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KABANATA 2 Mga Kaugnay Na Pag-aaral at Literatura

Ang bahaging ito ng pag-aaral ay naglalaman ng mga pag-aaral at mga artikulong may kaugnayan sa aming napiling paksa na makakatulong upang mas lalong maunawaan ang aming ginawang pananaliksik.

A. LOKAL NA LITERATURA

JURIS FERNANDEZ, SA PAGPAPAKILALA NG MUSIKA AT TALENTONG PINOY SA KOREA. Ni Veronica R. Samio (Philippine Star Ngayon)

Kapag nakataon, maraming local singers natin ang magkakaroon ng malaking pangalan sa bansang Korea. Dalawa sa Sessionista ay tina-target ang bansang ito para pagsimulan ng kanilang international career. Kung si Sandara Park na sikat na sikat ngayon sa kanyang sariling bansa bilang miyembro ng all-pop girl group na 2NE1 na dito sa bansang Pilipinas

nagsimula ng career sa showbiz at ipinagpapatuloy lamang sa Korea, sina Princess Velasco at Juris Fernandez ay mayroon din planong makilala sa ibang bansa na bahagi rin ng Asya. Sa katunayan ay nagsimula na si Juris , isang album ang ginawa niya para sa isang Korean producer na kung saan ay humanga sa kanyang malamig na boses at dun din ilalabas sa Korea. Ang nasabing album na ito ay pinamagatang ´If You and Meµ, dito ito ini-record sa ·Pinas at dito rin unang inilabas ng Star Records nung nakaraang taon. Naglalaman ito ng anim na kanta at ang carrier single nito na ´Ifµ na unang pinasikat ng girl group na Girls Generation sa tinig ni Kim 10

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Taeyeon. Si Juris at ang Star Records ang pumili ng mga kantang inilagay sa album. Karamihan nito ay Ingles. Ang iba ay pinalitan ng mga kantang sikat sa Korea tulad ng Missing You, Isinama rin dito ang Officially Missing You dahil sikat din ito doon. Isa ring awitin ni Juris mula sa kanyang sariling album ang kinuha nila at isinama sa If You and Me. Ito ang Opposites Attract na ginawa ni Jungee Marcelo. Kabilang din sa anim na kantang nakapaloob sa album ay ang cover version ni Juris ng Don·t Forget na kinuha bilang ´Theme Songµ ng isang sikat na Korean Serye na ´Irisµ na unang pinasikat ni Baek Jiyoung. Inaasahan ni Juris na magugustuhan ng mga Koreano ang kanyang mga awitin at maging mabenta ang album niya sa Korea. Hindi naman ito mangangailangan ng pagtigil niya sa nasabing bansa para sa promosyon ng album. Bagama·t kinakailangan niyang pumunta ng Korea para sa promosyon ng album, Pilipinas pa rin ang magsisilbing homebase niya. Ngayon pa lamang ay may plano na ang Koreano na nag-produce ng album ni Juris na pagawin ito ng second album. Sikat na sikat sa Korea si Charice na lumabas sa sikat na programa sa TV dun na Star King, pati na rin sina Christian Bautista, JayR, at Kyla.

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OPM (Oplan: Pinoy Music) Ni Jessica Soho

Kamakailan lang, ipinag-utos ni P-noy ang pagpapatupad ng batas na nag-uutos sa mga FM station na dapat magpatugtog ng apat na OPM (Original Pilipino Music) kada oras. Sa ganitong paraan daw mabibigyan muli ng importansya ang sarili nating musika at hindi lang ang awitin ng mga banyaga. Ang hakbang na ito, suportado ng bagong pinuno ng Organisasyon ng Pilipinong Mang-aawit na si Ogie Alcasid. Para naman sa iba, may ilan naman daw pilit na ginagawang buhay ang music industry dito sa Pilipinas, kagaya na lang ng sumisikat ngayong P-POP o Pinoy Pop. Pero may ilang kumukwestyon kung paano ba talaga nakakatulong ang P-POP sa OPM gayung diumano, ginagaya lang daw nito ang K-POP ng mga Koreano.

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Bagong karangalan sa Pilipinas: Freddie Aguilar sa pagkapanalo sa Korean Asia Star Award Ni Boy Villasanta

Isang sikat at batikang musikero na si Freddie Aguilar ay nabigyang parangal mula sa prestihiyosong Korean Modeling Association. Ibinigay ng Korean Modeling Association ang kanyang parangal noon ika-18 ng Enero dahil sa pagpapalaganap at pagbibigay halaga nito sa musikang pinoy hindi lamang sa Asya bagkus ay pinalalawig din niya ito sa buong mundo. Isang malaking sopresa ng makatanggap ng parangal si Freddie Aguilar dahil ang nasa isip niya ay ang magtanghal lang kaya siya natungo sa bansang Korea. "Sinabihan lang ako ng production staff na maghanda ng tatlong minutong talumpati at tinanong ko siya kung para saan yung ang pinapagawang talumpati." Ngumiti lang siya at sinabi na gawin na lang ang pinapagawa niya. Ginawa na ni Freddie Aguilar ang kanyang talumpati kahit na wala siyang kamalaymalay kung para saan ang pinapagawa. Inihanda na ni Aguilar ang kanyang sarili upang kantahin ang kanyang kantang pinasikat na pinamagatng "Anak" at "Larawan." Pagkatapos ng kanyang pag-awit ay tinawag siya upang parangalan dahil sa kontribusyon sa larangan ng musika lalo na sa kanyang komposisyon na pinamagatang "Anak."

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B. LOKAL NA PAG-AARAL

PAGTANGKILIK NG MGA PILIPINO SA KOREAN TREND NA NAKAKAPAGPABAGSAK NG EKONOMIYA NG BANSA

Isang Papel Na Pananaliksik ang Ipinapasa sa Kagawaran ng mga Wika Unibersidad ng Santo Tomas-Kolehiyo ng Komersyo

Bilang Pagtugon sa mga Pangangailangan sa kurso na Filipino 2: Pagbasa at Pagsulat Tungo sa Pananaliksik Ika-2 Semestre, TA: 2009-2010 Panukalang pahayag: Ang pagtangkilik ng mga Pilipino sa Korean trend ay nakakapagpabagsak ng ekonomiya ng bansa

Ipinasa nina: Kimberly Ofrecio Anna Michaela Idio Ralph Reizon Santisteban Ruey Daylenn Inoc Kayemar Lopez Larra Monica Ventura ICMID

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Introduksyon: Unang dumating ang mga Koreano sa Pilipinas pagkatapos ng ikalawang digmaang Pandaigdig upang maghanap ng mas mabuting ikabubuhay nila (Wikipilipinas, 2007). Ang trend ng mga South Korean na mag-aral sa Pilipinas ay nagsimula noong 1960·s. Noon, ang South Korea ay isa pa lamang sa mga mahihirap na bansa at ang Pilipinas naman ay pangalawa sa mauunlad na bansa sa Asya sumunod sa Japan (Wikipedia, 2009). Ayon sa mga iskolar, nagsimula ang operasyon ng mga Koreanong kumpanya dito sa Pilipinas noong 1980·s. Sa dekada ring ito nagsimula ang tinatawag na Korean wave. Ito ay ang pagtaas ng bilang ng mga turista at imigranteng Koreano sa bansa, maging ang popularidad ng mga Koreanong palabas at musika. Ito ang nagdulot ng migrasyon sa Pilipinas ng mga Koreanong nagmamay-ari ng mga pagawaan at ng kanilang mga tauhan. Noong 1990·s, nahigitan pa ng mga Koreano ang mga Hapon sa bilang ng mga bumibisita sa Pilipinas (Meinardus, 2005). Noong 2006, ang mga Koreano pa rin ang nangunguna sa bilang ng mga bumisita sa Pilipinas at pagdating na rin sa kanilang mga foreign investments. Mahigit na 570,000 na mga Koreano ang bumisita sa Pilipinas noong 2008 at nahigitan pa ang Amerika na may mga overseas na manggagawa at residente. Sa ngayon, 42 flights mula sa South Korea ang dumarating sa Pilipinas kada linggo. Ang mga paboritong destinasyon ng mga Koreano dito sa Pilipinas ay ang Maynila, Baguio, Cebu, Davao, Dumaguete at Boracay (Palatino, 2007; Dela Cruz, 2007; Wikipilipinas, 2007). Ang ilan sa mga Koreano ay pumupunta sa Pilipinas upang magtayo ng negosyo. Marami nang makikitang mga Koreanong kainan, grocery stores, beauty parlors, hotels, resorts, at bars. Ang mga ito ay makikita sa 15

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maraming bahagi ng Pilipinas, mula Luzon hanggang Mindanao. (Wilson, 2008) Ang Pilipinas ay isa na rin sa mga pinakatanyag na lugar para sa mga Koreanong magreretiro. Gusto nila dito dahil mainit ang panahon buong taon at mura ang mga golf courses at apartments (Wilson, 2008).

