Adapted from L. Miriello by S.

Sharp

AP Biology Chapter 45: Guided Reading Assignment

Name _________________________

1. What is a hormone? A chemical signal that is secreted into the circulatory system that communicates regulatory messages within the body 2. What constitutes the endocrine system and what are its functions? All of an animal’s hormone-secreting cells constitute its endocrine system. Hormones coordinate slow but long-acting responses to stimuli such as stress, dehydration, and low blood glucose levels. Hormones also regulate long-term developmental processes such as growth and development of primary and secondary sexual characteristics. 3. What are endocrine glands? Hormone-secreting organs called endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the extracellular fluid, where they diffuse into the blood 4. How do neurosecretory cells demonstrate the overlap between the endocrine and nervous system? Certain specialized nerve cells known as neurosecretory cells release hormones into the blood. The hormones produced by these cells are sometimes called neurohormones 5. Review the basics of negative feedback – explain negative feedback using the following terms: receptor, control center, effector, and efferent signal. Receptors or sensors throughout the body detect stimuli and send information to control center. The control center compares the signal to a “desired” value and sends out a signal to direct an effector to respond. In endocrine and neuroendocrine pathways, this outgoing signal, called an efferent system, is a hormone or neurohormone, which acts on particular effector tissues and elicits specific physiological or developmental changes. 6. Label the diagram below representing the basic patterns of hormonal control.

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and steroids. and the hormonal form of vitamin D. How does the hypothalamus integrate information? Suckling stimulates sensory nerve cells in the nipples.Adapted from L. Intracellular receptors usually perform the entire task of transducing the signal within the target cell. 9. a) Cytokines: peptide/protein local regulators b) growth factors: stimulate cell proliferation and differentiation c) nitric oxide: local regulator d) prostaglandins: modified fatty acids derived from lipids in the plasma membrane. Sharp 7. Most protein/peptides and amine hormones are water-soluble. All these hormones are small. changing its shape and conveying another signal inside the cell. which send nervous signals that reach the hypothalamus. unlike steroid hormones. 10. Eventually. Use the diagram below to review basics of signal transduction pathways. either in the expression of the DNA in the nucleus or in the activity of enzymes in the cytoplasm. nonpolar molecules that diffuse through the phospholipid interior of cell membranes. How can one chemical signal cause different effects? The chemical signal binds to the outer portion of the receptor. thyroid hormones. Researchers have since identified the intracellular protein receptors for steroid hormones. 12. The hypothalamus triggers the release of the neurohormone oxytocin Page 2 of 7 . amines. Sometimes there is a cascade of signals within the cell. What type of molecules are intracellular receptors? Include the why and give an example in your answer. Miriello by S. What are the three major classes of molecules that function as hormones in vertebrates? Three major classes of molecules function as hormones in vertebrates: proteins and peptides. 8. 11. Detail the following local regulators. the signal creates a change in the cell. the control center.

What is special about the structure of growth hormone? Growth hormone (GH) is so similar structurally to prolactin that scientists hypothesize the genes directing their production evolved from the same ancestral gene. Abnormal production of GH can produce several disorders. What is the importance of tropic hormones? Some hypothalamic tropic hormones (releasing hormones) stimulate the anterior pituitary to release its hormones. a peptide. in mammals probably acts as a feedback mechanism that targets the neurons of the hypothalamus. luteinizing hormone (LH). Endorphins inhibit the perception of pain. The release of milk in turn leads to more suckling and stimulation of the pathway. Miriello by S. 15.Adapted from L. Gigantism is caused by excessive GH production during development. 19. until the baby is satisfied. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). What is the general function on the anterior pituitary nontropic hormones? Nontropic hormones are peptide/protein hormones function in simple neuroendocrine pathways. Sharp from the posterior pituitary gland. homeostasis. and behavior Page 3 of 7 . Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) are similar glycoproteins. What are the types of hormones that nonpituatary? Nonpituitary hormones help regulate metabolism. 13. Prolactin is a protein that stimulates the mammary glands to produce milk. increase the threshold of pain. and can be treated by therapy with genetically engineered GH. regulates the activity of pigment containing cells in some vertebrates. 17. List one example of a physiological response to overproduction and underproduction of growth hormone. 18. Oxytocin causes the mammary glands to secrete milk. Acromegaly is caused by excessive GH production during adulthood. What two hormones are released by the posterior pituitary and what are their actions? Oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone 14. development. 16. List three tropic hormones and their action. Pituitary dwarfism is caused by childhood GH deficiency.

