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these particular positions. Stress design work and design oriented consulting output in lieu of conventional publications when making pay, promotion and tenure decisions concerning these individuals.
1) The beneficial trend of the past two decades toward up-grading analytical aspects of engineering education has unfortunately been accompanied by a concomitant deterioration in the quality of instruction offered in engineering synthesis and design.
2) The individual teacher can do much to rectify this imbalance simply by modifying the conduct of existing courses. Questions of synthesis and design can be introduced in nearly every course at every level. What is mainly needed is a shift in viewpoint, and the allocation of sufficient time and effort toward fostering creativity in design. 3) School administrators can play a decisive role in restoring a healthier balance in engineering education by adopting policies of faculty recruitment, pay, promotion, and tenure that foster and reward creative design skills to a degree comparable to that now lavished on research and publications.
Feedbacd Amplifier Analysis
Abstract-An exact asymptotic method is presented for performing gain calculations on feedback amplifiers. The method is algorithmic and utilizes only Ohm's law, voltage and current division and source conversion and does not require the breaking of the feedback loop. For impedance calculations Blackman's formula is used. A set of quick-reference tables is presented for the most common feedback amplifier configurations.
A COMMON approach used in the teaching of feedback amplifiers to undergraduates consists of presenting the fundamental principles on a block diagram basis. This is very suitable for demonstrating the general effects of feedback, such as improvement in gain stability, distortion, and changes in bandwidth. But the block diagram method is of limited usefulness in practical feedback amplifier circuits, since the feedback network causes significant loading on the basic amplifier and so it is impossible to separate the feedback amplifier into two distinct blocks. A number of different methods have been used to circumvent the problem. The traditional method  requires the breaking of the feedback loop at some point and carefully terminating with the proper impedance at the break. This often gives rise to conceptual problems which are difficult to resolve. For example, how can this procedure be applied to a very simple feedback amplifier such as the emitter follower? A more recent method  overcomes some of the above
Manuscript received January 9 1974. The author is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Newark College of Engineering, Newark, N. J. 07102.
work is ignored. Another approach is to represent the amplifier and feedback network in terms of their respective two port matrices . The student is required to choose a Y, Z, H, or G matrix representation depending on the categorization of the amplifier on the basis of the input-output feedback connection (shunt-shunt, series-series etc.). This method is complicated and so approximations to this method are often used. Finally, there is the problem of finding input and output impedances. The usual method is to multiply or divide the open loop impedance by the return difference depending on the amplifier categorization. This makes no provision for finding impedance for cases not falling into the four basic classifications, for example amplifiers with unbalanced bridge feedback. This paper presents the asymptotic formula for gain calculations in sections 2 and 3. A simple derivation is given in appendix A. The asymptotic gain method has the following advantages: a. It is exact. b. It is algorithmic. No ingenuity is required to apply the method. c. It is simple. Ohm's law, voltage and current division, and source conversion suffice to find all feedback quantities. d. It is general. The subject of breaking the loop never really comes up. For impedance calculation Blackman's impedance rela-
difficulties by placing a phantom voltage (or current) source at the break, but the method is approximate inasmuch as forward transmission through the feedback net-
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T Return Ratio. and a simple derivation is given in appendix B. << KT and so contributes very little we set hf. Downloaded on March 23. In appendix A it is shown that the same as letting k Re controlling quantity Xa goes to zero. We All the quantities which enter equation 1 must be cal. and computing the value of the variable Xa in the resulting system. The ratio V2/V1 which equals Go is determined by in3.3 (this is particularly true for this example where KT >» Go) we shall illustrate the method of calculation 2.c. and then the negaculated with respect to one and only one controlled source tive of ib2 is T. The return ratio T is determined by replacing the de. A gain specification can be that for (loop gain) T >> 1. hence ibl O 0 (since hfel remains finite). To find the asymptotic gain K we return to figure 2 and impose the condition hfe2 -. In appendix C a set of quick-reference tables is presented for the most common feedback amplifier configurations. with the result The use of the asymptotic gain formula will now be Re R2 (9) illustrated through some examples.
