CAREER CHALLRNGE

Tim Huggins is the new director of human resources of Sprowl Manufacturing, a division of the MBTI Corporation. Tim wanted to start a job analysis program immediately. Six weeks after he took over; job analysis questionnaires (six pages each) were given to employees. The results were puzzling. Responses from e the operating employees (machinists, lift operators, technicians, draftspeople, and mechanics) were quite different from responses from their supervisors about these jobs. The fact that supervisors viewed the jobs differently from those doing the work fueled Tim’s desire to do a job analysis. He wanted to study and specifically define the jobs so that misunderstandings, arguments, and false expectations could be kept to a minimum. The supervisors listed job duties as simple and routine. The operating employees disagreed and claimed that their jobs were complicated and constrained by limited resources.They complained ‘ that work areas were hot, stuffy, and uncomfortable. These disagreements soon E became the basis for some a open hostility between supervisors and workers. Finally, Nick Mannis, machinist, confronted a supervisor, Rog Wilkes, and threatened to punch him over the “lies” Rog and other supervisors had concocted in the job analysis. Tim was worried that the job analysis program was getting totally out of hand. He had to do something about it. Everyone was getting up in arms over a program Tim felt was necessary. Should a manager like Tim, who knows a lot about HRM, but who was not trained in the specifics of job analysis, undertake this kind of program?

Organizations have evolved because the overall mission and objectives of most institutions are too large for any single person to accomplish. Consequently, the organization must have a systematic way to determine which employees are expected to perform a particular function or task that must he accomplished. The cornerstone of the organization is, therefore, the set of jobs performed by its employees. These jobs, in turn, provide the mechanism for coordinating and linking the various activities of the organization that are necessary for success. As a result, studying and understanding jobs through the process known as job analysis is a vital part of any HRM program. job analysis provides answers to questions such as these: How much time is taken to complete important tasks? Which tasks are grouped together and considered a job? How can a job be designed or structured so that the employee’s performance can he enhanced? What kinds of behaviors are needed to perform the job? What kind of person (in terms of traits and experience) is best suited for the job? How can the information acquired by a job analysis be used in the development of HRM programs? This chapter claries the contributions made by job analysis to an organization’s HRM program and specific activities. Furthermore, the careful planning needed and the various techniques of a ob analysis program are highlighted. Finally,

the importance of job analysis in the design of jobs is discussed. The chapter shows that job analysis is a necessary part of HRM and in many respects is the foundation upon which all other 1-IRM activities must he constructed. As can be seen in the diagnostic model (see Exhibit 6—1), the nature of the work to be performed is one of the fundamental inputs into all major HRM functions. This is another way of saying that how workers’ responsibilities and duties are segmented helps to shape and determine virtually all other facets of organizational functioning. As such, understanding exactly what constitutes any particular job is critical to developing HRM activities that support the organization’s mission. Before considering the process and techniques involved in job analysis, on should THE VOCABULARY learn the language of job analysis. Although many of these terms are often used OF JOP ANALYSIS interchangeably by people who are unfamiliar with job analysis, the expert will Use them more precisely in order to avoid confusion and misinterpretation. Precision in the use of these terms is, in fact, required by federal and state legislation. it is therefore important for the HR manager to use each of them in a way that is consistent with such legislation.

The following definitions are consistent with those provided by the U.S. Employment Service and the U.S. Office of Personnel Management:2 Job analysis. A purposeful, systematic process for collecting information on the important work-related aspects of a job.3 Job description. The principal product of a job analysis. It represents a written summary of the job as an identifiable organizational unit. Job specification. A written explanation of the knowledge, skills, abilities, traits, and other characteristics (KSAOs) necessary for effective performance on a given job. Tasks. Coordinated and aggregated series of work elements used to produce an output (e.g., a unit of production or service to a client). Position. Consists of the responsibilities and duties performed by an individual. There are as many positions in an organization as there are employees. Job. Group of positions that are similar in their duties, such as computer programmer or compensation specialist Job family. Group of two or more jobs that have similar duties. THE STEPS IN The 1ob analysis process involves a number of steps, which are outlined in Exhibit JOP ANALYSIS 6—2. As it appears in the exhibit, the process assumes that the job analysis is being conducted in an ongoing organization; in other words, an organization that is already in operation as opposed to a new venture. Step I provides a broad view of how each job fits into the total fabric of the organization. Organization charts and process charts (discussed later) are used to complete step I. Step 2 encourages those involved to determihe how the job analysis and job design information will be used. This step is further explained in the next section. Since it is usually too costly and time-consuming to analyze every job, a representative sample of jobs needs to be selected. In step 3, jobs that are to he analyzed are selected. Step 4 involves the use of acceptable job analysis techniques. The techniques are used to collect data on the characteristics of the job, the required behaviors, and the characteristics an employee needs to perform the job. The information collected in step 4 is then used in step 5 to develop a job description. Next, in step 6, a job specification is prepared. The knowledge and data collected in steps 1 through 6 are used as the foundation for virtually every other HRM activity. As shown in Exhibit 6—2, these include activities such as recruitment, selection, training, performance evaluation, and compensation. The information gathered during job analysis is essential to each of these. As is also shown in the exhibit, the information gathered is used in job design and redesign, which are discussed in detail later in this chapter. Job analysis provides information necessary for organizing work in ways that allow employees to he both productive and satisfied. Finally, information from job analysis can be used in an organization’s follow—up evaluations of its job design. At this step, it is important for an organization to evaluate its efforts and determine whether the goals of productivity and satisfaction are in fact being achieved.

3. job analysis is closely tied to HRM programs and activities. and managers in general know that job analysis has manyJOP ANALYSIS T uses. a set of policies designed to minimize or prevent workplace discrimination practices. It must yield information about the relationship between job duties and these KSAOs.5 In terms of staffing and selection activities. job analysis plays an important role in the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (1978). It should yield a thorough. Administrative guidelines accompanying various civil rights and EEO laws and judicial recommendations are clear. In addition to helping organizations satisfy their legal requirements. job analysis is critical to assessments of discrimination under most employment-related laws. Some of these individuals now believe that there is no longer even a choice A about whether job analysis should be conducted.THE USES OF HR managers. 2. including the Civil Rights Act of 1991 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. clear job description. 4. skills. On the basis of these court decisions. The question has become how to conduct a legally defensible job analysis rather than whether to conduct such an analysis at all. It is used extensively in each of the following areas: . it must clearly determine which KSAOs are important for each job duty. It must allow for an accurate assessment of the knowledge. The UGESP emphasizes that job analysis should be used when validating or assessing the accuracy of organizational selection procedures. The quality of job analysis conducted by an organization is frequently a primary determinant of whether it has acted properly. The frequency and importance of task behaviors should be assessed. Job analysis is linked with these discrimination laws through rulings from numerous Supreme Court decisions. That is. abilities. and other characteristics (KSAOs) required by the job. In addition. specialists. a good job analysis must provide the following if it is to be viewed favorably: 1.

or otherwise restructure work and work flow processes to meet the changing demands of uncertain environments. Effective job analysis can help organizations to change. controlling. In cases like these. busy with move efficiently from one career stage to another can only be accomplished with their day-to-day information from job analysis. Moreover helping people to Line managers. HR managers will 4. train. Thus. the choice of who should analyze a job depends on many factors. analyses. Because incumbents tend to exaggerate the responsibilities and importance of their work. in fact. jobs.9 Regardless of who collects the information. It is. Recruitment and selection. involving incumbents in the job analysis process might increase their acceptance of any work changes stemming from the results of the analysis. job analysis information helps recruiters seek and find the right persons for the organization. This information comes from job analysis. compensate. Still other organizations will use supervisors. They should also have considerable knowledge about how work is expected to flow within the organization. including the location and complexity of the jobs to be analyzed. difficult to imagine how an organization could effectively hire.1. Strategic planning. it may hire a temporary job analyst from outside. Compensation. Each of these choices has strengths and weaknesses. In addition. 2. managers are beginning to realize that need to convince line job analysis is another important tool in an organization’s overall strategic managers that their planning efforts. or utilize its human resources without the kinds of information derived from job analysis. For example. to hire the right person. may not 3. WHO SHOULD The steps spelled out in Exhibit 6—2 suggest that care and planning are important features of CONDUCT THE any job analysis. Managers involved in virtually all aspects of planning. If an organization has only an occasional need for job analysis information. aid the total organizational system. But the value of job analysis doesn’t end with HRM. organizing. selection testing must assess the most critical skills and abilities needed to perform a jo6. or some combination of these to collect job analysis information. On the other hand. Thus. appraise. And. job analysis should describe the work activities of a job independent of any personal attributes of a given job incumbent. eliminate. Compensation is usually tied to the duties and always be able to find responsibilities of a job. and the ultimate intended purpose of the results of the analysis. Knowing the skills necessary for jobs is HRMEMO essential to building effective training programs. Training and career development. It should be obvious from this list that the potential uses of job analysis cover the entire domain of HRM activities. Other organizations will have job analysis experts employed full-time. responsibilities. how receptive incumbents might be to an external analyst. the individuals should thoroughly understand people. this objectivity might be difficult to achieve when incumbents conduct the job analysis. proper compensation demands accurate time to conduct job assessments of what various jobs entail. cooperation is critical. job incumbents. Part of that planning should involve carefully choosing the people who will JOP ANALYSIS? conduct the analysis. . More and more. and directing in the organization also benefit from job analysis information. job incumbents are a good source of information about what work is actually being done rather than what work is supposed to be done.

“Reengineering Work: Don’t Automate.S. A case manager became responsible for the entire application process for any given individual. units. 66—68. the company created a new job titled case manager. The line functions (the individuals performing the work duties) and staff functions (the advisers) are also spelled out. Sources: Michael Hammer (November—December 2001). Michael Hammer.” Nation’s & Business. with most of the time spent passing the application between departments. 42—43. the company was able to eliminate 100 unnecessary field office positions. Fixes.HR JOURNAL REENGINEERING: THE STRATEGIC JOB ANALYSIS CHALLENGS A 1990 Harvard Business Review article entitled.$ 106 billion and 215. Additionally.000 employees. pp.” Industry Week.500 Lexus and Toyota dealers and its 450 suppliers. pp. the company will need to redesign several existing jobs to support these new initiatives. Heal Thyself. In order to make this project a reality. David Warner (October I 993). and Fiction. The project will be aimed at Toyota’s North American parts supply network that includes 1. the number of different functional departments. Similar efforts to streamline operations and make bureaucracy more efficient and less cumbersome are promised by Toyota Motor Corporation. John Thackray (June 1993). reengineering designs jobs around outcomes rather than tasks .This means that a single individual will be responsible for performing all aspects of a process rather than a limited subset of tasks. To gain these useful insights about the structure and process of the organization. Specifically. and the formal reporting relationships that exist. john Teresko (January 00 I). A typical organizational chart will yield information about the number of vertical levels in the organization. two types of charts are especially helpful.’ Management Today. pp. An overview provides the job analyst with an informed picture of the total arrangement CHARTS of departments. According to its author. An organization chart presents the relationships among departments and units of the firm. the world’s fourth largest automobile manufacturer with 2001 sales of U. pp. “The New Business Agenda Strategy & Leadership. The initiative focuses on creating and implementing a new global standard for manufacturing which will attempt to realize new synergies between the company’s IT and production systems. 40—42. 71— 74. “Fads. . The job analyst has to select the best methods and procedures available to conduct the analysis. The reengineering doubled the volume work that was being completed. Typical turnaround time was between 5 and 25 days. at the same time. pp. Job analysis is likely to play an important role in this change process. and jobs. Michael Hammer (July—August 1990). Mutual Benefit Life Insurance implemented a complete reengineering program several years ago. Obliterate: introduced managers to the concept of reengineering. this overview will provide the job analyst with a better understanding of the flow of work through the organization. “Bureaucracy.”Reen6gineering Work: Don’t Automate. Obliterate’ Harvard Business Review. Their job analyses indicated that the application process included 30 separate steps that spanned five different departments. In response to this inefficiency. This requires a complete redesign of existing work into jobs that previously didn’t exist. “Toyota’s New Challenge. the heart of reengineering is the need for organizations to break away from their traditional rules about work and from the assumptions that underlie how that work is efficiently accomplished. THE However. an overview of the organization and its jobs is USE OF required. even before this selection is made. 04--I 12.

rather than simply showing the structural relationships among job titles (as iii a METHODS OF typical organizational chart). In each of these methods. Exhibit 6—3 presents a portion of one type of JAIE Differences among job incumbents should he considered during the analysis of JAIF information. It permits the job analyst to collect information that provides a thorough picture of the job. 1-Observation Direct observation is used for jobs that require manual. and short-job cycle activities. and. valid data. some questions may not be answered or can’t be answered because the job incumbent doesn’t know the answer) are then used to specifically structure the data collection technique that will eventually be implemented. The job analyst should not assume that all incumbents or their supervisors will view a job in the same way. the job analyst should not assume that all incumbents and supervisors have the same amount of knowledge about a job. which can he used separately or in combination. in addition to the actual job analysis. Both of these orientations are acceptable under the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures as long as they identify job duties and behaviors that are critical to performing the job. The four methods—or any combination of them—must focus on critical information. of collecting job analysis data—observation. shows how a specific set of jobs are related to each other. coordinating. job duties. These answers (of course. or negotiating). This is referred to as work-oriented job analysis. COLLECTION There are four basic methods. some form of core information is needed no matter what data collection method is used. questionnaire. The job analyst must observe a representative sample of individuals performing these . A safeguard against developing a distorted picture of a job is for the job analyst to collect information from a variety of incumbents. the process chart shows the flow of activities and work necessary DATA to produce a desired product or service. ‘ Finally.1° Thus. a job can be analyzed in terms of behaviors or what the job incumbent does to perform the job (such as computing. standardized. Since time and cost are considerations.A second type of chart. jobs performed by an inventory stockroom employee are examples of these. Job incumbents are asked to complete the JAIF. the information about the job is collected and then the job is studied in terms of tasks completed by the job incumbent (person presently working on the job). and job incumbent diaries or logs. The job analyst should probably try to get information from males and females. if feasible. and requirements. This type of job analysis is referred to as job. and high.12 A professional job analyst typically conducts extensive interviews with incumbents and supervisors.and low-performing incumbents (the research is mixed about whether there will he differences between them in terms of their view of the job). Consequently. older and younger workers. or incumbent diary or log. interview. questionnaires. directly observes the job incumbents performing the job.oriented. the process chart. A questionnaire called the job analysis information format (JAIF) can provide the basic core information for use with any job analysis method—observation. On the other hand. collects records about the job. interview. This is important because research indicates that too little knowledge about a job can lead to inaccurate job descriptions. managers need to collect comparable.

EXHIBIT 6-3 JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION FORMAT Your Job Title _______________________ Code _________________ Date__________________ Class Title _________________________ Department __________________________________ Your Name _________________________ Facility______________________________________ Supervisors Title _____________________ Prepared by __________________________________ superior s Name_____________________ Hours Worked _____ _________ to ________________ AM AM 1. What is the general purpose of your job? What was your last job? If it was in another organization, please name it. 3. To what job would you normally expect to be promoted? 4. II you regularly supervise others, list them by name and job title. 5. If you supervise others, please check those activities that are part of your supervisory duties: -Hiring -Orienting -Training -Scheduling -Developing -Coaching -Counseling -Budgeting -Directing -Disciplining -Measuring performance -Terminating -Promoting -Other ‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ -Compensating
PM PM

6. How would you describe the successful completion and results of your work? 7. Job Duties—Please briefly describe what you do and, if possible, how you do it. Indicate those duties you consider to be most important and/or most difficult. a. Daily duties— h. Periodic duties (please indicate whether weekly, monthly, quarterly, etc.)— c. Duties performed at irregular intervals— d. How long have you been performing these duties? e. Are you now performing unnecessary duties? If yes, please describe. f. Should you be performing duties not now included in your job? If yes, please describe.

EXHIBIT 6-3 CONCLUDED 8. Education. Please check the blank that indicates the educational requirements for the job, not your own educational background. a. ________ No formal education required b. _______ Less than high school diploma c. High school diploma or equivalent. d. _______ 2-year college certificate or equivalent. e. ______ 4-year college degree. F. _______ Education beyond undergraduate degree and/or professional license.

List advanced degrees or specific professional license or certificate required. Please indicate the education you had when you were placed on this job. 9. Experience. Please check the amount needed to perform your job. a. _______ None. b. ______ Less than one month. c. _______ One month to less than six months. d. ______ Six months to one year. e. _______ One to three years. f. ______ Three to five years. g. _______ Five to 10 years. h. ______ Over 10 years.

Please indicate the experience you had when you were placed on this job. 10. Skill. Please list any skills required in the performance of your job. (For example, degree of accuracy, alertness, precision in working with described tools, methods, systems, etc.) Please list skills you possessed when you were placed on this job. 11. Equipment. Does your work require the use of any equipment? Yes _____ No _____ If yes, please list the equipment and check whether you use it rarely, occasionally, or frequently. Equipment a. ________________ b. ________________ c. ________________ d. ________________ Rarely __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ Occasionally __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ Frequently __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________

jobs. Observation is usually not appropriate where the job involves significant mental activity, such as the work of a research scientist, a lawyer, or a mathematician. The observation technique requires that the job analyst be trained to observe relevant job behaviors. In conducting an observation, the job analyst must remain as unobtrusive as possible. He or she must stay out of the way so that the work can he performed. 2-1lnterviews Interviewing job incumbents is often done in combination with observation. Interviews are probably the technique used most widely in collecting data for job analysis. They permit the job analyst to talk face to face with job incumbents. The job incumbent can ask questions of the job analyst, and this interview serves as an opportunity for the analyst to explain how the knowledge and information gained from the job analysis will be used. Interviews can be conducted with a single job incumbent, with a group of individuals, or with a supervisor who is knowledgeable about the job. Usually a structured set of questions will be used in interviews so that answers from individuals or groups can be compared. Although interviews can yield useful job analysis information, an awareness of their potential limitations is also needed. Interviews are difficult to standardize—different interviewers may ask different questions and the same interviewer might unintentionally ask different questions of different respondents. There is also a real possibility that the information provided by the respondent will he unintentionally distorted by the interviewer. Finally, the costs of interviewing can he very high, especially if group interviews are not practical.16 3-uestionnaires The use of questionnaires is usually the least costly method for collecting information. It is an effective way to collect a large amount of information in a short period of time. The JAIF in Exhibit 6—3 is a structured questionnaire. It includes specific questions about the job, job requirements, working conditions, and equipment. A less structured, more open-ended approach would be to ask job incumbents to describe their job in their own terms. This open-ended format would permit job incumbents to use their own words and ideas to describe the job. The format and degree of structure that a questionnaire should have are debatable issues. Job analysts have their own personal preferences on this matter. There really is no best format for a questionnaire. However, here arc a few hints that will make the questionnaire easier to use: • • Keep it as short as possible—people do not generally like to complete forms. Explain what the questionnaire is being used for—’-people want to know why it must be completed. Tim Huggins (in this chapter’s Career Challenge) failed to explain his job analysis questionnaire. Employees wanted to know why the questions were being asked and how their responses would be used. Keep it simple—do not try to impress people with technical language. Use the simplest language to make a point or ask ‘a question. Test the questionnaire before using it—in order to improve the questionnaire, ask some job incumbents to complete it and to comment on its features. This test will permit the analyst to modify the format before using the questionnaire in final form.

• •

many organizations are turning to a multimethod job analysis approach. Comparisons on a daily. of course. If a diary or log is kept up to date. most individuals are not disciplined enough to keep such a diary or log. such as those performed by engineers.’7 In addition. Regardless. and the management position description questionnaire. Using a comprehensive process such as the multimethod job analysis approach will. weekly. most organizations base their choice on their current needs. They form the basis for construction of specific techniques that have gained popularity QUANTITAVE across many types of organizations. Many experts agree that. certain methods seem to be better suited to a given situation than other In the absence of a strong theoretical reason why one method should be superior to another. Finally. This permits an examination of the routineness or nonroutineness of job duties. The four methods of data collection for job analysis just described were presented in general SPECIFIC terms. be variation in the descriptions provided by incumbents and supervisors. it can provide good information about the job. Which Method to Use? Although any of these four basic methods can be used either alone or in combination.’9 In other words. The diary or log is useful when attempting to analyze jobs that are difficult to observe. for example. scientists. and other human characteristics (KSAOs) are needed to perform the job. and senior executives. interviews should not be relied on as the sole data collection method. frequency of the duties. the job analyst first conducts interviews with incumbents and supervisors in conjunction with on-site observation. When they arc used properly. differences in how the job has been described need to be resolved so there is general agreement about its true nature. However. or by members of different departments. Since these four basic methods seem to have different strengths and weaknesses. Unfortunately. There might. be relatively expensive and time-consuming.4-Job Incumbent Diary or Log The diary or log is a recording by job incumbents of job duties. This technique requires the job incumbent to keep a diary or log. Three of the more popular quantitative techniques are functional job analysis. Next. abilities. by incumbents at different geographic locations. skills. there is no general agreement about which methods of job analysis yield the best information. a task survey based on expert judgments is constructed and administered. these specific techniques can TECHNIQUES provide systematic and quantitative procedures that yield information about what job duties are being accomplished and what knowledge. . a statistical analysis of the responses to the task survey is conducted in order to assess their consistency and to identify any systematic variation in them. it does offer one distinct advantage over any of the basic methods used alone: the quality of information derived from a more comprehensive approach is strongly endorsed by the courts in cases that rely on job analysis information. the various methods may not be interchangeable. and when the duties are accomplished.2° In this approach. at very least. or monthly basis can be made. the position analysis questionnaire. the choice of a method is determined by circumstances such as the purpose of the analysis and time and budget constraints.

May contact customs officials to effect release of incoming freight and resolve customs delays. fire prevention. and outings. Exhibit 6—4 shows DOT descriptions of several jobs. and hammers: Pulls glove over heated hand-shaped form to open and stretch finger linings. and dancing. The lower the numbers. and other industrial and commercial establishments: Arranges for physical examinations. Forms pocket. Directs other activities. and things. If someone is interested in a general description of a job.117-022 Import-Export Agent (any ind. Issues weather information to media and other users over teletype machine or telephone. to resolve problems and arrive at mutual agreements. May examine invoices and shipping manifests for conformity to tariff and customs regulations. Functional job analysis Functional job analysis (FJA) is the cumulative result of approximately 50 years of research on analyzing and describing jobs.S. people. assessing charges. Arranges for installation and operation of libraries. 184. Negotiators with domestic customers. rneteorologist—025) specify the occupational code. 732. Ensures that lighting is sufficient. such as breeding. and industry. Organizes dances. fishing. The first three digits of any one of these listings (for example.117-014 Manager. such as recommending day nurseries for their children and counseling them on personality frictions or emotional Maladjustments.062-010 Meteorologist (profess. welfare. & kin. such as camping. first aid. and form glove pocket. It was originally conceived in the late 1940s and was developed as a mechanism for improving the classification of jobs contained in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT). Employee Welfare (profess. & kin. Removes glove from form. ‘horseback riding.000 jobs. using heated forms. and smoothes seams to shape baseball gloves.) Ana1y and interprets meteorological data gathered by surface and upper-air stations. waybilling. mules. guest rates.) foreign agent. 187. recreational facilities. and strikes glove pocket with fist while examining glove visually and tactually to ensure comfortable fit. Coordinates activities of international traffic division of import-export agency and negotiates settlements between foreign and DOT DESCRIPTION OF JOBS domestic shippers: Plans and directs flow of air and surface traffic moving to overseas destinations. Current versions of the DOT use the basic descriptive language of FJA to describe more than 20. May conduct basic or applied research in meteorology.and short-range weather conditions. the DOT serves as a good starting point. publicity. and other medical attention. Supervises workers engaged in receiving and shipping freight. title. photographs. mallets. May prepare reports of transactions to facilitate billing of shippers and foreign carriers.). and credit.684-106 Shaper.167-094 Manager. hunting. agriculture. the greater the responsibility and judgment. May establish and staff observation stations.EXHIBIT 6-4 025. The final three digits (010) re used to classify the alphabetical order of the job titles within the occupational group . raising. The DOT classifies these jobs by means of a nine-digit code. & rec. and collecting fees for shipments. maps. lunchrooms. sanitary facilities are adequate and in good order. Pounds fingers and palm of glove with rubber mallet and hall-shaped hammer to smooth seams and bulges. May assist employees in the solution of personnel problems. Baseball Glove (sports equip. May visit workers’ homes to observe their housing and general living conditions and recommend improvements if necessary.22 which was the primary source used by the U. entertainment. Negotiates with foreign shipping interests to contract for reciprocal freight-handling agreements. Directs activities of DUDE WRANGIERS (amuse. The next three digits (062) designate the degree to which a job incumbent typically has responsibility for and judgment over data. and livestock. and radar to prepare reports and forecasts for public and other users: Studies and interprets synoptic reports. Employment Service for descriptive information about jobs. as intermediary for foreign customers. opens fingers. and machinery safeguarded. and showing horses. 166. Directs welfare activities for employees of stores. inserts hand into glove.) Directs operation of dude ranch: Formulates policy on advertising. Prepares special forecasts and briefings for those involved in air and sea transportation. and educational courses. Directs preparation and maintenance of financial records. and air-pollution control. & rec. factories. manager. and prognostic charts to predict long. Dude Ranch (amuse. documentation. Plans recreational and entertainment activities.) employee-service officer. May direct forecasting services at weather station. Issues hurricane and severe storm warnings.) steamer and shaper. satellites.

. FIA can then be used to elaborate and more thoroughly describe.2 DOT descriptions help a job analyst to begin learning what is involved in a particular job.having the same degree of responsibility and judgment.

