. .Glossary of Terms AAbsolute magnitude Airy disk Alt-Azimuth Mounting Altitude Aperture Apparent Magnitude Arcminute Arcsecond Asterism Asteroid Astrology Astronomical unit (AU) Aurora Azimuth The apparent magnitude that a star would have if it were observed from a standard distance of 10 parsecs. A telescope mounting using two independent rotation axis allowing movement of the instrument in Altitude and Azimuth. Alpha Centauri.597.000 km.6 light-years. BBinary Stars CCelestial Equator Celestial pole Celestial Sphere Collimation DDeclination (DEC) EEcliptic Equatorial mount FFocal length The distance between a lens (or mirror) and the point at which the image of an object at infinity is brought to focus. It is believed that approximately 50 percent of all stars belong to binary or multiple systems. A unit of angular size equal to 1/60 of a degree. The focal length divided by the aperture of the mirror or lens is termed the focal ratio. the greater the telescope's light-gathering power. It may also be defined as "the apparent yearly path of the Sun against the stars". The act of putting a telescope's optics into perfect alignment. measured from due north. the angle of the axis must be equal to the observer's latitude. between the astronomical meridian (the vertical line passing through the center of the sky and the north and south points on the horizon) and the vertical line containing the celestial body whose position is to be measured. The emission of light when charged particles from the solar wind slams into and excites atoms and molecules in a planet's upper atmosphere. red star orbiting around one another. The apparent size of a star's disk produced even by a perfect optical system. it consists of three stars. A telescope mounting in which the instrument is set upon an axis which is parallel to the axis of the Earth. rocky body that orbits a star. concentric with the Earth's center. the altitude of a celestial object is its Angular Distance above or below the celestial horizon.8.900 km. A small unofficial grouping of stars in the night sky. because of their mutual gravitational attraction.600 of a degree (or 1/60 of an arcminute). The projection of the Earth's orbit on to the celestial sphere.

the light-year equals a distance of 9.8000. resolution.JJovian Planets Any of the four gas giant planets that are at a greater distance form the sun than the terrestrial planets. in a particular line of eyepieces. A telescope in which the light is collected by means of a mirror. will be in focus. The faintest star that can be seen without a telescope is about magnitude 6.557. or 30. A planet is far away but it can be resolved as a disk. Although Latin for "new" it denotes a star that suddenly becomes explosively bright at the end of its life cycle. They contain from a dozen to many hundreds of stars. A light-year is the distance light traverses in a vacuum in one year at the speed of 299. Comets are hazy diffuse objects and so Messier cataloged objects that were not comets to help his search. has an apparent magnitude of -1.5 in brightness. The brightest stars are assigned magnitude 1 and those increasingly fainter from 2 down to magnitude 5. the full moon is -12. the better the resolution. and seconds along the Celestial Equator eastward from the Vernal Equinox. A reference line in the sky that starts at the North celestial pole and ends at the South celestial pole and passes through the zenith. there is a limit to the minimum angle. they are too far away. expressed on a magnitude scale. KKuiper Belt LLight-Year (LY) MMagnitude A region beyond the orbit of Neptune extending to about 1000 AU which is a source of many short period comets. The angular distance of a celestial object measured in hours. minutes. If you are facing South. Interstellar cloud of gas and dust. The zero point of the apparent magnitude scale is arbitrary. M1 through M110. Rated the most important advance in optics in 200 years. Most have an asymmetrical appearance and are loosely assembled. The brightest star.000.000. Because of diffraction. no star lies within one parsec of us. Thus a star of magnitude 1 is 2. Refers to a group of eyepieces that all require the same distance from the focal plane of the telescope to be in focus. Telescope tracking motors drive the Meridian Messier NNebula North Celestial Pole Nova OOpen Cluster PParallax Parfocal Parsec Point Source RReflector Resolution Right Ascension: (RA) SSchmidt Telescope Sidereal Rate 51 . Magnitude is a measure of the brightness of a celestial body. the Schmidt telescope combines the best features of the refractor and reflector for photographic purposes. The distance at which a star would show parallax of one second of arc.) An object which cannot be resolved into an image because it to too far away or too small is considered a point source. (Apart from the Sun.265 astronomical units. Sirius.6. Each magnitude step corresponds to a ratio of 2. The traditional method in astronomy of determining the distance to a celestial object is to measure its parallax. is -26. One of the groupings of stars that are concentrated along the plane of the Milky Way. These positions and the actual position of the object form a triangle from which the apex angle (the parallax) and the distance of the object can be determined if the length of the baseline between the observing positions is known and the angular direction of the object from each position at the ends of the baseline has been measured. and 100 times brighter than a magnitude 5 star. This is caused by the fact that the Earth is rotating on an axis that passes through the North and South celestial poles. This means when you focus one parfocal eyepiece all the other parfocal eyepieces. Most stars cannot be resolved as disks. The minimum detectable angle an optical system can detect. Parallax is the difference in the apparent position of an object against a background when viewed by an observer from two different locations. and the Sun's brightness.46 X 1 trillion km (5.000 km. A French astronomer in the late 1700’s who was primarily looking for comets.7. This catalog became the Messier Catalog. It was invented in 1930 by Bernhard Voldemar Schmidt (1879-1935). The point in the Northern hemisphere around which all the stars appear to rotate.26 light-years. the meridian starts from your Southern horizon and passes directly overhead to the North celestial pole. The star Polaris lies less than a degree from this point and is therefore referred to as the "Pole Star". With 31.87 X 1 trillion mi).600 seconds in a year. 206.792 km/ sec. This is the angular speed at which the Earth is rotating.78. The larger the aperture. Also refers to any celestial object that has a cloudy appearance. It is equal to 3.5 times brighter than a star of magnitude 2.

each 30 degrees in width. and the planets.telescope at this rate.000 years ago. TTerminator UUniverse VVariable Star WWaning Moon Waxing Moon ZZenith Zodiac The boundary line between the light and dark portion of the moon or a planet. The apparent paths of the Sun. The point on the Celestial Sphere directly above the observer. events. The zodiac is the portion of the Celestial Sphere that lies within 8 degrees on either side of the Ecliptic. comprise the zodiac. with the exception of some portions of the path of Pluto. relations and energies capable of being described objectively. Twelve divisions. the signs have moved with it and thus no longer coincide with the constellations. A star whose brightness varies over time due to either inherent properties of the star or something eclipsing or obscuring the brightness of the star. the Vernal Equinox has moved westward by about 30 degrees since that time. 52 . when its illuminated portion is decreasing. The period of the moon's cycle between new and full. when its illuminated portion is increasing. These signs coincided with the zodiacal constellations about 2. The rate is 15 arc seconds per second or 15 degrees per hour. The period of the moon's cycle between full and new. The totality of astronomical things. lie within this band. the Moon. Because of the Precession of the Earth's axis. or signs.

