Brand Name: Capoten Classification: Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor, Antihypertensive Indications

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Hypertension Management of congestive heart failure (CHF) Reduces the risk of death or development of CHF after myocardial infarction (MI) Slows the progression of left ventricular dysfunction into overt heart failure Used to decreased the progression of diabetic neuropathy

Mechanism of Action

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Captopril (Capoten) is an angiotension converting enzyme inhibitor. An AngiotensinConverting Enzyme converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a potent endogenous vasoconstrictor substance. ACE inhibitors block the conversion of angiotensin I to the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II. It also inactivates the vasodilator bradykinin and other vasodilatory prostaglandins. ACE inhibitors also increase plasma rennin levels and reduce aldosterine levels. This is due to the suppression of the rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system resulting in decreased serum concentrations of angiotensin I and aldosterone. The reduction of angiotensin I leads to decreased aldosterone secretion and as a result small increases in serum potassium may occur along with sodium and fluid loss.

Contraindications 1. 2. 3. 4. Hypersensitivity Cross sensitivity among Ace inhibitors Pregnancy Angioedema (hereditary or idiopathic)

Use cautiously in 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Renal impairment Hepatic impairment Hypovolemia Hyponatremia Elderly patients Concurrent diuretic therapy Surgery or anesthesia Lactation Children

Side Effects

Cough 7. Instruct the patient to notify the physician immediately when the following manifestations are experienced: y y y y y chest pain swelling of the face. (for patients treated with hypertension) 2. Fatigue 3. 3. 5. Throw away any medication that is outdated or no longer needed. 4. lips. Sore throat 15. Inform the patient that Captopril tablets may have a slight sulfur odor (like rotten eggs). Weakness or excessive tiredness 6. Keep this medication in the container it came in. The nurse should keep in mind that Captopril may cause false-positive result for urine acetone. Headache 4. 9. Unusual bruising Nursing Management 1. Diarrhea 11. and out of reach of children. Hypotension 8. tongue. Mouth sores 17. monitor weight and assess patient routinely for resolution of fluid overload. dyspnea. Fever 16. eyes. Tachycardia or fast heartbeat 9. arms. Taste disturbances: salty or metallic taste or decreased ability to taste 10. Monitor blood pressure and pulse frequently during initial dose adjustment and periodically during therapy. tightly closed. Nausea 12. Dizziness or lightheadedness 2. or legs difficulty breathing or swallowing fainting rash . Insomnia 5. The drug should be administered 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals. Signs of fluid overload are: peripheral edema. Hyperkalemia 14. 6. It may be crushed if the patient has difficulty swallowing. For patients treated with CHF. weight gain and jugular vein distention. 7. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). rales or crackles. 8.1. Proteinuria 13.

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