and cold intolerance.Adapted from L. profuse sweating. Adult symptoms include weight gain. leading to high body temperature. Label the feedback loop for regulation of the thyroid? 21. Why are they both a problem? Hyperthyroidism is the excessive secretion of thyroid hormones. Describe one example of hypothyroidism and one of hyperthyroidism. This condition can cause cretinism in infants. What is the main function of the parathyroid hormone and in your own words. irritability. and high blood pressure. weight loss. This hormone is important because without it. why is it important? The parathyroid glands are small endocrine glands in the neck that produce parathyroid hormone. you won’t have enough calcium in your blood and calcium is important for several reasons: providing the electrical energy for all of our nervous system and muscle contraction as well as providing strength to our bones. Page 4 of 7 . This lack of PTH leads to decreased blood levels of calcium (hypocalcaemia) and increased levels of blood phosphorus (hyperphosphatemia). lethargy. Sharp 20. Hyperparathyroidism is the combination of symptoms due to inadequate parathyroid hormone production. Miriello by S. An insufficient amount of thyroid hormones is known as hypothyroidism. 22.

Complete the diagram below – you have seen this before – concerning glucose homeostasis. Complete the diagram below of the feedback loops concerning calcium regulation.Adapted from L. Page 5 of 7 . Miriello by S. Sharp 23. 24.

Page 6 of 7 . Mineralocorticoids act principally on salt and water balance. Melatonin is implicated in a wide range of human activities. Miriello by S. Compare and contrast glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. leading to increased blood glucose Immune system may be suppressed o 26. 28. breathing rate. 27. difficulty in concentrating on tasks. The primary effect of glucocorticoids is on bioenergetics. It may cause breathlessness. either diarrhea or constipation. increased blood glucose Increased: blood pressure. and increased irritability. It is a center for navigation. and excessive sweating. They act on skeletal muscle.Adapted from L. most notably the day/night cycle (circadian rhythms). How could chronic short term stress responses be a disadvantage to the organism? Short-term effects of stress will divert your blood supply from the vital organs that need them the most. You may have problems with a decreased sex drive. specifically on glucose metabolism. estrogens. How does the body respond differently to long term and short term stress and why is this an advantage to the organism? Short-term stress response • o o Effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine Glycogen broken down to glucose. Both hormones help maintain homeostasis when stress is experienced over a long period of time. What is the pineal gland and why is it important? It is the center for the production of the hormone melatonin. The pineal gland contains magnetic material in birds and other animals. What are the gonadal sex hormones? The gonads produce and secrete three major categories of steroid hormones: androgens. Sharp 25. metabolic rate o Change in blood flow patterns. You may have severe stomach problems. Glucocorticoids make more glucose available as fuel. and progestins 29. blood pressure Effects of glucocorticoids Proteins and fats broken down and converted to glucose. often with stomach pains. It regulates daily body rhythms. dry mouth. Leading to increased alertness and decreased digestive and kidney activity Long-term stress response • o o • o Effects of mineralocorticoids Retention of sodium ions and water by kidneys Increased: blood volume. causing a breakdown of muscle proteins.

Adapted from L. Page 7 of 7 . Miriello by S. Label the diagram below representing hormonal regulation of insect development. Sharp 30.

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