(The term s'eries-shunt is used for identification and not for classification.2 Calculation of the Asymptotic Gain K + Rf To find K we let the return ratio T -* oo.1 Calculation of the Return Ratio T in turn ia --* 0. We shall refer to the conRe R2 aiRl trolled source quantity Xb related to the controlling quan.2 0 and refer the resultant circuit to the emitter of the first transistor. Asymptotic Gain
(2) (3) (4) (5)
. K will approximately equal the used to determine the ratio RfJRe. It may be and this is approximately equal to the final gain of the remarked at this point that inspection of equation 1 shows feedback amplifier if T >> 1. For for situations where it might be of interest. section 2. We find in a very straightforward manner within the feedback amplifier. Although Go is usually not of interest as mentioned in final gain Gf of the feedback amplifier. the return V1= V2 j' Re + Rf ratio T is equal to-Xa. ASYMPTOTIC GAIN FORMULA Rather than use the customary A and : approach we shall here analyze amplifiers by using the asymptotic gain formula (which is derived in appendix A)
Figure 1. Using the method of section 2. hence th-e ratio V2/Vi corresponding to K is 2. Restrictions apply.Accordingly Ve = V1 and then the relevant part of the pendent source kxa by an independent source of value k.ROSENSTARK: FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER ANALYSIS
tion is reviewed in section 4. APPLICATION OF THE ASYMPTOTIC METHOD spection. This causes ib2 -* 0 and 2. circuit is shown in figure 4. Voltages are unchanged by this to the gain Gf. need not be calculated. 2009 at 10:49 from IEEE Xplore. The amplifier gain calculated with this condition imposed is K.3 Calculation of the Direct Transmission Term Go We simply set T to zero by setting k equal to zero.T-= h +2 tity xa by the parameter k as follows: || hibl) Re + hibi R + hie2 (7) JR2 + Rf + (Re (6) Xb = kxa . Simplified equivalent circuit for the series-shunt feedback pair. In figure 2 = many amplifiers Go.
T + G 1+ T 1 +T
2.1 we draw the equivalent circuit of figure 3 for calculating the return ratio T. R2+ Rf + (Re 1 hibl) hibl+ Re Example 1: Consider the series-shunt feedback pair in We can at this point calculate the quantity KT/Go by figure 1 and its simplified equivalent circuit in figure 2. We see by inspection that setting all independent sources to zero. This is the (8) -* c. In those situations it can be ignored and transformation and we get the diagram shown in figure 5.proceed to calculate ib2 by inspection. Series-shunt feedback pair.
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Gf _ Feedback Amplifier Gain Go = Gf |T=0 _ Direct Transmission Term +_ K = Gf IT-. This formula is very general and can be used in all situations including unbalanced bridge feedback.) We shall arbitrarily select the controlled source of the second transistor to calculate all the desired quantities.
Blackman presented his method for finding impedances in feedback amplifiers. Although the method is very simple. the methods of analysis required were merely voltage division.
Figure 5. obtain (to no one's surprise) hie + (1 +
When equations 12. Example 2: It is an accepted fact that the emitter follower of figure 6a possesses feedback. without the need to break the feedback loop and without the need to categorize the amplifier.L
the results of equations 7. The classification is used to determine whether 1 + T should multiply or divide the open-loop impedance.
Figure 4. will be zero. (Note: The output impedance is by convention found with the input source set to zero.Rf =
R.. B. -Return ratio for source Xb computed with terT. Blackman's method of finding impedance in a feedback amplifier is embodied in the very simple relation
1 + Toe
logical way of removing feedback by breaking the loop.
approach. it is largely ignored in favor of techniques which require that the amplifier be classified into one of four recognized configurations before proceeding. NOVEMBER 1974
lb2 -" h
Figure 3. Circuit for calculating the return ratio T. 2009 at 10:49 from IEEE Xplore. Return ratio for source Xb computed with terT. or T. This circuit can be readily analyzed by ordinary methods. Downloaded on March 23. 2. but it is a difficult
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON EDUCATION. since there is
. and also the question of breaking the loop never came up. (19) In many cases either T..
.. We set hfe2 0 and then -find by inspection that Zil. FINDING IMPEDANCES It has been 30 years since R. but a feedback technique that is general should be able to stand the test of being applied to degenerate circuits. We will therefore proceed to test the asymptotic formula on the emitter follower equivalent circuit shown in figure 6b. Restrictions apply.
Figure 6. The problem is solved since the approximate final amplifier gain Gf is known and the amount of feedback T is also known. Blackman's impedance relation allows determination of impedances in an unequivocal manner. Zabo Impedance at terminals a b with controlled (17) source Xb = kxa set to zero. minals a b open-circuited.)
Authorized licensed use limited to: Politecnico di Torino. Applying the rules of sections 2.eR1
R. (18) minals a b short-circuited. current division and source conversion. Circuit for calculating the direct transmission term G.. to obtain
and this can be used to ascertain the relative contribution of Go to Gf.2.3 we obtain directly
circuit to analyze by the A.1. and the output impedance Z22'. hence the only new quantity that is required is Zab° Example 3: For the series-shunt feedback pair of figures 1 and 2 find the input impedance Znl. We see that at no time was it necessary to classify the circuit as to the type of feedback being used. 8 and 9. If a very accurate answer is desired then substitution into equation 1 can be carried out.f 1. 13 and 14 arc combined in equation 1.e+
Equation 12 states the familiar result for the emitter follower
Impedance at terminals a b with feedback (16) amplifier normal. + (1 + hfel) [Re II (Rf + R2)] (20) (21) Z22. Furthermore. and 2.194
ie. and the non-zero return ratio will correspond to the return ratio computed when obtaining the amplifier gain.0 R2 11 [Rf + Re || hibl].