Informs customer a bout product specifications. Delivers requested programs. Directs trainees to additional resources. Counsels assistant salesperson on career issues. Sets a vision as to why development is important. Models behavior for new salespeople. Convinces customer to purchase product. Answers trainees’ questions. . Creates entertaining class environment. Checks on and helps trainees posrprogram. Bargains over price with customer. n/a Evaluates learning of trainees. Demonstrates how product works. Defines and clarifies key concepts. Persuades trainees of importance of topic. Asks questions to assess needs of customers. Gives encouragement to new assistant salesperson. Refers customer to production manager. Advises new trainer (in how to deliver a training program. n/a Structures job of assistant salesperson. Teaches trainees new computer software. Asks trainees for feedback.: Treating 5: Supervising 6: Negotiating 7: Mentoring 8: Leading Stays within assigned territory. Sends product samples to customers.EXHIBIT 6-5 Worker function scale and examples from functional job analysis ( FJA ) Organizational Examples PEOPLE FUNCTIONS SCALE ENTRY-LEVEL SALEPERSON COMPANY TRAINER IA: Taking instructions—helping 1B: Serving 2: Exchanging information 3A: Sourcing information 3B: Persuading 3C: Coaching 3D: Directing 4A: Consulting 4B: Instructing 4(. Asks for larger budget from vice president of human resource department. lightens mood with customer when appropriate.

. which are sources of information when being inspected. storage. blueprints.) 3 1 Pictorial materials (pictures or picture like materials used as sources of information. etc. relationships with others. TV pictures. and other mechanical devices which are sources of information when observed during use oroperation) 8 3 Matcrials in process (parts. or distribution channels. gauges. worked on. etc. and other job characteristics. office notes.) 9 4 Materials not in process (parts. do not include here materials described in item 3 above) 5 2 Visual displays (dials. fields. tracings. clocks. do not include here devices described in item S above) 7 4 Mechanical devices (tools. radarscopes. do not consider equipment. highways.1 Visual Sources of Job Information 1 4 Written materials (books.s shows II of the “information input” questions or elements. docks. items being inspected. etc. vegetation. or otherwise processed. job context. diagrams.) 4 1 Patterns/related devices (templates. machines.) 2 2 Quantitative materials (materials which deal with quantities or amounts. cloud formations. eqöiprnent. not in the process of being changed or modified. etc. materials. specifications. for example. drawings..1 EXHIBIT 6-6. etc. reports. etc. geological samples. workpiece being turned in a lathe.) 6 5 Measuring devices (rulers. etc. thermometers. etc. objects. protractors. accounts. etc. Other PAQ pages contain questions regarding mental processes. etc. handled. tire pressure gauges. . bridges. tables of numbers. or selected.1 Soutces of Job Information NA Does not apply QUESTIONNAIRE Rate each of the following items in terms of 1 Normal/very infrequent the extent to which it is used by the worker 2 Occasional as a source of information in performing his or her job. that an individual uses in his or her work. thickness gauges. speedometers. fabric being cut. 3 Moderate 4 Considerable 5 Very substantial 1. and other “man-made” or altered aspects of the indoor and outdoor environment which are observed or inspected to provide job information. etc.1. shoe being resoled. x-ray films. such as bread dough being mixed. distributed. job instructions. as covered by item 7) Noie:Th. etc. stencils. buildings. which are sources of information when being modified. calipers. objects. used as sources of information when observed during use. machinery.4 -C H A P T E R 6 Job Analysis and Design 169 . such as items or materials in inventory. pipettes. railroads. such as graphs.. maps. articles. patterns.) 10 3 Features of nature (landscapes. signal lights. photographic films. Source Position. dams. materials. and other features of nature which are observed or inspected to provide information) 11 2 Man-made features of environment (structures. packaged... work output. signs..0] INFORMATION INPUT PORTIONS OF A COMPLETED PAGE INFORMATION INPUT Extent of Use (U) FROM THE POSITION ANALYSIS 1. scales. used to obtain visual information about physical measurements.

(5) being physically active.29 Some research suggests that the PAQ is capable only of measuring job stereotypes. Like other job analysis techniques. What physical activities and tools are used to perform the job? 4. The job analyst must decide whether each item applies to a particular job. Relationship with other people. In what physical and social context is the job performed? 6. since no specific work activities are described. or characteristics other than those described in sections 1 through 5 are relevant? Computerized programs are available for scoring PAQ ratings on the basis of seven dimensions—( 1) decision ma king. The 195 items contained on the PAQ are placed in six major sections: 1. it is often filled out by a trained job analyst.27 It is reliable in that there is little variance among job analysts’ ratings of the same jobs. Where and how does the job incumbent get job information? 2. Job context. and (7) processing information. For example. One of its biggest advantages is that it has been widely used and researched. . decision-making. Information input. That is. These scores permit the development of profiles for jobs analyzed and the comparison of jobs. (3) social responsibilities. and male ballet dancer may be quite similar. belly dancer. A major problem with the PAQ is its length. In addition. measuring devices (item 6) play a very substantial role (5) for the job being analyzed in Exhibit 6—6. Mental processes. the PAQ has advantages and disadvantages.3° If this is true. Other job characteristics. (2) communication. For example. (4) performing skilled activities. then the PAQ may he providing little more than common knowledge about a job. (6) operating vehicles or equipment. It seems to be an effective way of establishing differences in abilities required for jobs. It requires time and patience to complete. The available evidence indicates that it can be an effective technique for a variety of intended purposes. conditions. behavioral activities performed in jobs may distort actual task differences in the jobs.questionnaire requires considerable experience and a high level of reading comprehension to complete properly. ratings on the PAQ might represent information that makes up the job analyst’s stereotype about the work in question rather than actual differences among jobs. since all involve fine motor movements. What reasoning. What relationships with others are required to perform the job? 5. Work output. and planning processes are used to perform the job? 3. the profiles for a typist.25 It also seems valid in that jobs rated higher with the PAQ prove to be those that are compensated at higher rates. What activities.

Supervising. 15. 14. 7. PAQ. government). and type of industry (for example. 9. 3. Administering. and to help with the interpretation of responses: 1. 2. The common metric questionnaire (CMQ). The latest version of the MPDQ is classified into 15 sections. Coordinating. Overall ratings. thereby making it easier for incumbents to rate their jobs. 11. An attempt to systematically analyze managerial jobs was conducted at Control Data Corporation. The result of the work is the management position description questionnaire (MPDQ). medical. Planning and organizing. Items were grouped into sections in order to reduce the time it requires to complete. Representing. many other methods of quantitative job analysis are also receiving attention. and abilities. 6. Contacts (section 8 apj5ears in Exhibit 6—7). The MPDQ is a checklist of 208 items related to the concerns and responsibilities of managers. and the CMQ is applicable to both exempt and nonexempt positions. and MPDQ are all intended for use across a large range of jobs. they are more behaviorally concrete. Knowledge. and it is intended for use across most industrial settings. Comments and reactions. skills.Management Position Description Questionnaire Conducting a job analysis for managerial jobs offers a significant challenge to the analyst because of the disparity across positions. 10. . 8. which may increase the number of intrajob skill-based comparisons that may he made. Consulting and innovating. 5. The items are at a reading level more appropriate for many jobs. it is designed to he a comprehensive description of managerial work. Organization chart. is a job analysis instrument with several potential advantages over existing measures. levels in the hierarchy. industrial. Although the FJA. Controlling.33 which is completed by an incumbent. Monitoring business indicators. Decision making. General information. 4. 12. 13.

the O*NET (Occupational Informational Network). and current job descriptions are to an organization. independent of any particular incumbent’s perceptions. Many changes occurring in recent years have increased the need for such job . the Department of Labor’s recent creation. the automated and Internet accessible O*NET is expected to replace the more cumbersome Dictionary of Occupational Titles. the job description (see Exhibit 6—2) is one of the primary Outputs provided by a systematic job analysis.S. Thus. As previously mentioned. Finally. worker KSAOs. It is.Considerable research on job analysis is currently being conducted in Europe. a job description is a D written description of what the job entails. several techniques have the common goal of analyzing and describing work at the task level. and workplace requirements in the country.35 Incorporating the last 60 years of knowledge about the nature of jobs and work. for example. Department of Labor. however. it is worth noting that the U. accurate. focusing on alternative quantitative methods. Simply stated. was developed as a comprehensive system to describe occupations. Employment and Training Administration has undertaken a major job analysis initiative. In Germany. difficult to overemphasize ow important thorough. In cooperation with several other sources of funding. these approaches are expected to he well suited to situations where job content or manufacturing technology is changing.

226 STEP I Mark an X’ ii the box to the left of the k iiids (if I id is mdii a Is di at represent m (Or ni a I or contacts Internal a id external to (‘I nitro I 1) ata ( tI rp Irat 1(111.\ crucial and most significant lilrt of the positIon. 4-. 3-A substantial hart ut the position. STEP 2 . 2-A moderate part of the pIIs(tmon. .: For each contact checked. STEP . I --\ minor part imt the position. Retiieiim her to consIder bothIts mImlfIot!aIIcc in light of all (It lie r p ISttI Oh ictiv it ics and Its /reqmuucv of occu rrerice. tattat.1 t it an V Ii is ‘vi th mm mIte c IP( r. print a (0111.i ((in a id Sv di ii Ii Ucliti a I people (mitts mdc t he orpl Ira ti iii. lie purposes (It these oiU. IrgaIll/atlonil goals. o DcfnitcIy not a part (It the position.3 If von have am other contacts please elaborate on them r ii a to re and i°’ rpose be 111W.RATING INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CONTACTS USING THE MANAGEMENT POSITION DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE (MPDQ) I (I iehic .her hetsveeli I) mitd 4 ill each coitinum to Indicate Ii os’ S ugh I tie a lii a part oh VII or (sit (((It ti it P U R P( )S F is. t molts as: • lnhmrmuiimg • Receis mug Information • lntlueimciimg • Promoting • Selling • Directing • (‘oordiiiitimig • I iltilarati ii g • Negotiitmiig DIRECTIONS: 1)ese rm 1w t he ia tim ri It I (10 nitacts iomplettmmg the harts ott the opposite as hi IIl1)W.lCts lily ITi(II.rrs old clIlitilta its may rcqtiircd to CoIfltotIIiaate with (Ill IS (1.I(IU (liii hut.

t am trol Data general! regional manager Representatives of nia)or suppliers. ((I’ decisions 1’. sertlements.CONTINUED 1 srEP2 STEI I CoNTACTS I INTERNAL. stockholders Representatives of federal or sIt te gi nero ments s tmch as detcn se contract auditors.iniplr. orga iii . ( ir exchange iii formation i ir ads’ice Promote the . icti VitW5. or ant ci pa ted act cIt es or otegra te the iii n s.tct or decide n a n at flCt (list sten t ni th nit object yes I )irrct and/or re.xeciitive or senior V1CC president and above Vice president Genera l/regii ma I ma niger. etc.89 16fi 169 decision of others I6 I IS 16)) 161 Deparmient/district manager. p resent. subcontractors for 192 199 206 . 213 220 major contracts — Em pl o’ees of suppliers svh ii provide ( .3 204 211) 21 I II 2 IX 224 . government inspectors. Customers at a Ies’el equivalent to or above a ( lilt rol Data genera IJ . for e\. services Negotiate contracts. joint ventures.1st. PURIOSF Share infornation Influence others to . obtain. 193 94 195 200 2(11 202 207 208 209 215 216 22 I 222 22. or senior consnlraiit Secto mn/branch na nager m 0l?%LiItailt I ‘6 1 7 1S4 I 85 162 I0 I ‘X 186 163 171 ISO I’9 I Unit flianager 164 Exempt employees I2 168 I I 188 181 189 190 Nonexenipt employees 66 182 . etc.8 212 219 Customers at a level lower than .) 96 I9 20. EXTERNAL. or executive consultant I ..i rd og p. 22 .— regional manager 191 198 20. Provide.oittrol Data with parts or services Representatives of nfl urn t i a I coinniun it organhiations I id iv id ual s such as applicants.. director.at ii ni or its po Id ucts! services Sell p r id iict s/ .

Can process changes yield savings? Ask Navis tar international Corporation. size of work group. and other relevant characteristics of the immediate work environment such as hazards and noise levels. Any other characteristics necessary for performing the job should he. responsibilities. amount of dependency in the work). The importance of each skill must.. almost all well-written.HRMEM0 . identified. pp. It addresses the question “What personal traits and experience are needed to perform the job effectively?” The job specification is especially useful in offering guidance for recruitment and selection.Navistar’s Dream Team Strategic Finance. All job tasks must be identified and rated in terms of importance using sound job analysis techniques. 4. These changes include (1) the incredible number of organizational restructurings that have occurred (e. it’s working! After completing 200 projects. he rated. and (4) new. knowledge. A panel of experts. 38—45. descriptions. i. From the job specification. and behaviors performed on the job.000 per project Source: Mark Frigo and Heather Kos (August 1999). Harvey offers the following guidelines for arriving at the characteristics that should be included on a job specification:39 1.or two-sentence statement describing the purpose of the job and what outputs are expected from job incumbents.g. Navistar realized an average of $200. • Activities—includes a description of the job duties. 3. These include things such as physical requirements and professional certification.. useful descriptions will include information on:3i • Job title—title of the job and other identifying information such as its wage and benefits classification. a leading transportation firm that has reengineered the way they identifr and manage projects with high strategic fit and economic impact for the firm.37 it still seems unlikely that there are any relevant aspects of human resources that do not depend on accurate job descriptions. R. incumbents. suppose that you were looking for an HR professional to fill the position described in Exhibit 6—8. • Surnmary—brief one. you would know that the successful applicant would have a college education and would already have at least six years of experience in HRM. Determining what skills. Each skill that has been identified needs to he specifically linked to each job task. ey • Environment—description of the working conditions of the job.kltc A’t the . the location of the job. downsizing). While there is no standard format for a job description. F e. or supervisors should specify the necessary skills for performing each of the job tasks identified. Any trait or skill that is stated on the job specification should actually he re £ C i ml A . Also describes the social interactions associated with the work (for example. • Equipment—clear statement of the tools. (2) the need to implement new and creative ways to motivate and reward employees. 5. (3) the accelerated rate at which technology is changing work environments. more stringent federal regulation of employment practices through legislation like the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Civil Rights Act of 199 1.. equipment. and information hat required for effectively performing the job. or abilities are required for performing a particular job must he done systematically. 2. For example. The job specification evolves from the job description.6 Though some HR managers feel that technology and rapidly changing jobs will eventually decrease the need for job descriptions. J.

Works under general supervision. evaluation. meetings.ciieral description of the 1ob Performs responsible administrative work managing personnel activities of a large state agency or institution. business administration. and dismissals of permanent employees. classifies applications. Supervises administration of tests. Six-year minimum. one clerk. Communicates policy through organization levels by bulletins. Maintains employee personnel files. and recommended change of status of agency employees. instead. and a system of communication for disseminating necessary information to workers. Performs related work as assigned. examination. trains unit supervisors in making employee evaluations. skills. Confers with supervisors on personnel matters. transfer. Supervises a group of employees directly and through subordinates.1. and one secretary. and abilities Considerable knowledge of principles and practices of HRM selection and assignment of personnel. . Interviews applicants. Education Graduation from a four-year college or university. knowledge. If disabled people could accomplish the job successfully after such accommodation. ferentiate clearly between essential and nonessential skills. promotion. retention or release of probationary employees. or industrial psychology.40 Essential skills are those for which alternative ways of accomplishing the job are not possible. Nonessential skills can be accommodated by changing the structure or work methods of the job. ruits and screens applicants to fill vacancies and reviews applications of qualified persons. demotions. Job Analysis and Strategic Human Resource Management he HR Journal appearing earlier in this chapter suggests that process and work engineering will be the strategic HR challenge for the coming years. There are many signs that the fundamental nature of work may be changing. exercising initiative and independent judgment in the performance of assigned tasks. . Work involves responsibility for the planning and administration of an HRM program that includes recruitment. Functional areas are not as important as they once were for defining a person’s job. then it should be done. evaluates qualifications. with major work in human resources. and personal contact. Initiates personnel training activities and coordinates these activities with work of officials and supervisors. transfers. General qualification requirements Experience and training should have considerable experience in area of FIRM administration. Responsibility Supervises a department of three HRM professionals. Job activities Participates in overall planning and policy making to provide effective and uniform personnel services. selection. appointment. including placement problems. job evaluation. Establishes effective service rating system.

therefore. organizations will have to continually adapt to rapidly changing business environments. there is a growing acknowledgment of the need to match human resource activities with an organization’s strategic planning.interdisciplinary or cross-functional teams comprised of pers6ns with extremely diverse backgrounds are becoming increasingly common. many organizations are identifying. As mentioned elsewhere in this text. Hewlett-Packard.4’ Despite these potential difficulties.4 In the future. Thus. some HR departments have increasingly analyzed jobs in a way that is consistent with the changing nature of business and management practices.44 Compounding the potential problems that reengineering can introduce. and Pfizer have all implemented flexible working environments to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse workforce. competency terms. • I)escribe and measure the organization’s orkforce in mdre general.42 An important part of this task vill he an ability for job analysts to write job specifications that accurately detail the knowledge and skills that will complement the future strategic initiatives of the organization. and abilities needed to perform one specific job. and — • I)esign and implement stathng programs focused around conipetencics (rather than specific jobs) as a way of increasing staffing flexibility in job a ssign nwnts. the new job analyst will also have to describe jobs that will exist in the future organization. Organizations such as AT&T. For example. skills.” such usage of competencies in HR practices reflects an organization’s desire to achieve the following: • Communicate job requirements in ways that extend beyond the specific jot? itself. it is safe to assume that effective organizational functioning will require some type of job analysis to be competently conducted. strategic job analysis will have to be capable of capturing both the present and the future. cwnpetencies are general attributes employees need to do well across multiple jobs or within the organizatioll as a whole. job sharing. I QM programs arc implemented.” As jobs are reengineered. While the job analyst has traditionally been charged with creating descriptions of jobs as they exist in an organization. and rewarding a variety of broad-based competencies that successful employees should possess. telecommuting.” To the contrary. reengineering of one kind or another is likely in a majority of organizations.4 Although it is currently unclear whether these new work arrangements will lend themselves to accurate description through the quantitative methods covered in this chapter. new job responsibilities may he poorly defined for the new environment.4 . Also termed “competency modeling. many work environments will also offer employees much greater flexibility in when and how they work. communicating. cornpetencies might include anything from “teamwork” to “leadership potential. This inevitability creates a new problem for the job analyst. These programs include variations on traditional work such as compressed work schedules. and the value of teamwork is emphasized. Not surprisingly. job descriptions will no longer be snapshots of a static entity called a “job. one of the major complaints about reengineering is that once an organization’s processes have been reconstructed. and flexible hours. Much more general than traditional knowledge.4 Job Analysis and Employee Competencies Over the past decade.

The mechanistic approach is best exemplified by Taylor’s scientific management and the motivational approach by job enrichment. Once learned. repetitive tasks. 1)ifferent situations call for different arrangements of job characteristics. The work of every workman is fully planned out by the management at least one day in advance. (3) the mechanistic approach. This task specifies not only what is to be done hut how it is to be done and the exact time allowed for doing it. Although the principles of scientific management were formally introduced in the early I 900s and many current methods of job design criticize the use of the repetitive-task structure. In addition.Once a thorough job analysis has been conducted and there are high-quality job JC descriptions and job specifications available. many of the principles are still relevant today. (2) the biological approach. Scientific Management and the Mechanistic Approach Job design was a central issue in F.management literature. . Among these •re recommendations stemming from Taylor’s scientific management. however. they emphasize equipment design and the proper match between machines aiid operators. and tasks in a manner that will help to achieve Optimal perft) rmance and satisfaction.45 Perspectives on the design of work can he classified into four major categories: I) the perceptual-motor approach. certain methods of job design are primari lv interested in improving performance. and (4) the motivational approach. approaches to job design place different emphasis on performance and satisfaction as desired outcomes. This information iS very useful for structuring job elements. There is. In 1911. They are also the two that have received the most attention in the. . Thus. W. such as the‘dlowing: . and each man receives in most cases complete written instructions. His use of job design is an excellent example of the rational approach and shows how certain perspectives focus more heavily on productivity than on satisfaction. he stated: Perhaps the most prominent single element in modern scientific management is the task idea. no one best way to design a job.49 Both the perceptual-motor approach and the biological approach have their roots in human factors engineering. The two remaining approaches more clearly highlight the potential trade-offs that must frequently he made by organizations with regard to job design. This means that the choice of job design will involve making trade—offs based on the more critical needs of the organization. describing in detail the task whiji he is to accomplish. In other words.co ‘The work of Taylor and the principles of scientific management initiated a great deal of interest in systematically studying the structure of jobs. duties. Thus. these tasks could he done quickly and efficiently. others are more concerned with satisfaction. an organization can USC this information for designing or redesigning jobs. it is unlikely that any one approach will fully satisfy all of the goals’of a manager. The emphasis was clearly on structuring jobs so that they were broken down into simple. Taylor’s model of scientific management. Their major focus is on the integration of human and machine systems.

research has found that repetitive. Despite the appeal of these potential advantages. considered horizontal. The expansion of the work is. Rather. .) • Employees should be trained to perform the job.52 Job en largement attempts to increase satisfaction by giving employees a greater variety of things to do. an enlarged job is not as specialized or routine as a job designed according to scientific management. It is assumed that the specialization and routine nature of jobs designed according to scientific management principles will lead to higher levels of output and require minimal training before employees are able to master the work. Thus. they are merely allowed to do a greater number of tasks. the gains in efficiency that scientific management may offer can he offset by losses in satisfaction and higher levels of absenteeism and turnover. however. Many managers find the scientific management approach to job design appealing because these kinds of recommendations point toward improving organizational performance. but it may not be any more meaningful. • Monetary compensation should be tied directly to performance and should be used to reward the performance of employees.S1 Thus. Early strategies for overcoming some of the problems associated with jobs designed according to scientific management focused on job enlargement. highly specialized work can lead to dissatisfaction among employees. (Job descriptions and job specifications used iii recruitment and selection should achieve this.• Employees selected for work should be matched to the demands of the job. since the employees are not given more responsibility or authority in decision making.

the job characteristics model is one of the most widely publicized. • Task identity—degree to which the job requires completion of a “whole” and identifiable piece of work—that is. Rather than simply increasing the variety of tasks performed by an employee. doing a job from beginning bo end with a visible outcome. employees are given responsibility that might have previously been part of a supervisor’s joh.job Enrichment: A Motivational Approach In the past two decades. Thus. enrichment differs from enlargement because the job is expanded vertically.” These include • Skill variety—degree to which the job requires a variety of different activities in carrying out the work. and responsibility. recognition. His basic idea is that employees will be motivated by jobs that enhance their feelings of self-worth. which involves the use of a number of an individual’s skills and talents. The notion of satisfying employees’ needs as a way of designing jobs comes from Frederic Herzberg’s two-factor theory of work motivation.55 This model is depicted in Exhibit 6—9.4 Although there are many different approaches to job enrichment. — • Task significance—degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the . much work has been directed at changing jobs in more meaningful ways than job enlargement was able to do. It shows that for a job to lead to desired outcomes it must Possess certain “core job dimensions. job enrichment tries to design jobs in ways that help incumbents satisfy their needs for growth.

256.Source:Ado pied from J. 2.” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance. Richard Hackman and R. *Autonomy—degree to which the job provides substantial freedom. Experienced meaningfulness—degree to which the job incumbent experiences work as important. they are expected to create three critical psychological states in job incumbents. The more these three states are experienced. he or she will then he motivated to perform well and will be satisfied with the job. valuable. G. the more internal work motivation the job incumbent will feel. independence. If these core dimensions are present in a job. To the extent that these three states are important to the job incumbent. • Feedback—degree to which carrying out the activities required by the job results in the individual’s obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance. Qldham (August 1976). Experienced responsibility—extent to which the job incumbent feels personally responsible and accountable for the results of the work performed. . determining the procedures to he used in carrying it out. and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in . 3.’ The key psychological states that are necessary for motivation and satisfaction are: 1. “Motivation through the Design of Work: Test of a Theory. and worthwhile. Knowledge of results—understanding that a job incumbent receives about how effectively he or she is performing the job. p.

Another example of demographic changes includes the increase in dual-career couples. Examples of flexible work arrangements include job sharing. for example. After 20 years of research. lower absenteeism and tardiness. Driving this work-family tension are a number of variables related to the changing demographics of the workforce. and higher levels of employee productivity. a trend is emerging in which some organizations are trying to accommodate diverse employees’ needs by offering flexible work arrangements. The more control 1ob incumbents feel they have over their jobs. For example. improved morale. Many have argued that companies that offer and encourage participation in such famil— friendly work arrangements will reap one or more of the following benefits: higher recruitment and retention rates.’ Research also suggests that increasing the scope of a job beyond certain levels can have detrimental effects on workers. Often viewed as primary caregivers. Many job enrichment programs have been implemented in the United States and in other countries around the world. It is believed that by allowing employees more control over their work lives. the relationships between the critical psychological states and employees’ reactions to enrichment are not yet fully understood. Generally. How are organizations responding to these challenges? Although nor as dramatic as originally anticipated. caregiving responsibilities may he shared. As the baby boom generation reaches retirement age. The aging population will he another factor that requires a response from working-age caregivers. Since different people have different capabilities and needs. leading both working spouses to require flexible work arrangements to meet family life and career cycle needs. they must have a sense of the quality of their performance. and task significance— AB contribute to a sense of meaningfulness. however there are no clear answers about the effectiveness of enrichment. The job characteristics model describes the relationships that are predicted to exist among four sets of factors—( I ) core job dimensions. Feedback is related to knowledge of results. these individuals vill continue to experience stress as they attempt to balance career and family priorities. flextime. and (4) strength of needs. This sense comes from feedback. task identity. (2) psychological states. then job enrichment will probably have less effect than it would for a person who values personal growth. In Some cases. studies support the expectation that jobs perceived to possess the core dimensions of the job characteristics model are more satisfying. they will he better able to balance their work-home demands. a person dues not have a strong need for personal growth. Autonomy is directly related to feelings of responsibility. (3) personal and work-related outcomes. . and telecommuting. the number of women and single parents entering the workforce is expected to increase. Work-Family Balance and Job Design Organizations are directing more attention and resources toward helping employees balance their work and family demands. the more they will feel responsible. For job incumbents to be internally motivated. it is important to be aware of the potential for individual differences to moderate the linkages shown in Exhibit 6—9. three job dimensions—skill variety. this issue will grow in importance.As presented in Exhibit 6—9. On the other hand. If.

