COVOLUTION ENCODING AND VITERBI DECODING.

Channel encoding inserts additional information into a transmitted bit stream to facilitate error detection and error correction at the receiver.

‡ By adding additional bits we make bit error checking more successful and allow for more accurate transfers. . ‡ Phase-shift keying (PSK) is a method of digital communication in which the phase of a transmitted signal is varied to convey information.

CONVOLUTIONAL ENCODING .

‡ A Block diagram shown below .‡ The convolutional encoding is usually implemented by the shift register and modulo 2(XOR gates).

CONVULUTIONAL ENCODER .

A block diagram of the implemented (3. v (2).1. v (1). and A. . B are the shift registers. where u is the input.2) convolutional encoder is shown in Figureabove . v (3) are the outputs.

.STATE DIAGRAM REPRESENTING CONVOLUTIONAL ENCODING.

‡ Convolution coding provides error correction capability by adding redundancy .

‡ This can be done through state transition table as below .VETERBI DECODING ‡ For understanding the Viterbi way of decoding the convolutional coded sequence we need to understand the relation between input and output bits.

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. ‡ BPSK and AWGN are interrelated as the variance plays a major role in making of orignal signal. ‡ The standard deviation of this noise can be varied to obtain signals with different amplitudes and cycles at the decoder input.‡ AWGN is added to this modulated signal to create the effect of channel noise.

Formula for AWGN BIT ERROR RATE can be controlled by varying variance .

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