Paglalahad ng mga Suliranin:

‡ Kailan nagsimula ang pagimpluwensya ng mga Koreano sa Pilipinas maging sa pisikal na aspeto at hanggang sa pag-iisip. ‡ Bakit ang ilan sa mga Pilipino ay tumatangkilik sa ´Korean trendµ? ‡ Saan napupunta ang mga perang pinaglalaanan ng mga Pilipinong tumatangkilik sa ´Korean trendµ? ‡ Anong naidudulot ng pagtangkilik ng ilang Pilipino sa ´Korean trendµ sa ekonomiya ng bansa? ‡ Ito ba ay nakakapagpataas o nakakapagpababa ng ekonomiya ng Pilipinas? Ang pagtangkilik ng mga Pilipino sa Korean trend ay

nakakapagpabagsak ng ekonomiya ng bansa. Ito ang paksang napili ng mga mananaliksik sapagkat sa kasalukuyan, kapansin-pansin ang

pagimpluwensya ng mga Koreano sa mga Pilipino, lalo na sa mga kabataan. Ilan sa mga halimbawa nito ay ang pagpapatayo ng ilang mga imprastraktura, at pagpapalabas ng kanilang pelikula na ´tinagalizedµ

Layunin ng Pag-aaral:

Sa pananaliksik na ito·y naglalayong makatulong o makapagbigay kontribusyon sa: 16

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Pagbibigay ng kaalaman tungkol sa kasaysayan ng relasyon ng bansang Korea at Pilipinas. 

Paglalahad sa maaaring maidulot ng impluwensyang Koreano sa ekonomiya at industriya ng bansang Pilipinas. 

Pagtukoy kung paano nagsimula ang impluwensyang Koreano mula sa pisikal na kaanyuan hanggang sa pag-iisip. 

Pagtukoy kung alin sa produktong Korea at produktong Pilipinas ang ang mas tinatangkilik ng mga Pilipino ngayon at ang mga dahilan ng base sa resultang makukuha.

Rebyu o Pag-aaral:

Krishnamurthy

Sriramesh.Public Relations in

Asia:

An

Anthology:

Cengage Learning Asia,2003 Ang librong ito ay tungkol sa pampublikong relasyon ng sampung bansa sa Asya. Kabilang na dito ang Pilipinas. Itinatalakay dito ang sosyo ekonomikong pagtutulungan ng iba·t ibang bansa at kanilang iba·t ibang stratehiya ng pagpapaunlad ng kanilang ekonomiya. Sa librong ito ikinukumpara ang iba·t ibang pamamaraan ng pagpapaunlad ng

ekonomiya ng sariling bansa. Thomas Robinson. Democracy And Development In East Asia: Taiwan, South Korea, And The Philippines. AEI Press, 1999. Sa librong ito itinatalakay ang pagkakapareho at pagkaiba-iba ng sistemang pang-ekonomiya ng tatlong bansa sa Asya. Kasama na dito ang Timog Korea at Pilipinas. Isa na dito ang pagbabago ng sistema na mula sa ´authoritarianµ patungong demokrasyang pamamalakad ng sosyo-

politikong pamamaraan. Jose Sison, Julieta de Lima.Ekonomiya at Pulitika ng Pilipinas.Aklat ng Bayan(Manila).2003 17

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Inilalahad sa mga artikulo sa aklat na ito ang mapaglinaw na pagsusuri sa lipunan at rebolusyong Pilipino. Dahil sa laganap at palalim na krisis na dulot ng neoliberal na mga patakarang deregulasyon, liberalisasyon at privatisasyon ² tampok ang kasalukuyang krisis sa pinansiya at ekonomya ² at sa nagpapanibagong siglang mga pakikibakang bayan para labanan ang mga ito, nagiging higit na interesante ang nilalaman ng aklat na ito.

Kahalagahan ng Pag-aaral:

Ang kahalagahan ng pananaliksik na ito ay upang maihatid ang mga impormasyon na pawang katotohanan lamang sa makakabasa nito. Walang dinaragdagang mga impormasyon at walang pinapanigan. Makikinabang dito ang ating gobyerno hinggil sa mga nag-uusbungan na Korean establishments. Dahil sa ganoong dahilan, magkakaroon ng awareness ang gobyerno patungkol sa nagiging epekto nito sa ekonomiya. Isa rin sa mga makikinabang ay ang mga Koreano sapagkat sila ang nakikinabang sa mga kinikita ng kanilang produkto. Maaari silang magkaroon pa ng mga investments dito sa bansa sa kadahilanang mataas ang nakukuha nilang kita. Maaari rin makinabang ang mga Pilipino dito dahil kapag nalaman nila na ang pagtangkilik ng mga Pilipino sa Korean trend ay nakakapagpabagsak ng ekonomiya ng bansa, ay maaari silang mag negosyo na ipantatapat sa Korean trends. Kapag napatunayan sa mga nakalap na datos ng mga mananaliksik na ang paglaki ng populasyon ng mga Koreano dito sa Pilipinas ay nakakapag-ambag sa ekonomiya ng bansa, ay ilalahad ito ng mga mananaliksik kahit na salungat ito sa panukala na ito·y nakakapagpababa ng ekonomiya ng bansa. Ang pagaaral na ito ay isinasagawa upang alamin kung aling mga bagay ang nakakatulong sa pagpapataas ng ekonomiya ng bansa. Sa pamamagitan 18

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ng pag-aaral na ito, maaaring makahanap ng mga impormasyon, pati na rin malinawagan ang mga tao hinggil sa tunay na epekto ng mga Koreano sa bansa, lalo na sa ekonomiya

Metodolohiya:

Ang mga mananaliksik ay gumamit ng paraan ng pakikipagpanayam upang maisagawa ang pag-aaral. Ang mga mananaliksik ay pumili ng tatlumpung respondente na kakapanayamin sa loob at labas ng

unibersidad. Ang mga ito ay matatalik na kaibigan ng mga mananaliksik. Sila ay sina Alyssa Cabardo, Chris Mendoza, Charmaine Placido, Hanna Isidro, Jinelle Callado, Princess Bagunas, Blair Bondoc, Leonila Yee, Jhoanne Mariano, Marian Mariano, Katrina Queyquep, Katrina Pena, Katherine Cruz, Chelsi Tan, Joy Garcia, Kristine Magbojas, Christine Fernandez, Hanna Bernardo, Terry Buday, Clarisse Arabit, Kennedy Ortega, Ramona Arcilla, Cedric Vergel, Larce Padilla, Isaac Pagado, Joaquin Larin, Jeremiah Legaspi, Chard Serapio, Iman Frondozo at James Adriano. Napili ang mga respondenteng kakapanayamin dahil sa kanilang walang sawang

pagtatangkilik sa ´trendµ ng Korea ayon sa kanila. Tinanong ng mga mananaliksik ang mga respondente kung anu-ano ang dahilan ng kanilang pagtatangkilik at Magkano ang nilalaang pera sa tinatangkilik na´Korean trend.µ

Saklaw at Delimitasyon:

Dahil sa limitadong oras, malawakang kaalaman at pagbabadyet sa pinansyal na pangangailangan, ang pananaliksik na ito ay naglilimita ng partisipasyon ng mga respondent. Ibabase ng mga mananaliksik ang 19

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pagdedesisyon sa mga sagot ng respondeng makakapanayam. Dahil na rin sa limitadong oras minabuti ng mga mananaliksik na ng mga respondent na may bilang na 30 tao. Ang mga iyo ay matatalik na kaibigan ng mga mananaliksik sapagkat alam ng mga mananaliksik na ang mga taong ito ay walang sawa at naglalan ng pera sa pagtatangkilik sa ´Korean trendµ sa loob at labas unibersidad. Ang kanilang mga edad ay nagsisimula sa 15 hanggang 26. Ang ilan sa kanila ay may trabaho at mga mag-aaral mula sa Unibersidad ng Pilipinas, Unibersidad ng Santo Tomas, De La Salle University. Ang mga mananaliksik ay babatay lamang sa mga sanggunian sa internet at mga libro sa kalakhang Maynila

Daloy ng Pag-aaral:

Ang unang bahagi ng pag-aaral na ito ay tungkol sa kasaysayan ng Korea at ang relasyon nito sa Pilipinas mula noon hanggang sa kasalukuyan. Ipinakita din dito ang iba·t ibang paraan ng pagtatangkilik ng ilang mga Pilipino sa ´Korean trendµ. Gumamit ang mga mananaliksik ng internet, libro at interbyu bilang sanggunian. Ang sumunod ng bahagi ay tungkol sa pagpapatunay ng epekto ng impluwensya ng mga Koreano sa mga Pilipino.