6 43. WASH Washington FLORIDA Apalachicola Astor NAS Avon Park G Cape Canaveral Cecil Crestview Cross City Daytona Bch Duke Fld Eglin AFB Egmont Key Fort Myers Ft Lauderdale Ft Myers Gainesville Homestead Hurlburt Fld Jacksonville Key West Lakeland Macdill AFB Marianna Mayport NAS 53 .2 LATITUDE degrees 33 32 33 32 31 31 33 34 32 30 30 32 34 32 31 33 61 71 64 59 59 58 55 57 64 57 56 59 61 32 33 31 33 35 31 33 33 35 35 33 36 34 33 34 32 33 34 32 33 35 33 32 32 35 33 33 36 35 36 34 35 35 34 36 33 36 37 41 40 35 39 33 35 34 37 39 min 34.8 3 19.2 10.8 51 19.2 2.2 51 40.8 37.2 16.2 13.8 33 1.8 45 7.8 31.6 4.2 6 54 43.2 10.2 25.2 34.2 37.8 18 45 20.2 9 52.8 4.8 45 57 31.2 13.8 40.2 16.2 31.8 55.8 49.2 22.2 18 49.2 7.2 3 7.8 21 1.8 27 7.8 22.2 49.2 40.2 25.8 0.2 54 49.8 46.2 0 19.2 25.2 45 55.2 46.2 1.2 49.4 46.8 40.2 LATITUDE degrees 40 41 37 35 40 33 33 38 39 33 39 34 35 36 39 40 37 39 39 39 38 37 40 39 37 39 39 38 39 40 40 39 40 38 38 38 39 39 38 38 39 38 37 40 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 39 39 38 29 29 28 28 30 30 29 29 30 30 27 26 26 26 29 25 30 30 24 28 27 30 30 min 1.2 7.2 40.2 43.2 46.8 46.8 3 34.8 4.2 22.2 37.2 7.2 40.2 37.4 52.2 49.8 4.8 46.2 58.2 49.4 21 13.8 0 37.2 25.8 13.2 46.8 46.8 7.8 28.8 31.2 54 19.2 34.8 58.2 3 43.2 42 7.8 7.8 40.2 16.8 13.2 52.8 37.2 37.8 37.8 13.2 10.8 6 34.8 52.2 12 37.2 52.2 9 3 2.8 3 28.2 28.8 51 50.8 10.2 LATITUDE degrees 33 34 32 33 37 39 35 33 37 41 34 34 32 34 33 41 36 36 36 33 34 33 37 32 32 34 38 34 37 33 33 33 37 33 39 38 38 37 32 37 37 35 41 36 41 34 38 34 32 34 37 34 34 33 35 37 35 37 34 39 34 35 40 40 33 38 36 37 33 32 37 37 35 33 34 34 33 34 34 34 38 min 37.2 7.2 1.8 31.2 0.8 36 33 25.8 19.8 55.8 31.8 22.8 3 13.8 7.2 22.2 1.C.8 42 49.2 18 55.2 16.8 37.2 19.2 40.4 45 15 27 43.8 37.8 4.2 13.6 15 37.8 16.2 22.8 57 40.8 34.8 1.2 22.8 37.8 37.2 3.2 52.8 46.2 4.2 52.8 46.2 19.8 52.8 15 0 10.2 37.8 40.6 57 10.8 34.2 31.8 27 19.2 7.2 39 34.8 25.8 16.2 27 34.2 34.8 0 13.2 37.8 15 1.8 55.8 52.8 52.8 2.2 6 39 51 58.2 13.2 28.2 46.8 7.8 37.8 43.8 34.2 10.2 0 55.4 24 Bridgeport Danbury Groton Hartford New Haven New London Windsor Loc DELAWARE Dover Wilmington D.2 31.8 22.2 4.2 51 46.8 55.8 25.2 4.2 12 19.8 19.8 43.8 13.8 30 16.6 1.2 31.4 55.8 40.8 28.8 55.6 3 31.2 58.8 0 55.8 27 3 3.2 22.2 3.8 52.2 36 16.2 27 13.8 25.APPENDIX C LONGITUDES AND LATITUDES LONGITUDE degrees min ALABAMA Anniston Auburn Birmingham Centreville Dothan Fort Rucker Gadsden Huntsville Maxwell AFB Mobile Mobile Aeros Montgomery Muscle Shoal Selma Troy Tuscaloosa ALASKA Anchorage Barrow Fairbanks Haines Hrbor Homer Juneau Ketchikan Kodiak Nome Sitka Sitkinak Skagway Valdez ARIZONA Davis-M AFB Deer Valley Douglas Falcon Fld Flagstaff Fort Huachuc Gila Bend Goodyear GrandCanyon Kingman Luke Page Payson Phoenix Prescott Safford Awrs Scottsdale Show Low Tucson Williams AFB Winslow Yuma Yuma Mcas Yuma Prv Gd ARKANSAS Blytheville Camden El Dorado Fayetteville Ft Smith Harrison Hot Springs Jonesboro Little Rock Pine Bluff Springdale Texarkana Walnut Ridge CALIFORNIA Alameda Alturas Arcata Bakersfield Beale AFB Beaumont Bicycle Lk Big Bear Bishop Blue Canyon 85 85 86 87 85 85 86 86 86 88 88 86 87 86 86 87 149 156 147 135 151 134 131 152 165 135 154 135 146 110 112 109 111 111 110 113 112 112 113 112 111 111 112 112 109 111 110 110 111 110 115 114 114 89 92 92 94 94 93 93 90 92 91 94 94 90 122 120 124 119 121 116 116 116 118 120 51 26.8 28.8 0 40.2 46.8 28.8 19.2 57 43.8 36 34.2 43.2 57 16.8 28.8 10.8 13.2 9 57 3 9 31.2 18 1.8 31.2 7.2 15 4.2 3 1.2 54 43.4 43.8 55.8 1.8 3.2 40.2 52.8 25.8 40.2 7.8 55.8 7.8 16.4 4.8 55.8 9 57 22.2 52.6 39 22.8 7.2 10.8 34.2 15 0.2 9 30 57 31.8 13.8 21 52.8 58.8 39 49.2 13.8 7.6 27.2 33 33 52.2 13.8 1.2 9 0.6 1.8 7.8 7.2 15 10.2 4.2 Shelter Cove Siskiyou Stockton Superior Val Susanville Thermal Torrance Travis AFB Tahoe Tustin Mcas Ukiah Van Nuys Vandenberg Visalia COLORADO Air Force A Akron Alamosa Aspen Brmfield/Jef Buckley Colo Sprgs Cortez Craig-Moffat Denver Durango Eagle Englewood Fort Carson Fraser Ft Col/Lovel Ft Collins Grand Jct Greeley-Wld Gunnison La Junta Lamar Leadville Limon Montrose Pueblo Rifle Salida Trinidad Winter Park CONNECTICUT LONGITUDE degrees 124 122 121 117 120 116 118 121 120 117 123 118 120 119 105 103 105 106 105 104 104 108 107 104 107 106 104 104 105 105 105 108 104 106 103 102 106 103 107 104 107 106 104 105 73 73 72 72 72 72 72 75 75 77 85 81 81 80 81 86 83 81 86 86 82 81 80 81 82 80 86 81 81 81 82 85 81 min 4.8 45 40.8 46.2 3 25.8 49.8 39 28.2 21 10.2 16.2 18 30 45 9 39 34.8 49.8 57 2.2 39 40.4 1.2 13.2 39 22.2 22.8 37.8 33 3 7.8 46.8 3 12 49.8 40.8 55.8 40.2 34.8 27 27 49.8 3 39 40.8 54 19.8 49.2 2.2 45 43.6 3 27 57 37.8 52.2 19.8 1.8 31.2 28.2 16.4 37.2 16.2 5.8 52.8 13.2 31.2 25.2 40.8 40.2 21 45 30 4.8 40.2 31.4 57 2.2 49.8 52.2 59.2 19.2 42 6 43.2 13.8 58.2 28.8 48 16.8 27 28.8 13.2 31.8 40.8 19.2 16.8 3.8 2.8 25.2 34.8 Blythe Burbank Campo Carlsbad Castle AFB Chico China Lake Chino Concord Crescent Cty Daggett Edwards AFB El Centro El Monte El Toro Eureka Fort Hunter Fort Ord Fresno Fullerton George AFB Hawthorne Hayward Imperial Imperial Bch La Verne Lake Tahoe Lancaster Livermore Long Beach Los Alamitos Los Angeles Mammoth March AFB Marysville Mather AFB Mcclellan Merced Miramar NAS Modesto Moffet Mojave Montague Monterey Mount Shasta Mount Wilson Napa Needles North Is Norton AFB Oakland Ontario Intl Oxnard Palm Springs Palmdale Palo Alto Paso Robles Pillaro Pt Point Mugu Pt Arena Pt Arguello Pt Piedras Red Bluff Redding Riverside Sacramento Salinas San Carlos San Clemente San Diego San Francisco San Jose San Luis Obi San Mateo San Miguel Sandburg Santa Ana Santa Barb Santa Maria Santa Monica Santa Rosa LONGITUDE degrees 114 118 116 117 120 121 117 117 122 124 116 117 115 118 117 124 121 121 119 117 117 118 122 115 117 117 120 118 121 118 118 118 118 117 121 121 121 120 117 120 122 118 122 121 122 118 122 114 117 117 122 117 119 116 118 122 120 122 119 124 121 121 122 122 117 121 121 122 117 117 122 121 120 117 120 118 117 119 120 118 122 min 43.8 16.2 4.2 39 49.2 31.2 37.2 7.8 40.2 22.4 31.8 31.8 34.2 4.8 7.8 54 1.8 22.

