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E-Waste

‡ 8.1 Introduction ‡ 8.2 Classification ‡ 8.3 Composition of e-waste (A) Material wise composition of four e waste categories (B) Hazardous Substances in e-Waste: (C) Valuable Substances in e-waste ‡ 8.4 Hazardous health effect of various substances ‡ 8.5 Processing techniques (A) State-of-the- art recycling techniques (B) Hazardous e-waste disposal technologies ‡ 8.6 e-waste in Indian Scenario ‡ 8.7 E Parisara ‡ 8.8 Cleaning e-waste in India
1/16/2012 Dr P B Dwivedi, NMIMS University, India 1

e-waste
‡ Electronic waste, e-waste, e-scrap is a loose category of surplus, obsolete, broken, or discarded electrical or electronic devices. ‡ It may be defined as all secondary computers, entertainment device electronics, mobile phones, and other items such as television sets and refrigerators, whether sold, donated, or discarded by their original owners. ‡ This definition includes used electronics which are destined for reuse, resale, salvage, recycling, or disposal.
1/16/2012 Dr P B Dwivedi, NMIMS University, India 2

Changes in fashion. Latest advancement in existing technologies. batteries which have become obsolete due to: 1. 2.waste ‡ Electronic equipments / products connects with power plug. Like mobiles phones replaced pagers with in a year or two. 3. NMIMS University. For example advanced versions of cell phones are regularly & rapidly replacing existing handsets. 1/16/2012 Dr P B Dwivedi. Nearing the end of their useful life. style and status. India 3 .e.

Classification E-waste encompasses ever growing range of obsolete electronic devices such as ‡ ‡ ‡ Computer related: computers. mother boards. monitors. main frames. TVs & display devices. servers. NMIMS University. printed circuit boards. Telecommunication devices: such as cellular phones & pagers etc. Electronic components: such as chips. processors. India 4 . 1/16/2012 Dr P B Dwivedi.

audio and video devices ‡ Home appliances: such as refrigerators. washing machines. security devices. India 5 . ‡ Recording devices: such as DVDs. printing cartridges besides calculators. NMIMS University. air conditioners. 1/16/2012 Dr P B Dwivedi. copiers and fax machines. automobile electronic devices. tapes. floppies. sirens. CDs. and microwave ovens. scanners. alarms. printers.Classification ‡ Industrial electronics: such as sensors.

57 0.0014 << 1 << 1 << 1 << 1 0 0.02 0.018 << 1 << 1 << 1 << 1 0.3 17 0.29 0.75 37 0 0.6 0.29 19 0 0.0068 << 1 << 1 << 1 << 1 0 0.017 10 100 14 0.Material Large household appliances Small household appliances 29 9.7 0 0 77 5 100 6 100 Dr P B Dwivedi.22 0.7 100 Lamps Ferrous metal Aluminum Copper Lead Cadmium Mercury Gold Silver Palladium Indium Brominated plastics Plastics Lead glass Glass Other Total 1/16/2012 43 14 12 1.0005 18 12 19 0.3 5.9 Information & Communication Technologies and consumer electronics 36 5 4 0.0005 3.16 6. NMIMS University. India .

Hazardous Substances 1/16/2012 Dr P B Dwivedi. India 7 . NMIMS University.

India 8 .1/16/2012 Dr P B Dwivedi. NMIMS University.

Workers. Beryllium: Classified as a human carcinogen because exposure to it can cause lung cancer. Short-term exposure could lead to brain swelling. 2. can develop Chronic Beryllium Disease (beryllicosis) which primarily affects the lungs. muscle weakness. 1/16/2012 Dr P B Dwivedi. India 9 . NMIMS University.Health effect of hazardous substances 1. lung cancer and can often be fatal. Barium: It forms poisonous oxides when in contact with air. who are constantly exposed to beryllium. damage to the heart 3. Arsenic: Chronic exposure can lead to various diseases of the skin.

Cadmium: Acute exposure causes flu-like symptoms of weakness. The primary health risks of long term exposure are lung cancer and kidney damage. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs): Combustion of halogenated case material and printed wiring boards at lower temperatures releases toxic emissions including dioxins which can lead to severe hormonal disorders. 1/16/2012 Dr P B Dwivedi. chills. NMIMS University. ‡ 5. fever. India 10 . sweating and muscular pain. headache. ‡ Cadmium also is believed to cause pulmonary emphysema and bone disease (osteomalacia and osteoporosis).‡ 4.

