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MACAM MACAM KETEL UAP (BOILER )
Construction of boilers is mainly limited to carbon steel, stainless steel, and cast iron. In live steam toys, brass is often used. The source of heat for a boiler is combustion of any of several fuels, such as wood, coal, oil, or natural gas. Electric boilers use resistance or immersion type heating elements. Nuclear fission is also used as a heat source for generating steam. Heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs) use the heat rejected from other processes such as gas turbines. Boilers can be classified into the following configurations:
"Pot boiler" or "Haycock boiler": a primitive "kettle" where a fire heats a partially-filled water container from below. 18th Century Haycock boilers generally produced and stored large volumes of very low-pressure steam, often hardly above that of the atmosphere. These could burn wood or most often, coal. Efficiency was very low.
Fire-tube boiler. Here, water partially fills a boiler barrel with a small volume left above to accommodate the steam (steam space). The heat source is inside a furnace or firebox that has to be kept permanently surrounded by the water in order to maintain the temperature of the heating surface just below boiling point. The furnace can be situated at one end of a fire-tube which lengthens the path of the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating surface which can be further increased by making the gases reverse direction through a second parallel tube or a bundle of multiple tubes (two-pass or return flue boiler); alternatively the gases may be taken along the sides and then beneath the boiler through flues (3-pass boiler). In the case of a locomotive-type boiler, a boiler barrel extends from the firebox and the hot gases pass through a bundle of fire tubes inside the barrel which greatly increase the heating surface
but are readily adaptable to those of the liquid or gas variety. Fire-tube boilers mostly burn solid fuels. Sometimes the two above types have been combined in the following manner: the firebox contains an assembly of water tubes. • Water-tube boiler. but less storage capacity than the above. This type generally gives high steam production rates. the gases then pass through a conventional firetube MENEJEMEN ENERGI . the lower ones containing water and the upper ones. such as a monotube boiler. Fire-tube boilers usually have a comparatively low rate of steam production. steam. In this type. Water tube boilers can be be designed to exploit any heat source including nuclear fission and are generally preferred in high pressure applications since the high pressure water/steam is contained within narrow pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thinner wall. in other cases. • Fire-tube boiler with Water-tube firebox. but high steam storage capacity. Diagram of a water-tube boiler.KETEL UAP compared to a single tube and further improve heat transfer.the water tubes are arranged inside a furnace in a number of possible configurations: often the water tubes connect large drums. water is circulated by a pump through a succession of coils.
Water-tube fireboxes were were installed in many Hungarian locomotives. useful heat can be extracted from the steam without causing condensation..e. These sections are assembled on site to create the finished boiler. there are advantages to superheated steam. instantaneous harm to anyone entering its flow. Superheated steam boilers Most boilers heat water until it boils. Since the escaping steam will initially MENEJEMEN ENERGI .KETEL UAP boiler. if there is a leak in the steam piping. sometimes called a "pork chop boiler" the water is contained inside cast iron sections. saturated steam). but have met with little success in other countries. Superheated steam boilers boil the water and then further heat the steam in a superheater. and then the steam is used at saturation temperature (i. A superheated boiler on a steam locomotive. and can decrease the overall thermal efficiency of the steam plant due to the fact that the higher steam temperature requires a higher flue gas exhaust temperature. which could damage piping and turbine blades. This provides steam at much higher temperature. However. Superheated steam presents unique safety concerns because. steam at such high pressure/temperature can cause serious. In a cast iron sectional boiler. For example.
it is not easy to see the leak. however to a different end. Some superheaters are radiant type (absorb heat by radiation). The superheater works like coils on an air conditioning unit. and the boiler has no water . There is no generation of steam bubbles within the water. They operate at "supercritical pressure". It is important to note that while the temperature of the steam in the superheater is raised.e.KETEL UAP be completely superheated vapor. although the intense heat and sound from such a leak clearly indicates its presence.steam separation. others are convection type (absorb heat via a fluid i. This is more efficient. MENEJEMEN ENERGI .The process of superheating steam is most importantly designed to remove all moisture content from the steam to prevent damage to the turbine blading and/or associated piping. as no "boiling" actually occurs in this device. It passes below the critical point as it does work in the high pressure turbine and enters the generator's condenser. 220 bar) that actual boiling ceases to occur. resulting in slightly less fuel use and therefore less greenhouse gas production. gas) and some are a combination of the two. In contrast to a "subcritical boiler". a supercritical steam generator operates at such a high pressure (over 3200 PSI. The steam piping (with steam flowing through it) is directed through the flue gas path in the boiler furnace. 22 MPa. The term "boiler" should not be used for a supercritical pressure steam generator. This area typically is between 1300-1600 degrees Celsius (2500-3000 degrees Fahrenheit). the pressure of the steam is not: the turbine or moving pistons offer a "continuously expanding space" and the pressure remains the same as that of the boiler. So whether by convection or radiation the extreme heat in the boiler furnace/flue gas path will also heat the superheater steam piping and the steam within as well. Supercritical steam generators Supercritical steam generators (also known as Benson boilers) are frequently used for the production of electric power. because the pressure is above the "critical pressure" at which steam bubbles can form.