2 40.8 3 27 43.2 9 40.8 18 31.6 15 57 37.2 3 0 37.8 10.2 3.8 4.2 13.2 3 LONGITUDE degrees Grand Isle 90 High Island 94 Houma 90 Intercoastal 92 Lafayette 92 Lake Charles 93 Lk Palourde 91 Missippi Can 89 Monroe 92 Morgan City 91 New Iberia 91 New Orleans 90 S Marsh Isl 91 Shreveport 93 Slidel 89 MAINE Augusta 69 Bangor 68 Bar Harbor 68 Brunswick 69 Caribou Mun 68 Greenville 69 Houlton 67 Loring AFB 67 Portland 70 Presque Isle 68 Rockland 69 Rumford 70 MARYLAND Andrews AFB 76 Baltimore 76 Fort Meade 76 Hagerstown 77 Ocean City 75 Patuxent 76 Phillips 76 Salisbury 75 MASSACHUSETTS Bedford 71 Beverly 70 Boston 71 Cape Cod 70 Chatham 69 Fort Devens 71 Hyannis 70 Lawrence 71 Marthas Vine 70 Nantucket 70 New Bedford 70 Norwood 71 Otis ANGB 70 Pittsfield 73 S Weymouth 70 Westfield 72 Westover 72 Worcester 71 MICHIGAN Alpena 83 Ann Arbor 83 Battle Creek 85 Benton 86 Harbor Chippewa 84 Coopersville 85 Copper Harb 87 Detroit 83 Escanaba 87 Flint/Bishop 83 Grand Rapids 85 Hancock 88 Harbor Beach 82 Houghton 84 Lake Iron Mtn 88 Ironwood 90 Jackson 84 Kalamazoo 85 Lansing 84 Manistee 86 Marquette 87 Menominee 87 Muskegon 86 Pellston 84 Pontiac 83 Saginaw 84 Sault Ste M 84 Sawyer AFB 87 Selfridge 82 Seul Choix 85 Traverse Cty 85 min 4.4 7.8 3.6 4.8 3.8 43.2 55.8 4.2 45 33 46.8 Glenview NAS Kankakee Macomb Marion Marseilles Mattoon Moline/Quad Mount Vernon Peoria Quincy Rockford Salem Scott AFB Springfield Sterling Taylorville Vandalia INDIANA Bakalar Bloomington Elkhart Evansville Fort Wayne Gary Grissom AFB Indianapolis Muncie South Bend Terre Haute W Lafayette IOWA Burlington Cedar Rapids Des Moines Dubuque Estherville Fort Dodge Lamoni Mason City Ottumwa Sioux City Spencer Waterloo Mun KANSAS Chanute Col.2 10.2 40.2 1.8 31.2 13.2 57 21 49.2 7.8 59.2 1.2 22.6 4.2 9 16.2 0.2 27 7.2 31.6 51 40.2 9 25.2 25.2 46.8 33 51 44.2 34.8 16.8 19.2 55.8 2.8 52.8 7.8 22.6 5.2 40.8 40.2 25.8 3.2 37.2 52.8 57 33 46.8 33 46.8 22.8 12 37.2 9 4.2 31.2 52.8 28.2 16.8 10.2 55.2 39 58.2 46.2 33 46.2 0 13.2 43.8 25.2 49.6 40.2 18 7.2 43.2 0 55.2 52.2 25.2 58.8 7.2 46.8 13.2 42 1.2 0 34.2 34.2 55.8 49.8 19.8 22.8 52.2 9 6 24 10.2 40.8 1.8 45 31.8 46.2 7.8 28.2 21 37.2 87 90 89 88 88 90 88 89 91 89 88 89 89 89 89 89 86 86 86 87 85 87 86 86 85 86 87 86 91 91 93 90 94 94 93 93 92 96 95 92 95 97 97 99 101 96 94 96 100 101 99 99 97 94 100 96 97 98 94 98 97 95 95 97 86 87 85 83 85 84 85 87 88 82 92 93 91 89 93 92 92 91 93 51 39.8 31.8 1.2 42 46.2 15 25.2 40.6 28.2 LATITUDE degrees 42 41 40 37 41 39 41 38 40 39 42 38 38 39 41 39 38 39 39 41 38 41 41 40 39 40 41 39 40 40 41 41 42 43 42 40 43 41 42 43 42 37 37 39 37 37 38 39 39 37 39 38 39 38 38 37 39 37 37 38 38 38 39 38 37 36 36 37 37 38 37 38 37 37 37 31 32 30 29 29 31 31 28 31 min 4.2 4.8 28.8 LATITUDE degrees 29 28 29 29 30 30 29 28 32 29 30 29 28 32 30 44 44 44 43 46 45 46 46 43 46 44 44 38 39 39 39 38 38 39 38 42 42 42 41 41 42 41 42 41 41 41 42 41 42 42 42 42 42 45 42 42 42 46 43 47 42 45 42 42 47 43 44 45 46 42 42 42 44 46 45 43 45 42 43 46 46 42 45 44 min 10.2 4.2 4.2 43.2 4.6 13.8 15 33 22.8 45 49.2 3.2 49.2 51.8 10.8 55.2 46.2 31.8 40.2 3 55.2 10.8 16.2 46.8 1.8 52.8 22.2 16.8 1.8 10.2 3.8 9.8 5.8 31.8 7.8 43.8 19.8 15 4.4 22.8 58.2 7.2 34.2 22.8 54 .2 46.8 3 19.Melbourne Miami Naples Nasa Shuttle Orlando Panama City Patrick AFB Pensacola Ruskin Saint Peters Sanford Sarasota Tallahassee Tampa Intl Titusville Tyndall AFB Vero Beach West Palm Beach Whiting Fld GEORGIA Albany Alma Athens Atlanta Augusta/Bush Brunswick Columbus Dobbins AFB Fort Benning Ft Stewart Hunter Aaf La Grange Macon/Lewis Moody AFB Robins AFB Rome/Russell Valdosta Waycross HAWAII Barbers Pt Barking San Fr Frigate Hilo Honolulu Int Kahului Maui Kaneohe Mca Kilauea Pt Lanai-Lanai Lihue-Kauai Maui Molokai Upolo Pt Ln WaimeaKoha IDAHO Boise Burley Challis Coeur d'Alene Elk City Gooding Grangeville Idaho Falls Lewiston Malad City Malta Mccall Mullan Pocatello Salmon Soda Springs Sun Valley Twin Falls ILLINOIS Alton Aurora Bistate Park Bloomington Bradford Cairo Carbondale Centralia Champaign Chicago Danville DeKalb Decatur Du Page Galesburg LONGITUDE degrees 80 80 81 80 81 85 80 87 82 82 81 82 84 82 80 85 80 80 87 84 82 83 84 81 81 84 84 85 81 81 85 83 83 83 85 83 82 158 160 166 155 157 156 158 159 156 159 156 157 156 156 116 113 114 116 115 115 116 112 117 112 113 116 115 112 113 111 114 114 90 88 90 88 89 89 89 89 88 87 87 88 88 88 90 min 37.2 52.8 25.8 10.2 3 16.2 52.2 58.2 55.8 0.2 57 51 1.8 30 31.8 55.2 43.2 2. J Jabar Concordia Dodge City Elkhart Emporia Ft Leavnwrth Ft Riley Garden City Goodland Hays Hill City Hutchinson Johnson Cnty Liberal Manhatten Mcconnell Af Medicine Ldg Olathe Russell Salina Topeka Topeka/Forbe Wichita KENTUCKY Bowling Gren Ft Campbell Ft Knox Jackson Lexington London Louisville Owensboro Paducah Pikeville LOUISIANA Alexandria Barksdale Baton Rouge Boothville Cameron Heli Claiborne R England AFB Eugene Is.8 58.8 4.8 55.2 34.8 52.2 28.2 15 5.8 13.8 28.2 19.8 31.8 7.2 40.8 45 4.2 39 4.4 34.8 57 39 40.2 7.8 24 24 33 37.8 55.8 40.2 52.8 21 46.2 37.4 10.2 0 4.2 52.2 16.4 49.2 31.6 10.2 4.2 4.2 13.2 3 9 37.2 49.8 2.2 45 10.2 48 4.2 40.8 34.2 3 7.8 52.2 16.2 4.8 39 3.8 25.8 4.2 4.2 31.8 55.2 49.2 52.4 49.2 48 27 52.8 16.8 49.8 40.2 31.8 21 58.2 19.8 24 22.2 3 31.2 9 55.2 0 34.2 31.2 1.4 39 7.2 0 31.2 46.2 31.8 31.2 34.2 19.2 39 37.8 34.2 55.8 39 15.6 19.8 28.2 43.8 22.2 7.2 7.2 10.2 57 39 58.2 10.8 31.2 43.8 27 22.8 49.8 13.2 54 36 3 4.8 12 7.2 4.2 19.8 42 33 16.2 40.8 LATITUDE degrees 28 25 26 28 28 30 28 30 27 27 28 27 30 27 28 30 27 26 30 31 31 33 33 33 31 32 33 32 31 32 33 32 30 32 34 30 31 21 22 24 19 21 20 21 22 20 21 20 21 20 20 43 42 44 47 45 43 45 43 46 42 42 44 47 42 45 42 43 42 38 41 38 40 41 37 37 38 40 41 40 41 39 41 40 min 6 49.8 12 13.2 39 43.2 40.6 42 58.2 0.8 37.8 3 58.2 21 19.8 52.2 31.8 7.2 2.8 28.8 31.2 40.8 46.8 58.8 54 12 55.6 57.2 39 40.2 22.8 48 58.8 4.2 45 13.2 31.8 52.2 49.8 40.8 25.6 1.2 24 15 40.2 28.8 43.4 31.8 28.2 45 22.8 42 27 25.8 9 2.6 43.2 21 54 45 22.8 28.8 27 19.2 22.8 15 58.2 28.2 1.2 55.8 4.2 10.8 16.8 4.2 10.6 40.2 1.8 30.2 34.8 1.2 0.8 15 4.2 34.2 25.4 28.8 28.2 1.8 58.2 25.8 13.2 28.8 7.2 46.8 31.4 16.2 22.2 10.2 1.2 19.2 3 37.2 18 52.2 55.2 9 31.2 18 51 52.2 19.2 51 22.2 39 1.2 49.6 9 10.8 1.2 0.8 58.2 33 40.2 13.8 19.2 12 16.6 3 3 1.8 22.6 16. Fort Polk LONGITUDE degrees min 87 49.8 57 39 22.8 1.8 15 31.8 55.2 19.2 46.8 25.2 25.8 3 58.8 39 30 28.6 0 40.2 33 3.2 0 19.8 52.8 55.2 55.