Although organizations like Pizer and the other faniily-friendiy firms are movmg forward to attract. CAP involves the systematic study. or telecommuting for fear of being derailed from their career progression. maintaining their connection and communication with the office through phone. General Motors. and retain employees with diverse nonwork needs. Procter & Gamble. Required demonstration that the work could be accomplished off-site and that the employee could sustain and/or enhance performance. Required interested employees to satisfy a formal proposal and performance standards. American orporations—including Chevron. Chose a small division to pilot the telecommuting initiative. Kraft. Motorola. Limited the number of days to work at home to two per week. These authors also reported that flextiine programs should not be too unstructured and that they lose some of their effectiveness over time. workers’ compensation. First. Coca-Cola.61 Companies such as CoreStates Financial. 4. fax.. motivate. Pfizer Inc. other employees might use their flex— time to arrive at and leave from work one hour later Monday through Friday. Managers need to be aware that excluded employees can create a backlash . 2. and Household International all have oh-sharing options available for their employees. and Cigna. Federal Express. The appropriate response to these changes is exemplified by Coopers & Lybrand’s competency alignment process (CAP). 1o avoid peak rush hour. and computer. General Electric. managers need to he trained and rewarded for encouraging their subordinates to use them without fear of derailing their good standing within the firm. then excluded group’ may feel discriminated against. oine applicable laws include the Fair Labor Standards Act. Telecommuting refers to the work arrangement that allows employees to work in their homes part. took the following steps to establish their program: I. job satisfaction.’9 Countless others are reengineering their work processes. self-directed teams hav become important ingredients in the success of manufacturers worldwide! And now.or fulltime. With this schedule. AT&T. one company has aken a methodical approach to implementing a telecommuting program. hoping to regain their competitive advantage. organizations need to be mindful of the laws that may impact how these flexible work arrangement policies are developed and managed. flextime. Regardless of the specific nature of redesign. J the Occupational Safety and Health Act! Job Design: The Next Challenge In the late I 980s and early 1 990s. every attempt should be made to open these programs to all employees. Companies that offer fiextime options include I lewlctr-Packard. and absenteeism.roups are offered these options. Third.66 In order to make these programs an accepted part of the organization. 3. because of the competitive pressures that foreign business has placed on them. and Xerox.64 Though oftentimes resisted by managers who fear loss of control and subordinate accessibility. they may prefer to work a 4—day!! 0— mr per day work schedule.) organizations need to consider three important issues when developing and implementing such flexible work arrangement options.“partners” who have complementary scheduling needs and skills. Opened the program to all employees of the division. the employees do not have to be at the of&e on Friday. Flextime is another type of flexible work arrangement in which employees can choose when to be at the ofce. European and Asian competitors of American corporations were revolutionizing job design by turning away from the basic dc1i1t of scientific management and embracing the quality management movement More recently. many organizations have learned the hard way that reengineering cannot succeed unless careful attention is also paid to the effects on how employees use their skills.62 I—or example. Many career-minded employees do not take advantage of job sharing. Merrill Lynch. One research study concluded that flexible workweek schedules had a positive influence on employee performance. analysis. S. The risk here is that if only certain e. a large health care company.!ainst work-family programs!’ Second. to name a few—are also implementing self-directed work teams. having the CEO of an organization anoiince these programs is not enough to effect change. and assessment of . employees may decide that instead (it working 5 days a week for 8 hours a day.

and provide details on job specifications. recognition. redeployment. interviews. starting with examining the total organization and the fit of jobs and concluding with the preparation of a job specification (see Exhibit 6—2). it is essential that each characteristic of each job in an organization he clearly understood.WTaylor. It is a comprehensive approach and is currently viewed very favorably from a legal respective. I 3. The job is described in terms of data. title. methods. The position analysis questionnaire (PAQ) is a I95item structured instrument used to quantitatively assess jobs on the basis of decision making.7° Without these or similarly intense efforts. and outsourcing. however. communication and social responsibilities. CAP determines current skill levels of employees in order to identify skill gaps. industry. selection. compensation. Functional job analysis (FjA) is used to describe the nature of jobs. There are six sequential steps in job analysis. 14.jobs and the skills needed to perform them in the reengineered organization. and tasks to achieve optimal performance and satisfaction. The management position description questionnaire (MPDQ) is a checklist of 208 items that assesses the concerns and responsibilities of managers. job enrichment involves designing jobs so that employees’ needs for growth.3. This chapter has emphasized the major role that job analysis plays in HRM activities and programs. operating vehicles or equipment. The job is the major building block of an organization. it cannot succeed. Strategic planning. Training is required. and processing information. 4. job design was a concern of F. prepare job descriptions. 9. 12. and responsibility are satisfied.000 jobs on the basis of occupational code. To accomplish this goal. 7. 1. the reengineering will probably not succeed. Therefore. The Dictionary of Occupational Titles is a listing of over 20. Before conducting a job analysis. . . organization and process charts should be consulted to acquire an overview of the organization. 10. . The uses of job analysis information seem endless. training. To summarize the major points covered in this chapter: . It is taking a new look at the entire flow of work through an organization. and job incumbent diaries or logs. job analysts and other HR professionals are a crucial link in the reengineering processes upon which so many corporations are staking their competitive future. and job design all benefit immensely from job analysis information. duties. Four general job analysis techniques can be used separately or in combination observation. being physically active. 6. and things. people. Job design involves structuring job elements. 11. 2. questionnaires. The multimethod approach to job analysis uses a combination of these four general. 5. Conducting job analysis is not for amateurs. Without adaptable job descriptions. Each part of the diagnostic HRM model is in some way affected by job analysis. it can then be eliminated through a variety of programs including training. the famous industrial engineer and father of what is called scientific management. Thus. When a skill deficiency exists for the reengineered organization. Reengineering is more than job redesign. recruitment. performing skilled activities.

Perhaps distributing memos. . holding TERMS open discussions with informal leaders. How might job analysis be helpful to an organization that is being sued for sex discrimination in . Job analysis is often referred to as the “cornerstone” of HRM.A new person luded has to establish rapport o with emp’oyees before ir changing things. ti In the case of Sprowl ai Manufacturing.Tim’s haste a and lack of preparation have now caused the situation to T reach a boiling point. and this alone was threatening to many people.A trained job analyst knows that distribution of questionnaires without an explanation is bound to set off negative feelings. Using questionnaires requires preparation and conch careful initial steps. and this lack was clearly revealed as the process got out of hand.What do you now think about Tim Huggins’s job analysis process? Do you see why some type of training in job analysis is required Tim really lacked sufficient training. He was a new boss. Do you agree? Why? 3. What are the six steps in the job analysis process? 2. He a needs to backtrack and slow down. and using the expertise of trained job analysts can improve the atmosphere at Sprowl.Tim failed to plan thoroughly what he wanted to do. What would you advise Tim to do about job analysis at this point? autonomy common metric questionnaire (CMQ) competency alignment process (CAP) feedback functional job analysis (FJA) job job analysis job analysis information format (JAIF) job characteristics model job description job enlargement job enrichment job family specification management position description questionnaire (MPDQ) niultimethod job analysis approach Occupational Information Network (0 *NET) organization chart POSItiOn position analysis questionnaire (PAQ) process chart skill variety strategic job analysis task task identity task significance 1.

As a current (or future) manager.promotion? 6 4.What is the emphasis of each? . and abilities? Both? Explain your answer. What is the difference between an essential and a nonessential skill? How are these related to the Americans with Disabilities Act? . skills. how will you communicate the requirements of an entry-level customer service representative to a candidate who just arrived at your office for an interview? \Iill you describe the job in terms of cornpetencies? Knowledge. Describe the mechanistic and motivational models of job design. 5. What core information should be included in most job descriptions and job specifications? 6.

1995. with or without accommodations. The court examined the City’s job description for Account Clerk I to determine if Ms. as an Account Clerk I in its Tax Office. Later in that same month. she suffered neck and lower back pain when sitting For extended times. maintenance (if accounts and parking tag books. \Vorthington requested three accommodations from the City: (1) an ergonomic chair with neck and back support. What challenges does the concept of reengineering pose for job analysis and human resources Based on Worthington v. Further. 199 I. Ms. neck. Worthington ceased working on March 25.S. the Cit agreed to provide Ms. checking receipts and vouchers. Worthingwn could perform the essential functions of the ob either with or without accommodations.000 in compensatory damages. 1 993. City of New Has en. a plaintiff must prove that he or she is a “qualified individual with a disability who can perform the essential functions of their job. Following the accident. After an investigation. District Court for the District of Connecticut. 1993. Dist. and skills for the Account Clerk I position. a disability is I) a physical or mental illpairmcilt that substantially limits one or more major life activities. maintaining accounts. 1999 U. fell at work. Worthington with an ergonomic chair. Despite recominendanons from her doctor for the ergonomic chair and letters froii ti’e Connecticut Bureau of Rehabilitative Services suggestinj a worksite evaluation. Ms. she hled a grievance with the union. According to the City’s job description. receiving payments. The court found that Ms. On February 3. experience. the City . . (2) a record of such impairment. The City claimed that filling in for an employee who collected parking fines which involved standing for long periods of time was also an essential function of Ms. and knee in)uries. Describe the major components of the job characteristics model of job enrichment. The Court’s Decision To recover under the ADA. What is the ONET? How and when would a job analyst use the ONET? Do you think it will replace the Dictionary of Occupational Titles? Why or why not? 10. 1994. On July 1 3. Worthington filed a disability discrinnnation suit under the Americans with Disabilities Act in U. Ms. she filed a grievance with the City. the City provided Ms. Worthington’s job. Following surgery for spinal problems aggravated by her fall at work. Worthington $150. Ms. preparing payrolls and financial reports. Worthington with a more comfortable chair. who had preexisting back. and (3) modification of her job duties so that she avoided standing for long periods of time. Worthington’s requests for accommodai ions based on a lack of funds. due to her disability. The court found that the essential functions of Account Clerk I involved preparation of payrolls and financial reports. Worthington had a disability under the ADA. As a result of the fall. Thus. which could all he performed with only occasional standing. repeatedly denied Ms. (2) replacement of overhead shelves with waist level shelves.8. Howevei the court disagreed and awarded Ms. On April 13. Vorthington did indeed possess the required education. LEXIS 16104. Worthington. the court found that Ms.” According to the AI)A. Ms. and checking receipts and vouchers. 1992. or (3) being regarded as having such an impairment. 9. Worthington had a physical impairment of her musculoskeletal system that substantially limited her ability to walk and stand for long periods of time.S. The Facts Patricia Worthington was hired 1w the City of New Haven on December 23. On May 24. complaining that she was still required to stand for long periods of time. holding that she was a qualified individual with a disability who could perform the essential functions of the Account Clerk I position with reasonable accommodations. the Account Clerk I position required bookkeeping. and various other clerical duties.

essential functions are the fundamental hut not marginal duties of a job. Vol. 86—89. Bureau of Intergovernmental Personnel Programs (1 973). “Job Analysis.S.” in Si d ne (.” Public Personnel Management Journal. op. 2nd ed. Ash and Edward L. Edward ‘F. 1--lerhert 1-leneinan. 3rd ed.). Industry..33.Job Description Information Provide Accurate Position Analysis Questionnaire ( PAQ) Ratings?” Personnel Ps’t’cholog’. Locklear.27—3. 1. 71—163. op. pp. op. Ivan Robertson anc Mike Smith (November 200 “Personnel Selection. Compensation Management: R en ‘a ‘ding Performance. pp. 2 Henderson.27— 3. According to the ADA. Cornelius (198$). Rowland. “Can Recruiters with Reduced .. cit. Panaro.33. Human Resource Management: Perspectives and Issues. Ronald Buckle’ (eds. pp. and Ronald R. Government Printing Of6ce(. “The Concept of Job Analysis: A Review and Some Suggestions. Kendrith M. and Got ‘er.” in Marvin 1). In differentiating between essential and nonessential job functions in job descriptions. . and (3) the employee was hired for an expertise or ability to perform a particular function. ‘Toni S. 198—1 99. “Job Analysis in Practice: A Brief Review of the Role of Job Analysis in Human Resources Management. Hough (eds.’. (2) there are a limited number of employees who are available to perform the function. 134—144. Atchison (Summer 1980). Veres 111. Sims (1990). and M. 1 38—139. cit. 100. and 1-leneman. pp. p. cth ed. Ii John C. S Robert •J. 779_7$9 .. Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psvchokg. Heneman. p.’. (Englewood Cliffs. pp. “Job . IL: McGraw-Hill/Irwin). NJ: Prentice-Hall).’.” in Gerald R. Jai Ghorpadc and Thomas J. Richard I. A job duty is essential if (I) the position exists to perform the function. cit. “Practical Findings from Job Analysis Research..Human Resource Implications Organizations must carefully define essential and nonessential job functions in their job descriptions and be prepared to provide reasonable accommodations requested by employees. Gerard P Panaro (1991)). pp. 48—68.” Journal 01 ( )ccupatumal and Organizational l’sb)lnç”. The Job A nalvsis Handbook /or I3usiness.).. pp. 2 (Palo Alto. Staffing Organizations. 53—59. I (New Yorl Wilev. Henderson (1 989). 1—larvey (1991). 2nd ed. (Burr Ridge. DC: U. “A Framework for Evaluating Job Analysis Methods. pp. Harvey. I-’anplovnu’nt Lan’ Manual (Boston: Warren. CA: Cansulting Psychologists Press). pp. Tiniothv Judge. Levine (November—December 1980). 3 I 2.3. and Ronald A. 1)unnerte and I eaetra M. ). pP 198—199.” Personnel. 441—472. 3. and Robert Heneman (2000).. Harvey (Winter 1986). pp.nnent. Gorham & Larnont). . pp. cit. op. Vol. Friedman and Robert J. Ferris.. employers should also consider how much time an emplace spends performing a jot) duty and the consequences of not requiring an employee to perform the duty.-\nalvsis: Developing and Dcuinenting Data” (Washington.acl (ed. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon). Judge.

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Jia Lin Xie and Gary Johns (October 1995).” California Management Review. 6’ Gillian Flynn and Sarah E Gale (October 2001). Oldham. pp. 250—279. Vandenberg (Summer 1995). 62—66. 64 (.996). 122—1 33.” journal of Management. C. each store has a different collection of merchandise. 8 1—87. Steve Hamm.” Work force.1.While she was an assistant manager. 187 60 Luis R. NJ: Prentice Hall). Managing Human Resources. Briggs. which is one of Today’s Fashion’s largest markets. Joseph \V. and Implications for Managers. and several different combinations of departments can be found in Mary’s region. “Self-Directed Work Teams: A Guide to Implementation. Rcnn and Robert J. “The Critical Psychological States: An Underrepresented Component in Job Characteristics Model Research. depending on the number of specialty departments. and jewelry. Mary had been both a store manager and an assistant manager in a casual-wear department. 250—279. “A New Strategy for Job Enrichment.ornez-Mejia Ct al. Mary is the regional manager for the Pacific Coast. Evolution. “The Missing Piece in Reengineering. Each assistant manager is responsible for one particular specialty department. 56 Hackman and Oldham. 68 Jane Gibson and Dana Tesone (November 2001). Neuman (August 1999). pp. and . pp. “The Legalities of Flextirne. and Feedback on Attitudes and Performance. cit. pp. pp.” HRMagazine. and K. Ganstec çy 1. Dodd and Damel. R. and Paul ludge (September 1997). Gomez—Mejia et al. Managing Human Resources. 368—370.” Quality Progress. “The Baby Gap. Pp.. “Job Sharing: One job. 3rd ed. David B. shoes. 8 Robert W. Gomez-Mejia. These departments vary considerably in size and in the number of sales clerks reporting to the assistant manager. 66 Keith Hammonds.” Training and Development.. 61 Charlenc Solomon (September 1994). pp. Wright. Huff. She manages 35 outlets in California and Oregon. 496—513. 88—93. “Job Scope and Stress: Can job Scope Be Too High?” Academy of Management Journal. 57—71. Greg R. Thomas E. (Upper Saddle River. Hauser (May 1996). Balkin. each of these outlets has a store manager who reports directly to Mary.Performance. and Robert L. Autonomy.. “The Interactive Effects of Variety. Prior to being appointed to the regional sales manager position.” Business Week. and George A. 329—347. 279—303. op. pp. Richard Hackman. The departments include casual wear. ‘ Nancy G. pp. a national chain of specialty clothing stores with 200 outlets across the country. Mary had often thought that she was responsible for many aspects of store management that other . Mary Watson was recently promoted to the position of regional sales manager for Today’s Fashion. Baltes. Each outlet: has between three and five assistant store managers. 70 Nicholas F. 96--lOl.” Journal of Organizational Behavior. Julie A. Cardy (2000). pp. Roy Furchgott. “Management Fads: Emergence. pp. Homey and Richard Koonce (December 1995).” The Academy of Management Executive. 37—43. Because the chain’s success lies in being receptive to local customers tastes and buying habits. Managing Human Resources.” lournal of Applied Psychology. “Flexible and Compressed Workweek Schedules: A Meta-Analysis of Their Effects on WorkRelated Criteria. Janson. ‘ Boris B. 1288—1309. pp. Purdy (Summer 1975). “Work and Family. pp. Piczak and Reuben Z. cosmetics. 6 Sharon Leonard (July 2000). Double Headache?” Personnel Journal. formal wear. pp. “i Michael W.

Frains. she was confident that she could construct an accurate and useful job description and specification for the assistant manager job. inerchatidising. (larilies any qiicstiu s or problems that a salesclerk encounters. 2. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS I. cilnliti’s: I . Critically evaluate the job analysis that Mary conducted for the position of assistant store manager. Basic math . Maintains inventory records. On the basis of these interviews and her own experience. Ensures that the department remains professionally organized and orderly. Although she had no formal training in job analysis. skills. training of new einph ivecs. 4.As a result.i: Minimum: Four-year college degree in marketing or related discipline from an accredited program. directs. In addition. returns. primarily because of her personal experience with that position. Carefully read the job description and job specification that Mary prepared. Isiioivk’ilgc. and layaway as needed. She believes that the best way to improve store management is to hire assistant store managers who are qualified to perform successfully. The assistant store manager has responsibilit v for customer service.lanages the daily functions of a specialty department in the retail (iperatio s. and supervises department salcsclcrks daily.Thus. S. . What kinds of factors about Today’s Fashion and its operations should Mary have examined more seriously in order to improve her job analysis? 3. L x/wrieIuce: • Minimum: 5ux months to one year in a retail environment. Mary felt that there was considerable room for improvement in how Today’s Fashion was managed. However. Mary had earned a BBA degree with a marketing emphasis from Wyoming State University. she never really felt comfortable that her store manager had clearly defined her areas of responsibility. rather than simply writing from her own experience. one of the first things Mary did after being appointed to the regional sales position was to initiate a job analysis for the job of assistant store manager. Prepares the department for opening at the beginning of each day. Do they appear to be thorough? Do you think that they are adequate to serve as a basis for a new selection system? How well do you think these documents will work if Mary is sued for discrimination in her hiring practices? Why? Job Title: Assistant Store Manager Reports to: Store Manager General Description of the Job . Mary interviewed three current assistant store managers from the outlet closest to her regional office in Sacramento. Has she used appropriate methods? What are the strengths and weaknesses of her efforts? 2. and maintenance of inventory. despite the chain’s success. General Qualification Requirements I—lzicati . supervision of saleselerks. 2. Preferred: One to three years as a salesclerk for Today’s Fashion. Mary constructed the job description and job specification shown in Exhibit I She hopes that these documents will form the basis of a new selection program that she wants to implement for her region.assistant managers were not held responsible for. Principal Duties and Responsibilities • Assists customers in mcrrhandise sclecti ms.cnordinates.

This was what Clark had been waiting for: a chance to be on his own and to show what he could do for Lois. Lois greeted him with. Now Gunther as opening a new plant in e quickly expanding Tampa market. a position opened up in the HR department.You can recruit some employees from the home office and other plants.2. it had one of the fastest growth records in the industry. Shortly you’ll be meeting your new plant manager. and for Gunther. who had been very supportive of his career. Good udgmeni and independent thought 4. For a medium-sized operation. Gunther was a growing firm. Effective interpersonal skills . Lois had selected Clark to be the human resource manager for the Tampa plant. “Well. These are. High integrity 6. Clark spent almost two years as •erating supervisor in a plant. Clark. Clark had worked for Gunther Manufacturing for 10 years in Los Angeles. Lois Yates. your recruiting quotas: Managers 38 Professional and technical 10 Clerical 44 Skilled employees 104 Semiskilled employees 400 You’ll receive a budget for maximum initial pay for this group shortly. Ability to lift and can y boxes weighing approximately 15 pounds or less. “The plant will be staffed initially with the following employees. Good typing and computer skills •lvslcal reqiurelilents: Standing and walking required for more than 90 percent of work time. After a short management training program. “You and Ed should work out the details. After that. Clark Kirby was just entering the office of the vice president of human resource management. but excessive . He moved up in the department headquarters during the next seven years. I hope you realize how much we are counting on you in Tampa. in effect. Self-starter/highly motivated S.You’ll be working r for him but responsible to me to see that Gunther’s HRM policies are carried out. 2. Ed Humphrey. He was very excited as he entered Lois’s office. Clark had majored in personnel at California State University at Los Angeles and wanted to try HRM work.

raiding is not allowed. Remember, too, that Gunther has an equal employment opportunity problem. Wherever possible, try to hire qualified minorities and women to help us meet our internal goals. f “Your own HR office consists of yourself, one HR specialist to help you run the empleyment office, and one clerical employee. Good c luck!” F Clark quickly arranged a for a meeting with Ed, his v new boss. Ed, about 50 g years old, was a high school p graduate who had started a with Gunther as a blue- n collar employee when he u was 18 years old.After 10 years in various blue-collar E positions, Ed became a f foreman. Eight years later he i was selected as an assistant e to the plant manager. After e several years in this h position, he was made one tI of three assistant plant n managers at a Gunther plant n in Chicago. He held that position until being given h this new position of plant manager at the Tampa plant. After introductions, C Clark and Ed talked. p Clark Here are the figures t for employees that Lois gave e me. She also said we could recruit some people from p Gunther, but not to raid beyond company policy. E Also. Lois said we needed to rr do an exceptional job ti recruiting minorities and u women because we have an a EEO problem. ti Ed Let’s get something straight right off. You working for me now, not Lois. Here’s o a list of 20 manager I want F to take with me. It’s your a ‘job to persuade them to come to Tampa with me. In in cases where my help might persuade some to come along, call on me. But I’m very stressed now trying to get machinery ordered, the plant laid out, financing arranged, and so on. Call on me only When you must, understand? Oh, one more thing. That EEO *#/OX_you can forget that.The Tampa plant is going to be the most efficient in the company, or else! And if that means hiring the best workers and they all turn out to be white men, that’s tough, you get me? Keep me posted on what’s happening. Good to have you on board.

After some thought, Clark decided to use job posting as a method of attracting professionaltechnical and managerial employees at the Los Angeles office to the new plant in Tampa. He also made the personal contacts Ed asked for in recruiting managerial employees, and the skills inventory was used to come up with more applicants. Clark contacted these also. He did not use job posting or the skills inventory for clerical, skilled, or semiskilled employees. He knew that for Gunther, as with most organizations, these categories of employees rarely wish to (continued on next page)

move to another location. IMost companies don’t want t’ to pay relocation costs for h these categories of a employment, either. r Clark went to Tampa and set up the employment office at the new location. ‘ He ran an ad in Tampa’s F afternoon paper and placed a job listing with a private employment agency for the HR specialist and clerk- a typist for his office.Then he a, hired these two employees p and set up the office to a receive walk-ins. He ir provided application blanks . b and policy guidelines on n when selection would I proceed. Clark listed the available s positions with the U.S. v Employment Service. He also contacted private in agencies. He selected the hi private agencies after calling cc a number of HR managers w in the Tampa area in similar w businesses who were also hi members of the Society of tF Human Resource Management.The HR a specialist notified all the vocational-technical schools, a junior colleges, and colleges t[ Ii L.4 in the Tampa area. Also, all high school guidance counseling departments were notified. Clark wondered what other media he ought to use to publicize the positions. Clark found out quickly, as you will find in this chapter, that recruftment is a little more complicated than he originally thought. Before an organization can fill a job vacancy, it must find people who not only are qualified for the position but also want the job. This chapter descril)es the recruiting process as one of the ways that an organization can deal with shortages in its human resources needs. Recruitment refers to organizational activities that iiifluence the number and types of applicants who apply for a job and whether the applicants accept jobs that are offered. I Thus, recruitment is directly related to both human reour e

planning and selection. En addition, recruiting often represents the first coti— tact between organizations and prospective employees. As such, care should be taken to create a positive hrst impression with these job applications. Although recruitment can be quite expensive, organizations have not always treated it as systematically a other HR functions, such as selection. l)uring the coming years, however, the importance of recruitment will probably increase for many organizations. Even with a modest rise in recession-based unemployment at the beginning of the 21st century. fears of a looming tight labor market in the United States continue to plague organizations of all sizes..2 I)riven by the inevitable retirements of baby hoomers and fewer numbers of young people entering into the work- force, the labor shortage has caused many companies to develop retention strategies to hold onto their valued employees. For example, Hewlett—Packard Co. and Charles Schwab Corp. have preferred freezes or cut pay to avoid layoffs.4 Despite the fact that organizational layoffs reached a 10-year high at the end of the 1990s, experts anticipate a growing number of iabor shortages in high-skills areas. Exhibit 7—1 shows how the recruiting process is affected liv various factors in the environment. The recruiting process begins with an attempt to find employees with the abilities and attitudes desired lw the organization and to match them with the tasks to he performed. Whether potential employees viIl respond to the recruiting effort depends on the attitudes they have developed toward those tasks and the organization on the basis of their past social and working experiences. Their percepnon of the task will also he affecte.l liv the work climate in the organization and the Important interaction of the organization as a recruiter and the employee as a recruit is examined in the next section.