G. The emitter follower (a) and equivalent circuit (b). Circuit for calculating the asymptotic gain K.° = hie.
-Direct Transmission Term. 7) o
(A-3) Solving for V2/V1 we obtain after some manipulation
Gf = V2/VI = (A -BC/D) (-kD) + A 1 -kD
equation.1.3. CONCLUSION BC A= K. hence 5. (A-5) and the solution was obtained without prior knowledge From equation A-4 as to whether 1 + T belongs in the numerator or denominator. Restrictions apply.1' are short-circuited the circuit is the same as in figure 3. When terminals 1 . and A. Using equations A-5.
Al. In addition the method used is directly applicable to A = G. hence
= 0. Accordingly we write CV V1.2. hence Tll. (25) We thus find by substitution into equation 15 that (26) Zni. = T(ofeq.
When terminals 1 . (A-6) Use of the asymptotic gain method and Blackman's impedance relation has led to greater student confidence Again from equation A-4 in being able to evaluate amplifier parameters irrespective of the feedback connection. Downloaded on March 23.7) (24) and T22tsc = 0..7). A-6. 7)] and
Z22 t -1 =I ± T(of eq. (A-7) operational amplifiers.ROSENSTARK: FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER ANALYSIS
We now turn our attention to finding the various return ratios. Xa (A-9) La1 . (A-10) In addition we have for the controlled source
. (23) By similar observations we find T22. so that subject need not be covered separately. 2009 at 10:49 from IEEE Xplore.kCD = AV1 + BXb V2 (A-1) Xa= CV1 + DXb. Circuit for deriving the asymptotic gain formula.1' are open-circuited then ibl = 0.oo
Authorized licensed use limited to: Politecnico di Torino. Students are particularly A = Gf k=o = Gf |T=0gratified to find that the results obtained by these methods are in complete agreement with those obtained by mesh or The above conditions correspond to those found in section 2. (A-2) From this we conclude that for finite V1 lim Xa = lim Xa = 0.Asymptotic Gain. and A-7 in equation A-4 we obtain the asymptotic gain formula APPENDIX A Gf =K T + Go (A-8) DERIVATION OF THE ASYMPTOTIC 1+T 1+T GAIN FORMULA We shall now establish the condition that is imposed We draw the feedback amplifier as shown in figure Al on the feedback amplifier when k -> oo which is equivand display the controlled source Xb which is contained alent to T X-* as can be seen from equation A-5. Eliminside the amplifier.6 are both non-zero.
But the above conditions correspond to those found in section 2. = ZjjO1[I + T(of eq. Accordingly
.kD. = T(ofeq. clear advantage. hence nodal analysis.kD = T -Return Ratio. hence La found above is the negative of the return ratio.D = Gf k-o = GfIT-oo D the impedance calculations cannot be performed by traditional methods. inating Xb from equations A-2 and A-3 we obtain We shall consider V1 and Xb as sources and V2 and xa as c outputs.
Xb = kxa. BC For bridge feedback Toc and T.
We now need an interpretation of terms for the above
If the source V1 is set to zero and Xb is replaced by k. then we find for xa from equation A-2
= xa. In that case Blackman's method has a These conditions correspond to those found in section 2.
+HI . hence (B-5) A = Zabo.196
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If V = 0 and Xb = k. The quantities T. Shunt-series BJT amplifier.
which is Blackman's impedance relation. hence
Toc. + H. NOVEMBER
A SIMPLE DERIVATION OF BLACKMAN'S RELATION As in appendix A we draw the circuit in figure Bl and treat I and Xb as sources.
Z. and C1-C8).
Hf H. For example.k(AD . Z. But the above conditions correspond to those found in equation 18. If I = 0 and Xb = k. 2009 at 10:49 from IEEE Xplore.L Z +ZL K
Z= +Z2+ZL TZ+H
The above corresponds to the definition in equation 17. the ampliA TABLE OF SOME COMMON CIRCUITS fier denoted by the triangle and the collector resistor of In this section a table of common feedback amplifier the first transistor must be replaced by a hybrid model configurations is presented for quick reference (Figures as shown in the second diagram. B-6. in the series-shunt feedback case of figure C3. some Go were found with respect to the only controlled source comments are in order. we obtain the impedance at terminals a .
The above conditions correspond to those found in tion 19. a portion of the amplifier has to be replaced by an unilateral equivalent circuit. Although the tables are self-explanatory.