8 46.8 49.8 4.2 49.8 30 25.8 52.2 1.8 13.2 40.2 37.8 42 46.8 21 0 34.2 5.8 33 7.8 43.8 55.2 52.2 19.8 4.8 16.8 3 25.2 45 15 32.8 16.8 4.2 10.2 10.2 25.8 3 25.2 46.2 22.2 3 43.8 23.8 22.8 51 13.2 34.2 46.8 3 19.2 51 15 13.2 19.2 1.8 19.8 10.2 9 16.8 55.4 83 31.8 42 10.8 54 36 55.2 49.2 28.2 49.8 40.8 49.8 52.8 30 24 28.2 57 55 .8 37.2 5.2 45 10.8 1.2 40.2 25.2 3 3 4.2 13.8 4.6 2.8 45 36 10.4 40.8 55.8 12 48 54 34.2 4.2 37.2 28.8 43.8 13.2 30 24 49.8 34.6 28.8 58.4 1.8 28.2 27 49.2 13.8 55.2 55.8 22.2 1.2 33 31.2 34.8 52.2 46.2 13.4 4.6 28.2 25.6 46.2 22.2 15 51 4.8 2.8 51 7.2 55.2 0.2 49.2 22.8 1.2 58.2 3 22.8 27 52.8 45 54 49.2 6 52.2 22.8 4.2 3 58.8 48 46.8 LATITUDE degrees 42 42 40 41 41 42 41 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 42 41 41 41 42 41 41 41 41 41 42 39 40 37 40 39 39 39 38 36 36 40 36 36 42 39 38 41 40 37 44 43 42 42 43 43 42 44 42 43 44 39 40 40 40 40 39 40 40 40 40 35 34 32 36 34 32 36 35 35 32 32 32 35 35 34 32 36 33 min 34.2 4.2 3 31.2 33 31.8 93 95 94 94 95 92 91 94 96 93 92 93 94 93 95 93 95 94 92 93 94 96 90 95 95 88 88 90 90 89 89 90 88 89 90 88 88 91 89 88 92 89 92 92 94 94 92 94 95 90 94 93 93 95 90 91 92 93 108 111 105 112 112 112 113 106 104 111 109 109 112 106 114 109 110 111 105 114 112 104 111 22.8 55.2 22.8 4.8 39 39 27 28.8 4.2 3.2 3.2 9 0 51 4.2 25.2 4.2 49.8 15 4.4 34.2 33 33 55.2 49.2 19.2 7.2 58.8 52.8 51 18 39 52.2 6 16.8 3 3 10.8 25.8 49.2 13.8 0 27 16.8 43.2 36 19.8 45 45 13.8 1.2 46.8 27 6 15 45 31.8 55.2 2.2 40.2 25.2 13.8 55.2 7.8 37.8 46.2 37.2 49.8 10.2 3 49.2 25.2 49.8 40.8 25.8 57 22.8 52.8 10.8 31.2 55.2 19.2 18 37.8 1.8 5.6 57 2.2 33 9 37.8 30 4.8 7.4 57 3.4 18 LONGITUDE degrees Santa Fe 106 Silver City 108 Socorro 106 Taos 105 Truth Or Con 107 Tucumcari 103 White Sands 106 NEW YORK Albany 73 Ambrose 74 Binghamton 75 Buffalo 78 Dansville 78 Elmira 76 Farmingdale 73 Fort Drum 75 Glens Falls 73 Griffiss AFB 75 Islip 73 Ithaca 76 Jamestown 79 Massena 74 Monticello 74 New York 73 Newburgh 74 Niagara Fall 78 Ogdensburg 75 Oneonta 75 Plattsburgh 73 Rochester 77 Saranac Lk 74 Schenectady 73 Syracuse 76 Utica 75 Watertown 76 Westhampton 72 White Plains 73 NORTH CAROLINA Asheville 82 Cape Hattera 75 Charlotte 80 Cherry Point 76 Dare Co Gr 76 Diamond Sho 75 Elizabeth 76 Fayetteville 78 Fort Bragg 78 Greensboro 79 Hickory 81 Hot Springs 82 Jacksonville 77 Kinston 77 Mackall Aaf 79 Manteo Arpt 75 New Bern 77 New River 77 Pope AFB 79 Raleigh-Durh 78 Rocky Mt 77 Southern Pin 79 Wilmington 77 Winston80 Salem NORTH DAKOTA Bismarck 100 Devil's Lake 98 Dickenson 102 Fargo 96 Grand Forks 97 Jamestown 98 Lidgerwood 97 Minot 101 Roseglen 101 Williston 103 OHIO Athens 82 Canton 81 Cincinnati 84 Cleveland 81 Columbus 82 Dayton 84 Findlay 83 Mansfield 82 Rickenbacker 82 Toledo 83 Willoughby 81 Youngstown 80 Zanesville 81 min 4.2 51 22.2 51 14.2 7.4 16.8 34.8 10.2 37.2 36 37.8 13.8 23.2 4.2 28.2 43.8 49.2 25.8 4.6 58.6 19.2 31.8 9 55.2 31.2 39 LONGITUDE degrees NEBRASKA Ainsworth 99 Alliance 102 Beatrice 96 Broken Bow 99 Burwell 99 Chadron 103 Columbus 97 Cozad 100 Falls City 95 Grand Island 98 Hastings 98 Imperial 101 Kearney 99 Lincoln Muni 96 Mccook 100 Mullen 101 Norfolk 97 North Omaha 96 North Platte 100 O'neill 98 Offutt