Government and Union Restrictions government regulations prohibiting discrimination in hiring and employment have INFLUENCES 1 direct impact on recruiting practices. As described in derail in (chapter 3, government agencies can and do review the following information about recruiting to see 1 [I organization has violated the law: • List of recruitment sources (such as employment agencies, civic organizations, schools) for each job category. • Recruiting advertising. • Estimates of the employment needs k)r the coming \ear. Source: Kenneth Sovereign (1999). Personnel Law. 4th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall), pp. 46—51; Gerord Panoro (1990), Employment Law Manual (Boston: Warren, Gorham, and Lamont), pp. 1—10. • Statistics on the number of applicants processed by demographic category (sex, race, and SO on) and by job category or level. • Checklists to show what evidence was used to verify the legal right to work. Although there is no guaranteed way to avoid legal entanglements associated with recruiting, Exhibit 7— 2 provides some basic principles of sound recruiting practices. The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 has placed a major responsibility on employers for stopping the floW of illegal immigration to the United States. The employer—not the government—is the chief enforcer of the prohibition against the unauthorized recruitment and employment of foreign-horn individuals. ’ Under the law’s “employer sanctions” arrangement, all employers are required to screen every applicant’s eligibility for lawful employment and maintain records demonstrating employment authorization. The IRCA is a complex piece of legislation, but its basic features fit into four broad categories: ‘—i’ Employer’s duty not to recruit, hire, or continue to employ “unauthorized aliens.” 2. Employer’s duty to verify the identity and work authorization of every new employee. ‘L_3 Employer’s duty not to discriminate on the basis of citizenship or national origin. _4. Amnesty rights of certain illegal aliens who are eligible to achieve temporary or permanent resident status in the country. Despite the difficulty that organizations have determining whether a worker is legally employable, the

Labbr Market Conditions Another external environmental factor affecting recruiting is labor market conditions (these were described in some detail in Chapter 2). Be sure the job qualifications are applied to every applicant in a consistent manner. 5.government is currently planning to step up its enforcement of the IRCA.i PS. and support staff. lENT Publish a list of qualifications necessary to fill the job. Use recruiting sources that will reach the greatest number of potential applicants in the job market. 6. even informal attempts at recruiting will probably attract Post notices regarding the availability of a job. attorneys. Distinguish between essential 2. but some money will also he devoted to ensuring that legal applicants are not discriminated against because of the stepped-up enforcement activities. 1. . Do not rely only on word—of-mouth sources (if recruits. 3. . Additional money will be spent on hiring more investigators. If there is a surplus of Iabor at recruiting time. 4. g wary of establishing qualifications that might directly or indirectly exclude members of protected groi. qualifications and desirable ones.

attract. and organizations are given the opportunity to bid against one another for a given worker. unemployment in the United States has recently hit record low levels and. An employer can find out about the current employment picture in several ways. new developments occur almost daily that make the Internet more effective. the Internet is one of the tools being used more and more frequently to satisfy these difficult recruiting goals. Course content at Recruiting. organizations that do not begin to capitalize on the Internet might soon find themselves at a competitive disadvantage. C. manage contact with thousands of passive jobseeker candidates.Bid4geeks. find resumes of people with any skill set or in any location in the world.html).Online includes the following “how-tos”: build a candidate database. which appears in the Journal of College Placement. organizations in these industries must find new innovative ways to identify.com. including Recruiting-Online. and state divisi ofls of efriployrnent security and labor usually can provide information about specific types of employees. Chances are virtual recruiting is here to stay.com/home. and obtain e-mail addresses of employees at companies that are merging or downsizing.com (http://www. more than enough applicants. take advantage of newsgroups and listservs.com. the Month/-v Labor Review.Web postings still only represent approximately 2 percent of all job listings.Though little research has been conducted to assess the success of these recruiting innovations. The federal Department of Labor issues employment reports. One way to stay current regarding online recruiting is to enroll in Internetbased courses that teach the latest in advanced online recruiting techniques. Obviously. Clearly. However. despite massive layoffs in some industries. A. The largest job posting site in the world. Various personnel journals. there appears to be a considerable organizational interest in the concept. Current college recruiting efforts are analyzed by the Conference Board. Such courses are available from a variety of verdors. how many applicants are available also depends on whether the economy is growing.monster. For example. Recently. When companies are not creating new jobs. Contract and temporary workers can now register at the website. and The Wall Street Journal also regularly report on employment conditions . It should be kept in mind that in spite of the meteoric e in the use of the Internet for recruitment and job search activities. experts are predicting no end to critical shortages of skilled labor. In addition. the unwary user should not be lulled into believing that the Internet can easily replace other forms of recruiting. In addition. Nielsen. To remain mpetitive.As mentioned earlier in this chapter. www. skillful and prolonged recruiting may be necessary to attract any applicants who fulfill the expectations of the organization. it is difficult if not impossible for an organization to capture the degree of fit between an applicant’s personality and the organization’s culture from an electronic resume alone. A similar online auction site dedicated solely to high-tech talent can be found at www.At the same time. has added another capability to its Internet services. when full employment is nearly reached in an area.The talent auction has arrived. and hire people with the skills needed.recruitingonline. there is often an oversupply of qualified labor. These shortages are expected to be especially acute in high-tech industries such as computers and wireless communications. There are also sources of information on local employment conditions as they affect their members. and the Endicort Report. there has been another twist to Internet use in organizational recruitment and selection.

The techniques used and sources of recruits vary with the job. Hispanic. the nature of the organization and the goals of the managers are highlighted. Organizational policies and practices In some organizations. have worked their way through school. Then it uses these as its beginning expectations for recruits (see the sections on oL analysis. as is the nature of the task. labor market OF THE RECRUIT conditions. It should be made clear to the recruiter which requirements are absolutely essential and which arc merely desirable. or Alaskan native employees in the workforce depends largely on the availability of these minority employees in the relevant labor market.IIRM policies and prctices affect recruiting and who is recruited. however. the number of African American. The Organization’s View of Recruiting Several aspects affect recruiting from the organization’s viewpoint: the recruiting requirements set. progressive orgamzations now ul7derstand that effective diversity management is an integral strategic tool for enhancing competitiveness. and are willing to work long hours for almost no money. the benefits can be tremendous in terms of outcomes ranging from higher 1ItI’ tfl I I(’tP1 (11crc11l1r ci ticfntiin X INTERACTIONS After considering how external factors such as government. But for those organizations such as Allstate Insurance with the foresight to embrace diversity. . For diversity management to work. are presidents of extracurricular activities. Such an analysis is done to determine whether the hrni’s employment practices are discriminatory. Contrasting with this unrealistic approach. Fdr all practical purposes.Composition of Labor Force and Location of Organization The influence of FIRM law on activities was noted in Chapter 3. composition of the workforce. unions. and location of the organization restrict AND THE recruiting options. Due in part to skills shortages. That is. it must be valued by the organization. job description. This can help the organization avoid unrealistic expectations for potential employees: An employer might expect applicants who stand first in their class. have 10 years’ experience (at age 21). the effective organization examines the specifications that are absolutely necessary for the job. are good-looking. Asian or Pacific Islander. organizational policies and procedures. Regardless of the location of the organization. As far as the applicants are concerned. One of the most significant of these is promotion from within. The location of the organization and the relevant labor market will play a major role in the CompoSition of the workforce. ORGANIZATION In Exhibit 7—2 (the diagnostic model). As the number of legal requirements has increased. the next step in understanding the recruiting process is to consider the interaction between the applicants and the organization in recruiting. an aggressive diversity management program will be essential for organizations entering the 21st century. and job specifications in Chapter 6). and the organization’s image. it is impossible for recruiters to determine how well any particular applicant fits the job.’ \Xithout these. Recruiting requirements The recruiting process necessarily begins with a detailed oh description and job specification. it has become important for an organization to anal‫غ‬ze the composition of its workfor . their abilities and past work experience affect how they go about seeking a job. Native American. this policy means that many nrganizations recruit from outside the organization only at the initial hiring level.

it should be easier for an organization with a positive corporate image to attract and retain employees than an organization with a negative image. The business does not compete effectively. such a recruit is not necessarily going to nd her or his ideal job. Some employers also feel this practice helps protect trade secrets. The techniques used for inrernal recruiting will be discussed later in this chapter. veterans. promotion from within may be detrimental. and its image.. for those organizations that reach the top of Fortune magazine’s “most admired” list. However. Although the Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts that the total number of college. Recruitment should also be somewhat easier for companies that exude a strong cumulate presence or positive flame recognition. and how they go about seeking a job. General Electric. All these policies affect who is recruited. and others. Preferences of recruits for organizations and jobs Just as organizations have ideal speciation for recruits. the limitations of its policies and practices. All else being equal. If an inadequate number of high—quality people apply. such as Coca-Cola or the most recent two— time winner. harriers created 1w economic conditions. For example. and new employees from outside might be helpful. The incant has abilities. The Potential Employee’s View of Recruiting Exhibit 7—i highlighted several factors relevant to how a recruit looks for a job. Understanding these is vital to effective recruiting. and in administrative support roles. there yill still be approximately 6 million college graduates either unemployed or underemployed (i. or ex-convicts. They feel this is tair to present loyal employ— ees and assures them of a secure future and a fair chance at promotion. the ideal job specifications preferred by an organization may have to be adjusted to meet the realities of the labor market.e.level job openings between NOW and 2008 will nearly equal rhe number of college. or union restrictions. Other policies cait also affect recruiting.educated entrants to the labor force. 0 Thus. food preparers and wavers. SO do recruits have a set of preferences for jobs. The graduate might also have strong geographic preferences and expectations about salary and may anticipate that advancement will occur rapidly. . In such cases. significant numbers of college radiates will Likely he working as retail sales employees. I the time and effort needed to recruit high—quality workers may be less than for competitors who rank poorly. or the government bureau will not adjust to legislative requirements. motor vehicle operators. working in positions that Jo not require a bachelor's degree). Recruits also face barriers to Iinding their ideal job. A student leaving college generally expects to obtain a job that actually requires college-level education and skills. for example. government. An organization ma become SO stable that it is set in its vavs. In sum. the organization may have to adjust the job to fit the best applicant or increase its recruiting efforts. and they may look to these sources first. Is promotion from within a good policy Not always. Certain organizations have always hired more than their fair share of the disabled. and preferences based on past work experiences and influences of parents. Organizational image The image of the employer generally held by the public can affect recruitment.Most employees favor this approach. teachers. Others i1ay be involved in nepotism and favor relatives. attitudes. These factors affect recruits in two Ways: how they set their job preferences.

not for profit.. it is also affected by unconscious processes.us/seeker government and union restrictions. Then she or he chooses the organization to work for within that broader occupation. The effective job searcher creates opportunities in a systematic way. Do 1 prefer working with mechanical objects or counseling people? This is a crucial question. the individual chooses an occupation—perhaps in high school or early in college. Do I have sector preference (private. Job search and finding a job: The recruit People who are successful at finding the “right job” tend to follow similar research processes. and the limits of organizational policies and practices. friends. The purpose pf self-assessments is for job searchers to recognize their career goals and their strengths and weaknesses. college recruitment offices.1 Research also suggests that satisfaction with the communication process in recruitment is critical to attracting applicants. just as the organization must. 16 In reality.S. this decision isn’t always purely rational. ‘ The job search is a process that begins with self-assessment.ajb. or large.chi. When the job seeker has decided where he or she will send a resume. trade publications. and successful self-presentation. Sources of information include newspapers. career counselors. Research suggests that recruiters want to see a resume and cover letter that is tailored to the position .tential employers and jobs. and the Internet. product. and organizational “insiders.-l : 8 T1. Source: ww-w.1 rr. This information is used later in the search to help the applicant assess whether there is a fit with a particular job offer. information gathering. followed by teachers. But a survey conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers found that occupational choice is most heavily influenced by parents. Information gathering and networking are methods for generating lists of p0. 4. choice of an organization might be influenced by corporate image. many factors that influence these decisions. The recruit must anticipate compromises. Additionally.’4 As previously mentioned. there are many. many recruits prefer larger. targeting specific jobs.HRMEM0 Americas Job Fank is a coo perative eflbrt between the U. the job seeker can generate a list of prospective employers using a wide variety of sources including fle\VSpapers.uir rciinw should include these items. networking. It is not always enough to simply be in the right place at the right time.” Many questions about possible employers must be answered before a list of alternatives can he generated. or service has a good future and will lead to growth and opportunity? Once these kinds of questions have been answered. hut from the perspective of the applicant. in order of . 1.. From the individual’s point of view. and luck. Deportment of Labor and the Public Employment Service. What factors affect the choice of occupation and organization? Obviously. medium. personal contacts. An effective job search involves several steps including self-assessment. interests and values. Do I have a size preference: small. well-established firms over smaller organizations. however. First.4 million job openings for job seekers. choosing an organization involves at least two major steps. The assessment is similar to what organizational recruiters will be doing. or public sector)? 3.. Have I checked to make sure that the sector. self-presentation becomes critical. What kinds of industries interest me? This question is usually based on interests in products or services. and preferred lifestyles. it lists over 1. or no particular size? 2. and relatives. Currently. chance.

4. interviewers are strongly influenced by an applicant’s interpersonal and communication styles during the interview. The organization can look to sources internal to the company and. An indication that you know something about the organization. however. job posting was little more than the use of bulletin boards and company publications for advertising job openings. job posting has become one of the more innovative recruiting techniques being used by organizations. Your specific job objectives. But job seekers need to understand that in the long run little can be gained from such practices. they use an approach called job posting and bidding. they use “impression management” tactics to their advantage. Today.C H A P T E R 7 Recruitment 1.22 Although it is not a good idea to present an unrealistic picture of one’s qualifications. Whenever there is an madequate supply of labor and skills inside the organization. if necessary. Many companies now see job posting as an integrated component of an eftective career management system. Position you seek. In the past. it must effectively “get its message across” to external candidates. Unfortunately for the organizational recruiter. Openings in this organization are . Computer software ilows the employees o match an available job with their skills and experience. It hen highlights where gaps exist SO the employees know what is necessarY if they wish to be competitive for a given job. characteristics such as these are primary determinants of recruiters’ firm-specific judgments about an applicant’s suitability. • Successful job seekers also prepare carefully for job interviews.2 Once an organization has decided it needs additional or replacement employees. In fact. They do their “homework” and learn as much about the company as possible.24 Amoco’s career management system includes a similar type of job posting program. It is difficult. Most organizations have to use both internal and external ources to generate a sufficient number of applicants. OStings are computerized and easily accessible to employees. Reason you seek employment.21 the temptation to embellish one’s own qualifications might be difficult to ignore. To help with this problem. for HR managers to be \vare of all current employees who might he interested in the vacancy. not all job seekers provide truthful resumes. 3. however. it is faced with the decision of how to generate the necessary applications. 5. It is here that the organization’s choice of a particular method of recruitment can make all the difference in the success of the re •uiti efforts. 2. In addition. nternaI Recruiting ob posting Organizations can make effective use of skills inventories for identifying nternal applicants for job vacancies. especially since falsification of an application is typically grounds for dismissal. Your career objectives. A model job posting program was implemented at National Semiconductor. to sources external to the company.2° And with the use of resume databases constantly increasing as an initial screening tool.’ A survey conducted by Reid Psychological Systems found that as many as 95 percent of college students are willing to he less than truthful about themselves when they are searching for a job.

It could offer to pi’ bonuses of various types to people not on a time payroll to entice workers into wanting to take on a “second job. As labor shortages increase. it is estimated that approximately 6 percent of all employed people have held more than one job at the same tiIlle.” The copy continued. External Recruiting When an organization has exhausted its internal supply of applicants. Before going outside to recruit. many organizations ask present employees to encourage friends or relatives to apply. Some persons will clearly be motivated to accept the additional work if they are fairly compensated. especially if the workforce is already racially or culturally imbalanced. executive search firms. employment agencies. it must turn to external sources to supjilement its workforce. Research indicates that walk-ins provide an important external source of applicants. then the person who posted the job is requireti to send the “applicant” specific feedback about why he or she was not selected. referrals of this kind can be a powerful recruiting technique. not to accidentally violate equal employment laws while they are using employee referrals. Media advertisements Organizations advertise to acquire recruits. Media advertising. and protection of proprietary information. For example. Some job seekers do a reverse twist. subway and bus cards. A number of methods are available for external recruiting. The court stated: The practice of relying on relerrals by a predominantly white worktorce rather than seeking new employees in the iiiarketplace for jobs was found to be discriiiinating.. it also suggests that it might not be wise to rely exclusively on referrals but rather to use them as supplements to other kinds of recruiting activities. Nationally.PA K T II Acquiring Human Resources posted on a worldwide electronic system. and television. however. “Now you’re au MBA who’s look— . There is also a separate section on college recruitment of potential managers and professionals. or if no great amount of additional work is necessary.1 Inside moonlighting and employees’ friends If there is a short-term shortage. Organizations also advertise for people in trade and professional publications. Sonic organizations even offer “finders fees” in the form of monetary incentives for a successful referral. however. The ad featured the Trix rabbit with the headline. Organizations must be careful. telephone. Sixth Circuit. the most common being help—wanted ads in daily newspapers.S. special-events recruiting.2 ihus. Other media used are billboards. the’ advertise for a situation wanted and reward anyone who tips them off about a job. prevention of conflict of interest. the organization can use inside moonlighting. in EEOC i l)ctroit Ediso. This case suggests that employee referrals should be used cautiously.2b Moonlighting is so common at some Organizations that HR departments consider issiing “moonlighting policies’ that include the communication of performance expectations. General Mills used its Trix cereal logo to create instant recognition among MBA graduates. organizations are becoming more proactive in their recruitment efforts. Court of Appeals. and summer internships are discussed here. In developing a recruitment advertisement.2X the U. If an employee applies for a transfer to a posted position and is turned down. When used wisely. found a history of racial discrimination that was related to recruitment. c-recruiting. a good place to begin is with the corporate image. “It’s Not Kid Stuff Anymore.z (1 975).. Various media are used. radio.

° An innovative way to attract nurses was used in an ad campaign for Children’s 1-lospital Medical Center in Cincinnati. Help-wanted ads must he carefully prepared. Therefore.ce of national origin. The ad ran in the Cincinnati Engineer newspaper. and analyzed for impact afterward. . Another innovative way to attract prospective employees with particular skills • he use of recorded want. Media must be chosen.itional recruitment practices--as the Internet. Look to General Mills. ads need to comply with EEO requirements and not violate the law. however. religion. hut if the name is used.’’ Ads need to he written to ivoid indicating preferences for a particular race.” urses are there to make sure you don’t get real scared. According to Forresrer Research of . Look at the questions that could he raised by this ad. For example. In addition.ing for a dynamic growth-directed career environment . “ Simply using a corporate logo is not enough. I lie headlines—”Nurses are smart and they know how to make you feel better. If the organization’s name is not used and a box number is substituted. At a special recruiting center.” “Nurses arc kind and hey don’t laugh whet’ you cry”—were written in a child’s handwriting and coinhitied with pictUres of nurses and children in the style of a child’s drawing. Apple Computer’s advertising campaign has been very successful. The ad appealed to nurses’ sense of pride in themselves and their profession.ads. This is a difficult decision to make in preparing recruitment advertisements. that is. E-Recruiting Perhaps no method has ever had as revolutionary an effect on orgam/ . the impact may not be as great. it must be representative of the values that the corporation is seeking in its employees. and screening procedures for too many people can be costly. or gender or a particular ::. job hunters were able to pick up a telephone and hear a three-minute taped recruiting message that included a jol description and details about how to ntact the company. It’s your Future. HR recruiters find that including diversity in recruitment ads helps to attract more employees from diverse populations. The advertisement shown in Exhibit 7—3 is the type that will care trouble for a firm. . Because it’s not kid stuff anymore. coded for -rudy. too many applicants may appear. Want ad recordings were used by 40 companies recruiting engineers and scientists at a New York City convention. in large part because it has achieved this congruence. Effective recruiting ad:ertising is consistent with the overall corporate image. the advertisement is -een as an extension of the companY.

• u’ww. see http://jobsearch.Com (http://www.nionster. job searchers can use any number of the following Internet-based job searching websites (for more information.CareerBuilder.corn—Search thousands of employment opportunities gathered directly from organizations’ websites.com—Leading technology job hoard with permanent and contract jobs.000 e-mail resumes each year. It has become such an important source of job search information that GTE Corporation (Verizon) now receives between 20.com (http://www.Cambridge. such as CareerPath. Monster. find samples of resumes and cover letters.S.33 The largest job-placement websites have reported huge increases iii the number of resumes that were posted in 2001. and salary. There are other online services. location.HotJobs. • iuww.com listed 8. there are many other.corn—Search by location. For example. For example. and use a salary calculator. there are approximately 30. and federal employment. keyword. while CareerBuildcr. Finally. Compare these figures with the cost of using the “post a job express” option at Monster.FlipDog. A large. companies now utilize the Internet for some or all of their recruitment-related activities.corn—Job listings will be identified and sent to personal e-mail addresses. Current estimates are that over 95 percent of all U.com/): • www. Massachusetts. Quite obviously. From the job seeker’s perspective.jobs.ahout.37 Organizations are also beginning to see that having their own human resources Web page on the Internet can he an effective a. which catalogs more than 100.000 traditional newspaper recruiting ads from large newspapers across the United States in one easily searchable datahas. Overall.000 and 30.corn indicated that it listed 2. • wwttjobson1zne.NationJob.careerpath. A typical organizational home page will provide background . the Internet allows for searches over a broader array of geographic and company postings than was ever before possible.com) in wbch a job is posted for 60 days in a single geographic location at a cost of about $300. the c-recruiting market in the United States in expected to grow from just $500 million in 2000 to $4. the Internet has become one of the most prominent of all worldwide recruiting methods.Dice. more specialized online sites that focus on jobs in particular areas such as health care.5 billion in 2004. it is a relatively inexpensive way to attract qualified applicants. From the organization’s perspective. seek career advice. higher education.ddition to their overall recruitment strategy. and company.corn—Search for jobs. • wunv.000 different websites devoted in some manner to job posting activities.com). This c-recruiting option provides almost immediate access to thousands of prospective applicants.3 million resumes. using an executive search firm might cost an organization as much as one-third of a position’s first-year salary as a commission. job title. multicolored advertisement in a professional journal can easily cost $10.corn—Search by career field.3 There are many reasons for the popularity of the Internet as a method of recruitment. • www.corn—Search job postings. To assist them.000 or more. post your resume. and review career resources.0 million. • www.

pp. and manage the entire process with Web-based software. the candidate has written documentation to show what the recruiter wrote. there can be a tendency to disclose more information than they typically would using newspaper ads or other more traditional recruiting techniques. Be careful not to inadvertently screen out diverse candidates. “Online and Overwhelmed.” HRMagazine. conduct background checks over the Internet. 66—78. . Recruiters need to figure out a way to track applicants who apply for online job postings. Make sure the job opening is communicated to large portions of the target population. 36—42.” Work force. When individuals communicate via e-mail to potential candidates. HR managers and company recruiters need to keep the following issues in mind when developing and executing an e-recruitment program: I. all signs indicate that e-recruiting is here to stay. Many recruiters. Due to the ease of sending an electronic resume.The legal risk can involve either poor selection of resumescreening software and/or using terms that disproportionately eliminate candidates from protected classes. Companies are very excited and amazed at the potential cost savings. E-mail communication might be too casual.Jerry Useem (July l999).’For Sale Online:You.. interview candidates via videoconferencing. more so than s older individuals. For example.g. younger r people will be more likely to be online. direct potential hires to a special website for online skills assessment. Although such innovations are welcomed at a time of skills shortages and pressures to control internal costs. in an attempt to avoid being deluged by resumes. Bill Leonard (August 2000). and extended worldwide candidate reach such approaches offer. pp. they run the risk of creating adverse impact in their recruiting methods. s Even with the existence of these legal risks. Currently. 4. 70—72. In addition.” Fortune. type and number of individuals who apply for different jobs).The legal risk to employers is that they do not maintain adequate records and fail to be within compliance of the OFCCP. 3. If recruiters don’t use traditional methods of job posting along with Internet-based approaches. Sources: Gillian Flynn (April 2002).HR JouRNAL E-REcIUJITING: A WONDERFUL TOOL BUT NOT WITHOUT ITS RISKS Many would agree that the Web has revolutionized job 3 hunting and recruitment in the 21st century. speed enhancement. recruiters sometimes find this tracking process to be a daunting task. recruiters and HR managers are encouraged to use e-recruiting in an appropriate way to increase the attraction and selection r rates of well-qualified individuals. there are legal risks associated with the unbridled use of e-recruiting. employers can eIectroncally screen candidates’ soft attributes. pp.This relative informality in the communication process could lead to the recruiter saying something that could come back to haunt them if the candidate does not get the job. As with other important aspects of good management practice. If the target population for a given opening includes people of all ages. then company recruiters need to get the message out to those a individuals who are less likely to be Internet-savvy and a use the online job search websites. The Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP) requires companies that do business with the federal government to keep track of applicant flow data (e. use screening software that searches for (or deletes based on) certain words or phrases. “E-recruiting Ushers in Legal Dangers.The legal risk is that candidates may assume that they did not get the job due to a discriminatory reason and may file a complaint with the recruiting manager’s supervisor or even the EEOC.