Z. Downloaded on March 23. Shunt-shunt amplifier. From equation B-1 we have
Z. and B-7 into equation B-4 we obtain
Hf Z =Z_ Z4+Z42(1+Zk2Ze H1+ZI
KT=Hf Z (I + Z2)
Figure C2. hence (B-6) -k (AD .b after some rearranging
Z= A 1 .
Z42 Ze2+ re2+ Z+2
Substituting equations B-5. Restrictions apply.
Figure Bi.BC)/A 1 . depicted in the second diagram. H. V =AI+ BXb Xa =CI + Dxb. K. Circuit for deriving Blackman's impedance formula.
To use the tables. APPENDIX C
Authorized licensed use limited to: Politecnico di Torino. then equations B-1 and B-2 give the result for x.
KT.BC) /A.: Xa= k (AD .
Z ZL z. and V and xa as outputs.BC)/A = T8c. then from equation B-2
We now need an interpretation of terms for the above equation.
Solving for V/I.
Series-shunt BJT amplifier. Downloaded on March 23. Series-series BJT amplifier.0
2 KT=A-1 +2 (1++Z Zs GO
Figure C6.ROSENSTARK: FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER ANALYSIS
Z/el = z ei T=
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. Shunt-shunt amplifier.Z2 I+
Z ZL L.
L ZL =ZzZL +ZL
zIelZei+rej + rbi+.+2+42
.. Shunt-series FET amplifier. = Ze + rel rbfZ
S + re2+ Ze2=Ze2+r~2+ rb2 +Z
Z2 + Z/
. Restrictions apply.
. Hf(I +-2)
a. Hf Z'L
+ 41 Ze2 I e2
1 2 Ze
aHz G= -a Hf Ze
Figure C3.Z + ZL
ZIZ + Zj
rd2Z2 Z/2 S2 s' +
A Z' AZ Z'.
I L2 + Zs2=s L +2
IRZ. 2009 at 10:49 from IEEE Xplore.
for the many enlightening discussions on the subject of feedback. H. "Feedback Made Easy for the Undergraduate". 22. To satisfy this need
Authorized licensed use limited to: Politecnico di Torino.1 45
KT=_A Zi. Ch. Orono to analyze a network of cascaded two-ports with the possibility of one feedback path. Searle. June 1969. for a simple analysis program similar to ECAP. Vol. Stewart. Jeannette Rosenstark for her valuable critiThe triangular amplifier is integrated or discrete. Schilling. 1969. P. Joseph Frank of Newark College of Engineering. 12. Blackman. Gray and C. 18. "Effect of Feedback on Impedance". 3. John Wiley. R. However. Restrictions apply. These programs are usually of two general types. "Electronic Principles. Some examples of its use are given.g.
Figure C7. October 1943. 4. It would allow the student to both verify his designs and determine their frequency responses. Since the triangular amplifier may contain REFEREN CES either BJT's or FET's. Such a program has been developed at the University of Maine. in undergraduate microwave engineering courses.
INTRODUCTION Most undergraduate microwave engineering courses include impedance matching methods.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author wishes to express his gratitude to Prof. so cism of the manuscript.
STUDENT MEMBER. Chapter 12. S. IEEE.
Abstract-There exists a need.
and to Dr. pp. BSTJ Vol.198
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON EDUCATION. HERRICK. NOVEMBER 1974
rdi + Zi
T = L2 Z-. AND DAVID L. P2 Zs I+ A2 G. FIELD. Orono. The second type is more general in that it will handle multiport networks but it is less efficient when applied to cascaded networks. Belove and D. IEEE Trans. E. IEEE
sort of analysis program should be used in an undergraduate microwave engineering course. B. University of Maine. In order to perform these and other calculations many industrial firms have developed analysis programs specifically for microwave networks [1-3]. Allyin & Bacon.
. The first type analyzes cascaded two port networks and may or may not allow feedback. An analysis program would then be very useful in a microwave engineering course. MEMBER. Models and Circuits".
Z+ZL Z+z2/ t + Z2 L+Z2 ~ Zs
t. 04473. C.. Series-shunt FET amplifier. on Education. L. pp. the analysis is sufficiently general to cover a multitude of situations. e. mixed active elements is also possible. Me. Downloaded on March 23. 1967. Series-series FET amplifier.
MECAP-An Analysis Program for Microwave Engineering Courses
JOHN C. the analysis of amplifiers with 1.
Figure C8. 1974. but which is applicable to distributed circuits. stub tuning and quarterwave transformers. In addition it would be following the industrial approach. Student response was very favorable and it is concluded that some
Manuscript received April 3. L. "Engineering Electronics". The authors are with the Department of Electrical Engineering. while not the most general. 97-103. It is also fast and very easy to use. will encompass nearly all networks encountered in an undergraduate course. Physics. 269-277.
2. 2009 at 10:49 from IEEE Xplore. This configuration. it is quite tedious to calculate the network's frequency response by hand even when using Smith chart methods.