AFB 95 Omaha 95 Ord/Sharp 98 Scottsbluff 103 Sidney Muni 102 Valentine 100 NEVADA Austin 117 Battle Mtn 116 Caliente 114 Elko 115 Ely/Yelland 114 Eureka 115 Fallon NAS 118 Hawthorne 118 Ind Sprng Rn 115 Las Vegas 115 Lovelock 118 Mercury 116 Nellis AFB 115 Owyhee 116 Reno 119 Tonopah 117 Wildhorse 116 Winnemucca 117 Yucca Flat 116 NEW HAMPSHIRE Berlin 71 Concord 71 Jaffrey 72 Keene 72 Laconia 71 Lebanon 72 Manchester 71 Mt Washingtn 71 Nashua 71 Pease AFB 70 Wolfeboro 71 NEW JERSEY Atlantic CtIy 74 Barnegat Ls 74 Fairfield 74 Lakehurst 74 Mcguire AFB 74 Millville 75 Morristown 74 Newark Intl 74 Teterboro 74 Trenton 74 NEW MEXICO Albuquerque 106 Cannon 103 Carlsbad 104 Clayton Arpt 103 Corona 105 Deming 107 Farmington 108 Gallup/Clark 108 Grants 107 Hobbs 103 Holloman 106 AFB Las Cruces 106 Las Vegas 105 Los Alamos 106 Moriarity 106 Northrup Str 106 Raton 104 Roswell 104 min 58.2 10.8 34.8 16.2 49.8 1.8 37.2 52.2 25.8 34.8 10.8 22.2 55.8 9 40.8 4.2 1.4 0.8 46.8 10.8 3 21 13.8 33 19.8 52.2 55.2 6 19.2 46.8 0.8 49.8 4.8 52.8 54 57 55.8 16.2 46.2 4.8 3 0 16.8 40.6 46.2 39 7.2 13.2 33 43.8 45 5.8 22.2 23.8 34.4 0 45 34.8 54 34.8 1.8 46.2 55.2 31.2 40.8 52.2 37.8 54 39 18 13.2 16.8 40.8 10.8 6 37.4 16.2 16.2 1.8 16.2 19.2 25.2 10.8 12.2 10.8 4.2 10.4 3 31.8 1.8 45 39 9 4.8 4.8 43.8 37.6 55.8 45 7.2 13.2 37.2 7.6 4.8 7.8 16.2 34.2 4.2 37.8 0.8 54 44.8 19.2 22.2 10.6 LATITUDE degrees 44 42 43 45 47 46 46 46 47 43 46 47 47 48 45 44 44 44 46 46 43 44 45 48 47 48 43 33 33 33 33 30 31 32 30 31 31 32 32 31 34 34 38 37 37 38 37 39 40 37 35 36 38 40 37 40 38 38 37 38 45 45 45 45 48 45 46 48 47 47 46 48 46 47 48 47 45 47 46 46 44 47 44 min 27 13.2 22.2 5.8 15 16.2 43.2 7.Wurtsmith Ypsilanti MINNESOTA Albert Lea Alexandria Bemidji Muni Brainerd-Crw Detroit Laks Duluth Ely Fairmont Fergus Falls Grand Rapids Hibbing Intl Falls Litchfield Mankato Marshall Arpt Minneapolis Park Rapids Pequot Lake Rochester Saint Paul St Cloud Thief River Tofte Warroad Worthington MISSISSIPPI Columbus AFB Golden Trian Greenville Greenwood Gulfport Hattiesburg Jackson Keesler AFB Laurel Mccomb Meridian NAS Meridian/Key Natchez Oxford Tupelo MISSOURI Columbia Cape Girardeau Ft Leonard Jefferson City Joplin Kansas City Kirksville Monett Muskogee Poplar Bluff Richards-Geb Spickard Springfield St Joseph St Louis Vichy/Rolla West Plains Whiteman AFB MONTANA Billings Bozeman Broadus Butte Cut Bank Dillon Drummond Glasgow Glendive Great Falls Harlowton Havre Helena Jordan Kalispell Lewiston Livingston Malmstrom Miles City Missoula Monida Sidney W Yellowston LONGITUDE degrees min 83 2.2 27 25.2 9 40.8 25.8 37.8 19.2 30 6 40.2 33 21 21.2 34.2 48 42 51 16.8 10.8 58.8 16.8 58.8 31.8 7.8 39.8 51 58.2 4.8 28.8 31.2 57 36 15 40.2 5.2 43.4 LATITUDE degrees 35 32 34 36 33 35 32 42 40 42 42 42 42 40 44 43 43 40 42 42 44 41 40 41 43 44 42 44 43 44 42 43 43 44 40 41 35 35 35 34 36 35 36 35 35 36 35 35 34 35 35 35 35 34 35 35 35 35 34 36 46 48 46 46 47 46 46 48 47 48 39 40 39 41 40 39 41 40 39 41 41 41 39 min 37.4 46.2 7.8 58.8 9 16.8 52.2 10.8 28.8 1.4 25.2 16.8 3 22.8 55.8 27 34.8 33 4.8 3 40.4 55.8 52.2 0 55.2 54 7.8 46.4 7.4 4.8 4.2 13.2 19.8 21 3.8 18 3 42 30 25.2 0 7.8 40.8 33 36 19.2 0 54 1.2 40.2 40.8 21 34.8 3 2.