Introduksyon sa Paksa:

Talagang parami na nang parami ang naiimpluwensyahan ng tinatawag na ´Korean Trendµ dito sa bansa. Kung kaya·t ang pananaliksik na ito ay isinagawa upang alamin ang mga dahilan kung bakit nauso ito at naimpluwensyahan ang mga Pilipino, lalung-lalo na ang mga kabataan. Sa

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pamamagitan ng pag-aaral na ito, maaaring matukoy ang epekto nito sa ekonomiya at industriya ng bansa. Makakapagbigay-kaalaman din ang pananaliksik na ito sa mga Pilipinong negosyante na gustong malaman kung ano nga bang meron sa ´Korean Trendµ at mabentang-mabenta ito sa mga tao at para na rin sa iba pang mga karagdagang impormasyon. Ayon kay Margie Quimpo-Espino (Philippine Daily Inquirer), isa sa mga dahilan ng pagkauso ng ´Korean Trendµ ay noong pinalabas ang mga ´Koreanovelaµ na patok na patok sa mga Pilipino, doon nagsimula ang pagkahumaling ng mga Pinoy lalung-lalo na ang mga kabataan sa mga Koreano. At dahil dito, lahat ng bagay na galing Korea o gawang Korea ay tinatangkilik ng mga Pilipino. Maparestaurant man, mapa-make-up o mapa-damit ay pinagkakagastusan nila. Ayon nga sa isinulat na artikulo ni G. Roger Cerda, isang propesor sa asignaturang Ingles sa Unibersidad ng Santo Tomas, na pinamagatang ´A Modern Portrait Of Juan Dela Cruzµ, ang mga Pilipino ay ´trying hard copycatsµ. Siguro, isa iyon sa mga dahilan kung bakit patok na patok ang ´Korean Trendµ dito sa Pilipinas. Dahil mahilig manggaya ang mga Pilipino, kung ano man ang makita ng mga Pilipino na uso, ay iyon ang gagayahin nila. Kulang na lang ay maging Koreano na rin sila. Bagama·t limitado ang mga datos na nakalap sa mga mag-aaral sa unang taon ng Unibersidad ng Santo Tomas, Kolehiyo ng Komersiyo, maaaring sabihin na naangkop pa rin ito sa iba·t ibang uri ng mga magaaral sapagkat halos lahat ay naimpluwensyahan na ng tinatawag na ´Korean Trendµ na maaaring hatiin sa tatlong aspeto: sa pisikal na kaanyuan, sa pag-iisip at sa pagiging nasyonalismo.

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Presentasyon ng mga Datos:

Napag-alaman ng mga mananaliksik na 15/30 na respondente ang nagsabing ´K-popµ ang pinakakinahihiligan nila. Ayon kina James Adriano, Jay Larin, Joy Garcia at Blair Bordoc, mga mag-aaral mula sa Unibersidad ng Pilipinas at Unbiersidad ng Santo Tomas na matalik na kaibigan ng mga mananaliksik ´K-popµ ang dahilan kung bakit nakilala at tinangkilik ang Korea sa Pilipinas. 5/30 na respondente naman ang nagsabing ´K-dramaµ ang pinakakinahihiligan nila. Ayon kina Jhoanne Mariano, Larce Padilla at Chelsi Tan, simula nang pinalabas ang ´Princess Hoursµ sa telebisyon ay sunud-sunod na ang pagtatangkilik ng mga Pilipino sa ´Korean trends.µ 4/30 naman na respondente ang nagsabing ´Korean foodsµ ang kinahihiligan nila. Ayon kina Leonila Yee at Iman Frondozo ay napapabili sila ng pagkaing Koreano dahil sa kanilang ´Curiosityµ at masarap daw talaga ang kanilang pagkain, bago sa panlasa ika nga. 6/30 naman na respondente ang nagsabing ´K-Fashionµ ang kanilang kinahihiligan. Ayon kina Jeremiah Legaspi, Katrina Pena at Princess Bagunas, napaka ´stylishµ ng mga damit ng Koreano kaya·t kinahihiligan nila ito. Napag-alaman ng mga mananaliksik na 12/30 na respondente ang naglalaan ng 100 php ² 500 php kada buwan. Ayon kay Leonila Yee, iginagastos niya ito sa pagbili ng ´Korean foodsµ tulad ng cup noodles, tsitsirya at kung anu-ano pa na binibili niya sa isang ´Korean grocery store.µ 10/30 na respondente naman ang naglalaan ng 500php-1000 php. Ayon kina Kristine Magbojas, Hanna Bernardo at Charmaine Placido, iginagastos nila ito sa pagbili ng mga damit at album ng mga sikat na Koreano sa Pilipinas tulad ni Bi Rain, Lee Hongki, DBSK at Super Junior. 8/30 na respondente naman ang naglalaan ng higit sa 1000 php. Ayon kina Jay Larin, Ramona Arcilla at Jeremiah Legaspi, ginagamit nila ito para sa pagbili 22

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ng tiket sa mga konsyerto ng mga Koreano. Isang halimbawa na lang dito ay ang nalalapit na konsyerto ng Super Junior sa Pilipinas. Ginagamit din nila ito sa pagpapagupit sa ´Tony and Jackey.µ

Interpretasyon ng mga Nakalap na Datos:

Ayon sa mga nakalap na datos, ang mga Pilipinong tumatangkilik sa ´Korean trendµ ay naglalaan ng sapat na pera upang bumili ng mga gamit at iba pang mga bagay na may kinalaman sa Korea. Ang nagging interpretasyon ng mga mananaliksik ukol sa nakalap na datos, ay nakakapagpataas ito ng ekonomiya ng Pilipinas sapagkat dito sila nagtatayo ng ilang mga negosyo kung kaya·t dito sila nagbabayad ng buwis na napupunta sa gobyerno ng Pilipinas. Samantala, Ito nga ay nakakapagpataas ng ekonomiya ngunit ito naman ay uni-unting sumisira ng industriya ng Pilipinas.

Kongklusyon:

Napag-alamanan ng pananaliksik na ito na ang pagtangkilik ng mga Pilipino sa Korean trend ay nakakaapekto sa ekonomiya ng Pilipinas. Ang mga Pilipino ay likas na mabilis maimpluwensyahan at mahilig makisunod sa uso kaya ang pagdating ng Korean Trend sa Pilipinas ay mabilis tinangkilik ng mga Pilipino. Ang bansang Korea, bagamat maliit lamang na bansa ay hindi naman nagpapahuli pagdating sa galing nila sa pagbuo ng bagong kagamitan mapasa anumang larangan ito. Marami ng mga

establishamento sa Pilipinas na nagpapakilala sa Kultura ng Korea gaya ng mga Korean restaurant na pumatok sa panlasa ng karamihan sa mga Pilipino. Pati ang pananamit ng mga Koreano ay naibigan din ng ibang 23

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Pilipino at pilit nila itong ginagaya kaya dumadami na din ang mga Korean Surplus sa bansa na nagtitinda ng mga produkto ng Korea sa murang halaga. Ang Korean hairstyle ay dinala na din ng mga Koreano sa Pilipinas kaya may mga pagupitan na purong hairstyle lamang ng mga Koreano ang gupit na pumatok naman lalo na sa mga kabataan. Ang Pilipinas ay isang tropikal na bansa kaya marami itong mga resort, ngunit hindi nagpatalo ang Korea. Nagtayo din sila ng resort sa Pilipinas na halintulad sa mga resort sa Korea na tinangkilik din ng mga Pilipino. Napatunayan ng pananaliksik na ito na sa labis na pagtangkilik ng mga Pilipino sa Korean Trend kaysa sa sarili nilang produkto ay napataas nito ang ekonomiya ng Pilipinas.Ngunit, dahil sa sobrang pagtangkilik ng mga Pilipino sa ´Korean trendµ unti-unti din nitong sinisira ang industriya ng Pilipinas.

Sanggunian:

Krishnamurthy Sriramesh.Public Relations in Asia: An Anthology: Cengage Learning Asia,2003 Krishnamurthy Sriramesh, Dejan Vericic.The Global Public Relations: Theory, Research, and Practice:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.,2003 Balisacan A., Hall H. The Philippine Economy: Development, Policies, and Challenges Book Description. Oxford University Press, USA, 2003 Thomas Robinson. Democracy And Development In East Asia: Taiwan, South Korea, And The Philippines. AEI Press, 1999. Daivid Kand. Crony Capitalism: Corruption and Development in South Korea and the Philippines (Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics). Cambridge University Press,2002. Jose Sison, Julieta de Lima.Ekonomiya at Pulitika ng Pilipinas.Aklat ng Bayan(Manila).2003 24

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C. IBAYONG-DAGAT NA LITERATURA

Korean TV Dramas at Marami pa, Ang paglaganap ng mga Koreano sa Pilipinas Ni Erika Ayala

Nakatakdang mangyari. Ang pagtaas ng popularidad ng Korean TV Dramas sa Pilipinas kasabay ng pagdami rin ng mga Koreanong naninirahan sa ating bansa ay nagkaroon ng malaking epekto sa industriya ng ´Enterntainmentµ. Sa kasalukuyan ang industriya ng musika sa ating bansa ay napapalibutan na ng mga Korean Pop (Kpop) na pinangungunahan ng grupong 2NE1 at WonderGirls. Sa grupong 2NE1 nabibilang si Sandara Park na kung saan ay isa sa mga kilala at sikat na artista sa ating bansa. Sa ngayon, ang Boys Over Flowers ay ang isa sa mga paboritong palabas ng mga Pilipino. Ang mga kababaihan ay lubusan ng nahulog ang loob sa mga miyembro ng Korean F4 lalo na kina Lee Min Ho at Kim Bum. Dahil dito hindi maiiwasang magkaroon ng pagkukumpara sa pagitan ng mga artista sa Pilipinas at South Korea. Ang patalastas na pinagbibdahan nina Lee Min Ho at Sandara Park ay nailabas na sa Korea noong nakaraang buwan. Ang nasabing patalastas para sa OB·s Cass Beer na kung saan nagkaroon ng ´kissing sceneµ sa pagitan ng dalawang artista ang nagdulot ng pagkainggit at pagkatuwa na rin ng mga tagahanga nilang Pilipino. Matapos ang ilang lingo, Si Kim Bum na isa sa mga bida ng Boys Over Flowers ay nagtungo sa ating bansa para sa isang patalastas na gagawin nila ni Maja Salvador para sa RC Cola. Ang tema nito ay magkakaroon ng ´Romantic Themeµ na ilalabas din matapos ang ilang linggo. Ang mga pangyayaring ito ang hudyat ng pagsisimula ng pagkakaroon ng 25