most major accounting firms. One of the most interesting approaches is to provide job fairs. expose themselves to talented potential employees who may become their “recruiters” at school. Most executive search firms are on retainer. dramatically increasing. employment agencies and executive search firms differ in many important ways.41 And. Executive search firms tend to concentrate their efforts on higher-level managerial positions with salaries in excess of $50.000 job candidates in a little under four hours of operation. A group of firms sponsors a meeting or exhibition at which each has a booth to puhlicie jobs available. companies such as Accenture and BAT Industries (a tobacco firm) actually begin identif Employment agencies and executive search firms Although similar in purpose. Though sometimes challenging to manage in times of higher unemployment. The list of organizations using intern. Some estimates suggest that nearly one out of every three students at four-year universities will have one or more internship experiences before graduation.4 The realities of the job market of the I 990s have also introduced two new reasons for internship programs.39 Special-events recruiting When the supply of employees available is not large or when the organization is new or not well known.000. executive search firms usually charge higher fees for their services. This technique is especially useful for smaller. They may stage open houses. They may be scheduled on holidays to reach college students who are home at that time or to give people who are already employed a chance to look around.P A R T I I Acquiring Human Resources Employment agencies and executive search firms Although similar in purpose. Most executive search firms are on retainer. They allow organizations to get specific projects done.com/ search/cfairs provides current listings of when and where job fairs will be held in the United States. and so forth. Executive search firms tend to concentrate their efforts on higher-level managerial positions with salaries in excess of $50. One of the reasons that organizations are willing to pay these higher fees is that executive search firms frequently engage in their recruiting efforts while maintaining the confidentiality of both the recruiting or1ganization and the person being recruited.ships is extensive.000. in fact. schedule visits to headquarters.level management or below. while agencies deal primarily with middle. agencies are usually paid only when they havc actually provided a new hire. while agencies deal primarily with middle.39 Special-events recruiting When the supply of employees available is not large or when the organization is new or not well known. Summer internships Another approach to recruiting and getting specialized work done that has been tried I’v organizations is to hire students as interns during the summer or part time during the school year. many organizations now see them as a way to attract the best people in areas where there are labor shortages. and provide trial-run employment to determine if they want to hire particular people full time. employment agencies and executive search firms differ in many important ways. some organizations have successfully used special events to attract potential employees. In contrast.level management or below. The website www. yes. organizations may have hospitality suites at professional meetings. executive search firms usually charge higher fees for their services. One of the reasons that organizations are willing to pay these higher fees is that executive search firms frequently engage in their recruiting efforts while maintaining the confidentiality of both the recruiting or1ganization and the person being recruited. provide literature. and advertise these events in appropriate media. Ford Motor Company has conducted symposia on college campuses and sponsored cultural events to attract attention to its qualifications as a good employer. which means that the organization pays them a fee whether or not their efforts are successful. some organizations have successfully used special events to attract potential .johweh. there is an Internet site to help the recruit. which means that the organization pays them a fee whether or not their efforts are successful. First. To attract professionals. In contrast.40 some experts claim recruiting costs have been reduced by 80 percent using these methods. a recent job fair held in Virginia was able to generate 4. the life insurance industry. it includes AT&T General Motors. Finally. Executives also make speeches at association meetings or schools to get the organization’s image across. Finally. agencies are usually paid only when they have actually provided a new hire. For example. The use of internships is. 42 Internship programs have a number of purposes. It appeals to job seekers who wish to locate in a particular area and those wanting to minimize travel and interview time. To do so. less well known employers.

there is an Internet site to help the recruit. a recent job fair held in Virginia was able to generate 4. provide literature.000 job candidates in a little under four hours of operation. a recent job fair held in Virginia was able to generate 4. provide literature.employees.level management or below. organizations may have hospitality suites at professional meetings. Summer internships Another approach to recruiting and getting specialized work done that has been tried by organizations is to hire students as interns during thc summer or part time during the school ycar. it includes AT&T.000 job candidates in a little under four hours of operation. Executives also make speeches at association meetings or schools to get the organization’s image across. They may stage open houses.41 And. To attract professionals. dramatically increasing. while agencies deal primarily with middle. Executives also make speeches at association meetings or schools to get the organization’s image across. It appeals to job seekers who wish to locate in a particular area and those wanting to minimize travel and interview time. To do so. 42 Internship programs have a number of purposes. A group of firms sponsors a meeting or exhibition at which each has a booth to publicize jobs available. For example. and advertise these events in appropriate media. in fact. This technique is especially useful for smaller. organizations may have hospitality suites at professional meetings. General Motors. The list of organizations using intern. One of the reasons that organizations are willing to pay these higher fees is that executive search firms frequently engage in thçir recruiting efforts while maintaining the confidentiality of both the recruiting oranizarion and the person being recruited Special-events recruiting When the supply of employees available is not large or when the organization is new or nor well known. Though sometimes challenging to manage in times of higher unemployment. For example. which means that the organization pays them a fee whether or not their efforts are successful. This technique is especially useful for smaller. The website www. Some estimates suggest that nearly one out of every three students at four-year universities will have one or more internship experiences before graduation. there is an Internet site to help the recruit. schedule visits to headquarters.40 some experts claim recruiting costs have been reduced by 80 percent using these methods.johweb. most major accounting firms. executive search firms usually charge higher fees for their services. First. Finally.43 The realities of the job market of the 1 990s have also introduced two new rcaSOflS for internship programs. employment agencies and executive search firms differ in many important ways. the life insurance industry. yes. and advertise these events in appropriate media.johweb. One of the most interesting approaches is to provide job fairs. Ford Motor Company has conducted symposia on college campuses and sponsored cultural evcnts to attract attention to its qualifications as a good employer. In contrast. It appeals to job seekers who wish to locate in a particular area and those wanting to minimize travel and interview time. many organizations now see them as a wa to attract the best people in areas where there are labor shortages. They may be scheduled on holidays to reach college students who are home at that time or to give people who are already employed a chance to look around. The website www. Executive search firms tend to concentrate their efforts on higher-level managerial positions with salaries in excess of $50. They may be scheduled on holidays to reach college students who are home at that rime or to give people who are already employed a chance to look around. schedule visits to headquarters. and provide trial—run employment to determine if the want to hire particular people full time.ships is extensive. One of the most interesting approaches is to provide job fairs.40 some experts claim recruiting costs have been reduced by 80 percent using these methods. Ford Motor Company has conducted symposia on college campuses and sponsored cultural events to attract attention to its qualifications as a good employer. yes. The use of internships is. compaiiies such as Accenture and BAT Industries (a tobacco firm) actually begin identif Employment agencies and executive search firms Although similar in purpose. expose themselves to talented potential employees who may become their “recruiters” at school. and so forth. less well known employers.000. They may stage open houses. agencies are usually paid only when they have actually provided a new hire. Though sometimes challenging to manage in times of higher unemployment.com/ search/cfairs provides current listings of when and where job fairs will be held in the United States. less well known employers. To attract professionals. some organizations have successfully used special events to attract potential eiriployees. They allow organizations to get specific projects done. Most executive search firms are on retainer.com/ search/cfairs provides .41 And. A group of firms sponsors a meeting or exhibition at which each has a booth to publicize jobs available.

4 All this suggests that college recruiting will continue to play an important role in organizations’ overall recruitment strategies. most major accounting firms. a possible future job. In a way. they get negative impressions about the organization they have worked for. Coinciding with the visit. There are costs to these programs. mailings. GE Capital Services. expose themselves to talented potential employees who may become their “recruiters” at school. To help. At the placement service. many organizations now see them as a way to attract the best people in areas where there are labor shortages. NCR. Nonetheless. The list of organizations using intern. of course. Inroads has working relationships with organizations in 33 different states. During the recruiting season (from about mid-October to mid-March).44 A second new reason that organizations are using more internships is to improve the diversity of their recruitment efforts. Seine students expect everything to be perfect at work.current listings of when and where job fairs will be held in the United States. and AT&T. The organization may also run ads to attract students or may conduct seminars at which company executives talk about various facets of the organization. College recruiting can be extremely difcult. help them with college expenses. they reserve preliminary interviews with employers they want to see and are given brochures arid other literature about the . it includes AT&T.4” An internship can also mean real work experience for the student. The college recruiting process is similar in some ways to other recruiting. assuming that it is less well organized than others in the field. Their hope is to develop a lasting relationship with these talented young people. bulletin hoards. recruiters generally believe that college recruiting is me of the most effective ways of identifying talented employees. those seeking employment register at the college placement service. and expensive for the organization. for example. and provide paid work experiences. 42 Internship programs have a number of purposes. earning course credit hours. of Saint Louis locates and places high-performing minority students in internship programs.4 The realities of the job marker of the 1 990s have also introduced two new rcasons for internship programs. in college recruiting. Summer internships Another approach to recruiting and getting specialized work done that has been tried Lw organizations is to hire students as interns during the summer or part rime during the school year. but that organizations will be careful about controlling expenses. and in some . brochures and other literature about the organization arc often distributed. General Motors. But the major prob1cm some organizanons have encountered concerns the expectations of students. Its major supporters include NationsBank. and provide trial—run employment to determine if they want to hire particular people full time. and SO forth. companies such as Accenture and BAT Industries (a tobacco firm) actually begin identify talented students in their senior year in high school. cases. To do so. in fact. and so forth. and their work is not always the best. the organization sends an employee. The use of internships is. the life insurance industry. candidates are advised of scheduled visits through student newspapers. Such disillusioned students become re vers recruiters. Many companies claim that they want to he more aggressive in recruiting minorities but say that the competition for talented people is severe. a chance to use one’s talents in a realistic environment. to a campus to interview candidates and describe the organization to them. In the typical procedure. provides students with approximately 600 paid internships each year. Sometimes the interns take up a lot of supervisory time. First.4 From i-be student’s point of view. it is a short form of some co-op college work and study programs. When it is not.ships is extensive. Some estimates suggest that nearly one out of every three students at four-year universities will have one or more internship experiences before graduation. They allow organizations to get specific projects done. usually called a recruiter. Inroads Inc. College recruiting There is a growing gap between the skills that organizations will need over the next several years and those currently possessed by potential employees. the summer internship means a job with pay. However. This placement service is a labor market exchange providing opportunities for students and employers to meet and discuss potential hiring. dramatically increasing. time-consuming.

students infer that he or she represents a dull and uninterestingcompany. and truthfulness. They are entertained and may he given a series of tests as well. “The company might justas well have sent a tape recorder. The recruiter is seen as a primary example of the kind of person the organization values and wants to attract in the futUre. One of the most important influences remains. in part. family. the recruiters need to be able to determine whether the applicant will fit into the value system of the organization. fcirat least two reasons. and it may reduce the size of that list even further—down to as few as 10 or 12 schools—for its recruiting activities in engineering. like most people.sion of the organization. The trcnd seems to he for an organization to develop a stronger. First. Characteristics they want most in the recruiter are friendliness. Monsanto recently cut the size of its university recruiting list by 50 percent. knowledge. personal interest in the applicant.” Lack of enthusiasm.49 The effective college recruiter Various people influence the applicant during the process of choosing a job: peers. and so forth. If the recruiter seems bored. Some’ ipplicants prefer enthusiastic and knowledgeable communicators. As with other forms of recruiting. and professors. also unanimously reject stressful or sarcasth interviewing styles. If the organization wants to hire an individual. the one who is actually ‘seen by the applicants and is viewed as an exte4. For these reasbns. and obviously good salespeople. Finally. their parents. applicants want to discuss opportunities with someone they perceive to be knowledgeable about the company. depending on the current labor market. This reduction is. friends. recruiters must be carefully chosen• b the organization.4X Some bargaining may take place on salary and benefits. Students infer indifference if the recruiter’s presentation is mechanical.r flaws students have found in typical recruiters include the following: Lack of interest in the app1iant. however. The organization bears all expenses. selfmotivated. The candidate then decides whethetto accept or reject the offer. In addition. Good recruiters convey’ an image and appearance that reflects fa1vorably on the organization. made possible by Monsanto’s increased activity in internship programs. however. One student reported. he or she is given an offer before leaving the site or shortly thereafter by mail or phone. ongoing relationship with a relatively select number of schools. Students’also have preferences for specific behavior during the recruiting interview. Second. They must he outgoing. Intervieu’s that are stress ful or too persona1 Students resent too many personal questions about their social class. spouse. For example.’° MajG. Many of the changes are designed to reduce overall recruiting costs while maintaining a strong flow of applicants into the organization. Students prefer recruiters who have work experience in their specialties and have some personal knowledge of the university they are visiting. recruiters should be very familiar with the company they represent. They. good recruiters also possess welldeveloped interpersonal skills because part of their responsibility should be to determine why job offers are accepted or rejected by candidates. the recruiter.Students who are invited to the site are given more job information and meet appropriate potential supervisors and other executives. bureaucratic. organizations are becoming more creative in their use of colleges and universities. and programmed. They want to be evaluated for their own acomplishments. The recruiter is the filter and the matcher. .

products. and challenging. Sonic accept. most jobs have some unattractive features. matched to needs. thoughts of quitting. source: Adopted from John P. dissatisfaction.0] TRADITIONAL PREVIEW REALISTIC PREVIEW CONSEQUENCES Sets initial job expectations too high. From the point of view of the applicant. Many of the questions the recruiter asks applicants are answered on the application blank anyway.1 EXHIBIT 7-4.” Personnel. Wanous (992). . satisfaction. applicants’ decisions are affected more by characteristics of the job and the organization than they are by particular characteristics of recruiters. ‘Tell It Like It Is at Realistic Job Preview. there is significantly lower turnover of new employees. Work experience confirms expectations. warts and all. interesting. Organizational Entry: Recruitment.52 A realistic job preview provides the prospective employee with pertinent information about the job without distortion or exaggerat. and Socialization of Newcomers Boston:Addison. p. DPREEVEW Job is typically viewed as attractive. Orientation. 53—86. Work experience disconfirms expectations. assets. pp. “Dissatisfaction and realization that job is not Satisfaction. needs matched to job.CH A P T ER7 Recruitment 2 0 7 . infrequent thoughts of quitting. Research suggests that recruitment can he made more effective PREVIEWS through the use of realistic job previews (RJPs).ber of people apply. as suggested in Exhibit 7—4. Other research also suggests that recruiters may have very little positive influence Ofl an applicant’s choice. john P Wonous (july—August 1975). and so forth. Sets oh expectations realistically. Time allocation by recruiters. 54. However. they can have a negative effect on applicants even when the job and the organization are both appealing. frequent High job survival. number of employees.Wesley).51 It is important for recruiters to provide realistic expectations about the job. w job survival. The final criticism of recruiters has to do with how much rime they talk and how much they let applicants talk or ask questions.on.1 The RJP presents the full picture. When they do so. High rate of acceptance of oh offers. Some jobs are all of these things. the job is presented as attractive. however. In this case. Good recruiters are not going to guarantee success in filling positions. sonic reject job offer. much of the recruiter’s time is wasted if it includes a long. on individual’s needs. REALISTIC JOB . Job may or may not he attractive. pension plans. Researchers have found that most recruiters give general. and imulating. depending stimulating. branches. Recruiters do make a difference when they do riot present themselves well. In traditional job previews. and the same nurn. glowing descriptions of the company rather than a balanced or truthful presentation. canned history of the company. Although they can and do make a difference.

at present there is still uncertainty as to why RJPs have the effects they do and in what contexts they are likely to be the most effective. there is no conclusive evidence supporting the effectiveness of realistic job prcviews. Employees hired after RjPs indicate higher satisfaction. Overtime can also provide employees with additional income. Texas Instruments. However. On a limited. because of the cost and permanence of recruiting TO RECRUITMENT individuals. an alternative to recruitment may be used.57 Temporary Employment One of the most noticeable effects of the downsizing epidemic and the labor shortages of the past two decades has been a dramatic rise in the usc of temporary employees. However. short-term basis. Historically. organizations avoid the costs of recruiting and having additional employees.000 workers and hundreds of small businesses liable for millions of dollars associated with health care and other workers’ compensation claims.S. Employee Leasing Employee leasing. though. however. Continuous overtime. having some employees work overtime may be an alternative to recruitment. These findings suggest that RJPs can be used as an inoculation against’disappointment with the realities of a job.4 The results indicated that: Newly hired employees who received RJPs have a higher rate of job survival than those hired using traditional previews. At this stage of development. and the U.. RJPs do not reduce the flOW of highly capable applicants. Studies conducted at Southern New England Telephone. RJPs can set the job expectations of new employees at realistic levels. Overtime When a firm faces pressures to irleet a production goal. at least six leasing companies have gone bankrupt. Leasing is especially attractive to small and midsize firms that might not otherwise be able to afford a full-service human resources department. care must he exercised in choosing a leasing company. Although it seems clear that RiPs can have beneficial effects. An organization’s human resource plan may suggest that additional or replacement ALTERNATIVES employees are needed. Prudential Insurance Co. In recent years. employce benefits. But while small businesses can expect to save from 15 to 30 percent of benefit costs such as health insurance premiums by using leased employees. By having employees work overtime. has often resulted in higher labor costs and reduced productivity. Military Academy have used and reported on the RJP.” involves paying a fee to a leasing company or professional employer organization (PEO) that handles payroll. leaving approximately 36. and routine human resource management functions for the client company.Exhibit 7—4 presents the typical consequences of traditional previews versus realistic previews. temporary employment agencies were seen only as sources of . and increased absenteeism. sometimes called “staff sourcing. increased accidents. there are potential problems: fatigue. it may mean that employees need to work overtime.

can be evaluated. or a compensation and career plan. In addition. COST-BENEFIT Many aspects of recruitment. They may he those who meet or exceed quotas and those whose recruits stay with the organization and are evaluated well by their superiors. the organiza‘n can divide the number of job acceptances by the number of campus interviews compute the cost per hire at each college.. a goal for RECRUITING a recruiter might be to hire 350 unskilled and semiskilled employees. He chose commuter times to run the C radio ads. Today. On this basis. Then it drops from the list those cain— [“uses that are not productive. and higher executive positions. Then the organization can decide who are the best recruiters. The methods of recruiting that are used Lw a company can he evaluated along :ariotls dimensions. This unfamiliarity detracts from their commitment to organizational and departmental goals. including suburban and ethnic papers.58 There are. including professional. in fact. or 100 managerial employees per year. Effective selection and hiring are the subjects of Chapter 8. semiskilled clerical help (luring peak work periods. technical.The advertising Sl approach was innovative. Sources of recruirs can also be evaluated. or 100 machinists. the leading black newspaper.60 The cost advantage of using temporary help sterns from the fact that the organization does not have to provide fringe b nefits.n ing numbers of applicants: Managerial positions 68 hi Professional-technical I 0 Clerical 78 Skilled employees 110 Semjskilled employees 720 Clark notified Ed of the results.s tive. an easily accessible source of experienced labor. Clark knew that would be no easy job. he chose the ajor Tampa afternoon aper. A disadvantage of hiring temporary help is that these individuals do not know the culture or work flow of the firm. After Clark’s recruiting C campaign. The temporary worker can ye in and out of the firm when the workload requires such movement. he had the follow. He also investigated the ti leading radio stations and c selected the one that had in the highest rating of the top M three and the lowest commercial cost. and a suburban paper in an area c near the plant. the leading C I. He also discussed the impact and readership of the papers with the human resource managers he’d befriended. training.’’ The major advantages of temporary employees include relatively low labor costs. Li Hispanic paper. or 100 technicians.’ H I. nearly 7.The job was now to select the best applicants. such as the effectiveness of recruiters. ANALYSIS OF Organizations assign goals to recruiting by types of employees. For example. In college recruiting.Clark Kirby got prices of ads from all the Tampa papers. the Orgafli/atloli can calculat the cost of each . “just—in-time” employees can be found staffing all types of )obS in organizations. and flexibility in responding to future changes in the demand for workers.000 temporary employment agencies across the United States that have been in business for more than one year. Sc luded The pay and working conditions offered at the r Tampa plant were competi.

Internal sources can be tapped through the use of ‘ob posting and bidding. Recruiting is the set of activities an organization uses to attract job candidates who have the abilities and attitudes needed to help th organization achieve its objectives. a. = This chapter has demonstrated the process whereby organizations recruit additional employees. External factors that affect the recruiting process include influences such as government and union restrictions. In larger organizations. attitudes. Two sources of recruits could be used to fill needs for additional employees: present employees (internal) or those not presently affiliated with the organization (external).. organizational policies and procedures. 4. and how they go about seeking a job. Applicants’ abilities.The passage of 3.PART I I Acquiring Human Resources method (such as advertising) and divide it by the benefits it yields (acceptances of offers). A good new employee can he driven away by a lack of opportunities for promotion. and preferences. multipurpose HR people or operating managers recruit and interview applicants. inequitable performance ratings. in smaller organizations. and others. the state of the labor market. . teachers. fair. The organization can also examine how much accurate job information was provided during the recruitment process. and the location of the organization. affect them in two ways: how they set job preferences.g. good. Some caution must he exercised with the quality-of-hire measure when evaluating the recruitment strategy. the quality-of-hire measure can provide some insight into the recruiter’s ability to attract employees. 5. suggested the importance of recruiting. This measure can provide management with an assessment of the quality of new employees being recruited and hired. 35 percent) N = number of indicators used Therefore. the composition of the labor force. Three factors affect recruiting from the organization’s viewpoint: recruiting requirements.. Performance ratings and promotion rates are all bey()nd the control of a recruiter. It will be up to management to determine whether this represents an excellent. and the organization’s image. Nevertheless. Another aspect of recruiting that can be evaluated is what is referred to as the quality of hire. and how. 66.g.6% The 66 percent quality-of-hire rate is a relative val-ue. and shown who recruits. the HR department does the recruiting. moonlighting by present employees. based on past work experiences and influences by parents.6 I The quality—of—hire measure is calculated as follows: QH = (PR + HP + HR)/N where where QH quality of recruits hired PR = average job performance ratings (20 items on scale) of new hirees (e. 6. 4 on a 5-point scale or 20 items x 4) HP = percent of new hirees promoted within one year (such as 35 percent) 1-IR = percent of hirees retained after one year (e. or job market conditions that have nothing to do with the effectiveness of the recruiter. 2. To summarize the major points covered in this chapter: 1. or poor level. where.

What has led to an increased use of temporary employees in organizations? What are the major advantages of using temporary employees? 6. . Discuss how the Internet has changed recruiting. .. d. External sources include walk-ins. v. \Varren placed advertisements in three adiaccnt to l)ctroit.-—. Advertising.Which of the three websites is most useful to job seekers? Explain your answer. Describe a realistic job preview. Americans. How can it be used to reduce turnover? .recruiting ciuployce leasing eiuploynicnt agencies executive search rms lmmigrarionReform and Control Act (1RCA) of 1986 job posting and bidding job search Monster. Caree rPa th. A better job of recruiting and matching employees to jobs will mean lower employee turnover and greater employee satisfaction and organizational effectiveness.3 (U. What guidelines should be followed to make sure that recruitment advertising does not violate equal employment laws? Give some do’s and don’ts in recruiting interviews in terms of the legality of questions asked. and state employment offices.S. What are the relative strengths and weaknesses of promotion from within as a recruitment technique? HRM LEGAL ADVISOR Based on U. II.C H A P T E R 7 Recruitment and seeking recommendations from present employees regarding friends who might fill vacancies. Visit three different job search websites.S. The African American labor force in the remainder of Macomb County was 1 3 percent. temporary employees. recruiting employees.. Alternatives to recruiting personnel when work must be completed include overtime. Considering that there are millions of resumes posted on the Web. Search for a job in a particular region of the United States. 10. applicants. Showing a genuine interest in the applicant.2 percent African 108.. 211 a.corn online recruiting realistic ob preview recrii itillent 1. 1. S. 9.£. b. 4ichgan.7 percent African American. Sixth Ci. and summer internships are among the methods that can be used to recruit external II. Being enthusiastic. (enus reports in 1980 indicated that newspapers that were circulated primarily in 1acomb . Employing a style that is neither too personal nor too stressful. is located in Macowl’ County. 7. What are the characteristics of an effective and an ineffective college recruiter? 10. The City of Warren. In Flie city of Warren. Michigan..cum e. Allotting enough time for applicants’ comments and questions. special-event recruiting. and employee leasing. in. computerized matching services. The Internet is revolutionizing organizational recruitment and may become the primary job search tool in the coming years. what steps should recruiters follow to screen out unqualified candidates in a fair and nondiscriminatory manner? Explain your answer. while rhe Facts 1)etroits labor force was 59. c.: 1998). personal recruiting. What role do job descriptions and job specifications play in an effective recruitment program? 4. referrals from schools. App. 138 F3d \X’arren’s labor force was compnscd of 0.