The second Benson boiler began operation in 1930 without a pressurizing valve at pressures between 40 and 180 bar at the Berlin cable factory. As development of Benson technology continued. however. In 1929. This happens when water is heated at a pressure above the critical pressure and then expanded to dry steam at subcritical pressure. One of their distinguishing technical characteristics was the riveted drum. corresponding to the state of the art in steam turbine development at the time. Mark Benson was granted a patent for a boiler designed to convert water into steam at high pressure. These drums were used to separate water and steam. A throttle valve located downstream of the evaporator can be used for this purpose. Two current innovations have a good chance of winning acceptance in the competitive market for once-through steam generators: MENEJEMEN ENERGI . boiler design soon moved away from the original concept introduced by Mark Benson. and were often the source of boiler explosions. the drum can be completely eliminated if the evaporation process is avoided altogether. However.KETEL UAP History of supercritical steam generation Contemporary supercritical steam generators are sometimes referred as Benson boilers. After that development. In 1922. Safety was the main concern behind Benson’s concept. usually with catastrophic consequences. a test boiler that had been built in 1927 began operating in the thermal power plant at Gartenfeld in Berlin for the first time in subcritical mode with a fully open throttle valve. This application represented the birth of the modern variable-pressure Benson boiler. Earlier steam generators were designed for relatively low pressures of up to about 100 bar. The Benson boiler name. the original patent was no longer used. was retained.
as opposed to the forced-air furnaces or wood burning stoves more common in North America. because of the cost of the copper and aluminum).KETEL UAP • A new type of heat-recovery steam generator based on the Benson boiler. Among the reasons are: • They are more efficient and more economical than forced-air systems (although initial installation can be more expensive. Most new systems are fitted with condensing boilers for greater efficiency. natural gas is currently the most economical and therefore the usual choice. Construction of a first reference plant. the water in a properly functioning hydronic boiler never actually boils. Hydronic systems are being used more and more in new construction in North America for several reasons. etc. until it boils and turns to steam) and circulating that fluid throughout the home typically by way of radiators. baseboard heaters or through the floors. The fluid is in an enclosed system and circulated throughout by means of a motorized pump. fuel oil. wood. except for systems using steam radiators. The fluid can be heated by any means. They are the typical power plant for central heating systems fitted to houses in northern Europe (where they are commonly combined with domestic water heating).gas. The hydronic boiler operates by way of heating water/fluid to a preset temperature (or sometimes in the case of single pipe systems. which has operated successfully at the Cottam combined-cycle power plant in the central part of England. commenced in 2001.. but in built-up areas where piped gas is available. Hydronic boilers Hydronic boilers are used in generating heat typically for residential uses. the Yaomeng power plant in China... • The vertical tubing in the combustion chamber walls of coal-fired steam generators which combines the operating advantages of the Benson system with the design advantages of the drum-type boiler. The name can be a misnomer in that. MENEJEMEN ENERGI .
however. less fluctuating temperatures than forced-air systems. the first being the "stack effect" of a heated chimney. however. as well as the chimney height. They do not introduce any dust. (Copper heats mostly through conduction and radiation.KETEL UAP • The baseboard copper pipes and aluminum fins take up less room and use less metal than the bulky steel ductwork required for forced-air systems. so the furnace does not have to switch off and on as much. allergens. The steam jet oriented in the direction of flue gas MENEJEMEN ENERGI . in which the flue gas is less dense than the ambient air surrounding the boiler. Air has much lower thermal conductivity and higher specific heat than copper. or (in the case of a faulty heat exchanger) combustion byproducts into the living space. whereas forced-air heats mostly through forced convection. Forced-air heating does have some advantages. convection results in faster heat loss of air compared to copper. They provide more even. See forced-air heating. All these factors make proper draft hard to attain and therefore make mechanical draft equipment much more economical.) • • • They do not dry out the interior air as much. The copper baseboard pipes hold and release heat over a longer period of time than air does. See also thermal mass. The more dense column of ambient air forces combustion air into and through the boiler. Controlling draft Most boilers now depend on mechanical draft equipment rather than natural draft. The second method is through use of a steam jet. There are three types of mechanical draft: • Induced draft: This is obtained one of three ways. mold. This is because natural draft is subject to outside air conditions and temperature of flue gases leaving the furnace.
Air is often passed through an air heater. Almost all induced draft furnaces have a negative pressure. The induced draft fan works in conjunction with the forced draft fan allowing the furnace pressure to be maintained slightly below atmospheric. • Forced draft: Draft is obtained by forcing air into the furnace by means of a fan (FD fan) and ductwork. Forced draft furnaces usually have a positive pressure. This method was common on steam driven locomotives which could not have tall chimneys. The third method is by simply using an induced draft fan (ID fan) which sucks flue gases out of the furnace and up the stack. which. Dampers are used to control the quantity of air admitted to the furnace. • Balanced draft: Balanced draft is obtained through use of both induced and forced draft. MENEJEMEN ENERGI . This is more common with larger boilers where the flue gases have to travel a long distance through many boiler passes.KETEL UAP flow induces flue gasses into the stack and allows for a greater flue gas velocity increasing the overall draft in the furnace. as the name suggests. heats the air going into the furnace in order to increase the overall efficiency of the boiler.
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