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magandang samahan ng dalawang bansa lalo na sa industriya ng ´enterntainmentµ. Maraming nagsasabi na ang Korean Invasion ay kasalukuyan ng naiimpluwensiyahan ang ating bansa. Tumaas na rin ang bilang ng mga Koreanong nag-aaral sa mga unibersidad at paaralan sa ating bansa. Ang mga magasin ng mga Koreano at maging ang kanilang mga musika ay maari na rin mabili sa mga malls sa ating bansa. Marami na rin ang mga grocery stores at mga restaurant na pinapatakbo ng mga Koreano. Marahil ito pa lamang ang simula bago sila maging pinuno ng mga mga lokal na kompanya at mapantayan ang tagumpay ng mga Tsino sa pagkakaroon ng mga negosyo sa ating bansa. Mayroon din takdang panahon para dito ngunit sa ngayon ay tunghayan na lamang natin ang mga Korean TV Dramas at mga musika na kinahihiligan at gusto ng karamihan.

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Ang pagtaas ng popularidad ng musikang KPOP sa buong mundo!

Ang mga kabataan sa buong Asya ay naimpluwensiyahan na ng musika ng mga Koreano nitong mga nakaraan taon hanggang sa kasalukuyan. Ang musikang Kpop ay naging mas kilala na sa iba pang mga musika. Mula sa paggaya sa mga uri ng musika ng mga Hapon at Amerika(´trotµ at ´yunhaenggaµ) hanggang sa pop at rap na mga banda, mayroong kanya-kanyang hilig ang mga tagapakinig. Sa totoo lang, ang ´tagumpay ng musika ng mga Korean ay bahagi ng ´Korean Waveµ (Hallyu sa lenggwahe ng mga Koreano) o ang paglaganap ng kulturang Koreano sa ibang bansa. Ito ay nagsimula ng ipalabas ang mga Korean TV Dramas (´Jewel in the Palaceµ at ´Winter Sonataµ) sa Asya at sinundan ng mga pelikula at musikang Koreano. Ang kasalukuyang tagumpay ng musikang Koreano ay maaring ipaliwanag sa impormasyon na ang South Korea ay ang ika-10 mayroong malalakas na ekonomiya sa buong mundo. Dahil sa mabilis na pagtaas ng kanilang ekonomiya, Ang Korea ay nakakayang makapaginvest ng malaking pera para sa industriya ng musika. Ang mga naglalakihang entablado na may kasamang ´fireworksµ at magarbong disenyo ng mga ilaw at tanghalan ang karaniwang pinagtatanghalan ng mga sikat na grupo ng mga mangaawit ng mga Koreano. Mga baguhan at mga kabataang may magandang mukha, bagong style at magaling sa pagsayaw ang karaniwang bumubuo sa musikang Kpop. Ang musikang Koreano ay katulad din ng Western Music (pop, rap, soul and blues), maliban sa mga lyriko nito. Isa pang pagkakaiba ay ang pagkakaroon ng tradisyonal na instrumento at mga impluwensiya.

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Ang pagsulpot ng musikang Kpop ay nagsimula sa grupong Seo Taiji at Boys noong 1992. Sa ngayon sina Rain, Se7en, Boa, Shihwa, Girls Generation, Super Junior at TVXQ ang mga popular hindi lamang sa bansang Korea maging sa buong mundo. Matapos nilang maimpluwensiyahan ang Asya, ang susunod na hakbang ay pasukin ang US Market ngunit bago nila ito magawa ay kailangan nilang kumanta ng mga kanta na mayroong Ingles na lyriko. Ang grupong Skull (Korean Reggae na mangaawit) ay nakapaglabas na ng kanta sa US Charts. Mayroon din takdang panahon para sa pagpasok ng ´Korean Invasionµ sa industriya ng musika ng Amerika. Hindi maaring nagkataon lamang ang pagbisita nila Paris Hilton at Britney Spears sa Korea ngayon maaring ito na ang simula ng ´International fameµ ng musika ng Korea sa bansang Amerika. Kahit na marami ang hindi sang-ayon sa konsepto ng musikang Kpop walang makakatanggi na ang grupo ng mga mangaawit ng musikang Kpop ay talagang magagaling at praktisado. Kung ikaw ay tagahanga ng musikang Kpop, Ikaw dapat ay masaya dahil ang mga iniidolo mo na mga mangaawit ay mayroon nang pagkakataon para sa pagtaas ng kanilang popularidad sa buong mundo. Matapos ang impluwensiya ng kulturang Hapon at Tsina, Ito naman ang panahon para sa mga Koreano. Sa pangkalahatan, mayroong magandang kinabukasan ang mga mangaawit ng musikang Kpop para sa

pagpapakilala ng kanilang musika sa buong mundo. If you are a fan of Kpop music, you must be happy, as your favorite bands really have chances to achieve worldwide fame. After Japan and China's culture have benefited from recognition in the Western world, it is time for Korea to make it through. Overall, there is a promising future for all Korean singers. 28

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Jjampong, 2NE1 at iba pang Kor-Kor reflections Ni Vladimeir Gonzales

Hindi ako kabilang sa marami-raming Pinoy na kabisado ang bawat itsura·t pagkatao ng Super Junior. Bukod kay Sandara, hindi ko masasabing kilala ko ang mga kasapi ng 2NE1. At napapaindak man paminsan-minsan sa kada family reunion na may ´Nobody,µ sa akin ay tipong ayos lang siya, tipong sakto lang. Pero oo, tanggap ko naman, isa na ang Pinas sa mga Asyanong bansang pinutakti ng Korean Love Bug. Una kong napansin ang sariling pagkaantig mula sa commercial ng instant noodles. Habang isinasagawa ang usual channel surfing, tumambad sa TV screen ang isang maaliwalas na eksena ng pag-ibig³isang dalagang naghihintay sa kanyang tindahan; isang lalaking singkit, mukhang dayuhan, pusturang-pustura sa kanyang kulay abong damit-panlamig; ang kanilang paligid na nagliliwanag sa mga nalagas na dahon, ubod ng dilaw, na parang nanlalamon sa ulan ng madilaw na pag-asa. Habang tumutugtog sa background ang isang suwabeng ´langit ka, lupa ako«µ

magkakatinginan ang dalawang bida, magkakangitian, magsasalita ang lalake, isang dayuhang salita, isang di-pamilyar na magic word: JJAMPONG. At mangingiti ang babae dahil naiintindihan niya ang hiling ng dayuhan tila kanyang napaibig. Pagkalipas ng ilang buwan, mapapalitan ang romantikong eksenang ito ng panibagong patalastas. Mula sa banayad na eksenang-suyuan, kakabog sa mga pandama ang eksena ng night life, ng mapusyaw na ilaw ng gimikan, ng seksing babaeng nagmamadali sa pagpasok sa club, ng mga lalaking nakapormang hip-hop, nag-aabang ang hindi gaanong kalakihang katawan. Muli, ibebenta nila ang init at anghang ng instant sabaw, kasabay ng init ng mga indak sa saliw ng mga linyang ´Jjampong 29

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my only one«Jjampong let·s have some fun«Jjampong real Korean«let·s jam all night long«µ Tamang pagmamaniobra ng tamis-tweetums at anghang.

