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Spanish Influence On The Philippine Educational System:

Philippine education before the Spaniards came was informal and unstructured. Parents were the children's first teachers. For schools, the children went to the houses of tribal tutors where they were taught vocational subjects or what we would consider today as electives. During the Spanish period, tribal tutors were replaced by Spanish missionaries and education became religion-oriented. Education became exclusively for the elite in the early years under the Spanish rule. Later, education became accessible to Filipinos with the enactment of the Educational Decree of 1863. This decree provided for the establishment of at least one primary school in each town. It also provided for the establishment of a normal school for male teachers. Normal schools (teacher-training schools) were supervised by the Jesuits. Primary education was free. Spanish, as a subject, was compulsory.

Education System in Spain


Education in Spanish schools up to the age of 16 is free to all children resident in Spain. School attendance is compulsory between the ages of 6 and 16, though children often attend state preschool before the age of 6. The families of children in state education are expected to pay the costs of school books which are only free in exceptional cases. The exact guidelines under the most recent education system reform that began in 1991 and was gradually introduced until 2000 are as follows: 1. Basic education is compulsory and free of charge, and is extended to the age of 16, the legal age for entering the work force. 2. The educational system includes special education as well as general education, so that different modes of education are adapted to suit students with special needs. 3. All students must have basic vocational training, which is provided in secondary schools. Vocational training is organized at two levels: the first at the end of compulsory secondary education, and the higher level following the bachillerato. 4. Improvement in the quality of teaching must be achieved via renewal of course content, improvement in human resources and material resources and better use of the educational system. 5. Religious instruction must be available and voluntary at all schools. 6. Special educational systems are set up for the arts and language learning. For specific information about each age group, choose a category to the left.

The Philippine Education System


The education system of the country includes formal and non-formal education. Compared to other Asian countries, the Philippine education system differs in a number of ways. Basic education in the Philippines is only 10 years as against 12 in other countries. The Philippine education system is closely related to the American system of formal education while other Asian countries are influenced by the English, French or Dutch system. The Philippines is using a bilingual medium of instruction. Certain subjects are taught in English and the rest in the national language which is Filipino. 2.1 Formal education The formal education is a sequential progression of academic schooling at three levels, namely, elementary, secondary and tertiary or higher education. The structure of the formal system of education is illustrated below.

The Philippine Educational System


Elementary education The first level, elementary or primary education, consists of compulsory six grades (Grades 1-6) for age group of 6 to 11. In addition, there is optional pre-school education which consists of kindergarten schooling and other preparatory courses. At the age of 3 or 4, a pupil may enter nursery school, and at 6 years old proceeds to grade one. Secondary education The second level, secondary education, corresponds to four years of high school for age group of 12 to 15, the prerequisite of which is completion of elementary education. Higher education The third level is tertiary or higher education where a student enters at age 16. Higher education consists of collegiate, master s and doctorate degree programs in various fields or disciplines including the post-secondary schooling leading to one-, two- or three-year non-degree technical or vocational courses. As of 1998, there are 46,654 schools in all levels, of which, 85 percent is public (see Table 1). Of the 38,774 elementary schools, 92 percent is public. In the secondary level, of the 6,598 schools, 60 percent is public. And of the 1,282 higher education institutions, 20 percent is public. Enrolment statistics for all levels are shown in Table 2. 2.2 Non-formal education Non-formal education is an organized learning activity aimed at attaining a set of objectives outside the established formal system intended for a particular clientele, especially the out-of-school youth or adult illiterates who cannot avail themselves of formal education. Courses are skills-oriented and range from 6 to 10 months.