Chromium: Chromium (VI) is easily absorbed in the human body and can produce various toxic effects within cells. CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons): This results in increased incidence of skin cancer in humans and in genetic damage in many organisms. Chronic exposure to chromium (VI) compounds can cause permanent eye injury. Chromium VI may also cause DNA damage.6. 7. NMIMS University. Most chromium (VI) compounds are irritating to eyes. skin and mucous membranes. 1/16/2012 Dr P B Dwivedi. India 11 . unless properly treated.

fatigue. Continued excessive exposure. Lead: Short-term exposure to high levels of lead can cause vomiting. convulsions.‡ 8. Dioxins: Dioxins are known to be highly toxic to animals and humans because they bio-accumulate in the body and can lead to malformations of the foetus. sleeplessness. can affect the kidneys. coma or even death. diarrhea. 1/16/2012 Dr P B Dwivedi. as in an industrial setting. irritability and headache. constipation. 9. abdominal pain. decreased reproduction and growth rates and cause impairment of the immune system among other things. India 12 . NMIMS University. Other symptoms are appetite loss.

nervous system. 1/16/2012 Dr P B Dwivedi. Due to the high lipid solubility and slow metabolism rate of these chemicals. Mercury: It is a toxic heavy metal that bioaccumulates causing brain and liver damage if ingested or inhaled.‡ 10. ‡ 11. India 13 . NMIMS University. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): PCBs causes a number of serious non-cancer health effects in animals. PCBs accumulate in the fat-rich tissues of almost all organisms (bioaccumulation). endocrine system and other health effects. reproductive system. including effects on the immune system.

‡ 12. NMIMS University. India 14 . 13. nail brittleness. which combines with water to form hydrochloric acid and is dangerous because when inhaled. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC): PVC when burned produces large quantities of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). 1/16/2012 Dr P B Dwivedi. The major signs of selenosis are hair loss. Selenium: Exposure to high concentrations of selenium compounds cause selenosis. leads to respiratory problems. and neurological abnormalities (such as numbness and other odd sensations in the extremities).

RAM. transistors. 1/16/2012 Dr P B Dwivedi. plastics). electronic waste processing usually first involves dismantling the equipment into various parts (metal frames. etc.Processing techniques (A) State-of-the. circuit boards. Detoxication: In developed countries. including chips. often by hand. NMIMS University. India 15 . ‡ The disadvantage is that the labor is often cheapest in countries with the lowest health and safety standards. ‡ The advantages of this process are the human's ability to recognize and save working and repairable parts. power supplies.art Recycling techniques: 1.

light bulbs and batteries. ‡ CFC gases from refrigerators. e.. Critical components include. India 16 . NMIMS University. 1/16/2012 Dr P B Dwivedi.‡ In this process critical components are removed from the e-waste in order to avoid dilution and / or contamination of these materials with toxic substances during the downstream processes. ‡ Lead glass from CRT screens.g.

which are sold to smelters or plastics recyclers. ‡ It is done to obtain concentrates of recyclable materials and also to further separate hazardous materials. ‡ It is normally an industrial large scale operation with sophisticated mechanical separator. with screening and granulating machines to separate constituent metal and plastic fractions. Shredding: Mechanical processing is the next step in e-waste treatment.2. Typical components of a mechanical processing plant are ‡ Crushing units ‡ Shredders 1/16/2012 Dr P B Dwivedi. India 17 . NMIMS University.

1/16/2012 Dr P B Dwivedi. India 18 .‡ Magnets. contained. which can then be further separated at a smelter. plastic. NMIMS University. and treated to mitigate environmental threat. ‡ Hazardous smoke and gases are captured. and ferrous and nonferrous metals. and trommel screens are employed to separate glass. eddy currents.

