Sentence structure

I. Simple sentences • Subject + verb: The rice (S) is burning (V). • Subject + verb + complement: She (S) is (V) a lawyer ( C). She (S) is (V) intelligent (C). • Subject + verb + indirect object: I (S) ‘ve read (V) this book (IO). • Subject + verb + indirect object + direct object: My friend (S) wrote (V) me (IO) a lovely letter (DO). • Subject + verb + object + complement: They (S) made (V) him (O) a star (C). • Complement (time) + subject + verb + direct/indirect object + complement (Place): Yesterday (T) he (S) sprained (V) his leg (DO) on the beach (P). • Subject + verb + direct/indirect object + complement (Manner) + complement (Place) + complement (Time): They (S) found (V) that book (DO) easily (M) on the shelf (P) a month ago (T). • Subject + adverb of frequency + verb + complement (M) + complement (P): We (S) always (AF) go (V) by bus (M) to school (P). II. Compound sentences We can link simple sentences to form compound sentences of two or more clauses. In a compound sentence, the clauses are of equal importance. We can make the link in the following ways: • With a co-ordinating conjunction, e.g. and, but, so, yet, sometimes preceded by a comma: He loves her, but she doesn’t love him. • With a semi-colon or colon: I met David yesterday;/: he’s just come out of hospital. • With a semi-colon or a colon followed by a connecting adverb e.g. however, nevertheless, meanwhile, after all, finally: He performed well in the interview;/: however, he didn’t get the job. III. Complex sentences They have a main clause and one or more subordinate caluses or phrases. We can link the clauses as follows: • With relative clauses: Many people who are out of work become depressed. • With noun clauses: I’ve always known that he hated me. • With adverbial clauses: Did you see him when he came in? • With infinitive or participial constructions: To do the job properly, you’ll need to get some tools. She ran out of the house calling for help. IV. Conjunctions Common conjunctions: *to link: and, both…and, or, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but. *to contrast: but, however, nevertheless, though/although, in spite of, despite, whereas. *to express a reason or purpose: because, for, since, so that, in order that *to express a consequence: so, therefore *to make an additional point: besides, moreover, anyway

fact. Noun clauses that start with a question word do not start with that. It is still uncertain if/whether or not he’s coming tonight. I can’t afford it. 2. 6. However. She’s extremely generous. convinced. There is very little that the company can do about this. As subject: Whether or not he’s coming tonight is still uncertain. There may be more than one possible answer for each sentence. Or Why he did that I will never understand. I didn’t even think it. grateful. It’s an excellent course. I’ve known her for a long time. . delighted. * noun clause as object. upset. worried. suggestion. Many verbs can be followed by a noun clause: I can guarantee (that) it will be there on time. 7. is obvious. positive. 1. I don’t rally want to go to the cinema tonight. • noun clause after certain adjectives. Do you think (that) she’ll come? • noun clause as subject. I would be able to get up early. 5. e. Noun clauses A noun clause is sometimes called a that-clause. noun clauses do not always use that. sorry. implication. belief. PRACTICE I. 3.g. I looked at what they’ve done. adjectives describing feelings: pleased.g. Are you sure (that) he said that? • noun clause after a large number of abstract nouns. and adjectives describing degrees of certainty: sure. Join the sentences with the suitable conjunction. We went to bed early.V. I’m very lucky to get a place on it. • noun clauses with if/whether (not). 4. e. I don’t know much about her private life. That you don’t love him. thought. As subject: The thought that I upset her so much is awful. reason. we more often use the construction: It + be/seem + adjective + noun clause: It is obvious (that) you don’t love him. concerned. It is not their responsibility. However. • noun clause with question words. idea. As object: I will never understand why he did that. As subject: What happened between us must remain a secret. As object: I don’t know if/whether he’s coming tonight. happy. Her husband is the exact opposite. hope. promise. doubtful: I’m concerned (that) he won’t believe me. As object: I don’t like the suggestion that we do this job together. something/anything. I didn’t say that. surprised.