1999). the U.” Business Horizons.” Busines:. Wayne F.” in Wayne F.” Journal of Business Ethics. produced a de facto barrier between employment opportunities and members of a protected class. Breaugh 1992). Ivancevich (August 1999). “Recent Legal Decisions Affect You. and John M.S.” Human Resource Implications A basic assumption of this case is that the City of Warren should have been recruiting employees from the greater Detroit area. Shari Caudron (September 1999). 42—44. James A. Companies should consider general commuting patterns as well as public transportation availability in determining where to recruit employees.S. “Engagement or I)isengagement? Older Workers and the Looming Labor Shortage. alleging that they potentially discriminated against African Americans on the basis of race. pp. 151 . “Iooniing Labor Shortages. the city’s municipal workforce was approximately I percent African American. pp. Glenn McEvoy and Mary Jo Blahna (September—Octobcr 2001). Diane D. “1)o I Really Want to Work for This Company?” Across the Board. “External and Internal Recruitment.” Personnel lournal. Peter Fraiiccse (ovcmhcr 2001). 34—35. 61—7b A Competitive \X’eapon. 24—30. “Corporate Image.igement: Time for a New Approach. Hatch.” A cadem of Management Journal. “I)iversity Management: A New Organizational Paradigm. p. “The Immigration Reform and Control Act Demands a Closer Look.” Work force. Scott Lord (1989). Recruitment: Science and Practice (Boston: Kent). As a result. Dean Foust (Decen her 2001). Jacqueline A.illiaii Finn (Sepn’mher 1995). pp. In February of 1986. pp. 4. pp. John Ivancevich and Jacqueline Gilbert (Spring 2000). 75—92. Human Resource’ Planning. pp. Employers may avoid discrimination problems related to recruiting by ensuring that its internal and external recruiting tools are unbiased and sufficiently reach the company’s qualified labor market. Employment. Department of Justice notified the City of Warren that it planned to initiate an investigation of Warren’s recruiting practices. pp.” Personnel Journal.” Anzcrican Demographics. combined with its refusal to publicize jobs outside the racially homogeneous county.). & Placement (Washington. “The World’s Most Admired Companies.” Business Week. Justin Fox (March 2002).” Managenu’nt Review. and Initial lob Choice Dcci Sions. “Pop Quiz: How Do You Recruit the Best College Grads?” I’ersonnel Journal. Additionally. 414—427. 267—268ff. Warren did not advertise municipal jobs in Detroit newspapers. and Gary j. 142. the court held that “Warren’s limitation of its applicant pool to the residents of the overwhelmingly white city.County and placed job postings in municipal buildings. pp. “A Smarter Squeeze. 73—102. 2 Aaron Bernstein (May 2002). Week. . Gatewood. Lautcnschlager (April 1993). The City of Warren argued that sparate impact analysis was not applicable to recruiting cricea The Court’s Decision The U. pp.” Public Personnel Alanagement. 126—130. 14—19. pp. The U. pp. 2 Gillian Flyim (August 1995). Wairen required applicants for all lobs except police and firefighters to be residents of Warren. pp. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit ruled that the’ disparate impact theory of discrimination was applicable to any “facially neutral pohcv with a discriminatory effect to Title VII. pp. Gowan. Supreme Court has indicated that a company’s proper geographic recruiting area should include locations from which applicants or employees are likely to commute. (. J. After its investigation indicating that Warren’s residency requirement and recruiting media had an adverse impact against African Americans. 46—52. Robert I).” Further. 64—67. “America’s Most Admired: What’s So Great about GE?” Fortune.S. the United States filed a suit in district court alleging race discrimination under Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. 153.” Fortune. and Betty Southard Murphy (April 1996). pp. “Too Many Workers? Not for Long. Cascio (ed. Recruitment Image. Jeremy Kahn (October 11. Gilbert. “I)ivcrsitv Man. &Ite Ann Stead. I)C: Bureau of National Affairs). Barlow. Alexandra Harkavy (july—August 2000). “The Looming Leadership Crisis. p. Mary A. pp. 72—79.

’cuunt Rei’u’u’. “Effects of Impression Management on Performance 4 Ratings. Steven M. Bewayo (May 1990). Detroit Edison Company (1975). “Rate of Moonlighting among Workers Holds a Steady Pace. 26 Bill Leonard (J lily 1997). 1998—2008: A Balancing Act.. U. Kweskin (1990). Watson (June 1995). and Face-to-Face Media oil Interviewer and Applicant Judgments in Employment Interviews. 1999).30—34. pp. p. pp.” HRMagazine. Samuel Greengard (March 1996). 46—54.301.12—18. “What College Recruits Expect of Employers. pp. and Laurie Levesque (2001).idance Journal. Ralston and Robert Brady (january 1994). “Resume Preparation: An Empirical Study of Personnel Managers’ PerLeptions.” USA Today.” in Wayne F. ‘ Matthew Mariani (Spring 1996). pp.” Personnel Journal. Telephone. pp. pp. ° Bibi S. 38—39.’nient. 51SF.” Information Today. 2 Carolyn Hirschrnan (October 2000).). “The Amoco Plan. 28. pp. “Recruitment Ad Vantages.. 4 22 Sandy Wayne and Robert Liden (February 1995). “Effective Job Posting Fills Dual Needs. pp.” Personnel fournal.” Time.” Personnel Psychology.fl. pp. Sixth Circuit (Cincinnati).. Q: Hou’ Do I Find the Right Job (New York: Wiley). “Resume Databases to I)ominate Field. “Diversify Your Recruitment Advertising. Human Resource Plannin’. 33—37.fl. Shirley Duglin Kennedy (July—August 1996).58—79. “The Effects of Videoconference. 92—100. pp.r. and Placement (Washington. pp. 4 21 Bill Leonard (April 1993). 3B. “Low Cost Recruiting for Quality.n(.” HRMagaz. “The Relative Influence of Interview Communication Satisfaction on Applicants’ Recruitment Interview Decisions. 59—60. 4 2 ilan Moravec (September 1990). 73—102. 229—237. 2001).rt . J. “Students Offer Views on Career ( lmices. Einplo’..” Training. 25 Sara Rynes and Barry Gerhart (Spring 1990). pp. “1 he Outlook for College Graduates.S. Court of Appeals. cit. 61—77.” Personnel. pp. ‘ Steart Deck (March 2000). 1999). Cascio (ed. ‘The Power of E-cruiting.’enzent Journal. pp. Jeffrey Miles. 2 Marlene Piturro (JanLiary 2000).” ()cczipatuozal ( )utlook Ouartcrlv. 68—().” HR Magazine. pp.” 1-IRMagazine. 25 Marc Hequet (April 1995). p. 50 Jennifer Koch MarcIi 1990). 2d . cit. ° Edward 1). pp. 62—66. p. . DC: Bureau of National Affairs).” Acade. pp. 0 Ruth Thaler-Carter (June 2001). “Job Fair Challenges for HR. “The Intern Turnaround.. 29 Margaret Magnus (August 1986).n. “Need a New lob? (jet to Work on the Web. “Beware College Grads Willing to Lie for a lob.” Vocational Gi. AP Online. 45—47. “External and Internal Recruitn1ent. ° AP Online (D. “Pumping Up Your Past. “ Jeffrey Kluger (June 2002).ember 3.” HRMagazine. 10.nv of Manal.” Management Review. pp. 29 EEOC v. Andrew Bargerstoek (August 1 990). pp. “6 1)cgrees of Hire .” HRMagazine. pp.” ( )ccupatiunal ( )utlook Quart e’ilv. “Employers Use \Veb to 12 rr. David Bowman and R. 363—381. 13—36. Chad Fleetwood and Kristina Shelley (FaIl 2000). op. 9—12. 16 Susan Strauss. “Interviewer Assessments of Applicant ‘Fit’: An Exploratory Investigation. 2—9.” Journal of Management. Jon Swartz (February 19. “E-Recruiters Swim through a Sea of Resumes. I 213 Piturro.s. Scott Lord (1989). 107—114.” HRMagazme. IN Hubert Field and William Holley (March 1976). op. “Do You Need a Moonlighting Policy?” HRMagazine. pp . 33—37. “10 Tips for Getting Net Results.n. pp.” Mana.” Personnel fourizal.ne.” Journal of Busmess Communication. 2(1 Elaine McShulskis (August 1997). 22—24. p. (December 3. “Recruitment: Apple Ads Target Intellect. 76—80. ° Martha Frase-Blunt (April 2002). 232—252. 31.

. pp. 73—76. “Realistic Job Previews: A Critical Appraisal and Future Research Directions. “The Search for Effective Methods. Breaugh (October 1983). Therese Hoff Macan and Robert L.” HR Focus. 7L25. pp.. “Giving It the Old Cullege Try. PP 78—85. 612—6 19.” journal of Managerial Issues. 61 This measure was developed by Jac Fitz-Enz (1984) in Hou’ to Measure Human ResOurce Management (New York: McGraw-Hill).. “The Relationship of Interviewers’ I’reinterview Impressions to Selection and Recruitment Outcomes. pp. “Temp Firms Turn Up the Heat on Hiring. 1987). Watson. . 20—28. [)avid E.” W/ork/orce. I . “Trust and the Role of Professional Erp1oyer Organizations: Managing HR in Small and Medium Enterprises. Brenda Paik Sunoo (April 1996).” Academy of Management Review. pp. “Beating the 1990s’ Labor Shortage. Jnhn Botidreau and Sara Rvnes (March 1987). Thomas . T. and James A.. 58—62.” HRMagazzne. and Thomas C.—. “Leasing Workers. W7 .” Personnel Journal. pp. Odiorne (July 1990). pp.” Training. 50—54.ç’. 34—44. Larry Reibstein (June 10. pp. pp. 60—68.” Journal of Applied Psvcholog. 34—36. 1996).” Academy of Management Ret’ieu pp. Terpstra (May 1996). John McClendon.” f’ersonnel Administrator. 16—17. pp. pp. cit. I ç P. pp. p.. “Employee Leasing Comes of Age. 570—578. Andrea Poe (May 2000).” Personnel.” HR Magazine. Rosalind Resnick (November 1992). Dipbove (Winter 1990).” Cio. “Effects of Realistic Job Previews on Multiple Organizitioial Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis. Premack and John P.II c . 745—76 8.” TI. Wanous (October 1982). Bergman and M. Susan Taylor (May—June 1984).. pp.” Personnel Psycholo.amer ($pring 2002). 1 8—20.Learning. i. pp..” Personnel journal.. SS Steven L. pp. “Crushed Hopes: When a New lob Proves to Be Something 1)1 ffercnt. Brenda Paik Sunoo (April 1999). °‘ Dawn Gunsch (September 1993). pp.1. 9. Rrian Kiass. 86—87. pp. “The PEO Phenomenon: Co-Employment at Work.” Human Resources Professional.” Personnel Management. “Face Value. “From Santa to CEO—Temps Play All Roles.. 132—140. Pp. “Comprehensive College Strategy Strengthens NCR’s Recruitment. 706—719. Michelle Neely Martinez (March 1996).” Nations Business. 6 73—6 90..” Employee Relations Law Journal. “The Realistic Job Preview as a Persuasive Communication. op.” Academy of Management foidYlhil. Wanous (December 1985). jilly Welch (September 12. “A Meta-Analysis of Realistic Job Preview Experiments. pp. John Poison (Spring 2002). “Eniplovers in Rush to Capture Young Talent. 9—12. Joe Willey (Winter 1993). 31—48. “Looking for Young Talent? Inroads Helps Diversify Efforts. George S. Phillips (December 1998). “College Recruitment: What Attracts Students to Organizations. pp. 32—35. Popovich and John P. Jean M..

cive freedom. These ads are essentially a company’s resume and cover letteidesigned to send ainique and memorable message about the company to sought-after prospective applicants Recently. Lockheed Miss.The ad’s text showcases Mr. 54--63.The Quik Wok Chinese food take-out chain uses Written by Kim Stewart and adapted from: Bob Martin (August 1 987). For e pie. Recruiters can also serve as external.This specialist is contracted on a temporary basis to •erform recruiting functions for different job openings.”Contract Recruiting Comes ofAge. Like many employee-spotlight ads developed by other companies. “Recruitment Ad Ventures.” In some other ads in the series.” Personnel Journal. when a new position needs to be filled.employed and is paid at an hourly rate negotiated with the client company. pp. completed the task. objective advisers to the company’s human resource function.Washington University in Saint Louis uses creative advertising to promote its flexible work schedules.”Personnel Administrator. 55—58: and Margaret Magnus (February 1987). and performs any number of contractual recruiting responsibilities. . Pizza Hut places recruiting coupons on its carry-out boxes. Some contract recruiters develop expertise in certain employment fields (such as electrical engineering or computer software design). g about their skills. conducts telephone and in-person interviews.J. by comparisons with great inventors. “Along with a diverse and challenging project list. prepares and executes formal offers. the text says. bag-stuffers that picture a broken fortune cookie and proclaim “Not everyone will have the good fortune to work at Quik Wok.” The coupon provides a mini. Inc. GTE turned to 12 contract recruiters who became an instant employment department...” the company published its nursing salaries. the ad suggests. 46—54. 49—53. Here is a look at innovations in several areas. eye-catching ads. “W’e’re looking for another Edison . the recruiter is self.” The stuffer describes job opportunities. between traditjqn and technology . . CONTRACT RECRUITING Companies in fast-growing industries are seeking the expertise of a relatively new type of external specialist: the contract recruiter.In a time when many companies are cutting costs across their operations. Rather. He or she is not affiliated with an employment agency and does not receive a commission or a percentage of the hiree’s salary. they simply distribute the bag stuffers. One such ad is entitled “Net Gain:’ Featuring a tennis racket and tennis balls in a partly closed briefcase. and in one ad entitled. For example. and accomplishments. IThey include: I.Maury Hanigan (November 1987). in the pursuit of technology excellence and discovery.200 professional employees to be hired in 16 months.. and et?%preneurial opportunities.Their means: i vative recruiting approaches that bring imagination and a essiveness to a company’s overall recruiting function.Their goal: to boost recruiting efficiency(reducing recruiting costs per hp-e).” The Saint Paul Medical Center has developed a series of one-word headline ads that promote certain themes such as “Cornrnitrnent’ (describing the center’s commitment to patients’ care and employees’ career development) and “Balance” (“Between caring professionals . . Newman’s accomplishments and long tenure with the company and then urges those interested and qualified to “join Howard. Other users have found the strategy to be a low-cost. (s Your Recruitment All It Can Be?” Personnel Journal. RECRUITMENT ADVERTISING An increasing number of companies are supplementing and even replacing the traditional classified ad with creative. When a company is undergoing exceptionally fast growth with immediate hiring needs. .le & Space Company has run a series of sports-related ads that promote company benefits. . Featuring a drawing of a large lead pencil. Lockheed Missile & Space Company makes a point-of providing employees with truly comprehensive recreational programs and facilities.” Personnel Administrator.cement. clever. And another Hardison’ (electrical engineer Cor’ine Hardison). These self-employed specialists are becoming popular because they can provide several benefits to client companies. Pers. For example. one ad headline in the series proclaims. “If you want a good job. The recruiting is performed without hiring permanent (and later unnecessary) staff.The cosmetics manufacturer Helene Curtis. Scott Lord (November 1987). a recruiter can be quickly brought in to handle the suddenly burdensome task.The success of point-of-purchase ads has eliminated Quik Wok’s use of classified ads. jobs. For example. General Dynamics has declared.The recruiter screens resumes. pp. compliments profiled employees and their colleagues. pp. regularly calls on contract recruiters to help the company handle its 15 to 20 percent yearly growth. “Campus Recruiters Upgrade Their Pitch. this series portrays the corporation as a place where very talented and dedicated people work and reach their potential. between performance and opportunity”). and then trained their replacements before departing 16 months later. apply for a position with us. Massachusetts. eoyment security. General Dynamics has run a series of ads that. highly efficient.. get the lead out. pp. Point-of-Purchase Recruitment A growing number of service companies with high turnover in low-skill jobs are recruiti9g using pointof-purchase ads.They set up the system. Promotion of Intangible Benefits In cases where a job is highly attractive and thus doesn’t need promoting. Use of Employees in Ads instead of the traditional testimonials. . coordinates campus recruiting. more company ads are spotlighting employees. one of General Dynamic’s senior project engineers). . Who knows You might become the next Newman. and flexible form of recruiting. “We’re looking for another Newton • . 2. 3. suddenly found itself with a Department of •efense contract requiring 1.. when GTE in Needham. employers have turned to emphasizing certain intangible benefits of the company such aportunitiesfQç adva. a growing number of HR departments are changing the ways they recruit.nneI journal reviewed several hundred ads submitted by subscribers and reported some trends in this type of advertising. Inno ations are occurring in several elements of the recruiting process.resume form for prospective applicants who don’t have resumes.”Even you-know-who rested on the seventh day. . And another Newman” (Howard Newman.

Demand for these individuals is currently very high. Macy’s brings professors to a showcase store where the educators spend a day observing trainees and meeting with managers. information on cost of living and community recreation facilities). he realized that there wa a big job ahead of him. the plant manager. Invitation letters to a campus interview are personalized. Inc. But where should he go from there Clark called Ed Humphrey.red?And who should do e hiring? The HR specialist had done some preliminary screening.ed. At any center. supply is limited. uninterested recruiter can have on a company’s campus recruiting efforts. providing their recruiters with training in communications skills. a computer database of job information. the Career Connection Company of State College. Referral bonuses run the gamut from money and trips to time off and credit used to “buy” items from a special catalog. COMPUTER DATABASES Computer databases are being developed as job and resume data banks. such as how recent the resume is. As a result. Pennsylvania. A growing number of companies are aggressively promoting referral campaigns with special themes and prizes.Which 596 of the 986 should be .The network provides job listings (up to 20 lines each provided by companies) and is available for all students.What are the potential strengths and drawbacks of this approach to recruitment advertising? 2. For example. Ed said that he had time to choose only his top management . These actions are designed to enhance the professor’s knowledge of the company. some companies are identifying a number of students in their junior year and focusing efforts on these select recruits. many are launching strategies to both boost their offer-acceptance rates and lower their recruiting costs. Develop a recruiting strategy that addresses innovations discussed in the case and includes your own ideas. Assess the effectiveness of a recruitment advertising strategy that relies on imaginative. C Companies pay a fee for access to the database. Clark Kirby and his assistants had recruited 986 applicants for the 596 positions Gunther would have at its Tampa plant.The fee: $75 for 90 days’ access to the network.catching ads. companies are finding that recruiting on college campuses has become very competitive. and exclusive contracts with over 20 profes. and to develop executives’ relationships with certain schools. Organizations such as Texas Instruments also provide executives as guest lecturers at several universities. and asked if he wanted to be involved in the hiring. Other companies. Rather than select recruits from the placement office’s resume file. Some companies hire the same recruiters time and again. For example. What type of company (in what kind of industry) would benefit most from contract recruiters? What type would benefit least? 3. Firms are mindful of the impact that a word-of-mouth reputation created by an inconsiderate. Rather than providing the traditional. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS I. another computer database network. And many firms are replacing the form rejection letter with one that is more tactful and considerate. finding that the subsequent knowledge of the company’s recruiting needs and functions that the recruiter acquires helps to further reduce per-hire costs. very general brochure on the company. Suppose you are faced with the task of developing a college recruiting strategy for obtaining talented business school graduates with degrees in management information systems (developing and managing a company computer information network). Some college placement centers are also establishing computer databases to link students with prospective jobs. Many referral programs are periodically given a boost with new bonuses and new themes. firms are now developing smaller. allows job hunters to place their resumes in the network at no charge. Job Stores. f Job Stores’ franchises focus on job openings that companies ii usually don’t fill via employment agencies.s work at no charge. In seeking participation from businesses. But before getting too satisfl. Some companies are also refining their recruitment brochures. Companies are also paying more attention to the quality of their on-campus interviewers.. hire professors to lecture in the company’s training programs. eye. which it is hoped will be communicated to students. which has over I million resumes of technical professionals onhine. and most of the applicants had completed an application blank. CAMPUS RECRUITING With declining college enrollments and growing demand for recruits with college degrees. c JobNet. More firms are establishing programs that educate professors more fully on the company’s career opportunities for graduates. such as Citibank. often explaining why the company is interested in that particular student. a job hunter can tap the Job Stores Network computer database by obtaining a computer printout on job openings in the local area and nationwide. Career Technologies runs the network and obtains resumes via job fairs.onalassociations and societies. EMPLOYEE REFERRALS Lastly. has developed a franchise chain of “stop and shop” employment centers located in high-traffic shopping malls. Any company can list its job openings on the net. more individualized publications that provide information on particular jobs and departments and information on the community where a prospective applicant would work (for instance. advertising. For example. highly visual. More companies are producing recruiting videos for show on campus.A company can search the database by specifying any of a number of criteria. companies are adding pizzazz to the widely used employee referral and bounty system.Companies with hiring needs in these areas benefit from the specialists’ contacts and highly focused capabilities. has established Job Search.

team. it is highly unlikely that a selection system can effectively cope with all possible objectives. Compounding the problem uf developing an effective selection system is the fact that the goal isn’t always to find applicants who have the most of a given quality. Ed r reminded Clark that the company didn’t want them c to raid other plants—that c was simply against company s policy. Selection is a vital and continuous process in an organizaton. absenteeism. depending on the job.The rest was up to Clark. more intelligence isn’t always better than less. however.2 Thus. all selection programs attempt to identify the applicants who have the highest chance of meeting or exceeding the organization’s standards of perormance. Clark said he knew 1 that and would abide by c company policy. We’ll begin by examining the factors in the internal and external environments. For example. It can also involve other objectives. decisions about whom to hire must also be made efficiently and within the boundaries set forth in equal employment opportunity legision. heft. performance does not refer simply to quantity of ‘urput. Or. there are actually multiple goals associated with an Organization’s 5Cion process. he will follow a selection process infhienced by many actorc. it is possible for an applicant to he too socially skilled if the job doesn’t require high levels of such skills. Rather. :)nsidering current environmental conditions. a Clark was faced with r making 596 selection l decisions. Thus. employees’ satisfaction. As a result. Ihese tactors are highlighted in the diagnostic model in Exhibit 8—1. . such as quality of output. selection involves making many decisions.’ This situation can easily lead to the selection of overqualified candidates. Although this definition emphasizes the effectiveness of selection. As this chapter I shows. Selection is the process by which an organization chooses from a list of applicants the person or persons who best meet the selection criteria for the position available. and career development. ic of the initial tasks involved in developing and implementing an effective selecrn process is for the organization to identify which objective is most important for As Clark Kirby sets out to hire 596 employees. selection is the search for an optimal match between the job and the amount of any particular characteristic that an applicant may possess. At a basic level. Employee selection is important because the goals of the organization can be accomplished only if the right match is made between the person and the job. In this case.

Since the development and implementation of large-scale selection efforts can 1w very costly. complexity. doesn’t deteriiiine how selection is approached. For an organization to recover the costs of developing an expensive selection system. Size. however.Environmental Circumstances Influencing Selection Internal environment A number of characteristics of the organization can influence the amount and type of selection process it uses to hire needed employees. Size alone. and technological volatility are a few of these. complex selection systems are most often found in larger organizations with the economic resources necessary to pay for such systems. there must be a suftcient number of jobs that need to be .

44/78. The selection ratios are as follows: managers 38/68. Similarly. With a lower selection ratio. Some states. It is. selection strategies can be very different. social. the number of years needed to get back the money invested in such a selection system may be too great to justify its initial expense. more likely that employees who fit the organization’s criteria for success will be hired. 104/110. clerical. In structurally complex organizations with many job titles hut very few occupants. While these two models of filling job vacancies will have some overlapping selection processes. other organizations look more quickly to external supplies of new employees. skilled. or almost 1:2. the selection process is short and unsophisticated. and availability of local labor markets. each will also focus to some extent on different criteria and different techniques: External environment The external environment is an equally important determinant of the kind of selection system that an organization utilizes. hut there are •ny state-specific regulations that also affect what an organization can and cannot do in its selection system. therefore. a number of states provide past employers with more protection against being sued by a former employee because of information that may have been divulged during checking of references. Under these circumstances. As the number of applicants increases relative to the number who are hired. and hire the number of people it needs. likely. it is called a high selection ratio. When the selection ratio gets close to 1:1. These. Any or all of these state-specific issues can affect the selection system that is ultimately used. 400/720. are affected by economic. or about 1:1. although it may not he effective. when unemployment rates are low. have imposed much tighter limits than others Ofl an organization’s ability to test applicants for drug use. One of the most significant environmental influences on selection is the size. Those who work in human resource management evaluate the effects of the labor market on selection decisions by using a selection ratio: number of applicants hired Selection ratio = total number of applicants Consider Clark Kirby’s problem at Gunther. for example 1:2. for example. it may he difficult for an organization to identify. At a basic level. • At the core of any effective selection system is an understanding of what characteristics are essential for high performance. A ratio of 1:2 also means that the organization can he more selective in its choice than when the ratio is 1:1. however. the selection ratio is said to he low. because that list of characteristics should have been identified diirig the process of job analysis and should now he accurately reflected in the job specification. that the Organization will have to invest more time and money in the selection decision when the ratio is 1:2. or about 1:2. On the other hand. and political pressures on a community. in turn. 10/10. Another characteristic of the organization that is an important determinant of the kind of selection system it develops is its attitude about hiring from within. or about 1:2. Not only are most organizations subject to federal employment laws and regulations. the process becomes more detailed. This is where the critical role of oh analysis in selection becomes most apparent. from a performance perspective. semiskilled. professional/technical.C H A P T E R 8 Selection filled. or 1:1. when there is an oversupply of qualified applicants. attract. the goal of . It is also. Many organizations have elaborate internal job posting programs (as was discussed in Chapter 7) designed to help fill as many job vacancies as possible from within. Thus. composition.