Magandang kombinasyon ng mga elementong parang bago pero parang nakasanayan. Hindi na lang natin namalayang kahit saan na tayo sumuksok, may Koreanong impluwensyang parang hindi na matakasan. At hindi naman ito bago. Sa katunayan, sa maraming pagkakataon, dumaan na ang Pilipinas sa maraming antas at proseso ng impluwensyang dayuhan. Ang sinasabing likas na pagmamahal ng mga Pilipino sa romansa³mga mangingibig na langit at lupa ang agwat, mga

kontrabidang kapamilya, mga pang-aabuso·t pangako ng paghihiganti, ang inaasahang happy ending³mahuhugot ang ganitong ´pagkanaturalµ sa pagpasok ng mga kolonisador mula sa Espanya. Ayon sa mga pag-aaral ng ilang iskolar, katulad nina Soledad Reyes at Joi Barrios, ang metrical romances nitong mga Espanyol ang nagtanim ng napakaraming nosyon nating mga Pilipino tungkol sa pagsusuyuan, paghahanap ng ideyal na katambal sa buhay, ng akalang pag-ibig pero iyon pala·y mapanlokong romansa. Bagong-luma, lumang bago. Tulad ng pagpasok ng mga Mexican Telenovela bilang alternatibo sa mga lokal na soap opera. Natatandaan ko pa kung gaano nagmukhang pagkahaba-haba ang saga nina Mara at Clara noong naipakilala na sina Valeria Montoya ng La Traidora, at noong tumagal ay nasundan ni Marimar, Maria Mercedes, Rosalinda, Maria La Del Barrio, at lahat-lahat ng telenobelang nagawa ni Thalia sa buong sansinukob. Mula sa mga masalimuot na kabanatang nakasentro lang naman sa paghahanap ng nawawalang diary (na nasa ibabaw lang yata ng TV), mas bumilis ang mga eksena. Si Thalia, buntis noong Lunes, may tatlong anak na pagdating ng Biyernes. Same old same old love story, 30

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napaiba lang sa pacing at hubog ng mga tauhan at lugar. Base sa tagumpay ng mga sumunod na ibinentang palabas, mukhang kinagat naman nating mga nakatikim itong bagong-lumang putahe. 2003. Unang taon ko bilang guro sa kolehiyo. Wala pang bakas ng pagkahumaling sa mga Koreano ang bansa, paano·y sina Dao Ming Zi at ang F4 ang kinababaliwan ng lahat-lahat. Sa Taiwanese na palabas ipinakilala ang grupong medyo kakaiba, kakaiba kasi hindi sila katulad ng mga matikas at maskuladong leading man ng dating mga nakasanayang Mexican telenovela. Payatot kung tutuusin ang mga bida, nagsusuot ng mga mabulaklak na damit, mahaba ang buhok, kung makapagpulbos pa·y talaga naman mapapasigaw ka ng ´happy foundation day!µ Sila ang bida sa palabas na Meteor Garden, itong mga lalaking lumilihis sa inaasahang mga bakas ng pagiging lalaki. O, ganoon sa unang tingin. Pagkat ito palang tila lalambot-lambot na mga bishonen ang siga ng kanilang eskuwela, mataas ang antas sa lipunan, hindi natatakot makipagbasag-ulo. Sa mundo nila, mga propesor ang lumuluhod sa mga sigang estudyante kapag nagkakabanggaan sa hallway. Astig, para sa ilang mga tagapanood. Mas astig ang bidang babae, dahil hindi na siya iyakin, hindi siya nagpapaulan ng balde-baldeng luha. Ang bidang si Shan Chai, siya ang babaeng hahamon sa mga siga ng kanilang eskuwelahan. Sa bandang huli, ang iringan na ito ang magiging ugat ng pag-iibigan nilang dalawa ni Dao Ming Zi. Parang bago, parang luma. Muli, nalambat na naman ang panlasa ng mga tagapanood na pinaulanan ng pagkarami-raming patalastas ng F4, ng sandamakmak na poster at postcard at t-shirt at lahat-lahat sa mga overpass at bangketa, ng paulit-ulit na mga kanta ng F4 na hindi lang mga actor kundi boyband din pala³nagpapaalingawngaw ng mga himig na may letrang marami ang walang naiintindihan.

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Base sa tagumpay nitong mga bagong-luma, parang-atin-pero-dayuhang mga produkto, mukhang nadiskubre na ng mga diyos ng media ang eksaktong pormula, at kung anu-ano ang mga pwedeng alisin at alin ang mga kailangang laging nariyan. Kuwentong pag-ibig pa rin, mas ayos kung magtatapos sa pagkakatuluyan ng mga bida. Magpakilala ng mga bagong lupain, mga lupain na bago sa mata ng Pilipinas, iyong siguradong mahihirapang tapatan ng sariling danas. Siguro·y magkuwento tungkol sa isang serye ng endless love, na hahatiin sa Autumn, Summer, Winter. Isang romantikong engkuwentro kaya ng mga dayuhan sa isa pang dayuhang lugar, Paris kaya? At bakit makukuntento sa kuwento ng lutu-lutuan, kung pwede naman palang magkuwento ng isang tagaluto na magiging isang doktora, na nabuhay sa makasaysayang panahon ng Joseon Dynasty? Sa sobrang lakas ng Asian-Korean invasion, sadya man o hindi·y napapasabay na tayo. Naglunsad ang GMA 7 ng seryeng Twin Hearts, na may mga tauhang nakapadron sa mga tauhan ng Meteor Garden; nagwagi sa mga reality artista search sina Hero Angeles, Sandara Park (ang pambansang krung-krung na naging miyembro ng 2NE1), Iwa Moto, mga aspiring artist na sa itsura·y pwedeng i-launch bilang mga model ng Jjampong o Kimchi; pinapasikat ang mga grupong gaya ng XLR8, mga mang-aawit na Pinoy pero hinuhubog na maging kahawig sa dami at porma ng Super Junior. At ilang remake na nga ba ng mga dayuhang telenobela ang nailuwal ng ating mga idiot box? Marami. Maraming imbestigasyong pwedeng isagawa para sa mas paglilinaw ng ating pagkahumaling sa bagong-lumang mga bisita. Baka totoong nakita·t narinig na natin ang lahat ng ito, baka totoo rin namang may pananabik tayo sa mga palabas at karanasang bago. Magkakaroon pa kaya ng kanta ang Wonder Girls na kasingsikat ng "Nobody"? Magkakabalikan kaya sina Hero at Sandara (naging sila ba talaga kasi)? May nakikita bang XLR8 + 32

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Super Junior sa hinaharap?

Anuman

ang

mangyari, anuman

ang

pagkasabik, siguradong may ilang fans na palaging nagbabantay at nagiisip, at siyempre·y may ilan-ilan ding itatangay lang ng kung ano ang nasa paligid, kung ano ang in. Dahil minsan ay may mga panatiko talagang walang paki kung ang naiintindihan lang sa kanta ay ´I don·t care-e-e-e-eeyr.µ

D. IBAYONG-DAGAT NA PAG-AARAL

The Korean Wave in Japan: Winter Sonata and Its Implications Through Audience Perception By Lee, Suekyung Abstract: This study explores why Korean television dramas strongly appeal to Japanese audiences through audience study. The purpose of this study is to articulate how cultural factors influence audience perceptions, and how social demographic factors dictate audience reception of certain media content. Ultimately, this research will empirically determine the validity of cultural proximity theory in Asia. Through 12 in-depth interviews in Japan, I have determined that Korean dramas· appeal to Japanese middle-aged women is due to a fascination with the theme of pure love, rather than shared cultural values among Asians. However, the similarity of the Korean actors· appearance, and the familiarity of traditional gender roles make Japanese audiences easily identify with the heroines in Korean dramas. In addition, nostalgia, cultural odour and the media industry also affected the Korean Wave in Japan. Thus, cultural proximity theory in Japan was validated in a way through this research; however, this research shows that cultural proximity theory was applied, based on gender, age, and cultural 33

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experiences. In order to elaborate cultural proximity theory, a variety of empirical studies should be done in different cultural settings with a wide range of subjects.

Introduction

´Operations at Tokyo's international airport almost came to a halt Thursday as thousands of Japanese fans, mostly women, came to greet South Korean TV star Bae, Yong-joonµ (Korea Times, 2004-11-25). The arrival of the most famous South Korean celebrity, guarded by 150 bodyguards, 350 police and an additional 70 riot police, was aired on a Nippon Television Network Broadcast, the Tokyo Broadcasting System and NHK (Herald Biz, 2004-11-26; Korea Times, 2004-11-25). Even so, ´Japan is the last country in the region to fall under the influence of all things Korean, from pop music to fashion, dubbed the Korean Waveµ (Variety, March 15-21, 2004). In addition, on the opening day of an exhibition of Bae·s photographs, hundreds of middle-aged Japanese women gathered in front of the entrance of the hotel where Bae was staying, and waited for him all night (Journal of Japanese Trade & Industry, 2005-03-01). Unlike other Asian countries where the Korean Wave originated with Korean popular music, the Korean Wave in Japan began with Winter Sonata, Korean serial dramas, and spread to aspects of everyday life including food, fashion, music, tourism and even stock market. Despite Japan·s past colonization and unsettling islet dispute with Korea, as many as 63 of Japan·s 127 terrestrial television broadcasters aired a total of 70 Korean dramas in February, 2005 (Asia Pulse, 2005-03-09). As the Korean Wave hit Japan, a new drama series of a Japanese broadcasting company cast a Japanese-Korean as the female