A: Oh. Adverbial clauses of time.How is she? Do you know? 15. place. I like working here. A: Helen. 12. Here are some of the most common conjunctions used to introduce adverbial clauses: TIME: when. as. She still holds on to the belief. like adverbs. once. 10. 3. He isn’t dead. Angie is Helen’s boss. We can’t interview him for the time being. You’re going with him. I just hope that it turns out all right. by the time (that). I wouldn’t worry to much about that. After all. I’m delighted to hear that you’ve decided to accept the post of junior manager. 4.The economy has been in recession all year. whenever. I am quite a bit younger than most of them. He is quite fit. Where?. I expect that some of them will be a bit hostile to you at first but they’ll soon get used to the fact that you’re the boss. H: Yes. It remains doubtful. Have you forgotten that? 9. since. She hasn’t made a complaint. The people are very friendly. I love the job. Join the sentences together using a noun clause.He looks a bit overweight. II. You did something.I’ve brought a photograph. It’s important that you appear confident in your position. I don’t know how many. We must be grateful for that. I hate it. 15. A: Oh. 13. That is quite apparent. as soon as. The suspect is critically ill in hospital. You can see how beautiful the place is. 2. How?. I’m sure. 14. Judith’s coming round tonight. Some people are coming to the meeting. ecen if you don’t feel very confident. 11. That suggestion is ridiculous. 13. after. 12.She may be good enough to do the job:she may not.8. anywhere. 8. Underline the noun clauses in the following dialogue. 9. She didn’t lie to you about it. tell us something further about the verb and answer the questions When?. I’m sure it will. I presume that. I’m not sure how the staff will respond to me as a manager. Adverbial clauses. 5. He’s lying to you. etc. 11. Is there anything in particular that you’re worried about? H: Well. It is unforgivable. Our sales have remained steady. everywhere . Why?.They’re getting married! I’m delighted! III.I could do the work tonight. VI. I don’t know. while PLACE: where. She is very angry about that. yes.The Government are getting worried.He didn’t tell her the truth.He has some emotional problems. I hope that I will live up to your expectations of me. 1. manner and reason. They’re losing popularity. Make changes where necessary. 6. The reason that you’ve got this position at your age is that you’re good and you must remember that. 7. She may have passed her exams. I will certainly try. until/till. Angie and Helen are talking at work. wherever. 10. H: Well. I could get up early in the morning to do it.In a way. before.Where are we going to meet tonight? Have you arrange that? 14.

In 1950. You are growing fast.. I need to be up early tomorrow. but 3) …cars became more widely available and relatively cheaper. as if.The money was hidden…………. 11.bad…………you think they are. . 14. we decided to leave early.I’d hoped. so/as long as CONTRAST: although/though/even though.no-one could find it. he was actually rather angry. Things are never…………….. 2. but I came …………. the number of cars on the road continues to grow every year. 12. 1. in order that. wherever NOTE! We generally use the present simple to refer to the future in adverbial clauses of time and condition: When/If I come to London. I’ll come and help you.I didn’t feel very well. this number grew to 500 million by 1999. I’m sorry I wsn’t here earlier.interested in her work. Put an appropriate conjunction before the adverbial clauses. whatever.your mother is now.it was all my fault. In some sentences. such a…. provided/providing (that). in case RESULT: so…that. 5.. 3.I won’t believe you………………I’ve seen it for myself.……………. whereas. and use the present perfect in place of the future perfect: When I’ve finished my dinner. 7. 13. 4. I sometimes find him very irritating. unless. Write the answers in the spaces provided below the text. She’s……………. You’re taller………….I like him. 1) …the petrol-fuelled internal combustion was first developed by the German engineers Benz and Daimler in 1885.that CONDITION: if. PRACTICE Underline the adverbial clauses and complete them with an appropriate conjunction..…………………. as though COMPARISON: than. 6. People seem to accept the higher number of deaths and injuries as a normal fact of life 5)… smaller risks in other areas of life seem to generate more publicity and fear.you like. I. as…as REASON: because. whenever. 2)… the damaging effects of the motor car are now well-recognized . as since PURPOSE: so that.She seems happy…………………she can’t find a job.his father would like him to be a lawyer. 8.. 9.I could. He’d like to be an actor………….MANNER: as. while. I’m staying in all weekend………………I can get my work done.I’lll come with you ……………we don’t stay late. We accept the II. I don’t mind where it is. I’ll meet you………………. 10. He spoke to me…………. however. our lives have changed completely. He didn’t react…………………. there were fewer than 50 million cars in use around the world. I’ll come and see you. We continue to drive cars 4) …we know how dangerous they are in every respect. more than one conjunction is possible. 15.

7) …any other activity carried with it such a risk. we would be less inclined to use the car. 9…………………………. their cer is more important to them 11)…anything else. there would be a huge public reaction. We must change our attitude and our priorities 16)…future generations can live in a cleaner world. One of the obvious answers to the problem is better public transport 12)… we could travel 13)…we like on cheap. it has become clearer and clearer how damaging the emissions are to health and the environment.awful risk 6) …it is somehow justifiable. 10………………………. 15…………………………. Will we keep on driving our cars 9) …much damage we do? It seems that people are 10)… attached to their cars that they won’t give them up for anything. 11…………………………. But we need to act now 15)…is too late.. 1…since……………………… 2………………………… 3………………………… 4………………………… 5………………………… 6………………………… 7………………………… 8………………………….. 16…………………………… . And what of the pollution? 8) …research into car emissions started. To some people.. comfortable public transport.. 14…………………………. 12………………………… 13…………………………. People will not stop using their cars 14)…there is a good alternative.

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