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elements (R, L, or C.) is varied over a certain range.

**Let us consider a simple R-L circuit as shown in Fig 2.1(a)
**

R L

I

A

~

Fig. 2.1a

If we vary, say, the resistance R from O to w, keeping the voltage and frequency constant, what would be the locus of the current ? Let us first study the variation of the impedance.

Im

z. locus

z1

z2

z3 zn

Rl

Fig. 2.1b

V=ZI or I = Y V = Y ( Per unit ) taking the voltage to be 1.0 p.u

So the current locus is the locus of Y (with some scale). Since the locus of Z is a straight line the locus of Y will be the inverse of a straight line.

I. INVERSE Of A STRAIGHT LINE

Let AB be a straight line, OP1 is the perpendicular drawn from the origin. Q1 and R1 are any two points on A B.

lm A

Q1 Q2 P1 P2 R2 R1 Q1

Q2

0

P1

P2

**OQ1. OQ2 = OP1. OP2
**

Real B

O

Fig. 2.2a

We want to invert OP1,OR1 and OQ1. Let P2, R2, Q2 be the points of inversion. @ OP1. OP2 = OR1. OR2 = OQ1.OQ2=1 @P1 P2 Q1 Q2 are con cyclic. Now OP1Q1 = 900

@ Q1Q2 P1 = 900 Similarly R2 = 900 @ All the points corresponding to the inverses of vectors whose locus is the straight line A B will lie on the circle with diameter OP2.

**Thus the inversion of a straight line is a circle passing through the origin (Fig. 2.2b)
**

P1 P2 Z locus st.line

O

Y ± locus - circle

Fig. 2.2b

**and conversely the inversion of a circle passing through the origin is a st.line.
**

II. INVERSION OF A CIRCLE ABOUT THE ORIGIN IS ALSO A CIRCLE.

Let us consider a circle P1QP2R with centre at C (away from the origin ),

**as shown in Fig. 2.3a and we want to invert it.
**

Y R C P1

R/ C/ Q/ P2/ X P2 Q

P1/ O

Fig. 2.3a

P1 P2 is any chord which passes through the origin. Let P1/ , P2/ be the inversions of P1 and P2 about the origin.

**@ OP1. OP1/ = OP2 . OP2/ = 1 For a given location of the circle, OP1. OP2 = @
**

2 k

(=

2) OQ

= constant.

OP1/.OP2/ =

1 1 1 . ! 2 = constant OP2 OP2 k

@ P1/ . P2/ and similar points of inversion of the original circle lie on a circle P1/. Q/ P2/ R/ as shown. When we consider vectors

[or phasors], i.e., OP1, OP2 etc. are

considered with

their angles, the

inversion will result in a reversal of

the angle also and hence the final result will be a circle in the fourth quadrant as shown in Fig. 2.3(b).

Im

-Z Locus

U1 U1

U2 U2 Y - Locus Rl

Fig. 2.3 (b)

For

simplicity

of

drawing

and

transferring points, we shall. (i) frequently change the scale. (ii) bring all the diagrams in the same first quadrant.

(iii) perform addition and subtraction in the same way (scaled values will not involve mistakes), and

(iv) write scales, and image or true ones against each value.

**EXAMPLE 2.1 (i) Find the current locus for the case shown in Fig. 2.4
**

5 ± 50 ;

j4;

I

~

100V

Fig. 2.4

(ii) Also find the p.f and power for the two cases ± R = 5 ; and R = 50 ;. (iii)Determine the current in each case. Let us first draw the locus (st. line) for z which is R + j4 , and mark the two points

**P and Q corresponding to R=5 and R=50 (Fig.2.5)
**

10 Im 40Y R=5 R = 50 P Q

Q/

R 4

P/

Z - Locus R

E

O

Real

Fig. 2.5

OP

and

OQ

denote

the

corresponding impedances 5+j4 and 50+j4 respectively. The minimum value of the impedance can be O+j4 corresponding to OR, which is perpendicular to the line.

Therefore

1 Z

the

locus

of

**Y (= ) will be a circle with
**

1 OR ¨ 1¸ ©! ¹ ª 4º

as the diameter and it will

pass through the origin.

We take a scale factor of 40 and show the locus of 40 Y by the dotted semi circle . Thus 40Y gives a diameter of 1 40 v units = 10 units current for R=5,

4

I1 !

length of

OP / v voltage ( ! 100) 40

Similarly, for R = 50

length of OQ / v voltage I2 ! 40

**Power transferred for (R = 5) = I1cos U1 V
**

OP . voltage ! v COS 40

/ 2 1

Similarly, for R = 50, power transferred

OQ . 2 ! v voltage v Cos 40

/

2

NOTES Scale for mho and ohm can be same or different.

**EXAMPLE 2.2 Find the current loci for the circuits shown in Fig. 2.6(a) and 2.6(b)
**

10 I C 200V 50 Hz Fig. 2.6(a)

~

10

200V

C

~

50 Hz

j 20

Fig.2.6(b)

**find C. when the total current is having a p.f 0.4 (lagging) in 2.6 b
**

SOLUTION

We shall first consider the impedance and hence admittance locus for the circuit in Fig. 2.6a.

**Since I = Y.V, for a given value of V
**

(=200V), the same admittance locus will give the current locus with a scale factor of 200.

Locus of I1 = 200 Y1 Im P2

FF

0

10 10 Q Q -F

U

Ref Voltage Real 20

P11 P I2= -j10 R

Locus of I = I1 + I2

Locus for Z1 (Fig. 2a)

Fig. 2.6(c)

**Z1min = 10 ohm = OQ. @ Y1max =
**

1 10

mho

= 0.1 mho @ I1m = 200 Y1m= 20A

Y2 =

1 j 20

I2 = 200 Y2 = -j 10 A I = I1+ I2

If Cos U = 0.4 ( lagging) then U = Cos-1 (0.4) OP1 is the total current I. A vertical line drawn from P1 determines the corresponding current I1 = OP2 at an angle F.

If now a line is drawn at -F, from o, we get the location of Z1

**(= OR) on the Z1- locus and QR is the corresponding reactance. @The required value of C !
**

1 w. QR

**EXAMPLE 2.3 Find C for maximum current in the circuit ( Fig.2.6a)
**

3 z3 0.5 + 0.5 j 2 1

~

Z123 3/ Fig. 2.7(a) 2/

z2

0.5

c z

1/

P6

Im O/ P3 P3 P5 0 P4 2 Z12 1.0 2.0 Y2 P2 P2

Y12 Locus (= Y1 + Y2)

2z123 = 2 [z12 +z3]

Y1 Q Rl

Fig. 2.7b

Z12

max

!

1 Y12 min

1 ! ! 0 .5 2 .0

@ 2Z12 firm line.

semi circle shown by

The total admittance of Z1 and Z2, is Y12 whose locus is shown by the vertical line through Q. The locus of 2Z12 is the semi circle shown,which when added with

2Z3 [= 2 (0.5 + 0.5 j ) ] is 2Z123 and is shown by the shifted semi circle with centre P2. Join OP2 to obtain the minimum value Z123. Through P3 a line P3 P4 is drawn parallel to

/. 00

P5 is the image of P4 ( to obtain the point P6); by extending the line OP5, we obtain P6. QP6 = wc for minimum overall impedance

QP6 @ C! w

Exercise 2.1

Draw the locus of current I, for the circuit shown below when XL is varied. Determine the value of L

**when the power factor is unity (Fig 2.8)
**

I 200V 50 Hz 10 ;

~ -20 j

jx Fig 2.8

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