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lead for the first time in Japanese television history (Christian Science Monitor, 2005-04-08). In East Asia, television dramas occupy the largest volume of the total number of programs, which are locally produced, and East Asian countries have gradually imported television dramas from other Asian countries since 1970s (Chan & Ma, 1996). In the 1990s, the huge success of Japanese trendy dramas throughout Asia, such as Tokyo Love Story, Long Vacation and Love Generation, attracted scholars· attention as to the reasons why Japanese trendy dramas have achieved transnational popularity across Asia. Some scholars consider the huge success of Japanese trendy dramas throughout Asia as an extension of Japan·s past colonization in East Asia in the context of cultural imperialism (Barker, 1999; Ching, 1994). Other scholars may attribute this reception for culturally proximate characteristics such as language and race within the region, according to cultural proximity theory (Hester, 1973; Pool, 1977; Straubhaar, 1984). On the other hand, Iwabuchi (2000) offers cultural odorlessness of Japanese cultural products as a Japanese marketing strategy, arguing that the Asian version of

modernization which appears in Japanese dramas appeals to Asian audiences. Now Korean dramas are sweeping over Asia. ´Turn on any television in Japan, Taiwan, Singapore or the Philippines and you are sure to see a Korean drama series or two on primetime (Channel News Asia, 2005-04-19). Beginning with serial dramas, exports of Korean cultural products have been expanded to films, popular music and food. Newly coined term, Hanliu (the Korean Wave or Korean Trend) in China and hahan-zu (Koreaphile) tribes in Taiwan, refer to the popularity of Korean popular culture and the success of Korean cultural commodities or all things Korean. Unlike other research on

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Japanese cultural exports throughout Asia, the Korean Wave has not generated much attention despite the fact that the popularity of Korean popular culture has certainly been evidenced in this region since the late 1990s. In addition, the reasons given for the Japanese trendy drama wave cannot entirely account for the Korean Wave in Japan. First, the Korean Wave cannot be seen solely as the extensions of cultural imperialism, in that Korea was a colony of Japan in the past. Secondly, much of the Asian version of modernization was learned from Japan, because Japan modernized much earlier than Korea did. Finally, Japanese audiences of Korean television dramas are different from other countries· audiences of Korean television dramas. Generally teenagers tend to accept and enjoy foreign television programs at first; however, in Japan, in the case of Winter Sonata, middle-aged females as a group make up about 90 % of the viewership of Korean drama audiences. This paper will present the Korean Wave phenomenon, by examining the export of Korean television dramas to other Asian countries, especially to Japan. The purpose of this study is to determine the reasons why Korean television dramas so strongly appeal to Japanese audiences through audience study. Based on the Cultural Proximity theory, I believe that my research will articulate how cultural factors influence audience perceptions, and how social demographic factors dictate audience reception of certain media content. Ultimately, this will empirically determine the validity of the Cultural Proximity theory in a specific Asian region.

Cultural Proximity, Cultural Discount, and Cultural Odour

Although Western culture, represented mostly in Hollywood movies and

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American pop music, dominated the East Asian region for a long time, a new trend, Hanliu or the Korean Wave, emerged in the region during the past decade (Financial Times, 2001-10-24; Korea Herald, 2004-11-30; Korea Times, 2000-04-11). This new phenomenon has led people to ´have increasingly enjoyed the cultural affinity with neighboring countries while competitively refining their respective artistic sensitivityµ (Korea Herald, 2004-11-30). In order to explore what enables the international flow of Korean television dramas, I will look at several theories in this section. International flow of television programs has raised the debate about culture; however, cultural

characteristics of television programs attract scholars· attention unlike studies on cultural dominance or influence of the past. Some scholars explain the International flow of audiovisual products through their external aspects, such as language and geography (Hester, 1973; Pool, 1977; Straubhaar, 1984), while others focus on the internal aspects, such as ideology, values, and lifestyles conveyed in audiovisual products (Hoskin & Mirus, 1988). Cultural proximity, which is developed outside the text of the audiovisual products, is suggested to explain the reasons for international trade. Hester (1973) assumes that cultural and historical similarity among countries affect the volume and direction of international information flow. His concept is reiterated by Pool, who discusses the international spread of television programs. Pool (1977) argues that cultural aspects enable societies to develop their own audiovisual products as time passes, by importing audiovisual products from developed countries. According to Pool, if other conditions are equal, audiences choose local programs since ´they are protected by barriers of language,µ ´barriers of social support,µ and ´barriers of cultureµ. The success of Telenovela supports Pool·s arguments that local industry has more advantages than foreign industry when producing and distributing 37

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cultural products, if other things are equal. Straubhaar (1984) also presents language, race and cultural characteristics in the region as determinant factors that make audiences prefer local programs through the study on Telenovelas. Although the popularity of Korean television dramas is different from the case of Telenovelas due to the difference of language, cultural proximity can explain the preference of Korean television dramas in East Asia. On the other hand, Hoskin and Mirus (1988) attempt to explain the international trade of audiovisual products through cultural characteristics of texts, suggesting the concept of cultural discount. They argue that viewers feel difficulty to identify with the style, values, beliefs, institutions and behavioral patterns in a foreign program, since a particular program is embedded in its culture. They call such diminished appeal as cultural discount. Hoskin and Mirus also suggest that dubbing or subtitling can reduce this cultural discount (1988). According to these arguments, other East Asian audiences prefer Korean television dramas to Japanese television dramas since these audiences more easily identify with the style, values, beliefs, institutions and behavioral patterns in Korean television dramas in the condition of dubbing or subtitling. However, why Korean television dramas have achieved popularity even in Japan is still debatable. Similar to cultural discount, the concept of cultural odour focuses on the relations between cultural characteristics and international trade of audiovisual products in different ways. Iwabuch (1988) explains cultural odour or cultural

odourlessness based on a world-widely constructed imagination about cultural characteristics of certain nation. According to him, cultural odour refers to the way in which specific products positively envision a nation·s cultural aspects, images or concepts of lifestyle, when consuming them. In other words, any product could induce consumers to imagine the nations in which they are made, but a product can be said to have cultural odour 38

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when consumption of the product is strongly related to the nation·s image of lifestyle. Iwabuchi mentions cultural odourlessness as the reason for an expanded market but as a strategy of international trade, when discussing Japanese cultural products (1988). Iwabuchi·s argument can explain the world-wide spread of cultural products, such as those of the United States, but it is insufficient to explain the spread of cultural products within a specific region, such as the popularity of Korean television dramas in East Asia.

Modernity and East Asian Television Dramas

Japan can be noted as the first country to achieve modernity in Asia. Unlike other Asian countries, Japanese leaders since mid-nineteenth century were willing to accept Western culture, knowledge and technology in order to modernize Japan (Iwabuchi,1995). Iwabuchi (1995) introduces the two slogans, ´Datsua Nyuo (Escape form Asia, enter the West)µ and ´Wacon Yosai (Japanese spirit, western technology)µ of the late nineteenth century, pointing out Japan·s eagerness for modern society. Japan has been globalized in the process of modernization through dynamic cultural hybridization. Chan and Ma (2002) propose ´transculturating modernity,µ which represents ´an attempt to capture the push and pull, the mix and break, of global cultural encounters, while at the same time highlighting the forceful and directional nature of cultural formationsµ (p. 4), criticizing the linear explanation of modernity. Berger (1988) shows various paths and consequences of modernity by investigating the success of Japan, Taiwan, Singapore, Korea and Hong Kong in achieving their modernities. When the East first achieved contact with the West, it was natural that the reception of the West by the East moved from one extreme position to another, rejecting

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modernity, as China and Korea did, or embracing it, such as Japan did (Chan & Ma, 2002). Chan and Ma (2002) state that an East Asian country·s cultural premises, traditions and social forces that facilitate or retard modernization will act as the factors of social change in everyday life. According to them, ´transculturating is an evolving process involving both organizational routines and experimentation through which the foreign culture is decontextualized, essetialized, indigenized, and recontextualizedµ. Thus, Chan and Ma claim that transculturalization enables one to incorporate Western elements of modernity in a unique way depending on the country. According to Iwabuchi (1995), Japanese industry tries to export not products but items of urban middle class culture, which are constructed through the indigenization of the West. ´As modernity spreads,µ Chan and Ma (2002) say, ´cultural hybridization has become an inevitable

consequences and cultural authenticity a growing impossibilityµ (p.15). They also argue that ´transculturation stresses the creative mixing and blending of exotic and domestic cultures under historical conditions (p.16). Although every nation experiences its own transculturation of modernity, which forms multiple modernities, Japan can be said to be the most modernized country in Asia by its active indigenization of Western culture and by transculturation of modernity since mid-nineteenth century. Iwabuchi (2001) also argues that the reason why Japanese trendy dramas appeal to Asian audiences is because of the odour of Japanese modernization. In the following section, I will look at the characteristics of East Asian television dramas as the medium which makes it possible to contain, spread and experience Asian modernization. In the next section, based on this literature review, I will illustrate research purpose, research design and research limitations. 40