‡ Most of the fractions are refined or conditioned in order to be sold as secondary raw materials or to be disposed of in a final disposal site. palladium. silver. Refining: Third step of e-waste recycling is refining. Copper.‡ 3. or sold to foundries as a fluxing agent in processing raw lead ore. gold. India 19 . NMIMS University. Refining of resources in e-waste is possible with technologies to get back raw material with minimal environmental impact. ‡ For example Leaded glass from CRTs is reused in car batteries. and tin are valuable metals sold to smelters for recycling. ammunition. 1/16/2012 Dr P B Dwivedi. and lead wheel weights.

but by allowing others to purchase used electronics.‡ An ideal electronic waste recycling plant combines dismantling for component recovery with increased costeffective processing of bulk electronic waste. ‡ Devices still need eventual recycling. India 20 . ‡ A growing trend in electronic waste management is reuse. NMIMS University. recycling can be postponed and value gained from device use. Reuse is preferable to recycling because it extends the lifespan of a device. 1/16/2012 Dr P B Dwivedi.

NMIMS University. India 21 .Hazardous e-waste disposal technologies ‡ Incineration. ‡ But these techniques pose problem of environmental pollution in surrounding area. ‡ It simultaneously affects humans. open fire burning and land fills are few oftenly used processing techniques at large as well as small scale. animals and natural vegetation cover. 1/16/2012 Dr P B Dwivedi. ‡ Here we are discussing health and environmental problems of these techniques.

1/16/2012 Dr P B Dwivedi. ‡ Incineration is associated with a major risk of generating and dispersing contaminants and toxic substances in environment because of the variety of substances found in e-waste. India 22 .Incineration ‡ Incineration is the process of destroying waste through burning. ‡ This is especially true for incineration without prior treatment eg flue gas purification. NMIMS University.

found in significant amounts in e-waste. 1/16/2012 Dr P B Dwivedi. present in PCBs and cables. NMIMS University. acts as catalyst for the generation of extremely toxic polybrominated dioxins (PBDDs) and furans (PBDFs) when brominated flameretardants are incinerated at low temperature (600800°C). is highly corrosive when burnt and also induces the formation of dioxins. ‡ PVC. ‡ Incineration also leads to the loss valuable of trace elements which could have been recovered if they had been sorted and processed separately.‡ Cu. India 23 .

wheezing. chest pain. NMIMS University. and eye irritation.Open Burning ‡ Open fires burn at relatively low temperatures release many more pollutants than in a controlled incineration. and cause other problems such as coughing. India 24 . ‡ Chronic exposure may lead to diseases such as emphysema and cancer. 1/16/2012 Dr P B Dwivedi. respiratory infections. ‡ Inhalation of open fire emissions can trigger asthma attacks.

and several respiratory complications. India 25 . 1/16/2012 Dr P B Dwivedi.‡ Burning PVC releases hydrogen chloride (HCl) which on inhalation mixes with water in the lungs to form hydrochloric acid. ‡ The residual particulate matter in the form of ash is prone to fly around in the vicinity and can also be dangerous when inhaled. NMIMS University. which poisons the blood when inhaled and extended exposure can be fatal. ‡ Often open fires burn with a lack of oxygen. This acid can lead to corrosion of the lung tissues. forming carbon monoxide.

such as the cone glass of cathode ray tubes from TVs and monitors. ‡ The leachate often contains heavy metals and other toxic substances which can contaminate ground and water resources. ‡ Lead leach from broken lead-containing glass. when circuit breakers are destroyed. India 26 . 1/16/2012 Dr P B Dwivedi.Land filling ‡ One of the most widely used methods of waste disposal. NMIMS University. ‡ Mercury leaches.

1/16/2012 Dr P B Dwivedi. ‡ For example. dimethylene mercury can be released to atmosphere due to vaporization. NMIMS University.‡ Landfilled condersers emit hazardous PCB's. ‡ Older landfill sites and uncontrolled dumps pose a much greater danger of releasing hazardous emissions. vaporization is also of concern in landfills. Even state-of-the-art landfills which are sealed to prevent toxins from entering the ground are not completely tight in the long-term and almost all landfills leak. India 27 . Besides leaching. volatile compounds such as mercury or a frequent modification of it.

NMIMS University.‡ Landfills are also prone to uncontrolled fires which can release toxic fumes. India 28 . ‡ Significant impacts can be avoided by conditioning hazardous materials from e-waste separately and by landfilling only those fractions for which there are no further recycling possibilities and ensure that they are in state-of-theart landfills that respect environmentally sound technical standards. 1/16/2012 Dr P B Dwivedi.

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