8 12 25.8 55.2 4.2 12 33 31.6 34.8 1.2 37.2 28.2 36 43.2 58.2 16.8 55.2 25.4 55.8 28.4 52.8 22.2 10.2 52.8 22.2 1.8 3.8 3.8 4.2 33 13.8 30 28.8 7.8 28.2 21 43.LONGITUDE degrees OKLAHOMA Altus AFB 99 Ardmore 97 Bartlesville 96 Clinton 99 Enid 97 Fort Sill 98 Gage 99 Hobart 99 Lawton 98 Mcalester 95 Norman 97 Oklahoma 97 Page 94 Ponca City 97 Stillwater 97 Tinker AFB 97 Tulsa 95 Vance AFB 97 OREGON Astoria 123 Aurora 122 Baker 117 Brookings 124 Burns Arpt 118 Cape Blanco 124 Cascade 121 Corvallis 123 Eugene 123 Hillsboro 122 Klamath Fall 121 La Grande 118 Lake View 120 Meacham 118 Medford 122 Newport 124 North Bend 124 Ontario 117 Pendleton 118 Portland 122 Redmond 121 Roseburg 123 Salem 123 Sexton 123 The Dalles 121 Troutdale 122 PENNSYLVANIA Allentown 75 Altoona 78 Beaver Falls 80 Blairsville 79 Bradford 78 Dubois 78 Erie 80 Franklin 79 Harrisburg 76 Johnstown 78 Lancaster 76 Latrobe 79 Middletown 76 Muir 76 Nth Philadel 75 Philadelphia 75 Philipsburg 78 Pittsburgh 79 Reading 75 Site R 77 State Colleg 77 Wilkes-Barre 75 Williamsport 76 Willow Grove 75 RHODE ISLAND Block Island 71 Nth Kingston 71 Providence 71 SOUTH CAROLINA Anderson 82 Beaufort 80 Charleston 80 Columbia 81 Florence 79 Greenville 82 Mcentire 80 min 16.8 30 52.8 55.2 45 57 30 27 15 37.2 57 1.2 3 9 34.2 10.8 56 .8 3 22.2 15 27 42.2 46.2 25.2 22.2 43.8 58.2 46.2 51 2.2 7.2 52.8 28.4 46.2 0.8 49.8 13.2 19.2 51 58.8 22.8 43.6 40.8 4.2 1.8 28.2 52.8 54 57 10.8 13.2 1.8 52.4 10.2 9 22.2 28.8 30 34.8 57.8 7.8 16.8 52.8 5.8 30 7.2 22.2 9 2.8 57 1.2 3 7.2 28.8 2.2 40.8 10.2 55.8 58.2 13.2 25.2 10.2 4.2 57 57 52.2 21 4.8 9 22.8 51 19.2 37.2 25.2 30 4.8 5.8 13.2 16.4 1.2 25.2 3 1.2 7.8 58.8 3.2 4.8 3 40.2 43.8 45 1.8 40.8 19.8 2.8 10.8 39 13.2 36 49.2 31.4 46.8 19.8 39 34.2 4.8 49.2 4.4 10.2 LONGITUDE degrees Myrtle Beach 78 Shaw AFB 80 Spartanburg 81 SOUTH DAKOTA Aberdeen 98 Brookings 96 Chamberlain 99 Custer 103 Ellsworth 103 Huron 98 Lemmon 102 Mitchell 98 Mobridge 100 Philip 101 Pierre 100 Rapid City 103 Redig 103 Sioux Falls 96 Watertown 97 Yankton 97 TENNESSEE Bristol 82 Chattanooga 85 Clarksville 87 Crossville 85 Dyersburg 89 Jackson 88 Knoxville 83 Memphis Intl 90 Monteagle 85 Nashville 86 Smyrna 86 TEXAS Abilene 99 Alice 98 Amarillo 101 Austin 97 Bergstrom Af 97 Big Sky 101 Big Spring 101 Brownsville 97 Brownwood 98 Carswell AFB 97 Chase NAS 97 Childress 100 College Stn 96 Corpus Chrst 97 Cotulla 99 Dalhart 102 Dallas/FW 97 Del Rio 100 Dyess AFB 99 El Paso 106 Ellington Af 95 Fort Worth 97 Ft Hood Aaf 97 Galveston 94 Gray AFB 97 Greenville 96 Guadalupe 104 Harlingen 97 Hondo 99 Houston 95 Junction 99 Kelly AFB 98 Kerrville 99 Killeen 97 Kingsville 97 Laredo Intl 99 Laughlin AFB 100 Longview 94 Lubbock 101 Lufkin 94 Marfa 104 Mcallen 98 Midland 102 Mineral Wlls 98 Palacios 96 Paris/Cox 95 Plainview 101 Port Arthur 94 Reese AFB 102 Rockport 97 min 55.2 49.8 25.8 46.4 55.2 31.6 16.8 43.2 19.2 10.8 4.2 49.8 43.8 16.2 31.6 0.2 3 15 1.2 28.2 1.8 7.8 57 4.8 10.8 LATITUDE degrees 31 29 30 28 32 31 32 28 33 31 38 37 37 39 41 39 38 41 41 38 38 41 39 40 40 37 40 40 40 41 44 44 45 43 44 42 38 37 36 38 37 37 37 37 37 36 36 36 38 37 37 38 36 37 48 47 48 48 47 47 47 47 46 46 47 47 48 46 48 46 48 46 47 47 47 47 47 47 46 min 22.8 25.2 15 7.8 45 49.4 31.2 0.2 49.2 37.8 37.4 46.4 25.2 25.8 24 40.8 LATITUDE degrees 33 33 34 45 44 43 43 44 44 45 43 45 44 44 44 45 43 44 42 36 35 36 35 36 35 35 35 35 36 36 32 27 35 30 30 32 32 25 31 32 28 34 30 27 28 36 32 29 32 31 29 32 31 29 31 33 31 26 29 29 30 29 29 31 27 27 29 32 33 31 30 26 31 32 28 33 34 30 33 28 min 40.2 27 1.2 43.8 9.2 49.8 18 12 23.2 51 49.6 58.2 28.8 40.8 19.8 4.6 37.2 1.2 31.8 30 42 19.8 10.2 51 58.8 55.2 1.8 46.2 0 22.2 51 1.8 5.2 2.2 16.8 27 25.8 55.2 19.8 7.8 39 18 0 34.8 55.8 51 55.6 1.8 4.8 27 1.2 28.8 10.2 55.2 19.2 9 34.2 30 30 19.2 49.2 31.8 0 30.2 18 45 21 22.8 13.8 2.2 4.2 34.8 9 16.8 43.2 52.8 43.4 55.2 3 25.2 46.8 37.8 4.8 31.2 58.8 36 16.6 58.2 52.8 1.2 10.2 46.8 58.6 34.8 40.8 34.8 30 22.2 1.2 9 43.8 43.2 3 1.2 43.8 4.2 57 51 48 28.8 25.8 34.6 25.4 37.2 1.2 21 22.2 12 19.4 22.2 3.2 58.2 43.8 5.2 54 22.8 22.8 3 0 22.2 55.8 19.2 0 25.2 1.2 33 39 18 45 16.2 19.2 57 43.8 LONGITUDE degrees San Angelo 100 San Antonio 98 Sanderson 102 South Brazos 95 Stephenville 98 Temple 97 Tyler/Pounds 95 Victoria 96 Wichita Flls 98 Wink 103 UTAH Blanding 109 Bullfrog Mar 110 Cedar City 113 Delta 112 Eagle Range 113 Green River 110 Hanksville 110 Hill AFB 111 Logan 111 Milford 113 Moab 109 Ogden 112 Price/Carbon 110 Provo 111 Roosevelt 110 Saint George 113 Salt Lake Ct 111 Tooele 112 Vernal 109 Wendover 114 VERMONT Burlington 73 Montpelier 72 Newport 72 Rutland 73 St Johnsbury 72 Wilmington 72 VIRGINIA Charlottes 78 Chesapeake 76 Danville 79 Fort Belvoir 77 Fort Eustis 76 Hot Springs 79 Langley AFB 76 Lynchburg 79 Newport 76 News Norfolk NAS 76 Norfolk Rgnl 76 Oceana NAS 76 Quantico Mca 77 Richmond 77 Roanoke 79 Muni Staunton 78 Volens 78 Wallops Sta 75 WASHINGTON Bellingham 122 Bremerton 122 Burlington 122 Colville 118 Ephrata 119 Everet/Paine 122 Fairchild 117 Fort Lewis 122 Hanford 119 Hoquiam 123 Mcchord AFB 122 Moses Lake 119 Oak Harbor 122 Olympia 122 Omak 119 Pasco 119 Port Angeles 123 Pullman 117 Quillayute 124 Renton 122 Seattle 122 Shelton 123 Spokane 117 Tacoma 122 Toledo 122 min 3 28.6 25.2 34.6 13.2 9 22.8 28.8 22.8 1.2 3 9 7.8 34.2 46.8 28.2 51 3.8 10.2 0 1.8 LATITUDE degrees 34 34 36 35 36 34 36 35 34 34 35 35 34 36 36 35 36 36 46 45 44 42 43 43 45 44 44 45 42 45 42 45 42 44 43 44 45 45 44 43 44 42 45 45 40 40 40 40 41 41 42 41 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 39 41 40 40 39 40 41 41 40 41 41 41 34 32 32 33 34 34 33 min 40.2 27 13.8 46.6 25.8 9 15 49.2 57.8 0 21 2.8 15 12 10.8 21 58.8 9 31.2 48 10.8 55.8 46.8 13.8 40.8 4.2 27 18 48 46.2 16.2 33 1.2 37.2 45 43.8 25.2 4.2 3.2 21 46.2 3 13.2 45 1.8 43.2 25.8 13.8 4.2 1.8 36 22.2 40.8 1.8 1.2 7.2 40.8 48 37.8 4.8 30 31.6 9 22.2 52.2 13.8 4.8 54 49.8 2.8 3 9.2 3 16.2 9 16.8 19.8 16.2 7.8 25.8 1.8 37.2 37.8 4.8 46.6 5.2 13.2 34.8 19.8 4.4 18 54 47.2 9 12 15 58.2 37.8 36 4.2 30 22.2 19.8 57 46.