To he legal. and so on. many employers consciously or unconsciously used physical characteristics (including how an applicant looked) as a criterion. the criteria typically used by organizations for making selection decisions can be sunimrized in several broad categories: education. motor. Categories of Criteria With these potential differences in mind.3 But the organization must have a rational basis for defining what it means by “relevant experience. and airlines chose flight attendants and companies hired receptionists on the . Care must be exercised not to set standards that are higher than actually required by the job. although this is unfortunately not always true. and interpersonal attributes are present becauseofgenetic predispositions and because they were learned at home. that the grade point average b higher than some minimum. the employer may stipulate that the education (especially for college-level requirements) is in a particular area of expertise. and those that are routinely developed after a person has been placed on the job. employers often consider experience to be a good indicator of ability and work-related attitudes. educational standards such as these must be related to successful performance of the job. it usually is safe to assume that anyone who has successfully completed high school or its equivalent has basic reading. Different selection criteria may. and that certain honorshave been achieved. indeed. In addition. writing. at school. Studies found that employers were more likely to hire and pay better ages to taller men. The employer might also prefer that the degree be from certain institutions. Many selection specialists believe that past performance on a similar job might be one of the best indicators of future performance. those that are systematically acquired during training. Research supports these assumptions. One of the more common cost-effective ways to screen for many of these abilities is by using educational accomplishment as a surrogate for or summary of the measures of those abilities. Their reasoning is that a prospective employee who has performed the job before and is applying for a similar job must like the work and must be able to do the job well. experience. For certain jobs. Experience and past performance Another useful criterion for selecting employees is experience and past performance.” Not all previous experiences are equally good predictors of performance on a given job. Additionally. A large number of cognitive. on the job. and other characteristics (KSAOs) dictated by the job. such as accounting or management. physical. arithmetic. the selection system must he capable of disi:inguishing between characteristics that are needed at the time of hiring. Over a large number of studies. and other personal characterjstics. and interpersonal skills. be needed to assess these qualitatively different KSAOs. For example. physical characteristics. For example. Formal education An employer selecting from a pooi of job applicants wants to nd the person who has the right abilities and attitudes to be successful.any selection system is to accurately determine which applicants possess the knowledge. skills. should two applicants applying for a job as an internal auditor he given the same credit for previous work experience if both have five years in the accounting profession but one has been an auditor for another organization and the other a tax specialist for the IRS? Physical characteristics In the past. experience is related to job performance. abilities.

too.variation against ethnic groups. and so on. con— scientiousness and emotional stability have been shown to predict performance across most occupational groupings.5 Much of this change can be attributed to the development and validation of the Big Five personality factors. Personal characteristics include marital status. other employrs might seek out single people for some jobs. or similar requirements.h Of the five dimensions. age should be used as a selection criterion only after very careful thought and consideration. since a single person might be more ely to accept a transfer or a lengthy overseas assignment.an workers will be legally protected by the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA). extroversion. These can be used as selection criteria only when the job involves tasks that require them. For this reason. they are now illegal unless it can be shown that a physical characteristic is directly related to effectiveness at work. the military uses spatial-relations aptitude as one criterion.4 Certain specific aptitudes and skills can also be considered part of this category of criteria. By that time. . caseworkers. preferred “stable” married employees over single people because they have assumed that married people have a lower turnover rate. many organizations also try to assess whether applicants possess certain aptitudes. weight. openness to experience. Thus. for example. In a similar way. This issue will certainly become more important by the year 2010. sex. or others who work extensively with the public. the organization wishing to use personality as a criterion must he certain that successful and unsuccessful employees can he distinguished in terms of their personalities. however.6 years. It is probably . However. Rather. selection using any aspect of personalty should always he based on whether it is really necessary for high performance. agreeableness. candidates for a job cannot he screened out by arbitrary height. Age. and conscientiousness. Many personality measures run an even greater risk of being legally challenged as an invasion of privacy than other kinds of selection tools. women. Thus. me jobs. Some employers have. has sometimes been used as a criterion. Although education and past experience are often used as measures of ability. such as being a lifeguard. may require essentially no consideration of an applicant’s personality. For example. Known as emotional stability. For example. It might not. minimum and maximum age restrictions for jobs can be used only if they are clearly jobrelated. Personal characteristics and personality type The final criterion category is a catchall that includes personal characteristics and personality types.7 As with other personal characteristics. a successful applicant for pilot training in the military does not need actual flying experience. and handicapped people. there is no federal law that specifically addresses this issue for younger people. be legally used for hiring a telephone reservations agent for an airline. For example. Many jobs fall between these extremes. age. visual acuity (eyesight) would he a physical characteristic that could he used to hire commercial airline pilots. this is when the median age in the United States will he 40. more than half of all Ameri. the Big Five describe behavioral traits that may explain up to 75 percent of an individual’s personaliry. Although once viewed in an unfavorable light due to perceptions of low preJictive validity. Many employers also prefer to hire people with certain personality types. one particular aspect of personality—such as being outgoing—may be useful for salespeople. While it is illegal to discriminate against people who are over the age of 40. recent findings on personality tests have been much more positive regarding the link between personality and job performance. On the other hand.

There are many ways of assessing validity but all of them focus on two iSSUeS. 0 As a simple example. En part. however. imagine that you tried to use a tape measure to determine how tall an applicant for a job as a refighter was. Regardless of the method chosen for collecting information about applicants. In practice. This refers to the extent to which two or more interviewers’ assessments are consistent with each other. a measuring tool can still he useful if it is only somewhat unreliable. 6 feet 6 inches. Reliability refers to how stable or repeatable a measurement is over a variety of testing conditions. because there are both minimum and maximum height restrictions for the job.P A R T I I Acquiring Human Resources unwise to use personality asa general criterion for screening out “undesirable” applicants. When a measuring tool relies on the judgments of people (such as in an employment interview). the main purpose of selection is to make decisions about people. there is still considerable debate whether general. On the other hand. the primary concern is whether the assessment technique results in accurate predictions about the future success or failure of an applicant. they become meaningless. This is called test-retest reliabilit. a technique for assessing each of these must be chosen. the organization must be certain that the information is both reliable and valid. Validity For a selection tool to be useful. the techniques used for making them must yield reliable information. one common way to assess reliability is to correlate the scores of applicants given the same test on two different occasions. interviews. since the same personality characteristic that leads to failure in one job might lead to success in another. it is not sufficient for it to be repeatable or stable. Once the measurements become too inconsistent. because of this fact. and checks of previous experience through references. In this way.9 Reliability and Validity of Selection Criteria Once an organization has decided upon a set of selection criteria. imagine that your three attempts yielded values of 6 feet. Reliability The main goal of selection is to make accurate predictions about people. work sample tests of present skills. An applicant’s score should not vary much according to which form of the test he or she happens to take. Validity addresses the questions of what a test measures and how well it has measured it. the measures that it yields must also be valid. II In selection. and 5 feet II / inches. . physical and medical testing. but you would have a fairly good idea. psychological tests of aptitude and personality. reliability is often determined by using interrater reliability. Both legally and organizationally. 6 feet 1/2 inch. The alternatives are numerous: application blanks and biodata forms. Most standardized academic achievement tests like the SAT and the GMAT have numerous forms. In other words. In this latter case. Alternative-form reliabilit’ is determined by correlating scores from two alternate forms of the same test. you would have virtually no idea how tall the applicant actually was. broad personality measures or more specific ones are the best to use in selection. The reliability of a selection tool can he judged in a variety of ways. all of which are assumed to be reliable. and 5 feet 4 inches. you may not know the applicant’s exact height. If these decisions are going to be correct. The point is that although reliability is rarely perfect. the organization can avoid hiring the wrong person for a job. The organization wants to make its best guess about who will he a successful employee. If you measured a given applicant three successive times and obtained values of 6 feet.

2. valid. construct validity cannot be established in a single study but can be assumed to exist only on the basis of a large body of empirical work yielding consistent results. Finally.C H A P T E H 8 Selection To illustrate these two issues and the relationship between validity and reliability. The Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures have established three stringent requirements for demonstrating the construct validity of a selection technique. Such a test can roughly replicate conditions on the job. scores on the test might correlate with leadership . For example. A detailed explanation of the various strategies for determining the validity of election tool can he found in the Principles for the Validation and Use of Peronizel Selection Procedures. are brief descriptions of three types of validity that the HR specialist should be familiar with: (1) content. this tape measure might he perfectly reliable and an accurate way to measure height. Content validity The degree to which a test. for a measuring tool to be useful. we can only assume that it exists from the behavior someone displays. A test therefore has construct validity when ii actually measures the unobservable trait that it claims to measure. interview. The test must measure one of those constructs. it will yield totally Llseiess information. Because traits cannot be directly observed. or performance evaluation measures the skill.12 The following. however. Content validity is not appropriate for more abstract job behaviors. Even if the tape gives the same measurements (high reliability). and put to the use for which it was actually intended. The applicant can be given a typical sample of typing work under “normal” working conditions. An example of a content-valid test is a typing test for a secretarial position. 4 I. we cannot see leadership. leadership style. however. As noted previously. hut if you try to weigh applicants with it. dership potential. knowledge. When selection procedures inye the use of tests to measure leadership characteristics or personality. then the test is said to be content-valid. let’s return to our example of measuring the frcfghter applicant’s height. Thus. then it will be impossible to determine his or her correct height. construct validity rather than content validity is appropriate. it might still have very little accuracy (validity). internal memo. If so. or work ethic. a set of professional standards developed by a committee of members from the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP). the applicant would be asked to type a typical piece of work (letter. it must be reliable. If the content of the typing test is actually representative of the work that is done on the job. For example. For evample. tabular data) using the same kind of typewriter or word processor that would he encountered on the actual job. there must be evidence that the test validly measures leadership. A job analysis must systematically dene both the work behaviors involved in the job and the constructs that are believed to he important to job performance. To summarize. or ability to perform the job is called content validity. the tape measure may no: have been calibrated properly at the factory where it was made (the manufacturer may have thought it was marking in feet and inches when it was actually using centimeters). for instance. if the measurement is too unreliable. and (3) criterion-related. (2) construct. such as . it will be almost impossible to accurately determine the applicant’s height. In selecting a project manager. Construct validity A construct is a trait that is not typically observable.

The biggest advantage of concurrent validation is tlat it can be conducted relatively quickly. The test scores are then correlated with the performance measures. Not all criteria can be predicted equally well from any particular type of selection tool. For example. Predictive validity is determined by using the scores obtained from a sample of applicants for a job. In concurrent validation. Wait an appropriate amount of time and then collect measures of job performance. Administer the test to a large sample of applicants. supervisory ratings. Concurrent validity is also used to determine whether a selection test can predict job performance. or to use such data collected by another test to support the claim of construct validity. Select individuals for the job. Assess the strength of the predictor-criterion relationship (typically by calculating a correlation coefficient). 4. 3. Predictive validity is an important form of criterion-related validity. That is. it would be a candidate for future use with applicants in the selection process. or whatever the organization deems most relevant. The construct must be related to the performance of critical work behavior. Second. However. but it does have drawbacks. The test is called a Predictor. it must be shown that leadership ability is correlated with job performance for the position of project manager. It is actually preferable if the test whose validity is being measured is not used in the hiring decisions.ratings given to other employeCS in other organizations Upon previous administration of the test. present employees often balk at completing tests. If experience is important in job performance. Criteria relevant to personnel selection include measures such as quality or quantity of output. ‘ Two popularly used types of criterion-related validity are predictive and concurrent. 3. the time it takes to determine who is a good employee can he long. accidents. it is necessary to conduct a criterion validity study between leadership and job performance. performance measures for thes employees are also collected. For some jobs.’5 The organization must exercise care in choosing a measure that best reflects the actual contributions of employees to its effectiveness. They are puzzled by the request to take a battery of tests and often wi11 not provide honest answers or . Criterion-related validity The extent to which a selection technique can accurately predict one or more imp(’rtanr elements of job behavior is referred to as criterion—related validity. absenteeism. At approximately the same time. this method uses experienced employees. If the test is significantly related to performance. sales. such validation will be biased in favor of applicants with experience. the choice of a criterion is’at the very heart of determining whether a selection system is legal. The steps in a predictivevalidity study for a given test are: 1. the first step is to administer the tests to present employees performing the job. 2. First. there are several potential problems associated with the use of concurrent validation. The employer first must wait until it has hired a large number of people for whom it has predictor scores and then until it can obtain meaningful measures of job performance for the people who were hired. it is usully less expensive than predictive validation. the performance score is referred to as a criterion. Scores on a test or performance in some simulated exercise are correlated with measures of actual on-the-job performance. However. Therefore.

For example. At each step. may he performed concurrently or at . or transferred. This series is not universal. the most skilled and most able have been placed in more responsible jobs. selection is viewed as much more than simply relying on Intuition. it should not automatically be used as an alternative to predictive validation simply because it can he done more quickly. there is likely to he a restriction because the least skilled and least able workers have been terminated. for they can he time-consuming and cxpensive and some steps. In the past.’7 However. as do some private. Decisions were THE SELECTION PROCESS based on the subjective likes or dislikes of the boss. Exhibit 8—2 illustrates a typical series of steps for the selection process. The organization should carefully analyze its circumstances before choosing which of the methods to use. government employers test at step 2 instead of step 3. such as 3 and 4. Despite these potential problems. Selection tools were designed to aid this gut reaction. selection was often thought to be an easy decision.and third-sector employers. Third.their best answers. more applicants are screened out by the organization. demoted. concurrent validation can be an effective method for assessing the validity of certain kinds of selection tests. It is important to note that few organizations use all steps. The selection decision is usually perceived as a series of steps through which applicants pass. Today. Among present employees. there is a self-selection bias that can restrict the range of test scores. or more applicants accept other job offers and drop from the list of applicanfs.

Some terms of these clauses appear in employee handbooks as well. as these are typically referred to. asking applicants for the year in which they graduated from high school can narrow down their age to within one or two years. Three of the more common clauses that now appear on application blanks and in employee handbooks cover (1) applicant’s rights as they relate to the organization’s hiring practices. vary in length and sophistication. Nearly all application blanks ask for enough information to determine whether the individual is minimally qualified for the position. color. by allowing interviewers to focus on other kinds of information (e. Generally speaking. many organizations arc now adding very important clauses at the beginning or end of their application blanks. In this way. communication skills) that is perhaps more difficult to obtain. first.g. Is it important to know in what year someone graduated. A BIB usually contains many more items than a . A potentially useful supplement to the traditional application blank is the biographical information blank (131B). age. they help protect the organization against unjustified lawsuits. care must be taken that the application blank does not directl or indirectly violate federal or state laws related to employment discrimination. but examples of the wording currently h’ing used by organizations appear in Exhibit 8—3. natural origin. or simply that he or she graduated? Currently accepted application blanks also generally limit questions that imply something about the applicant’s physical health. and second. they help ensure that applicants and employees understand the terms of their employment relationship with the organization. Care should be taken to ask only for information that will help the organization make a better job-related assessment of the applicant. the more each step is likely to he used formally. the application blank can eliminate the need for subsequent interviews to gather this information. First. the more important the job. the application blank is not an appropriate place to gather most information of this kind..g. For example. Although application blanks can he very useful selection tools. or both agree to resolve all grievances against the organization through arbitration and mediation rather than through a lawsuit. Since a physical exam should be given only after a conditional offer of employment. especially information related to sex.’9 The application blank should not he designed in a way that forces applicants to reveal irrelevant information about themselves. a teaching certificate). (2) the scope of an employment contract. The purpose of the clauses. The legal subtleties of these clauses arc too complex to cover in detail at this time. The same guidelines hold true for Web-based or online applications. organizations must never forget that they are subject to the same legal standards as any other Selection method. is twofold. personality. With a dramatic increase in the number of lawsuits being filed against organizations for “wrongful termination” and with an erosion of organizations’ right to hire and fire whomever they wish. This makes the selection process far more efficient. Thus. second. the employee.. For example. Application blanks. religion. application blanks can he a useful initial screening tool for jobs that require some type of professional certification (e.about the same time. regardless of where the’ appear. or disabilitie. race. and (3) (one of the newest) grievances: a statement indicating that the applicant. Step I: Preliminary Screening The most common first step in any selection process usually involves asking an applicant to complete an application form. by reducing the number of applicants that need to be interviewed and.

your employment wi11 be corsidered “at will. In accordance with this policy.11 For example. you agree that any controversy or claim arising out of or relating to your application and/or if you are offered and accept employment with this company. modify. To develop the scoring system for a weighted application blank. The next step will often be one or more interviews and/or additional employment testing.. You further agree that should you submit any controversy or claim to arbitration tinder this policy. sex.” It can therefore terminated at any time and For any reason not expressly ohihited by state or federal law at the discretion of the company.2 Another ariarion to the traditional application blank is the weighted application blank. BIB items are based on an assumption that these prior behaviors and experiences will he strongly related to an applicant’s future behavior. Use of i:he responses to an item such as this assumes that people who preferred English will perform differently on a given job from people who preferred science or math. For example. Whether such an item should he included on a BIB. they will he provided.THE NOT-SO-FINE PRINT OF MODERN APPLICATION BLANI Statement on Affirmative Action-Equal Employment Opportunity It is the policy of this company to afford all applicants the right to equal employment opportunities. Mandatory Arbitration Clause By signing this application blank. relevant Big Five personality constructs. and general mental ability. and so on) that were known at the time they applied for a job. depends on its ability to differentiate the performance of good and poor workers on the job in question. only the president of this compa ii y can a mend this policy. years of experience. all vacancies will he llcd by qualied candidates without regard to race. Statement on Employment at Will If you are offered and accept employment with this companY. typical application blank and asks for information related to a much wider array of attitudes and experiences. color. . high and low performers who currently work for the company are compared on a variety of characteristics (e. and the one with the highest score is the preferred choice. Weights are assigned to the degree of difference on each characteristic. a recent research study found that BIB items can account for incremental predictability of key performance variables bed that accounted for by incumbent experience on the job.” ±1 for a small difference. however. Applicants who are judged as minimally qualified on the basis of the application blank will then proceed to the next phase of the selectim process. national origin. and ±2 for a large difference. Any written or oral statements by an agent of this company that contradict these policies are invalid and should not be relied ott. or disabi litv status except where there is a bona fde occupational qualihcation. or cancel any pokes or practice that pertains to your NKS employment without advance notice. education. suspend. Recognition of these rights is a conditin of employment for anyone accepting a job offer from this company. Recent research indicates that BIBs can help to predict job performance in certain instances.g. religion. without having to give cause or ustihcation to any cinpk)vee. a common BIB item asks applicants to list their favorite subjects in high school. A zero may be assigned for “no difference. age. It you are disabled and need reasonable forms of accommodation in order to complete this application blank or any other component ot the application process. The company retains the right to change.. The weights are then totaled for each applicant. an application form that is designed to be scored more systematically and is more like the BIB. you agree to abide by and perform any award rendered by the arbitrator(s). your employment contract or breach thereof shall he settled by arbitration administered by the American Arbitration Association in accordance with its applicable rules.

sjtupional zyzterview (SI) also seeks to identify whether an applicant possesses relevant job knowledge and motivation. These questions should have been generated with the aid of a thorough job analysis in order to identify specific types of information sought during the interview. This. substantial research over the past 30 years indicates that structured interviews. regardless of their specific for-. 2002). two types of structured interviews avee erd anZf lnepopulirity in the United States. Questions are not prepared in advance. SI questions encourage applicants to respond to hypothetical situations they might encounter on the job for which they applied. In recent years. personality characteristics. how would you go about finding that information?” Responses to this and other hypothetical questions are then scored according to their appropriateness for the job. will generally be more reliablid an unstructured mt rviëws. see Posthuma. BDIs are based on the assumption that the past is the best predictor of the future. Two strategies for making the most out of an interview are (1) structuring the interview to be reliable and valid. and Campion. mat. but it achieves this goal in a different manner. they must maximize their potential for identifying qualified persons. the interview is definitely the selection technique host often encountered by persons applying for a job in the United States.Step 2: Employment Interview Other than application blanks. there is no attempt to guarantee that applicants are asked the same questions. impression management. the interviewer does not have a scoring protoLsol either. an applicant for a pharmaceutical sales position might be asked “If one of the physicians in your sales territory asked you to provide supporting research and other documentation regarding the efficacy of a new drug. covering such topics as verbal-nonverbal behavior. Morgenson. Types of interviews Employment interviews vary along at least two important dimensions: how structured the interview is and whether it focuses on historical information about the applicant or attempts to place the applicant in hypothetical situations to assess how she or he might respond in the future. the behavioral description interview (BDI). . the unstructured interview may lead to useful insights about an applicant. Typically.26 The second dimension along which interviews can vary is whether they focus on ast ex erience and behavior or on hypothetical future behavior. An unstructured interview has no predetermined script or protocol.22 Not surprisingly. ih iiirrviwrh sasi a thz1ist of questions to ask of all applicants. in turn. and preinrerview impressions (for a complete review.27 The first. tell me about a time when you resolved a conflict with a customer?” Follow-up questions would include “What was the outcome?” and “How did you control your frustration?” The .23 Because interviews are so widely used to select new employees. a scoring form similar to the one shown in Exhibit 8—4 will be used by the interviewer for recording applicants’ responses. asks applicants to relate actual incidents from their past relevant work experience to the job for which they are applying.29 For example.24 Duiing the st ied mTëT7tew. interviewer-interviewee similarity. and (2) training managers to use the best available interviewing techniques. The importance of structure in the interview is further underscored by the fact that standardization should lower the possibility that intentional or unintentional biases hel yr the interviewer will affect the outcomes of the process.25 An example of this type of interview question would be “Thinking back to your last job. In addition. the topic of interviews has generated hundreds of research studies over the past 20 years. When used by some highly skilled interviewers. However. should lead to less differential impact on women and minorities25 and a better chance for the organization to successfully defend itself if it happens to be sued.

City State _____________ How long there? ___________________ Were you in the Armed Fortes of the U.. Cover isil positions. or earnings? WORK EXPERIENCE. ni. ahili tv to get a long with others.I’ Acts prohibit discrimination with respect to individuals whc.ro ________ 19_. Interviewer should record last position first._. Every month since leaving school should he accounted for.. Experience in Armed Forces should be covered as a job (in New Jersey exclude military questions). be sore to consider tilt unIv what the applicant can perseveranc i-._... security.. Iovalt. A P T E R 8 Selection 2 3 I .S..Hos/ closely does (or did) he/she supervise you? What authority do (or did) you have? ______________________________________________ Number of people you supervised What did they do? _______________________________________________ Is applicant a leader? Responsibility for policy formulation Has applicant had managemetit responsibility? To whar e*rent could you use initiative and judgment? Did applicant actively seek responsibility? Rating [jj Comments: In inak cog final rating. self-reliance. . branch _______________________________ Date _____________ 19 — to ___________ 19 — (Not to be asked in Nc’sv jerses I ______________ 19__. are at least 4)) but less than 65 rears oi age.? Yes..itnrits nod niotivation. --— Interviewer: job considered for: . Present address .vmcnr Act and relevant [1. . dii nit also his/her sialiilitv. Sal-aty at leaving Host much responsibility has applicant had? Any indication iii a mhiiioit? Superior Title ___________________ What is he/she like? _____________________________________________________ Did applicant get along with superior? . _______________ The Age I >iscrlmination in the Enipli._.1 EXHIBIT 8-4. This information is very important. No_ Are you einploed now? YesD NoD (11 yes) How soon available? ______________________________________ ‘OChar are relationshirs with present employer? Why are you applying for this position? Is his/her underlying reason a desire for prestige. why nor? ______ Were you hospitalized in the service? Are you drawing compensation? Yes. If nor.. industry.C H. IAST OR PRESENT POSITION Company From _________ 19 ______ to ___________ 19 _____ How was job obtained? ____________________________________________ Whom did you know there? — ____________________________________ Has a pplicanr shown self—reliance in getting ribs? Nature of wnrk at start __________________________________________________________________ . Starring salary Will applicant’s previiius experience be helpful on this job? In what way did the job change? i-las applicant made good work progress? Narur of work at leaving --___________________________________ ..0] STRUCTURED EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW FORM—EXECUTIVE POSITION Date ______________________________ 19 — Name ______________________________________________________ Date of birth _______________________________ Phone no.. leadership. < ti iM .