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Methodology This study starts with the question above, focusing on Japanese audience. Assumptions in this research are as follows. First, based on cultural proximity, Korean television dramas can appeal to Japanese audiences due to cultural factors, such as the Confucian five ethics and values, which include harmony with community and royalty to family and friends (Yoo & Lee, 2001). Secondly, according to the notion of modernity, Japanese television dramas contain fewer of the traditional values that Korean television dramas convey, since Japan might lose its Asian characteristics in the process of modernization. My hypotheses to confirm my assumptions are; (1) Japanese audiences prefer Korean television dramas because Korean television dramas represent familiar lifestyles and cultural values; (2) Japanese fans of Korean television dramas appeal to mostly over midtwenties since Korean television dramas convey more traditional values; (3) Japanese audiences distinguish Korean television dramas from Japanese television dramas according to those value systems. The research design is a case study approach, by using in-depth interviews. As illustrated in the prior section, scholars consider the reasons for international trade as a result of cultural and historical similarity (Hester, 1973) or similar factors of language, race and cultural characteristics (Straubhaar, 1984). Since these abstract terms are difficult to define, I try to elaborate what factors consist of cultural proximity or similarity through a case study. As mentioned in the previous chapter, before carrying out in-depth interviews, I examined the Korean Wave and the perceptions of East Asian audiences by looking at newspapers, magazines, personal web pages, and existing research. In addition, these secondary sources offered analysis regarding 41

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characteristics of closure, theme and storylines, and the difference between Korean and Japanese dramas. They allowed me to understand why Korean dramas appeal to East Asian audiences, to devise questions for a small number of Japanese fans and professionals, and to compare the perceptions of Japanese audiences with the perceptions of other East Asian audiences. By using snowball sampling, I carried out in-depth interviews for one week in Japan. I interviewed 12 Japanese, 1 female in her twenties, 4 females in their thirties, 1 female in her forties, 2 females in their fifties, 1 female in her sixties, and 3 males in their twenties. Among the interviewees, one male was a university student, one male worked at a bank, one female worked in the field of contemporary art, one female worked at a hair salon, two females worked at Nippon Television Network Cooperation, two females were housewives, and one male and three female worked at universities. In addition, three female interviewees in their fifties and sixties were selfdescribed as Korean drama fans, and one female interviewee in her twenties confessed that she was not a Korean drama fan but rather a Korean stars· fan. One male in his twenties never watched Korean television dramas. The other 6 interviewees were not self-reported as Korean drama fans but had experienced watching Korean dramas in order to keep up with social trends or to learn the Korean language. The other female in her thirties, who was in charge of importing foreign programs at NTV, offered her opinions about the reasons for the Korean Wave. Thus, by interviewing these people, I show general perceptions about Korean television dramas in different audiences, although this categorization is not totally exclusive. In order to protect the privacy and confidentiality of all interviewees and personally identifiable data, all the names of informants will not be given, and be recorded

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alphabetically. Other personal information, such as gender, age and occupations will be recorded for the analysis. Interviews were preceded by a half-an-hour to an hour-and-a-half with openended questions, starting from broad questions to specific ones. First, I noted personal information about the interviewees, such as gender, age, occupation, and educational level, since the main audiences for television dramas are regarded as female, and age is an important factor to investigate my hypothesis. Next I started with the question of television viewing habits, and moved to the questions about Korean television dramas, the perceived difference between Japanese and Korean television dramas. Finally, I asked about friends who enjoy Korean television dramas around interviewees, and ask to recommend other interviewees.

Winter Sonata Craze in Japan Japanese Females in Their Forties, Fifties and Sixties

Winter Sonata is a complicated love story with several plot twists. A, a 55-yearold-female Japanese hair stylist, expressed the difficulty in

understanding the storyline due to its rapid progress and unexpected turnover, so that she kept up with the storyline by reading weekly magazines. She added, however, ´I can forgive the complexity of the storyline because I am a big fan of Winter Sonata!µ When I went to the big bookstore near Dakadanobaba station in Tokyo, I easily met middle-aged females who read this week·s storyline of Winter Sonata in a magazine. During last summer, Winter Sonata was being aired on NHK terrestrial channel, and there was a stand at the center of the bookstores, which displayed books about Korean popular culture, and the theme song of Winter Sonata traveled into the air at shopping malls. Even in front of the temple of Asakusa, a lot of stores 43

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displayed souvenirs related to Korean pop stars. In addition, I could easily find TV programs regarding Korea whenever I turned on the TV. For example, several crews of one TV program for learning daily English went to Korea to discover how well Koreans speak English, and checked out the venues of Winter Sonata. B, a housewife in her sixties, was the most avid fan of Winter Sonata among my interviewees. As soon as she saw me standing in front of the door of her apartment, she hurriedly proclaimed that Winter Sonata was able to heal her injuries and to relieve stress. She came to watch Winter Sonata when it was re-aired on BS2, NHK·s satellite channel, in 2003, due to the consistent recommendation of her friend, an NHK producer, but she fell asleep while watching the first episode because it was a dull and flat story involving high school students. However, she became hooked while watching the second and third episodes. She compared Winter Sonata to Japanese TV dramas; Winter Sonata made her ´watch it with a beating heartµ due to its hidden secrets, while Japanese TV drama just ´flows like water.µ B·s friend, who suggested she watch Winter Sonata, had a big surgery because of a waist injury for the first time in her life, and was depressed and tormented by her doubts about life. On the bed at the hospital, she happened to watch Winter Sonata and this drama made her to want to live one more week for just one more episode. Although she watched Winter Sonata several times, it still gave her a hope of life. On the other hand, C, a 56-year-old housewife, also self-reported herself as a fan of the Korean Wave. However, she expressed more interest in stars on Korean TV drama than Korean drama itself. Her favorite star is Won, Bin, one of the four Korean princes with Bae, Yong-joon, Jang, Dong-geon, and Lee, Byeong-hun in Japan, so that her favorite dramas are Autumn tale, in which Won, Bin is one of the main characters, and Friends, which was a coproduction drama between Korea and Japan, regarding a love story between Korean boy, 44

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starring Won, Bin, and a Japanese girl. C said that she fell in love with Won, Bin at first sight and there was something special about Korean guys, which cannot be found in Japanese guys. Japanese Females in Their Twenties and Thirties

Although Won, Bin is considered popular among teens and twenties· girls and Bae, Yong-joon seems to be loved by middle-aged women, C interestingly shows a different preference. C·s case might be evidence that culture industry cannot absolutely control the masses, and the masses cannot be totally homogenized. Only one female in her twenties, E, however, was categorized as a typical Korean star fan in her twenties. She self-reported that she was not a Korean drama fan but Won, Bin·s fan. The reason why she watched Korean drama was that she could see Won, Bin in it. She complained that the storylines of Korean drama were too straight, too stimulating, too dramatic, and not realistic with so many coincidences. E also said, ´I feel irritated by Yu-jin·s indecisive behavior between two menµ but she thought that Korean guys were more passionate in expressing their emotions between lovers, than Japanese guys. In the next section, I will look at how Korean stars appeal to Japanese female audiences in detail.

Influence of the Korean Wave From Dramas to Everyday Lives

While other East Asian countries were hit by Korean popular music at first, the Korean wave in Japan emerged with Korean dramas and spread to music, food, fashion, and travel. B, enjoyed Korean food such as Kimchi and Yakiniku, showed me her Korean language textbook and tried to say hello in Korean. She started to study Korean to watch Korean dramas without subtitle 45

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or dubbing. She cheerfully said, ´I want to be fluent in Korean but I was often frustrated while studying. One day, a Korean couple moved next to my apartment, I asked to help me learn Korean, and now I study hard.µ D told me, ´my children are not interested in Korea at all, but the Korean Wave makes them want to watch Korean dramas with me and to travel to Korea together in October.µ D, K and H expressed their dream to travel to Korea, and D had a plan to visit Korea with her family members. F in her thirties happened to watch Korean movies three years ago and now enjoyed watching Korean movies. Although she preferred Korean movies to Korean dramas, she told me that she became interested in Korean food after the Korean Wave. Before Korean Wave and Korea-Japan World Cup in 2002, Korean food was the most interesting part of its culture for Japanese people. After Korean dramas hit Japan, Korean popular music travels the air and is placed on the top of Oricon chart. About half of my interviewers were learning Korean for several reasons: some wanted to enjoy Korean dramas; others wanted to keep up with current trend. In addition, Korea becomes one of the most wanted places to visit.

The Korean Wave and Cultural Odour

´While Korea·s image was formerly associated with war, military tension, violent demonstrations and political corruption, it is now being seen by fellow Asians as cool, happening and modern societyµ (South China Morning Post, 2005-07-13). According to The International Herald Tribune, the Korean Wave changed Korea·s image from the nation traditionally associated with the country of violent student marches, the demilitarized zone, to the country with trendy and new technology. (2005-06-29). One of 46

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Taiwanese said that she once thought Korea was a feudalistic, male-oriented society but now it seemed like an open and democratic society (The International Herald Tribune, 2005-06-29). There seems no exception in Japan. D told me she learned about Korea while watching Korean dramas. She felt almost everything was new to her. She had never been to Korea and was not much interested in Korea. D thought that Korea was a maleoriented society and under the strict control of Confucianism. What most surprised her was the image of Korean males; she had a preconception that Korean men were not sentimental, passionate and emotional at all. After watching Korean men on Korean dramas, she paid attention to Korean men around her and her preconception totally changed to gentle, passionate and strong Korean men. D also mentioned that Fuji TV planned to air a love story between a Japanese man and a Korean Japanese woman. ´There are lots of Korean Japanese living in Japan, but Japan does not take care of them. The success of Korean dramas makes Korean Japanese issues open to the society.µ As shown in the previous chapter, cultural odour refers to worldwide constructed imagination about cultural characteristics of a certain nation (Iwabuchi, 1988). When watching Korean television dramas, Japanese people imagine Korea and relate to Korea·s image and lifestyle. Thus, Korean television dramas have cultural odour, unlike Japanese television dramas, and these products positively envision Korea·s cultural aspects, images or concepts of lifestyle.

