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A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers in a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building. The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to wide area networks (WANs), include their usually higher data-transfer rates, smaller geographic area, and lack of a need for leased telecommunication lines. ARCNET, Token Ring and other technology standards have been used in the past, but Ethernet over twisted pair cabling, and Wi-Fi are the two most common technologies currently used to build LANs.
What is a Topology?
The physical topology of a network refers to the configuration of cables, computers, and other peripherals. Physical topology should not be confused with logical topology which is the method used to pass information between workstations.
Main Types of Physical Topologies
A linear bus topology consists of a main run of cable with a terminator at each end All nodes (file server, workstations, and peripherals) are connected to the linear cable.
Linear Bus topology
Advantages of a Linear Bus Topology
Easy to connect a computer or peripheral to a linear bus. Requires less cable length than a star topology.
Star Topology A star topology is designed with each node (file server. however. workstations. Disadvantages of a Star Topology y Requires more cable length than a linear topology. Star topology Advantages of a Star Topology y y y Easy to install and wire. It also acts as a repeater for the data flow. . switch. it can also be used with coaxial cable or fiber optic cable. This configuration is common with twisted pair cable. switch. or concentrator before continuing to its destination. or concentrator manages and controls all functions of the network. No disruptions to the network when connecting or removing devices.Disadvantages of a Linear Bus Topology y y y y Entire network shuts down if there is a break in the main cable. Not meant to be used as a stand-alone solution in a large building. Easy to detect faults and to remove parts. Difficult to identify the problem if the entire network shuts down. or concentrator Data on a star network passes through the hub. Terminators are required at both ends of the backbone cable. switch. The hub. and peripherals) connected directly to a central network hub.
More difficult to configure and wire than other topologies. nodes attached are disabled. Supported by several hardware and software venders. Tree topology Advantages of a Tree Topology y y Point-to-point wiring for individual segments. . the entire segment goes down. If the backbone line breaks. More expensive than linear bus topologies because of the cost of the hubs. It consists of groups of star-configured workstations connected to a linear bus backbone cable . Disadvantages of a Tree Topology y y y Overall length of each segment is limited by the type of cabling used. switch.y y If the hub.Tree topologies allow for the expansion of an existing network. and enable schools to configure a network to meet their needs. or concentrator fails. etc. Tree or Expanded Star Topology A tree topology combines characteristics of linear bus and star topologies.
every node in the network is connected to two other nodes and the first and the last nodes are connected to each other. Ring Topology: In a ring topology. Full mesh topology occurs when every node has a circuit connecting it to every other node in a network.Mesh Topology Also called mesh topology or a mesh network. mesh is a network topology in which devices are connected with many redundant interconnections between network nodes. The dual ring topology varies in having two connections between each of the network nodes. so in the event that one of those nodes fails. Partial mesh topology is less expensive to implement and yields less redundancy than full mesh topology. In a true mesh topology every node has a connection to every other node in the network. some nodes are organized in a full mesh scheme but others are only connected to one or two in the network. network traffic can be directed to any of the other nodes. In a ring network. Partial mesh topology is commonly found in peripheral networks connected to a full meshed backbone. With partial mesh. Full mesh is usually reserved for backbone networks. the data and the signals that pass over the network travel in a single direction. There are two types of mesh topologies: full mesh and partial mesh. . Full mesh is very expensive to implement but yields the greatest amount of redundancy. The data that are transmitted over the network pass through each of the nodes in the ring until they reach the destination node. The data flow along two directions in the two rings formed thereby. The ring topology does not require a central server to manage connectivity between the nodes and facilitates an orderly network operation.
A Tree Structure suits best when the network is widely spread and vastly divided into many branches. universities and schools so that each of the branches can identify the relevant systems in their own network and yet connect to the big network in some way. . Among all the Network Topologies we can derive that the Tree Topology is a combination of the bus and the Star Topology. This is particularly helpful for colleges. All the computers have access to the larger and their immediate networks. the Tree Topology has its advantages and disadvantages. A Tree Network may not suit small networks and it may be a waste of cable to use it for small networks. A point to point connection is possible with Tree Networks. Like any other topologies. The tree like structure allows you to have many servers on the network and you can branch out the network in many ways. Tree Topology Limitations y In a Network Topology the length of the network depends on the type of cable that is being used.Tree Topology It is also known as hierarchical topology and has acentral root node thatis connected to one or more nodes of a lower hierarchy. Tree Topology has some limitations and the configuration should suit those limitation. Best topology for branched out networks. TREE TOPOLOGY Tree Network topology Benefits y y y y A Tree Topology is supported by many network vendors ad even hardware vendors.
SUBMITTED BY: HENA TABASSUM Roll no-312 B.y y The Tree Topology network is entirely dependant on the trunk which is the main backbone of the network. Since the Tree Topology network is big it is difficult to configure and can get complicated after a certain point. The Tree Topology has two kinds of topology integral in it. The higher levels in the hierarchy are expected to perform more functions than the lower levels in the network. The Tree Topology follows a hierarchical pattern where each level is connected to the next higher level in a symmetrical pattern. the star and the linear way of connecting to nodes. If that has to fail then the entire network would fail. It does not matter how many nodes are there on each level. Like the top most level might have only one node or two nodes and the following level in the hierarchy might have few more nodes which work on the point to point connectivity and the third level also has asymmetrical node to node pattern and each of these levels are connected to the root level in the hierarchy. This increases the efficiency of the overall functioning of the network.C. The Tree Network topology can be extended easily to function and there are no limitations to how big it can be extended. Think of a tree that branches out in various directions and all these branches need the roots and the tree trunk to survive. A Tree Structured network is very similar to this and that is why it is called the Tree Topology.A-4 . Nodes can be added to any level of the hierarchy and there are no limitations a far as the total number of nodes do not exceed. Tree Topology Conclusion The signals that are being transmitted by the root node are received by all the nodes at the same time. Tree Topology Features y y y y There will be at least three levels of hierarchy in the Tree Network Topology and they all work based on the root node. Each level in the hierarchy follows a certain pattern in connecting the nodes. Additional root nodes can be added and they can be interconnected within one single network. The Tree Topology functions by taking into account the total number of nodes present in the network.
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