For years. TX: Dryden). Stereotyping applicants and allowing personal bias to influence evaluations.’2 Training can provide managers with a better understanding of how to ask questions. 12. many questions about their effectiveness remain unanswered.3’ For the past 20 years. the University of Houston’s psychology department has sponsored the 1n tervierping Institute. ‘° However. Being influenced 1w the nonverbal behavior of applicants. Human Resource Selection. Source: Robert D. Gotewood and Hubert S. 9. Allowing the quality of the applicants who preceded the present applicant to influence the ratings of the present applicant (contrast effect). Copyright © 1998 by The Dryden Press. 6. since the interview relies so heavily on personal judgments.1. Excessive talking by the interviewer that limits the amount of job-related information obtained from interviewees. 7. there have been significant concerns that interviewers may differ considerably in their accuracy. which results in hasty decisions. For more information. (Fort Worth. and to some extent how to he aware of potential biases. 494—495. average (central tendency error). which results in different types of information being gathered from each applicant. ()verall. or poor (stringency error). An employment test is a mechanism Icither a paper-and-pencil test or .edu. 10. making it difficult to gather spontaneous or follow-up information. Overconfidence in the interviewer’s ahiliry to evaluate applicants. Generally speaking. Favorably evaluating an applicant because he or she is similar to the interviewer in some way (similar—to—me error). Making an evaluation of the applicant within the first minutes of the interview (first impression error). 4. I Training for interviewing Despite recent optimism about the validity of employment interviews. and the potential for bias always exists. Inconsistency in the questions used with applicants. which offers public workshops in all aspects of employment interviewing. This appears to be especially true when the training is used in conjunction with a structured interview format. 8. Allowing one or two either good or bad characteristics of an applicant to influence the evaluation of all other characteristics (halo effect). futureoriented questions can also be useful if used properly. Errors such as these have been the focus of many training programs for inturvieweis. Moreover. 4th ed. pp. 5. properly designed training programs do seem capable of reducing many of the errors found in traditional unstructured interviews. 2. recent evidence suggests that when a trained interviewer takes behaviorally oriented notes during the interview. Step 3: Employment Tests A technique that some organizations use to aid their selection decisions is the employment test. Rating many applicants the same in evaluations. validity can he enhanced. Inability to put the interviewee at ease during the interview. the research findings on situational interviews indicate that questions about past experience have higher validity than the future-oriented hypothetical questions. 11. such as superior (leniency error). however. how to properly record applicants’ responses. Feud (1998). 3. Asking questions that are either unrelated or only slightly related to performance on the job. address e—mail to PsychService@uh. Exhibit 8—5 summarizes many of the problems that might limit the accui acy of a typical interview. reprinted by permission of the publisher.

job sample performance tests have . and ither characteristics required by the job. . Over a large number of selection situations. The type of test that is ultimately used will depend on a number of factors.C H A P T E R 8 Selection a simulation e 4it—. skills. research suggests that contrary to a perception that applicants avoid applylug for jobs that involve extensive testing. ese charactciistics range from tidssiJchas manual dexterity. additional costs are associated with using tests in selection. many employers purchase existing tests from a variety of sources. Anyone interested in selecting a test for use in personnel selection can begin with the Mental Measurezents Yearbook. A standardized set of memos. including the budgetary contraints of the organization. is given to the applicant. word processing. the Content of the pub must he well documented through job analyses. Then the quantity and quality of their work are systematically graded and compared with the work of other applicants. 1any more than pay for themselves through increased efficiency in selection. to intelligence to personality. • Standard driving course for delivery persons. and of course the knowledge. Variations of these job sample performance tests are used in many organizations. Despite the potentially staggering costs associated with employment tests. irs. the complexity and difficulty of the job. and some of the more useful tests cost as little as $1 per applicant. For this reason alone.‘onstrated some of the highest validities of all selection tests. In su nstances. applicant withdrawal from any given Seection system is unrelated to the presence of testing. abilities. the organization is expected to validate its selection devices separately for members of majority and minority groups. However. • Standardized typing. • Simulated “in basket” tests for managers.. the size and quality of applicant populations. and Sc) Ofl. • Auditions used by a symphony orchestra or ballet company. There are literally hundreds of published tests from which to choose. It can be very expensive to develop a test to measure these kinds of characteristics. several of the ire common categories of selection tests will be described. Examples of performance tests include: rogra mm ing test for computer program mers.•4 which summarizes many of the tests and includes a brief evaluation of their effectiveness. In adJition. Regardless of whether an organization develops its own test or purchases an existing one. The presumed superitv of these tests wer other types of selection tools lies in their direct and obvious relationship with performance on the job.ztempsto measure certain characteristics of individu. Care must . However. validation studies are expensive if they are conducted properly.\pplicants are frequently asked to run the machines they would run if they got the oh. for this relationship to actually \it. In the following sections. Various kinds of tests can be used for selecting employees. requests. who must dispense with them as she or he would if the work were real. Job sample performance tests A job sample performance test requires the applicant actually do a sample of the work that the job involves in a controlled situation. The validat n process becomes even more expensive if questions of discrimination arise. or spreadsheet applications problems for secretarial and clerical help. Any of these devices should he validated before it is actually used to make hiring decisions.

verbal concepts. logic and reasoning. Nonetheless. Cognitive ability tests Over the years.) California Test of Mental Maturity (adult level) This is a test of mental ability administered to groups and scored by machine. Sometimes a test that appears to have no logical relationship to a particular job may prove to he a valid predictor of performance on that job. the SRA Primary Mental Abilities Test. New York. Wonderlic Personnel Test The Wonderlic uses a variety of perceptual. picture arrangement. hut that is not always the case. .Source: Reproduced by permtssion. Face validity is how good a test looks for a given situation. NY. researchers have identified a large number of specific mental abilities for which selection tests are now available. The performance score includes picture completion. job sample tests are a proven method of selection in many organizations. verbal. to name two. Perhaps the two best known cognitive abilities are math and verbal. be taken not to confuse face validity with actual validity. These form the basis for tests such as the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) and the Graduate Record Examination (GRE). vocabulary. Verbal and math abilities are also measured by a variety of tests developed specifically for use in human resource selection. Scores are developed from a series of short testS on spatial relationships. The verbal score includes general information. numerical reasoning. and arithmetical items that provide a total score. and other items. and multiple aptitude tests. (Other well-known tests include the Differential Aptitude Test. Ivlany tests that are valid also look valid. All rights reserved. arithmetic. Still other tests that measure these abilities were developed for use in other areas of psychology but now have been successfully adapted to selection. similarities. object assembly. Copyright I 941 renewed 1969 by The Psychological Corporation. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale The Wechsler is a comprehensive paper-and-pencil test of 14 sections grouped into two scores. and similar items.

Clerical aptitude is still another cognitive ability that has proved useful in selecting people for a wide array of jobs. Other cognitive tests There are numerous other examples of cognitive tests that have used successfully in selection but may not be as well known as measures of verba and math ability or general intellectual ability. renewed 1961 by The Psychological Corporation. New York. An architect or draftsperson must be able to look at a set of blueprints and clearly know what the actual object (building. which is a measure of spatial relations. Exhibit 8—6 shows an excerpt from a test called the Minnesota Paper Forni Board Test (MPFB). memory. and others. and profiles are developed for analyzing performa nec. For example. This test requires applicants xo rapidly check numbers and names for accuracy. one of the more popular measures of clerical aptitude. especially in secretarial and clerical jobs. Spatial relations refers to an ability to visualize things on paper as they might appear in actual three-dimensional space.Source: Reproduced by permission. house. etc. pilots must be able to quickly orient themselves even when they are flying other than straight and level with the groLind. The scores are converted to IQ equivalents.) will look like. Exhibit 8—7 is the first page of the Minnesota Clerical Test. NY All rights reserved. The ability to rapidly compare entries such as these is a good predictor of many types of job per formance. bndge. Tests of spatial relations have proved effective for these and certain other jobs. Similarly. Copyright I 933. .

Polygraph and honesty tests Another method currently used 1w some employers to rest employees is the polygraph. speed of limb movement. emotional expressions. the time taken to make the responses. One of these is the O’Connor Finger and Tweezer Dexterity Test (see Exhibit 8—8).3 A different approach. Other paper-and-pencil inventories are the California Psychological Inventory. That is. The reactions provide data Ofl which psychologists base their assessment and interpretation of a personality. The stim1ii are purposely vague to reach unconscious aspects of the personality. A more optimistic picture of the value of personality inventories comes from efforts to specifically construct a measure for a particular job. The examiner keeps a verbatim record of the responses. 6 When personality tests are constructed to measure work-related characteristics such as achievement_and ability. Then a trained interpreter analyzes the data and reaches conclusions about the pcrsonality patterns of the person being examined. and nger dexterity. Personality inventories and temperament tests Potentially.They include choice reaction time. pulse and skin response associated with sweating of palms. The most frequently used inventory is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. the Minnesota Counseling Inventory. The most common are the Rorschach Inkblot Test and the ihematic Apperception Test. some of the disappointing results previously obtained with personality inventories in selection could be attributed to a mismatch between the test and the situation in which it was being used. and rhen plots these reactionS . and other incidental behavior. not as direct as the se f-reporting inventory. they can show good validities. The Rorschach Inkblot Test was rst described in 1921. sometimes erroneously called a lie detcctoi: The polygraph is an instrument that records changes in breathing. blood pressure. The person responding is asked to tell what he or she sees in the inkblot. utilizes projective techniques to present vague stimuli. the Manifest Anxiety Scale. Many tech niques are used. The person being tested picks up pins with the tweezer and row by row inserts them in the holes across the hoard with the hand normally used. The test involves 10 cards. These tests are used for positions with high manual requirements. on each of which is printed a bilateral symmetrical inkblot similar to that illustrated in Exhibit 8—9. and the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule. such as assembling radio or TV components and watches. the least reliable of the employment tests are instruments that attempt to measure a person’s personality or temperament.

the applicant may he asked. However. prior to 1988. indicating that 24 percent of subjects were able to conceal information without detection. “Is your name Smith?” Then. There are concerns that it is an invasion of an applicant’s privacy and that its use can lead to self-incrimination. to achieve a normal response. In recent years. objections have been raised to the use of the polygraph in per •rne selection. In a recent quantitative review of polygraph tests. 4° Since a polygraph will cost only about $25. “Have you ever stolen from an employer?” Although originally developed for police work. it seems like a small investment to help reduce dishonesty in the workplace. it was reported that electrodermal measures correctly idenried 76 percent of participants with concealed knowledge. It has been estimated that. in fact. the polygraph had become an extremely popular selection tool by the mid-1980s.000 to 6. Government agencies and certain contractors for the Department of Defense and the Department of Energy are exempt from the act. to indicate a response made under pressure. The person being tested with a polygraph attached is asked a series of questions. others are stressful. Estimates are that 5.4 The two most common types of preemplovirwnt honesty tests are overt integrity tests and personality-based integrity . it is still legal to use the polygraph a hart of an ongoing investigation of dishonesty as long as the individual employee’s rights are safe-guarded. nearly 2 million polygraph tests had been administered each year by private employers in the United States. a reliable and valid method for predicting on-the-job dishonesty. In addition. Thus. Finally.42 Organizations searching for an alternative to the polygraph are increasingly turning to paper-and-pencil tests of honesty.on paper. the mot serious question concerning the polygraph was whether it was. Some are neutral.39 This popularity was understandable because on-the-job crime had increased tremendously.4’ These concerns became serious enough that the federal government passed the Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988.000 rms in the United States now use these during screening. it was estimated that dishonest employees cost employers about $65 billion per year in theft and other acts of dishonesty. private employers whose business involves security and controlled substances are also allowed to continue’ using the polygraph. This legislation has made it illegal for most private organizations to use the polygraph as a selection device. which would be a violation of the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution.

They do. and managers should not have to fear being sued simply for being honest about a former employee. This built-in bias in favor of the applicant is precisely the reason that general references have often been criticized as sources of useful information.44 Overt integrity tests ask more direct questions to assess dishonest behavior.’ If an organization is aware of important negative information about a former emplo) cc and fails to reveal this information during an inquiry by a prospective employer. personality.tions to he aware of a new problem which they are labeling “negligent referrals. at least 32 states have passed laws that give managers some immunity from being sued for providing good-faith. However.46 several researchers have provided evidence that certain honesty tests have acceptable levels of validity and reliability. or they might have been personal (such as friends. a job candidate is incorrectly classified as a potential thief when. Rarely. this study reported that lob candidate scores on honesty tests could also he used to predict future supervisory ratings of job performance. Rather than risk a lawsuit. not all references can be positive.tests. in fact. a comprehensive meta-analysis on over a half million subjects reported that honesty tests are valid for predicting counterproductive behaviors on the job such as theft. to the extent that you could. or family members). These requirements do not mean that an organization must hire an individual with a disability if that person cannot perform the job. clergy. it is almost certain that references will be of little or no value to the hiring organization except as a check on the accuracy of information contained on the application blank.”4 At the present time. Under these circumstances. you provided the organization with a list of people who you believed would generally speak favorably about you. does someone knowingly include the name of a reference who will give a negative impression to the new organization. Equally important.4 Step 4: Reference Checks and Recommendations If you h ev ppliedf?ajF. all individuals who arc conditionally offered employment should he required to have one.based integrity tests aftempt to assess an individual’s predisposition toward deviant and disruptive behavior. These references might have been work-related (such as a former supervisor or co-worker).45 Most reasonable people would agree that managers should not be allowed to lie about a former employee or to be malicious while providing reference information. and absenteeism. too new to determine whether they will he effective. disciplinary problems.4 Although some critics believe that preemployment honesty tests generate an unacceptable level of false positive results (i.y ere probably asked to provide a list of people whom the organization could contact to get information about you.50 Most of these laws are. In either case. as well as gather a history of theft and other illegal activities.e. Many argue that they will seldom provide an organization with meaningful information about applicants. Step 5: Physical Examinations Careful adherence to the Americans with Disabilities Act indicates that physical examinations can he used to screen out unqualied individuals hut generally should be required only after a conditional offer of employment has been made. Giving out confidential information about a former employee could he construed as a violation of the employee’s right to privacy. and giving a negative recommendation opens the reference up to a defamation lawsuit. In comparison. Organizations must also he wary of any policy which suggests that all references should he neutral in nature. it might find itself in “legal hot water. job-related information about their employees. Tn addition. if an organization is going to use such examinations.. when given the opportunity. however. however. are genuine concerns over the legality of asking for and providing such information. help to protect the rights of individuals with disabilities who . On the other hand. the legal status sur rounding referencechecking and providing recommendations is just not clear at all. managers are instructed to give out only verifiable kinds of information such as dates of employment and job title. however. Perhaps because references have become such dangerous business. For example. In army event. Employment attorneys are cautioning organi7a. The trend in this direction has also caused orgaruzations to include explicit statements in their employee handbooks about corporate policies on checking references. he or she is not). fears of being sited have led many managers to refuse to provide references for former employees.

Thus.S. a significant drug user are more severe than those of a false positive on other types of majority of selection tests—a math test. however. First. five or more drinks on one occasion). • Establish a high-quality control testing procedure with a reliable testing laboratory. The reliability of drug tests is..56 Second. However.2 Moreover. Why is there such a strong emphasis on alcohol and substance abuse in the workplace? Consider the following statistics compiled from a number of sources by the U. • Perform any drug tests in a professional. although many organizational programs have withstood challenges in court. the personal consequences of heing falsely labeled as a Institute for a Drug-Free Workplace. S4 Coupled with estimated losses of $120 billion annually attributable to drug abuse. • Keep all results confidential. More than 14 percent of employed Americans report being heavy drinkers.e. A recent survey by the American Management Association indicates. nonthreatening manner. there is a potential for the test to yield a questionably high number of false positives— HRMEMO In a recent Gallup poll the test indicates that the applicant is using illegal drugs when in reality he or commissioned by the she is not. however.8 million illicit drug users in the United States and three-quarters of these persons are employed either full. Department of Labor. in the latter case. Alcohol abuse costs U. the imPlication is Americans supported drug that the applicant has broken the law. for at least two reasons. the implication is simply that the applicant has more math ability than he or she has in reality.A note on drug testing Perhaps no other selection practice elicits a more emotional reaction than an organizational drug-testing program. It is estimated that there are 14. it is not possible to determine whether any particular drug-testing program that doesn’t fall under a federal mandate will. . that approximately 80 percent of American corporations are now using drug tests. In the former case. even when a particular drug test is deemed very accurate if typical em •ymen test standards are applied. the legality of drug-testing programs has not been universally established. for example.or part-time. be legal. the best guess is that most good-faith drug testing programs will he legally acceptable if the s organization has taken steps to: • Inform all job applicants of the organization’s drug-resting screening program. Also. corporations 500 million lost work days each year.S. in fact.55 the costs to business are staggering. More than one in three workers between the ages of 18 and 25 are hinge drinkers (i. the Department of Transportation mandates both drug and alcohol testing for virtually all employers ‘ho have truck and delivery drivers with commercial licenses. a major concern.

Evaluation of other ratees. Role-playing of performance evaluation interview. (Raters observe problem-solving ability.000 prospective and current employees. Interview with raters. In-basket exercise. Multiple methods of assessment are used—interviewing. work samples and simulations. understanding of problem—solving procedures. a rid propensity for taking risks. effort. and ability to delegate. (Ratees discuss goals. for example) are common to most occupations. organizations frequently expend more time. The assessment center was first used by the German military in World War II. interaction skills. the type of employee being hired.) B. Individual decision—making exercise—Ratees are asked to make a decision about Sonic problem that must be solved. Psychological testing— Measure verbal and numerical skills. method of preparation. (Raters observe decision making under stress.) D. Individual and group activities are observed and evaluated. and career plans. (Raters observe planning ability.) C. The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) in the United States began to use it in the mid-1940s. problem-solving skill. ability to react. Most.) E. . role-playing.7 An assessment center uses a wide array of methods. motivation. (Peer evaluations. because of the costs associated with a had decision and the complexities of managerial work. conimunication ability. games. (Raters observe leadership ability and ability to work in a group. Small-group discussion of case incidents. (Raters observe factnding skills. and money hiring middle.) DAY 2 A. However. Orientation of approximately 12 ratees. projective testing. American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) introduced the assessment center to the world of business in the 1950s. persuasiveness.) DAY 3 A. and many kinds of paper-and-pencil tests of abilities and attitudes. (Raters observe condence.) B. and communicatIon skills. and how information is used. Individual case analysis and presentation. I). Since 1956.to upper-level executives than they spend hiring for positions lower on the organizational chart. memory. Break up into groups of four or six to play management simulation game.assessment centers are similar in a number of areas: 1. Group problem solving. One of the best-known multiple selection methods used for these purposes is the assessment center. AT&T has used assessment centers to evaluate more than 200. including several interviews. are used with a wide ass&trnent of jobs and occupations ranging from blue-collar to managerial positions. Others.DAY I A. Many of the techniques that have been discussed in this chapter (the interview. B. decisionmaking flexibility.) The particular types of employment tests that are used in an organization vary with. objective testing.) C.’8 Exhibit 8—10 presents briefly a typical 21/2 day assessment center schedule. (Raters observe empathy. organizing al)ility. Groups of approximately 12 individuals are evaluated. ability to handle questions. counseling skills. and other methods. 2. such as cognitive ability testing.

Assessment centers are relevant to the job. . Ultimately. answering the question whether the selection DECISION system should he developed arid used is ultimately an issue of whether it saves the organization more money than it costs. interviews. Once an organization has made a commitment to investigate what types of selection devices it will use. however. decisiveness. and personal styles. • Promotal. • How good assessors are in observing.dity of individuals. is a matter of THE SELECTION costs and benefits. resistance to stress. I)irect costs include such things as the price of the tests. In other words. The raters’ judgments are consolidated and developed into a final report. on statistical utility. Assessors are usually a panel of line managers from the organization. Generally speaking. usually by one or more members of the assessment team. the salary paid to an interviewer. and tests. As such. and thus have high appeal because of this relevance. Portions of the individual reports are fed back to each assessee. Each assessee’s performance in the center can he described if the organization wants this type of report. and reporting on the performance of others (assessees).6’ Utility has two related components. • Type of training and development needed to improve behaviors of individuals. completing exercises. ANALYSIS FOR Organizational utilit) which is dependent. 4. poise. As a result of assessees participating as part of a group and as individuals. rnoreover. Generally speaking. in part. Overall. they are frequently not the technique of choice even for organizations that have the resources to utilize them. Individuals are then evaluated on a number of dimensions. They can. an analysis of the costs versus the benefits ot selection requires estimates of the direct and indirect costs associated with the selection systeni.3. such as organizational and planning ability.60 erefore. . • How individuals function in a group. Utility refers to the degree to which using a selection system improves the quality of the individuals being selected by the organization. Statistical utility is the extent to which a COST-BENEFIT selection technique allows an organization to better predict who will he successful. evaluating. the results of research on assessment centers have indicated that they are a valid way to select rnanagers9—hut they are not without disadvantages. there are circumstances in which less costly and less admin tratively complicated techniques are just as effective in managerial selection. it must attempt to evaluate whether its eftorts will he worthwhile. Because it is an integrated attempt to measure a variety of characteristics of anagers. well-designed assessment centers are a relatively expensive way to hire managers. they are not a reasonable alternative for many smaller organizat’ions. the assessors have a large volume of data on each individual. flexibility. the assessment center report permits the organization to make a number of determinations about human resources: • Qualifications of individuals for particular positions. be consultants or outsiders trained to conduct assessments. a large part of the answer to this question involves the utility of the selection process.

As the story goes. pp.HR JOURNAL CEO SELECTION: SUCCESSION PLANNING AND THE CRYSTAL BALL Corporations differ in terms of their preference for hiring replacement managers from within their own ranks or from outside the organization. Robert Parrino. The Economist. Michael Eisner is the CEO of Disney who took over a $2 billion company in 1984 and has helped make it worth more than $25. Much of his success is credited to dramatic shifts in strategic thinking.’Top Management Successions: The Choice between Internal and External Sources. when an organization’s managers see how costly systematic selecti ofl can be. As it happened. 337—355:John Huey (April 7. Indirect Costs include changes in public image associated with implementing procedures such as drug testing. pp. Noel Tichy (Summer 1996).Yet people generally agree that the right choice for CEO may never have been more critical to a corporatior’s success than it will be in the global marketplace of the next century.” Ibor. 43 percent comes from movies. The choice of an organization’s highest ranking manager depends on many factors. 1995). 44—68: Beni Lauterbach and Jacob Weisberg (1996). and the equipment used in a work sample test. “How to Build a Better Mousetrap:’ Time. The organization must also estimate how much money it will save 1w hiring more qualified employees using the selection system.sic question depends on many factors. reduced absenteeism. 45—59.” Fortune. Imagine the costs associated with a single wrong hiring decisioii when airlines are selecting pilots. Outside Directors and CEO Selection. pp. 103—117. pp. outsiders are often asked to infuse an organization with new direction and leadership when the company is facing a financial disaster. Outsiders also become the leading candidates in organizations that intend to delegate more power to their CEOs. Sonietiiiws. especiall’ in situations where the direct and indirect costs of hiring a poor performer are high. 40—42: Kenneth A. Research suggests that an outsider will be appointed CEO more often when there is a high percentage of outside directors on the board. Borokhovich.” Organizational Dynamics. therefore. the list was unnecessary and he has never revealed its contents. Sources: “Disney or Doesn’t H& Face Value’ (January 2002).’ Journal of Financial and QuantitativeAnalysis. pp. Pilot errors can cost the company millions .”Simultaneous Transformation and CEO Succession: Key to Global Competitiveness. lower accident rates. 1ut valid selection procedures can yield enormou benefits. It is potentially influenced far more by political dynamics and idiosyncratic characteristics of the current CEO and the board of directors.The outsider is expected to bring a fresh perspective and be willing to question everything and anything about the organization’s past way of doing business.”Eisner Explains Everything. Interestingly.When it comes to picking a new CEO. and less turnover. Then.Why are outsiders seen as the salvation of a dying organization? Current thinking suggests that outsiders have not been “brainwashed” by a corporate culture that apparently needs to be changed. The selection process for a new CEO is. and Teresa Trapani (September 1996). These savings can COIiiC from improved outcomes such as higher levels of quality or quantity of output. there is CEO succession in the Magic Kingdom. of course.Today. but two of the most important are the current CEO and his or her relationship with the company’s board of directors. pp. however.4 billion today. Eisner hurriedly made a list of possible successors and handed it to his wife minutes before he was supposed to undergo risky heart surgery. and overseas income accounts for 23 percent. all bets are off. qualitatively different from most other forms of selection. In 1984 only I percent of Disney’s income came from movies and only 9 percent from overseas markets. they wonder whether it will ever have henefirs The answer to this ha . 61—62: David Jackson and Richard Corliss (February 2001).

interview. interview. • Clerical: screening interview. application blank. • Semiskilled: screening interview. application blank. application blank. tests. reference check. application blank. Professional and technical: screening interview. interview. tests. tests. Clerical: screening interview. application blank. application blank. an HR specialist administered the tests to the clerical employees and supervised the reference checks for the managers and professionals. interview. Clark and Ed hired the managers. While these groups were being hired. tests.ale . • Semiskilled: screening interview. Clark himself hired the professionals. and interviews for marginal applicants. • Managers: screening interview. an HR specialist administered the tests to the clerical employees and supervised the reference checks for the managers and professionals. application blank. reference check.different jobs. Then Clark and the HR fl specialist administered the w tests to skilled and bu semiskilled employees. tests. application blank. of Since there were few cle choices among professional. except in ap marginal cases.The HR specialist hired the clerical employees with help from the managers and professionals for the clerical personnel who were to be under their direct supervision. he would use the following selection process. Clark and Ed hired the managers. • Skilled: screening interview. • Managers: screening interview. and interviews for marginal ) applicants. interview. tests. While these groups were being hired. • Professional and technical: screening interview.The HR specialist hired the clerical employees with help from the managers and professionals for the clerical personnel who were to be under their direct supervision. Candidates bu received a review and were co interviewed by the ga managers to whom they ne would report.so qualified semiskilled sp employees. and interviews for marginal applicants. Clark himself hired the professionals. • Skilled: screening interview. different jobs. Clark las hired the clearly well.A similar th process was used to hire for the semiskilled employees. application blank. interview. refrrence check. application blank. and interviews for marginal applicants. he would use the following selection process. reference check.

Clark hired the people needed within the adjusted budget. Ed gave up co half his choices to Clark. and generally with the required specifications. All were qualified. He had to generate the other half by paying less for the bottom 20 percent of the semiskilled and clerical employees. Clark and Ed had ne no trouble agreeing on 20 managerial candidates. it was more prc efficient not to involve the de new managers.technical and skilled co employees. In sum. Clark alerted Ed to the probable competence problem. But pe in 18 additional cases. on time. Clark adj felt he had found better am candidates. He was able to make a contribution to equal employment opportunity objectives by hiring somewhat more minorities and women than the total population. . less than he could have and less than Lois wanted. they po compromised. And the last 20 percent hired were somewhat below minimal specifications. but more than Ed wanted. api Several problems cat developed. No reverse discrimination took place.Among coi Clark’s choices were many em more qualified minority and obj female managerial 501 candidates than Ed wanted am to accept.The home office gave him half of what he needed. These people generally wanted more pay than the budget called for. whereas Ed rec wanted more Chicago wa people that he knew. In the end. promising that he’d begin developing a list of qualified applicants in these categories in case they were needed. Ed There were also qu pr’oblems in the skilled dis professional categories. Loi and Clark did likewise. given these conditions. Clark appealed for a bigger budget.

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