8 21 36 49.2 52.2 58.2 16.2 LATITUDE degrees 44 44 44 42 43 43 43 44 42 44 44 44 45 45 43 44 min 15 52. Edward Isl Quebec Regina Saskatoon St.8 22.2 39 Parkersburg 81 25.8 18 22.8 13.LONGITUDE LATITUDE degrees min degrees Walla Walla 118 16.2 52.8 7.8 0 31. Petersburg Sao Paulo Shanghai Sofia Stockholm Sydney Tananarive Teheran Tokyo Tripoli Venice Veracruz Vienna Warsaw Wellington Zürich COUNTRY Scotland Guatemala Ecuador Germany Norway Cuba Finland Tasmania Chile Russia Indonesia South Africa Jamaica Bolivia England Peru England England France Spain England Phillipines France Mexico Saudi Arabia Australia Mexico Italy Uruguay Russia Germany Japan Japan Kenya China Italy England Ukraine Japan Norway Panama Surinam France China Australia England Brazil Italy Brazil Chile Russia Brazil China Bulgaria Sweden Australia Madagascar Iran Japan Libya Italy Mexico Austria Poland New Zealand Switzerland LONGITUDE 4 15 w 90 31 w 79 56 w 10 2e 23 38 e 82 23 w 25 0e 147 19 e 70 7w 104 20 e 106 48 e 28 4e 76 49 w 68 22 w 1 30 w 77 2w 3 0w 0 5w 4 50 e 3 42 w 2 15 w 120 57 e 5 20 e 106 25 w 39 45 e 144 58 e 99 7w 9 10 e 56 10 w 37 36 e 11 35 e 129 57 e 136 56 e 36 55 e 118 53 e 14 15 e 1 37 w 30 48 e 135 30 e 10 42 e 79 32 w 55 15 w 2 20 e 116 25 e 115 52 e 4 5w 43 12 w 12 27 e 38 27 w 70 45 w 30 18 e 46 31 w 121 28 e 23 20 e 18 3e 151 0e 47 33 e 51 45 e 139 45 e 13 12 e 12 20 e 96 10 w 16 20 e 21 0e 174 47 e 8 31 e LATITUDE 55 50 n 14 37 n 2 10 s 53 33 n 70 38 n 23 8n 60 10 n 42 52 s 20 10 s 52 30 n 6 16 s 26 12 s 17 59 n 16 27 s 53 45 n 12 0s 53 25 n 51 32 n 45 45 n 40 26 n 53 30 n 14 35 n 43 20 n 23 12 n 21 29 n 37 47 s 19 26 n 45 27 n 34 53 s 55 45 n 48 8n 32 48 n 35 7n 1 25 s 32 3n 40 50 n 54 58 n 46 27 n 34 32 n 59 57 n 8 58 n 5 45 n 48 48 n 39 55 n 31 57 s 50 25 n 22 57 s 41 54 n 12 56 s 33 28 s 59 56 n 23 31 s 31 10 n 42 40 n 59 17 n 34 0s 18 50 s 35 45 n 35 40 n 32 57 n 45 26 n 19 10 n 48 14 n 52 14 n 41 17 s 47 21 n INTERNATIONAL Aberdeen Adelaide Amsterdam Ankara Asunción Athens Auckland Bangkok Barcelona Belém Belfast Belgrade Berlin Birmingham Bombay Bordeaux Bremen Brisbane Bristol Brussels Bucharest Budapest Buenos Aires Cairo Canton Cape Town Caracas Chihuahua Chongqing Copenhagen Córdoba Darwin Dublin Durban Edinburgh Frankfurt Georgetown Scotland Australia Holland Turkey Paraguay Greece New Zealand Thailand Spain Brazil Northern Ireland Yugoslavia Germany England India France Germany Australia England Belgium Romania Hungary Argentina Egypt China South Africa Venezuela Mexico China Denmark Argentina Australia Ireland South Africa Scotland Germany Guyana 2 138 4 32 57 23 174 100 2 48 5 20 13 1 72 0 8 153 2 4 26 19 58 31 113 18 67 106 106 12 64 130 6 30 3 8 58 9w 36 e 53 e 55 e 40 w 43 e 45 e 30 e 9e 29 w 56 w 32 e 25 e 55 w 48 e 31 w 49 e 8e 35 w 22 e 7e 5e 22 w 21 e 15 e 22 e 2w 5w 34 e 34 e 10 w 51 e 15 w 53 e 10 w 41 e 15 w 57 34 52 39 25 37 36 13 41 1 54 44 52 52 19 44 53 27 51 50 44 47 34 30 23 33 10 28 29 55 31 12 53 29 55 50 6 9n 55 s 22 n 55 n 15 s 58 n 52 s 45 n 23 n 28 s 37 n 52 n 30 n 25 n 0n 50 n 5n 29 s 28 n 52 n 25 n 30 n 35 s 2n 7n 55 s 28 n 37 n 46 n 40 n 28 s 28 s 20 n 53 s 55 n 7n 45 n 57 .2 33 CANADA CITY Calgary Churchill Coppermine Edmonton Frederickton Ft Mcpherson Goose Bay Halifax Hazelton Kenora Labrador City Montreal Mt.4 40.8 19.8 7.8 48.8 37.8 34.8 39 Morgantown 79 55.2 37 Bluefield 81 13.8 1.2 LATITUDE degrees 42 42 41 44 42 41 44 43 42 41 44 41 43 41 44 43 44 min 34.2 24 39 21 10.2 55.2 46.6 1.8 46 Wenatchee 120 1.2 21 48 3 36 46.8 52.2 5.8 43.2 31.8 57 46.6 38 Clarksburg 80 13.6 28.8 55.2 28.8 28.2 12 7.8 15 10.2 22.2 47 Whidbey Is 122 39 48 Yakima 120 31.2 37.8 39 Elkins 79 51 38 Huntington 82 33 38 Lewisburg 80 2.2 58.8 39 Wheeling 80 39 40 Wh Sulphur 80 1.8 43. Alberta New Brunswick Northwest Terr Newfoundland Nova Scotia BC Ontario Labrador Quebec Yukon Yukon Ontario Alberta Nova Scotia Quebec Saskatchewan Saskatchewan Newfoundland Ontario BC BC Yukon Manitoba LONGITUDE 114 7 94 0 115 21 113 25 66 40 134 50 60 20 63 34 127 38 94 29 66 52 73 39 140 24 132 48 75 45 117 18 63 9 71 15 104 38 101 32 52 43 79 23 123 7 123 20 135 3 97 9 LATITUDE 51 14 58 45 67 49 53 34 45 57 67 29 53 15 44 39 55 15 49 47 52 56 45 32 60 34 59 12 45 18 56 15 46 14 46 50 50 30 52 10 47 34 43 39 49 16 48 26 60 43 49 53 CITY Glasgow Guatemala City Guayaquil Hamburg Hammerfest Havana Helsinki Hobart Iquique Irkutsk Jakarta Johannesburg Kingston La Paz Leeds Lima Liverpool London Lyons Madrid Manchester Manila Marseilles Mazatlán Mecca Melbourne Mexico City Milan Montevideo Moscow Munich Nagasaki Nagoya Nairobi Nanjing Naples Newcastle Odessa Osaka Oslo Panama City Paramaribo Paris Beijing Perth Plymouth Rio de Janeiro Rome Salvador Santiago St.8 40.2 37 Charleston 81 3.8 27.2 58.2 49.2 16.2 25. Logan Nakina Ottawa Peace River Pr.6 LONGITUDE degrees min WISCONSIN Appleton Eau Claire Green Bay Janesville La Crosse Lone Rock Madison Manitowac Milwaukee Mosinee Neenah Oshkosh Rhinelander Rice Lake Volk Fld Wausau 88 91 88 89 91 90 89 87 87 89 88 88 89 91 90 89 31.2 19.2 28.2 9 31. Johns Toronto Vancouver Victoria Whitehorse Winnipeg PROVINCE Alberta Newfoundland Northwest Terr.2 45 19.8 46 WEST VIRGINIA Beckley 81 7.8 55.4 37 Martinsburg 77 58.8 40.2 0 37.2 WYOMING Big Piney Casper Cheyenne Cody Douglas Evanston Gillette Jackson Lander Laramie Moorcroft Rawlins Riverton Rock Springs Sheridan Worland Yellowstone LONGITUDE degrees min 110 106 104 109 105 111 105 110 108 105 104 107 108 109 106 107 110 0.2 1.2 37 min 6 24 21 34.2 27 4.2 27 43.