Conclusion Summary and Discussion

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The purpose of this research is to articulate how cultural factors influence audience perceptions and to empirically determine the validity of cultural proximity theory in Asia. The reasons why I selected Japan among Asian countries, as stated in the previous chapter, were that there was not much research done there about the Korean Wave, and there existed no suitable theory to explain Korean Wave in Japan, either. First, due to the historical relationship between Korea and Japan, Japan·s past colonization of Korea, cultural imperialism argument does not fit in this case. Secondly, the Asian modernity motif appearing on television dramas lose its strength in the Korean Wave in Japan. It is very plausible that Asian modernity which appeared on Japanese trendy dramas appeals to Asian audiences, who want to follow Japanese example and to achieve their own modernization. However, in the case of the Korean Wave in Japan, it is hardly understandable since Japan modernized much earlier than Korea did. Thirdly, more than 90% of Japanese audiences of Winter Sonata, which made the Korean Wave in Japan, are middle-aged female. Since Korean dramas appeal to Asian audiences based on cultural proximity such as race and cultural values, I hypothesized that cultural values retained in Korean dramas were the reasons for this trend. I will discuss the results of my in-depth interviews based on cultural proximity and cultural odor. First, cultural proximity theory is somewhat validated in this case study. There are certain criteria of male stars, which Japanese women seek. The actors definitely belong to the same Asian race and this enables Japanese women to identify with the heroine. They are also good looking, to attract Japanese women, polite and humble to allow Japanese women to reach out to them either in the reality or their own imagination, and strong enough to protect women. Japanese audiences also thought that Korean males on Korean dramas seem manlier than 48

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Japanese males in traditional sex roles. In addition, Japanese women are attracted by Korean male stars who are passionate enough to express their love. Since Japanese women perceived Japanese men as weak and impassionate, they are attracted by Korean male stars, who have similar looks and desirable characteristics. Meanwhile, all interviewers agree that Korean television dramas convey more traditional values than Japanese dramas do. However, this feature does not attract Japanese audiences. Although Chinese, Taiwanese and Hong Kong·s people are attracted by similar appearance, similar sentiments and traditional Asian values, such as perseverance, vision, justice, humanity, courtesy and self-control, Japanese audiences thought that those cultural values only used to be shared by Japan of the past. My interviewers in their twenties and thirties did not agree that Japan belonged to Confucian culture and shared Confucius· teaching with other Asian countries. On the contrary, interviewees in their forties, fifties and sixties agreed that they grew up with traditional Asian teachings and Confucianism, but they also said that Japan did not belong to Confucian culture any more as the family system had been disintegrated with industrialization. Even though middle-aged women felt nostalgia for their childhood, they did not think that Japan had to return to the conservative society of the past. What appeals to Japanese middle-aged women is not nostalgia for the past with its cultural values but nostalgia for the past with their lost first love. Almost all interviewers said that Korean dramas reminded them of old Japanese dramas in seventies and eighties their golden period. For Japanese women, pure love or jun ai is realistic in the past when a couple is separated due to the war, but now it is not possible in the reality. However, they thought, it is possible for a couple to be separated not by themselves but by social taboos in Korea. Some will say that Korea and 49

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Japan have something in common in seeking pure love, comparing storylines of Winter Sonata in Korea and Kimi no Nawa in Japan. Nevertheless, this common ground is not for all Japanese but for middle-aged Japanese women who suffered from first love·s loss directly or indirectly. Secondly, cultural odour also influences the Korean Wave in Japan. Although Japanese trendy dramas tried to erase its cultural odour for the global market, the reason for the success of Japanese trendy drama across Asia was the Asian modernity conveyed in them. On the contrary, Asian modernity in Korean dramas did not make Japanese want to follow, but instead they made middle-aged Japanese women feel reminded of their past, which used to be like Korea. As Korean cultural odour appeal to Asian audiences, Chinese, Taiwanese and Hong Kong people feel their shared traditional values. In the case of Hong Kong, people requested Hong Kong TV to show programming containing more traditional food, medicine, costume, and values as Korean television dramas, for example, Jewels in the Palace, did. However, in the case of Japan, Japanese people did not want their television dramas to be changed like Korean dramas. Meanwhile, when watching Korean television dramas, Japanese people positively re-

envisioned Korea·s image from a male-oriented society under the control of Confucianism to a more open society. These changed images have lead Japanese people to visit Korea, taste Korean food, and learn Korean language. Thus, Korean dramas maintain their cultural odour and positively envision Korea·s cultural aspects, images or concepts of lifestyle. In conclusion, cultural proximity theory is validated in Japan in a sense that a similar good looking Korean guy attracts Japanese middle-aged women. In addition, their traditional sex role also appeals to Japanese women. However, language does not count for the Korean Wave in Japan. Although a Taiwanese audience counts the use of Chinese characters as the 50

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reason for the Korean Wave, Japan and Korea have their own languages respectively. Of course, both countries borrow Chinese characters in part but mix these with their own characters and use them in different ways. Thus, subtitling and dubbing enable Japanese people to easily identify with themselves and cultural discount can be diminished. It is difficult to say whether cultural or traditional values can count on cultural proximity in the case of the Korean Wave in Japan. However, non-violent and asexual characteristics attract middle-aged women and these characteristics allow them to remind of their past and old teaching. Thus, cultural proximity theory needs to be elaborated according to age, gender and memory. Also, the Korean Wave in Japan shows that cultural proximity theory is not applied evenly in the same region. This research also confirms that race and traditional values, such as sex role and sexual morality, can be specific examples of cultural proximity. Meanwhile, only these cultural proximate characteristics cannot explain the Korean Wave in Japan. There was a peaceful mood between two countries at the time of 2002 Korea ² Japan World Cup and the Japanese media industry picked up Korean dramas and put forth efforts to develop the Korean Wave.

Suggestions and Limitations

This present paper explores why Korean television dramas appeal to Japanese audience and how to explain based on cultural proximity, culture industry and cultural odour. Social trends cannot be explained without societal, historical and economic contexts, so that every case should be considered within its culture specific contexts. Although my research cannot be generalized due to its sampling size and selection process, it can suggest several things for further research. 51

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First, cultural proximity theory needs to be elaborated according to a certain society or nation·s history, economic situations and social

demographic factors, such as age and gender. This research shows that same foreign program appeals to audiences in each nation in different ways. Secondly, cultural odour theory also needs to be elaborated through a variety of field research. While Japanese trendy drama erases its cultural odour, Korean drama conveys its cultural odour. Both cases allow envisioning the image of its nation. Thirdly, modernity theory does not always apply, in that a less developed country tends to adopt lifestyles of the more developed country. When modernity is melted in cultural products, it can appeal to both young audiences in less developed countries in order to follow modern lifestyles and older audiences in more developed countries because it enables them to feel nostalgia. Although I do not include media industry in this research, some of the interviewees expressed that media industry was one of the reasons of the popularity of Korean television dramas in Japan. Some interviewees argued that Japanese media industry created the Korean Wave and that the Japanese feel this wave was exaggerated more in the media than in reality. The other interviewee, L, suggested some reasons why the Japanese media industry chose Korean dramas. As an NTV employee, she argued that Japanese broadcasting companies suffered from a lack of stories like Hollywood, and turned their attention to foreign stories. At that time of airing Winter Sonata for the first time in 2002, Korean dramas had already made a great hit across Asia, so there was not much financial risk in importing Korean dramas. Secondly, there was a peaceful mood around the 2002 Korea Japan World Cup. Thirdly, Japanese broadcasting companies did not produce television dramas for middle-aged women any more. Sponsors wanted to produce youth-oriented trendy drama because women in 52

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twenties were regarded as major consumers, but they usually did not have time to watch television dramas at home. In reality, Japanese television drama audiences were mostly composed of middle-aged women but they did not have suitable programs to watch. For the above reasons, Korean dramas could be a cheaper alternative for middle-aged women. In addition, she added that it might have been Taiwanese, Chinese dramas or dramas from elsewhere. The role of the media industry in creating the popularity should be studied in future research. Meanwhile, I recently read several articles that another Korean drama, Jewel in the Palace, recorded as a big hit in Japan. In addition, this over 50 episode costume drama, about the first and only woman in history to change from a cook to become a king·s doctor, appeals to both Japanese men and women. Unlike 90% of Winter Sonata·s fan who were middle-aged women, about 40 % of Jewel in the Palace·s audiences are male. This audience change of gender and age is also worth researching. As mentioned in the previous chapter, this research had a language barrier. Since I cannot speak Japanese, I rely on Korean and English materials and conducted in-depth interviews in Korean with the help of interpreters or in English with whom I communicated directly. In addition, this research cannot be generalized. Thus, I hope that this research will be done with more scientific sampling design and significant sample size in the future, in Japan and in other Asian countries as well.

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