Appendix D - RS-232 Connection
You can control your telescope with a computer via the RS-232 port on the computerized hand control and using an optional RS-232 cable (#93920). Once connected, the telescope can be controlled using popular astronomy software programs.

Communication Protocol:
The Advanced GT communicates at 9600 bits/sec, No parity and a stop bit. All angles are communicated with 16 bit angle and communicated using ASCII hexadecimal. Description Echo Goto Azm-Alt PC Command ASCII Kx B12AB, 4000 Hand Control Response X# #

Notes
Useful to check communication 10 characters sent. B=Command, 12AB=Azm, comma, 4000=Alt. If command conflicts with slew limits, there will be no action. Scope must be aligned. If command conflicts with slew limits, there will be no action. 10 characters returned, 12AB=Azm, comma, 4000=Alt, # Scope must be aligned 0=No, 1=Yes; "0" is ASCII character zero 0=No, 1=Yes

Goto Ra-Dec Get Azm-Alt Get RA-Dec Cancel Goto Is Goto in Progress Is Alignment Complete Commands below available on version 1.6 or later HC version Stop/Start Tracking

R34AB, 12CE Z E M L J

# 12AB, 4000# 34AB, 12CE# # 0# or 1# 0# or 1#

32-bit goto RA-Dec 32-bit get RA-Dec Commands below available on version 2.2 or later 32-bit goto Azm-Alt 32-bit get Azm-Alt

V Tx x = 0 (Tracking off) x = 1 (Alt-Az on) x = 2 (EQ-N) x = 3 (EQ-S) r34AB0500,12CE0500 e

22
#

Two bytes representing V2.2 Alt-Az tracking requires alignment

# 34AB0500,12CE0500#

The last two characters will always be zero.

b34AB0500,12CE0500 z

# 34AB0500,12CE0500#

The last two characters will always be zero.

The cable required to interface to the telescope has an RS-232 male plug at one end and a 4-4 telephone jack at the other end. The wiring is as follows:

58

Additional RS232 Commands
Send Any Track Rate Through RS232 To The Hand Control
1. 2. 3. Multiply the desired tracking rate (arcseconds/second) by 4. Example: if the desired trackrate is 150 arcseconds/second, then TRACKRATE = 600 Separate TRACKRATE into two bytes, such that (TRACKRATE = TrackRateHigh*256 + rackRateLow). Example: TrackRateHigh = 2 TrackRateLow = 88 To send a tracking rate, send the following 8 bytes: a. Positive Azm tracking: 80, 3, 16, 6, TrackRateHigh, TrackRateLow, 0, 0 b. Negative Azm tracking:80, 3, 16, 7, TrackRateHigh, TrackRateLow, 0, 0 c. Positive Alt tracking: 80, 3, 17, 6, TrackRateHigh, TrackRateLow, 0, 0 d. Negative Alt tracking: 80, 3, 17, 7, TrackRateHigh, TrackRateLow, 0, 0 The number 35 is returned from the handcontrol

4.

Send A Slow-Goto Command Through RS232 To The Hand Control (note: Only valid for motorcontrol version 4.1 or greater) 1. 2. 3. 4. Convert the angle position to a 24bit number. Example: if the desired position is 220°, then POSITION_24BIT = (220/360)*224 = 10,252,743 Separate POSITION_24BIT into three bytes such that (POSITION_24BIT = PosHigh*65536 + PosMed*256 + PosLow). Exampe: PosHigh = 156, PosMed = 113, PosLow = 199 Send the following 8 bytes: a. Azm Slow Goto: 80, 4, 16, 23, PosHigh, PosMed, PosLow, 0 b. Alt Slow Goto: 80, 4, 17, 23, PosHigh, PosMed, PosLow, 0 The number 35 is returned from the handcontrol

Reset The Position Of Azm Or Alt 1. Convert the angle position to a 24bit number, same as Slow-Goto example. 2. Send the following 8 bytes: a. Azm Set Position: 80, 4, 16, 4, PosHigh, PosMed, PosLow, 0 b. Alt Set Position: 80, 4, 17, 4, PosHigh, PosMed, PosLow, 0 3. The number 35 is returned from the handcontrol 4. Note: If using Motorcontrol version less than 4.1, then send: a. Azm Set Position: 80, 3, 16, 4, PosHigh, PosMed, PosLow, 0 b. Alt Set Position: 80, 3, 17, 4, PosHigh, PosMed, PosLow, 0

59

APPENDIX E – MAPS OF TIME ZONES

60

61 .

62 .

63 .

64 .

65 .

66 .

3 67 .

is found to be defective in materials or workmanship. misuse.A. or subjected to abuse. and Canadian customers who have purchased this product from an Authorized Celestron Dealer in the U. mishandling or unauthorized repair. OR ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE ANY CELESTRON PRODUCT. Celestron reserves the right to replace any product which has been discontinued from its product line with a new product of comparable value and function. or if you need assistance in using your telescope contact: Celestron Customer Service Department 2835 Columbia Street Torrance. If warranty problems arise. Warranty outside the U. GENERAL. Call Celestron at (310) 3289560 to receive the number to be displayed on the outside of your shipping container.A. Parts or product for which replacement is made shall become the property of Celestron. Celestron will repair or replace such product or part thereof which. together with a brief description of any claimed defects. NOTE: This warranty is valid to U. SPECIAL. In the event repair or replacement shall require more than thirty days. Celestron shall use reasonable efforts to repair or replace any telescope covered by this warranty within thirty days of receipt.A. CELESTRON DISCLAIMS ANY WARRANTIES. Some states do not allow the exclusion or limitation of incidental or consequential damages or limitation on how long an implied warranty lasts. Tel. the product must be returned to Celestron together with proof-of-purchase satisfactory to Celestron. INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES WHICH MAY RESULT FROM BREACH OF ANY WARRANTY. WHETHER OF MERCHANTABILITY OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR USE. Celestron reserves the right to modify or discontinue. All returns must be accompanied by a written statement setting forth the name.CELESTRON TWO YEAR WARRANTY A. upon inspection by Celestron. (310) 328-9560 Fax. EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY SET FORTH HEREIN.A. Further. CELESTRON EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ANY LOST PROFITS. B. This warranty shall be void and of no force of effect in the event a covered product has been modified in design or function.S. both to and from the factory of Celestron. address. The customer shall be responsible for all costs of transportation and insurance. The Proper Return Authorization Number must be obtained from Celestron in advance of return. IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE TERMS SET FORTH HEREIN. any model or style telescope. (310) 212-5835 Monday-Friday 8AM-4PM PST This warranty supersedes all other product warranties.S.S.S. Celestron warrants this telescope to be free from defects in materials and workmanship for two years. ANY WARRANTIES WHICH ARE IMPLIED AND WHICH CANNOT BE DISCLAIMED SHALL BE LIMITED IN DURATION TO A TERM OF TWO YEARS FROM THE DATE OF ORIGINAL RETAIL PURCHASE. product malfunction or deterioration due to normal wear is not covered by this warranty. and shall be required to prepay such costs. THE SOLE OBLIGATION OF CELESTRON UNDER THIS LIMITED WARRANTY SHALL BE TO REPAIR OR REPLACE THE COVERED PRODUCT. and Canada is valid only to customers who purchased from a Celestron Distributor or Authorized Celestron Dealer in the specific country and please contact them for any warranty service. or Canada. 68 . Celestron shall notify the customer accordingly. This warranty gives you specific legal rights. As a condition to the obligation of Celestron to repair or replace such product. so the above limitations and exclusions may not apply to you. and daytime telephone number of the owner. without prior notice to you. EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. CA 90503 U. and you may also have other rights which vary from state to state.

00 09-03 . Tel. (310) 328-9560 Fax.S.com Copyright 2003 Celestron All rights reserved.) Item # 21019-INST Printed in China $10. (310) 212-5835 Web site at http//www. CA 90503 U.A.celestron.Celestron 2835 Columbia Street Torrance. (Products or instructions may change without notice or obligation.

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